Marks and Spencer's Definition of Performance Management


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Marks and Spencer's Definition of Performance Management

Performance management provides Marks and Spencers with needed
information on their employees. The information helps Marks and
Spencers develop the skills of the employees based on the information
collected at the appraisal, it helps recognise when training is
needed. Performance management helps M&S by improving their service by
having able workers that work to their full abilityand by improving
the relationship between workers and the company.

Here is Marks and Spencer's definition of performance management:
Performance management is a joint process that involves both the
supervisor and the employee, who identify common goals, which are
linked to the goals of the organisation. This process results with the
establishment of written performance exceptions later used as measures
for feed back and performance evaluation.’

A appraisal system is carried out evrery 12 months at Marks and
Spencer's. An appraisal system is when discucsions are made with
members of staff about what is going well, what can be improved and
how they would which to develop and other suggestions form workers.
These meetings are done by manager of M&S for the employees and are
confidential.

A review plan is used at M&S to measure productivity. This form shows
if the workers have met the targets set at the meeting, for example is
a person at chashier as a set target to scan a certain number of
products every hour the review plan willshow if it was complete. This
is called scan rate operate targets. Performance Management at Marks
and Spencer's refer to this data to make sure targets are met, and
that all the workers are doing well. If targets are not met M&S can
set out courses of action to fix the problem for example giving the
workers more training. tHis isthelink between performance management
and training and development.

Performance-related pay

Performance related pay is when a business increases the pay given to
workers by the amount of effort put in, for example if an individual
or a groupof orkers meet all their targets and improve the quality of

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their work. they will be rewarded with a bonus.Marks and Spencer’s
have three-month bonus periods in which if a store makes a higher
profit than what is predicted they will receive a bonus. Marks and
Spencer's also gives gift vouchers for hard work, staff discount
scheme of 20%

Motivational Theories C3

In Marks and Spencer's the use motivational theories in order to
motivate staff. Here is the list of them below:

1.Maslow and the Hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow said that all motivation comes from a person's
hierarchy of needs. A person is motivated by his or her own needs.
Maslow defined the needs in a pyramid as he thought that once a person
had fulfilled one level of needs, he or she would try to move onto the
next level, therefore giving them motivation. Maslow proposed that the
basic needs are the same for everybody and that they could be
fulfilled in a specific order like the diagram:

[IMAGE]

2.Douglas Macgregor - Theory X and Theory Y

Macgrego said that many managers generalised the people that worked
for them. They would put all of their employees into either a theory x
category or a theory y category and then manage their company using
the appropriate management style.

Theory X

Theory Y

This theory is that all employees are lazy and not ambitious and have
no interest in taking on extra responsibilities. Employees will always
resist change of any kind and are totally uninterested in the success
of their employer. Employees don’t care how the company is run and
would rather be told simply what to do.

This theory suggests that employees are interested in their work and
want to be offered extra responsibilities and asked about their view
on how things are run in the company. Employees are prepared to accept
change because they appreciate that it's in everyone's best interests.

3.Frederick Herzberg - Two Factor theory

In 1957, Herzberg devised his ' motivation hygiene' theory which
stated that two groups of factors affect employee motivation. Herzberg
said that certain elements in a job motivate people to do better. He
called these elements 'Satisfiers'. They include:

· Achievement

· Recognition

· Responsibility

· Advancement

· Personal growth

· Actual work itself

Other elements do not motivate people to work harder. These are
referred to as hygiene factors. They are:

· Pay and conditions

· Status within the company

· Job security

· Benefits

· Relationships with fellow workers

· Quality of the company's managers

4.Frederic Taylor- Scientific Management

Taylor was born in 1856 and died in 1915. He worked as a factory
superintendent in a locomotive factory in the USA. From carrying out
studies of how people worked making axles, he concluded that:

· Employees were successful in getting jobs there because they knew
the managers, not because they were good at the job.

· Employees did not work hard enough for fear of their friends losing
their job

· Employers paid their employees as little as they could possibly get
away with

· Employees were given little instruction of how to do their job and
it was often done badly. The amount and quality of products produced
was very poor.

Taylor said that his ideas would improve matters:

· Money was the only thing that motivated employees to work hard. If
the workers were paid per item made, they would want to make more and
would work harder.

· Trained managers should run the company and supervise employees with
firm but fair discipline procedures.

· Employees must be properly trained to do their job

· Employee should be properly and fairly selected for jobs through
tests and interviews. This is to make sure that the right person gets
the job.

How Marks and Spencer's performance management/training and
development systems have been influenced by the motivational theories

M&S use Maslow's theory by helping staff set and reach their goals at
work, they encourage their staff and praise them when they are doing
well and staff also receive rewards for good work. M&S use Herzberg’s
two factor theory by treated their employees well by giving them a
good salary, good working conditions and by giving them sick pays and
pension’s schemes, they also give their staff responsibilities to make
them feel like there are important to the company and motivate them.
M&S use Mcgregor’s theory by having managers who have trust in the
workers and help them improve and do their best and also by giving
managers bonuses to motivate them. Marks and Spencer's also use
Taylor’s Scientific Management theory by paying its employees in order
to work and by having able managers control the staff.


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