Biology Lab Report


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Biology Lab Report

Lab No. 18: Biochemical Genetics: Smooth Peas Wrinkled Peas

Data Presentation:

The diagram of cotyledon for smooth and wrinkled pea is attached to
the next page.

The table of starch presents is below:

Type of Pea

Starch Present? (Color change)

Smooth

Yes (Dark blue)

Wrinkled

No (No change)

Conclusion

Smooth pea is dominant than wrinkled one, hence we can say the letter
of allele which controls this characteristics is S. ‘SS’ and ‘Ss’ for
smooth, and ‘ss’ for wrinkled.

In the first experiment, we observed the cotyledon of both smooth and
wrinkled pea that contains starch or not using iodine solution. Both
smooth and wrinkled pea changed its color to dark-blue, and it means
that they both contain starch. However, the shape was slightly
different from each other; the smooth one had a brighter color and has
a regular round shape. However, the wrinkled one was much darker and
does not have a regular shape. This result might be caused by some
mistakes, which were the amount of iodine solution and the thickness
of cotyledon.

We get very clear result in the second experiment. The section of
smooth pea changed to dark-blue color when we added iodine solution
and left it for 20 minutes, while the wrinkled pea did not change at
all. In this experiment, we can say that the smooth pea has a
phosphorylase, the enzyme that turns glucose into starch, but the
wrinkled pea does not have a phosphorylase.

Smooth pea has a genotype either ‘SS’ or ‘Ss’ and has an enzyme called
phosphorylase. However, the wrinkled pea that the genotype is ‘ss’,
does not have phosphorylase. Hence we can think that the gene that
causes the absence of phosphorylase is in the recessive gene ‘ss’. If
the recessive gene ‘ss’ causes the absence of phosphorylase, ‘Ss’ gene
smooth pea should contain less amount of phosphorylase than ‘SS’ gene
smooth pea. However this might not be true if more than one gene

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controls this characteristic, and we do not know about it.

This is the main problem of genetics. In the real world, we do not
know how many genes are in the different creatures. Moreover, we do
not know that which genes control which characteristics. Plus, the
gene of each individual creature is different from each other because
of the meiosis and crossing over. From these reasons, each creature is
totally different from each other. For example, cancer treatments such
as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may work for some people, but it
may not work for other people because they have different
characteristics.

If we want to find out the normal level of a particular enzyme in the
human digestive system, this would take much more time than this pea
experiment, because it is more complicated and much more things to
consider. We should use more than 10,000 people to find out some
particular gene that affect a particular enzyme.

Evaluation

This experiment was quite tough one. There were several problems in
both experiments. The first problem was that the amount, shape and
thickness of cotyledon of smooth and wrinkled pea are not same, and
this might cause misleading of color and brightness. Another problem
was that we might not observe the cotyledon in the microscope very
well.

Second experiment was a little bit nicer and easier than the first
experiment, but there were still some problems occurred. We might not
grind the pea very well, and this could lead us to the wrong result.
Second thing was that we did not mix the pea powder and water to
release enzyme more properly.

Maybe the gene type of smooth peas we used were mainly ‘Ss’, which
contains only small amount of phosphorylase and this produced only
small change of color in the second experiment.

I think the gene experiment is the hardest one in the biology, and we
think we did pretty well for this experiment.


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