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The Analysis of Skill Acquisition

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The Analysis of Skill Acquisition



Introduction-
=============

In this assessment I am going to complete three tasks, for the first
task I am going to identify, discuss and analyse skill classification.
For the second task, I am going to identify the characteristics of
skill and ability. For the third task, I am going to describe and
explain the difference between skill and ability.

Gross and Fine Motor Skills

Gross Motor Skills-- These types of skill always involve large
muscular movement within the body and require a low level of
expertise. An example of this could be someone doing weight lifting.

Fine Motor Skills-- These types of skill involve more delicate and
controlled muscular movements they can also be refined and practised.
The most common daily fine motor skill is writing. These skills can be
put onto a continuum like this one.

[IMAGE]Open and Closed Skills

Open skills-- sports such as basketball, Football, rugby, and netball
usually involve open skills. This is because the environment is
constantly changing and so movements the player makes have to be
continually adapted. When the environment is changing this could
include the weather, other players, the pitch or the crowd interfering
with the performance from the player in the game. In football, the
factor that makes it an open skilled game is that you can be tackled
at anytime during the game. Apart from kick off, a throw in, a goal
kick, penalty or free kick.

Closed skills-- These skills have the performer knowing exactly what
to do and when. The environment does not affect the Skill as it is not
constantly changing. The performer will know that they will not have
anyone about to tackle him or her. For example, a free throw in
Basketball, and serving in Tennis. However in a closed skilled
environment e.g. darts, there could still be a crowd and that would
make the environment unstable. The open and closed skills can be out
on a continuum like this one where you can see how open or how closed
a skill actually is.

[IMAGE]Discrete, Serial and Continuous skills

Discrete skills-- These skills are defined actions, which have a clear
beginning and end. They are specific skills, which make up actions
involved in many sports. Examples of this are a throw or a kick.

Serial Skills-- are a group of discrete skills put together in
sequence. For example bowling in cricket which has two stages, the run
up, the delivery and the follow through.

Continuous skills-- have no obvious beginning or end and is maintained
throughout the event. The end of one cycle of movements is the
beginning of the next, and the skill is repeated. These skills could
be stopped at any time during the event. For example, Running, Cycling
or Swimming

External and Internally Paced Skills

Internally paced or self-paced skills-- the performer controls the
time in which the skill has to be carried out. These skills are
usually closed skills. i.e. pole volt, discus

Externally paced skills--The performer does not control the time when
the skill is being carried out which can include opposition. The
skills involve reaction, and are usually open skills. An example of
this is a football game or a basketball game.

Task 2

Characteristics of skill

Learned skill – This skill is when you learn a skill and performs it
in a game such as basketball, an example is a three throw in
basketball.

Goal directed skill – this is when you give yourself a target to
complete, this means you will then perform to a higher level because
you want to reach your goal. An example would be a centre in
basketball who gives himself a goal of twenty points in a game.

Following technical model skill – this is when you listen to your
coach or manager and then follow instructions ordered by him. An
example of this is if you were playing football and the manager wanted
to change tactics he would say to a member of the team.

Efficient - This is how efficient you are at performing a skill. An
example of this is dribbling a basketball without losing control of it
for 30m.

Fluent -This is nearly the same to continuous skill because it has no
clear beginning or end and the skill is being repeated. A sporting
example for this is long distance running.

Motor skill – this is a Skill, which is involved by the movement of
the body. ”Motor” always refers to movement. An example of this is
kicking a ball in football.

Perceptual skill - Is the process of interpreting information, which
comes to the brain through our senses. A sporting example for this is
when a basketball player watches a shot in basketball and waits to see
what way the ball moves if he misses so he can jump and get the
rebound.

Characteristics of Abilities

Underlying trait – this skill is how quickly people are at catching on
to something they are being taught. An example of this is if you had
to train on a certain play in basketball, it is how quick and easy it
is for the players to learn.

Enduring trait – Enduring trait is a natural talent that you have and
that you are born with. You cannot learn this skill and you normally
get an enduring trait from parents or someone in your family via
genes.

Environmental exposure - If you have a good coach and you are
motivated then you likely to maximize your performance. If you do not
have a good coach then you cannot learn more and that means you are
not going to be playing at your best ability.

Task 3 – Describe and Explain the Differences between Skill and
Ability

The first difference between skill and ability is that a skill can
always be learned whereas ability cannot. Ability is a natural talent,
which is inherited from our parents through genes. You can test the
skill of a player e.g. you could set up a short course and get someone
to dribble a football around but you cannot test for ability. If
ability is not worked on, the full potential of the player can never
be reached. To train ability you must be motivated and this could come
from coaches or your own desire to become a high standard of
competitor in your sport.

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