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The Role of Management in Achieving Organization Aims

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The Role of Management in Achieving Organization Aims

In this assignment, I am going to investigate about the important
roles that management plays in achieving my chosen organisation aims
and objectives. My chosen business is Tescos, which is UKs biggest
retailer; it operates in the tertiary sector.

The focus of this report covers an explanation of how the management
team of my chosen business uses planning and monitoring to help
achieve the organisation’s aims and objectives. I am also required to
describe the role of management in improving the performance of my
chosen business (Tescos) and show how management activities can raise
performance.

Secondly I am to describe ways in which manager’s role including the
management of resources. I will have to demonstrate the role of
manager’s interpersonal and communication skills and make
recommendations.

Finally I will evaluate the role of management in improving
performance and the different ways in which management functions may
be met more effectively through the use of interpersonal and
communication skills.

Task 1

Explain how the aims and objectives of a business may be achieved
through Planning and Monitory.

TESCOS [IMAGE]

It all started in 1924, when a Sir Jack Cohen started selling
groceries in London’s East End markets. By the1950’s, this had grown
and supermarkets were now in development. Tescos opened its first and
indeed the UK’s first superstore in 1967, and by the 1980’s had opened
many corner stores.

Tescos quickly overtook Sainsbury to become the largest food retailer
in the UK, with 1,982 UK stores, consisting of 62 Extra stores, 442
Superstores, 167 High street stores, 109 Express stores, with many
accompanying a Tescos petrol station, and 1,202 newly acquired T&S
stores, which was a leading convenience retailer.

Tesco offers a wide variety of food products, in-store bakeries,
household goods, clothes and toiletries. Tesco has also adapted to
the rapid technological changes, increasing its sales by 26% (£447m)
from last year, on the on-line sales site – Tesco.com, alone.

Tesco has achieved this position as Britain’s number one food retailer
by offering excellent value and service to its customers.

Tesco’s reputation as the supermarket choice has grown in the last
five years. It now has a 53.93% (as at 21/11/03) Market share of the
Food & Drug Retailers sector.

Group sales for the financial year-end 23 February 2003 rose 11.5% to
£28.613bn. Tesco’s joint venture with the Royal Bank of Scotland,
made a profit of £96m in the year, of which Tesco get £48m.


Activities
----------


Tesco sells all types of grocery’s, non-foods, clothes and electrical
items and some more kinds of products. It basically has everything
that a newsagent has (even more than a newsagent). When Tesco’s first
started it only had all types of food but now they also sale
electrical items and clothes and also toys for the young ones.


Recently Tesco focused on developing the brand into non-food and now
stocks electrical items, home entertainment, toys, sports equipment,
cookshop and even lighting and furnishing in many of its larger
stores. Tesco also has its own brand on non-food, including value and
finest ranges

Tesco’s competitors are J Sainsbury, ASDA and Somerfield but it mainly
competes with J Sainsbury and also tries attracting more of their
existing, new and competitor’s customers by giving out vouchers to
their customers for discount on some of their products and services.
Tesco’s main Customers are their local residents and mainly
middle-class people which weekly purchases are mostly products of
Tesco. Tesco says, “For us our main customers are Kids,” as they make
their parents to go shopping.


Ownership
---------

Tesco is a public limited company (plc), which is all owned by the
shareholders so the original owner loses his/her power of the company
by how many shares are sold. Tesco is in the tertiary sector and also
in the secondary sector cause it also supplies it’s own
product

The advantages of the Tesco ownership are:

It is a public limited company.

The owners have benefit from limited liability.

The amount of capital for expansion and development is greatly
increased because there are thousands of shareholders

The value of share increases cause the company is successful

It can make savings on purchasing products. For instance, they can
mass produce goods for sale and buy in bulk

The disadvantages are that:

* Companies have to fulfil a number of legal formalities like
publish an annual report that can be read by their competitors.

* Public limited companies have their business affairs discussed in
the newspapers that can ruin the reputation of the business.

* More expensive to start off a company

* The profits are divided in the shareholders

Aims and Objectives

Aims – are the long-term goal of a business

Objectives – are the targets that help firms to achieve their aims

Aims

Tesco’s aims are to be the best supermarket in the whole world and
provide better services than its competitors. Its main aim is to sell
most of it frozen foods through the Internet. The diagram below shows
all the Tesco’s aims. It also has two main aims, which are: Increase
its share of the U.K grocery market and the other one is to Develop
its non-food business and the other is to increase its bakery foods

Text Box: Environmentally friendly

Text Box: Tesco’s Aims[IMAGE]

Text Box: Maximize sales[IMAGE]Text Box: Provide goods made by Tesco[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]Text Box: Make a

Profit

Text Box: Be highly competitive

Objectives

Tesco’s objectives are that sell more than its competitors and to also
sell more of its products that the previous year. To fulfil Tesco’s
aim that to increase its non-food business Tesco made some main
objectives like advertise more of its non-foods, publish it on the
Internet and also make it cheaper if bought through the Internet and
also improve its services. One of its main objectives in the year 2000
was to be the leading grocer in the world by selling more of its
products over the Internet and now that objectives are fulfilled.
Tesco has main five objectives, which are:

1. To understand their customers better than any of their competitors
do.

2. To earn the respect of their staff and to appreciate their
contribution of achieving them.

3. To be energetic and innovative and to take risks in making life
better for their customers.

4. To recognize that the brilliant people working for them and to use
this strength to make our customers shopping enjoyable in a way that
no competitors can.

5. To use intelligence, scale and technology to deliver unbeatable
value to customers in every thing they do.

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]


Text Box: Social Responsibility







As required, I have to show how the management in Tesco can use
planning and monitoring to achieve their aims and objectives.



Planning: Is the determination of the goals and objectives of an
enterprise and the selection, through a systematic consideration of
alternatives, of the policies, programs and procedures for achieving
them. An activity devoted to clearly identifying, defining, and
determining courses of action, before their initiation, necessary to
achieve predetermined goals and objectives. Its the analysis of
relevant information from the present and the past and the assessment
of probable future developments so that a course of action may be
determined that enables the organization to meet its stated
objectives. Planning effectively must be written and agreed,
separately and together by the organisation. Planning is also the
process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks
and schedules to accomplish the goals
=====================================================================



Planning in Tescos involves setting both long term and short term
goals and plan on how to achieve them.
=================================================================

The management of Tescos use planning for the following reasons:

Ø To offset uncertainty and changes

Ø To focus attention on the business objectives

Ø To gain economical operation

Ø To facilitate control

In Tescos the planning process are set in stages, which are:



Types of Planning used in Tescos
================================

Strategic

Tactical

Operational

Strategic

This are the highest position in the company E .g. board of directors

It helps the senior management of Tesco tackle and address strategic
issues and long-term trends both in the firm and external environment.
Match changes in external environment with existing organizational
capability such as: Where will employment level be in five years?
e.t.c

The types of information required in this level are as follows:

q They need both short-term and long-term information to make future
decisions.

q They require information from both internal and external sources.

q They do not want non-routine information.

q A highly summarised and fully explained information in both
graphical and text is required.

Tactical

This is the middle level of managements and they are higher than other
employees e.g. Finance manager

The types of information required in this level are as follows:

q Qualitative information is needed.

q Internal sources of information.

q They require less summarised information.

q They require routine information.

Operational

Support operational managers by keeping track of elementary
organizational activities and transactions. Systems answer routine
questions and track the flow of transactions through the organization
such as: Systems to record bank deposits or track the number of hours
worked each day

This is the lowest level in an organisation Supervisors, chief
clerk.The types of information required in this level are as follows:

q Daily, frequent and regular information are needed in order to
perform any task.

q They require short-term information.

q They mainly use internal sources of information.

q And they only need and use qualitative information



Monitoring: In Tescos is the regular collection and analysis of
information to assist timely decision-making, ensure accountability
and provide the basis for evaluation and learning. It is a continuing
function that uses methodical collection of data to provide management
and the main stakeholders of an ongoing project or programme with
early indications of progress and achievement of objectives. It’s the
act of overseeing the progress of business performance or activities
to ensure that the right and well being of participant are protected.
Monitoring is also an intermittent (regular or irregular) series of
observations in time, carried out to show the extent of compliance
with a formulated standard or degree of deviation from an expected
norm. And also keep a close watch over implementation. Organisations
undertake monitoring to assess whether these objectives are being met.
======================================================================

Monitoring is used in Tescos to:

Ø Monitor the set objectives of the business

Ø Help in the forecast of their sales

Ø Control their monetary, capital and production budget

I am now going to show how the management in Tescos plc uses those two
activities which are planning and Monitory in the purpose of meeting
the company’s goals.

To provide shareholders with good dividends - As a profit making
company, profit is vital to Tesco plc because to survive and grow as a
business and be in the position to produce more good quality products.
Planning and monitoring help them to make their customers aware of a
new product introduced into their existing range; basically they will
be more worried about the form of advertising to use, implementing the
marketing mix (place, promotion, price, product). The management of
Tesco will decide if offering incentives to consumers, like cheap
products but of excellent quality, discounts and vouchers and more
important how to come up with new strategies to sell the product in
great quantity will profit the business and therefore the
shareholders.

Planning and monitoring will help them acknowledge whether or not the
new strategies put in place are going to help generate more profit to
them and their shareholders as well as their stakeholders. Planning
and monitoring will help them to know when Tescos plc management will
have to increase their sales or decrease on their costs of production
in the short run which will therefore end up as profit maximised.

Providing quality goods:

The action of planning and monitoring will help Tescos plc management
keep to their aims, which is, to provide consumers with naturally
homemade products such as shampoos, toiletries hair and skin products
to all its customers. Planning and monitoring will the help the
management team to plan in advance when they are ready to order for
new raw materials through Community Trade, which a small group of
third world countries suppliers exclusive to Tescos and keep an eye on
the stock the raw materials will not rot inside and the finished
products will be available when the consumers will demand for them.
Planning and monitoring will help Tescos plc to be able to get the
right raw materials in order to be able to provide quality product.

Survival as a business:

Planning and monitoring will help Tescos to achieve this objective by
surviving as a business. Basically with planning, management can plan
work according to the main objectives and overall targets of the
business and prepare budgets for the different departments so that the
money is spent according to each department’s needs and overspending
will be avoided.

Planning and monitoring will help management of Tescos plc to focus on
the well-being of employees and see if they are being taken care of
and more crucial to see in which conditions they are conducting their
daily activities, if they are happy in order for them to achieve their
best for the surviving of the company. This will achieve a great deal
for the company and employees would be more concerned in bringing the
different departments to work together to achieve goal congruence and
this will make them feel more involved in the success of the company.

Make Profit

Profit is very important to Tesco. To survive as a business and be
able to produce more quality product then profit will be more
important. Planning and monitoring help them if there is a need
advertised what they sell into the media, choosing a location,
providing quality products with discounts an how to increase their
stocks cutting down prices or bring out new strategies to sell their
product. Planning and monitoring will help them to know whether or not
the new strategy is going to be beneficial to the business and whether
it will help generate more profit. In order for Tesco to achieve the
objectives of making profit, management will have to make sure they
plan and monitor the use of the available resources and make sure they
plan staff training under customer care well so as to be able to
attract more customers to be able to boost profit. Planning and
monitoring will help them to know when Tesco management will have to
try and increase their sales or cut down on their cost in the short
run because, they know that in the long run this will make more profit
for the business. Management of Tesco will use monitoring and planning
to achieve this aim of making profit by planning to improve
performance in work such as fast customers care. If management prepare
budget for each functional area and its being monitored there will be
no wastage of company’s and work targets will be achieved.

Providing competitive service:

Planning and monitoring will help Tescos plc to provide highly
competitive service by undertaking and cutting their competitors. For
instance, planning will help them in knowing about their competitors’
(Sainsburys, ASDA) prices, products, and how well they respond to
their consumers’ needs and wants, so that they will make improvements
if needed on their services and products. As their main objective is
to achieve great sales at affordable prices, they have to make sure
that they keep it up as long as possible to retain their existing
consumers and maybe attract new or potential ones and make more
profit.



Environment friendly:
=====================

Tescos plc is a company really concerned about their competitive
environmrent and their environment as well. Tesco uses organic
ingredients in some product formulations. Examples include the
Food-Inspired Body Range and the Lavender and Bergamot fragrance
ranges. These products include organically grown ingredients sourced
through their Community Trade programmes, and those are achieved
through the planning and monitoring activities of management.
Protection the environment includes control on vehicle emission, how
the business recycles their plastic bags given to customers, and more
important Tescos Purchasing Rule stipulates that the Company will not
purchase any ingredient that has been tested or retested on animals
for cosmetic purposes since at least 31st December 1990. Rejecting
animal testing does not reduce Tescos ability to produce safe,
effective and innovative products. There are over 8,000 ingredients
available to select many of which have a long history of safe use
from. Their monitoring systems are certified against the international
Humane Cosmetics Standard, which is operated by a leading animal
protection group. Planning and monitoring will help Tescos plc to
control the management of energy consumption, recycling by providing
dump bins in-store and reduce the environmental impact of its own
merchandises

Providing Employees with good conditions and fair pay:

Planning and monitoring helps the management in Tescos plc treat their
employees with consideration and pay them with the correct rate
corresponding to their skills and qualification. Planning will help
them design a program of induction, which will play a crucial role in
helping new employees understand and engage with the Company’s retail
vision and values. They will make sure that the working environment is
suitable to the employees to achieve their duties without feeling
insecure, unsafe and restraining them from enjoying themselves while
working. Close circuit cameras are installed and kept on 24-hours/7
day operation in order to keep resources on sight. The cameras are
used to track down potential shoplifters and to see what is going on
in the stores. Tesco treats its management and employees with respect
and pays them what is considered to be the going rate for the job as
their aim is to develop opportunities to employees’ abilities and well
rewarded for their contribution to the success of the business.
Through planning and monitoring they can settle their employers
without going to other company by organising training so that they can
develop their skills and motivating them. Because if employees are
happy they will work well by using the skills they have developed to
help the business to survive and achieve its aims and objectives.

Clock – in machine system is installed for main purposes such as:

For wages and salaries– it records the time employee clocks in for
work, records the time employee clocks out of work, deducts employee’s
break time and works out the total wage the employee is entitled to
get. This is also helps the company as a whole to work more
efficiently and to ensure that employees are not being underpaid or
overpaid for their services as this may lead to employees leaving or
suing the company.

Emergency – let imagine that there a fire or any other catastrophe,
sand evacuation is required, this system plays an crucial t because it
is connected to a computer system that prints out the list of names of
employees who are still at work at the time of fire or catastrophe
evacuation.

They will monitor the employees’ performance through appraisals, which
is a method of reviewing individual performance against the company’s
objectives.

[IMAGE]Increase in Market sharee - This is the proportion or
percentage that the company have in the market in terms of customers.
This is one of the main aim and objective of Tescos.For instance in
2004 the market share of Tescos increased and customers are still
dedicated to Tescos as in the purchase of their products, the
management of Tescos have set more standards to continue to increase
their market share through the planning and monitory of their products
and manufacturing of their own brand products.

Planning and monitoring will also show how senior managers have to
decide to allocate the available resources. Possibly, the Finance
department has been taking half of the organisation capital spending
budget for operations; now may be the time to time its spending back;
allow more investment in product quality. Planning and monitoring
will help Tesco aims and objective through a complex project, which
can be completed in the shortest possible time. It also identified
the activities that must be completed on time to avoided delaying the
whole project, and also improves working condition.

Planning and monitoring helps Tescos plc to bring up the decision of
all different functional departments within the organisation and
achieve goal congruence. Those two activities are needed to bring a
consistent and effective approach of the company and ensure that
employees will be heading in the same direction and at the end they
will achieve the overall objectives of Tescos plc.

Task 2

Describe the role of management in improving the performance of your
selected business, Show how management activities can raise
performance in your selected business.

A role of management:

Roles of management or managerial functions are the activities crucial
for a business to survive and expand. Those different activities help
the manager in performing the business activities on a daily basis,
such as: employees, sales, safety of the premises and employees, and
many more.

The role of management is basically to see how the manager reacts
under pressure and his personal ability to make the work done
following the different legislations and regulations the business has
to abide by and the manager’s skills can be obtained training,
self-fulfilment and more important the will to go forward in jobs.
These activities below are the role of management in my chosen
business, Tescos:

§ Increase and Maximaze sales: Over sometime now sales and management
experiences have improved in Tescos sales department. There are
numbers of relatively straightforward ways to increase their sales.
For instance, management-taking step which will ensure that, Tesco
employees understand the important of sales process and are
well-equipped to take advantage of the opportunities presented by the
organisation. Increasing sales can be done through special offers to
customers, in order for them to buy more and increase the sales of
their products.

§ Monitor Quality products: As soon as they have a rough idea of what
to do to improve their products, they need to develop some strategies
to support the costs. The Tesco management make sure that only
products coming from Community Trade are used. As they already have a
lot of customers, they make sure that their needs and wants are met
and the products are sold to a really affordable. By doing this, Tesco
meets two of its objectives, which are to provide consumers with good
quality products and provide suppliers with a fair amount of money.

§ Take care of staffs such as: Health and safety issues: Abiding by
the different rules and regulations of health and safety has proven to
be beneficial to Tescos, To retain and attract costumers and workers,
all the outlets of Tescos are safe and healthy because the managers
comply by the different regulations like Health and Safety at
Workplace Act 1974, RIDDOR, etc which stipulate that the management
have to provide a safe and healthy working environment to anyone
setting foot there. All managers are provided with training on health
and safety legislation and internal processes supporting this at least
every two years any measure will be taken to avoid unpleasant
situation. Workforce are given induction concerning health and safety
matters during their first three months in the company and they will
tested about that to see if they have retained something and to see if
more training is needed. Increased training and awareness around
health and safety has been driven in the UK/ROI Region by the new
Health and Safety Manager. As a result, during the eight months to
October 2002, the number of accidents in the region has halved,
compared with the same period a year ago.

§ Monitor and control resources: Taking appropriate care of the
different resources is very vital to Tesco managers, as it will help
them save lots of money. They take care of the equipment by making
regular checks on them and replacing them as soon as they are damaged
and regularly update their machinery by being technologically advanced
and using the latest software. As their workforce is crucial to them,
they have to do everything in their power to make them feel happy and
at ease in their job. They have a certain number of incentives, which
they use to do it: pay rise, performance-led pay, pension schemes and
good working conditions. Giving flexible hours to their staff is very
important to Tesco As a global retail business that spans many time
zones; there is a critical need to service the customers around the
clock. They also believe that by offering a more flexible working
option to some employees this can improve morale and help retain
people within our business and promote diversity and a high number of
employees have identified flexible hours as being a key area in
improving performance. Professional and Skills Training are provided
through programmes covering technical skills development. The Company
also promotes professional qualifications by supporting employees
financially and with study leave. Tesco has a long-established policy
on promoting equal opportunities and diversity across our global
business. They review their employment profile against geographical
and industry benchmarks and monitor the employees pay and job levels
across genders to ensure they are equitable Tesco does not
discriminate against people we employ on grounds of disability. It is
the responsibility of all employees, supervisors and managers to
ensure discrimination does not take place. Their employment policies
ensure that people with a disability receive fair and equitable
treatment, and we make reasonable adjustments, where necessary, to
enable disabled employees to perform their roles.

§ Control Budgets: It is the responsibility of the manager to ensure
that, the company is run at its highest efficiency, while minimising
costs. In order for this to be achieved, the manager must ensure that
the Tesco Company’s output exceeds the input of resources. Managers
will have to make sure not much goods are wasted in order to control
cost. Tesco management will have to pay employees only appropriate
wages and not try to cheat the organisation by topping up the wages.
For management to be able to control cost, they have to organise
on-site training as training outside the business premises are more
costive and also make sure that employees are give training and are
fit to use the resources available effectively.

§ Manage change: In order for Tesco to continue to be a leader in the
market which it operates, the managers have to ensure that they are
aware of the changes happening in the market: for example, changes in
consumer tastes and preferences, change in income and likely future
trends, legal and ethical constraints. Managers have to also be aware
of the actions being implemented by its competitors and try to
counter-act. Careful planning and market research will help Tesco to
determine what are the current trends and try to meet those needs and
wants. Tesco can achieve this by introducing new range of products
such as cranberry or cherry based or children fragrance range or
expanding into a totally new market such as clothing. Management of
Tesco will have to invest in new technologies and train staff to use
it in order to be able to catch up with their competitors.

§ Manage resources: As a manager the most important role is to look
after the organisation resources. Resources cost a lot of money in
Tesco and in order to keep them safe and secure; the managers have to
plan on how to update them when the new development equipment are
brought into their workplace. The managers have to have a trial
period with the new equipments to check the possible before giving
them to the staff. When there is a problem, he will be able to
identify it and find solutions or call the maintenance team to handle
it. Planning the maintenance of the equipment to reduce the risk of
breakdown may cut down time and costs. One of the big responsibly as
a manager is to be able to manage well colleagues, staff and other
people working in the organisation and allocate to each of them tasks
that they can carry out easily. Managing other involves training and
development of staff. In Tesco managers deal with training and
development because it is one of their most important objectives. The
management offers to the retail employees learning and development
programmes for to focus on increasing product knowledge and improving
customer service. These programmes are part of an integrated global
process that aims to promote job satisfaction and career fulfillment
across their retail network.

§ Managing others: One of the biggest responsibly as a manager is to
be able to manage colleagues, staff and other people working in the
organisation. Managing other involves in training and development. In
Sainsbury’s managers deals with training seriously as a planned
activity to improve productivity by introducing better methods and
safer ways of working to reduce fatigue and frustration. Planning
training includes; induction training schemes, training employees to
use new machines as obsolescent models are superseded, training new
employees at weak point where hold-up are occurring or likely to
occur, and making hazardous operations safer by increasing the sill on
the employee. To be able to provide sources of help to employees for
instances: caring for their needs and have sympathy with them when
they are going into bad times.

Management activities that can raise performance in Tescos plc are as
follows

v Planning: This activity in Tecos consists of designing Rotas for
each employee and make sure that overtimes and covering for someone
who is not available are taken in consideration. Planning is also
preparing financial budgets for each department and forecasting which
is an important step in deciding the objectives or targets to reach
the organisation goals in goal congruence. Planning in Tesco is also
concerned with considering the resources needed so that the work will
be well achieved and timely. Managers in Tesco plans short term and
long term planning such as staff training and induction of new staff,
and improvements in the work, like recruiting more employees and need
of more training. Managers of Tesco plc’s have to plan to be more
effective and efficient on how objectives are to be achieved in time.
However, Managers then plan on a short-term basis, the actual
achievement of broad plans using the resources available.

v Organising: This means arranging for everything to be at the right
place, at the right time, subsequently work may continue according to
the plan. It also, ensures that all the formal activities of Tescos
combine to form a balanced and assign work to staff. Organising shows
the way to: planning includes organisation designing the department,
staffing completed under the aspect of command and aligning everyone’s
effort and establishing performance standards for employees. Tesco
plc’s managers also make sure they organise transports in the course
of delivering goods and organising resources and delegating authority
over work and co-ordinating Tesco plc’s activities.

v Commanding: This is a process in Tescos, which is involved in
leading by the manager by giving orders and instructions and expecting
them to be carried out. It is an authoritarian approach, which is
equal to military orders. Commanding means giving orders, issuing
instructions and decide when and how subordinates would carry out the
work. Manager’s command includes making decisions about the relative
priority of the jobs needing to be done and ensuring discipline is
kept as a reasonable level, consistent with good working arrangements.
Although, in my organisation Tesco co-ordinating are discussed
together because, all the principles of Tesco are used to achieve
co-ordination, in practice command which must appear where by design
and planning stages are completed. The next step is to appoint
competent staff to the positions drawn up on the manager’s plan. When
appointing staff for the right job, the individuals are assigned to
their jobs and given appropriate duties, authority and
responsibilities they will immediately start to issue instructions.

v Controlling: Involves directing, inspecting and regulating work. It
may mean

that having to take remedial action. Departmental bosses, for example
need to keep within spending budgets. The activity of control in
Tescos manager makes sure that every little detail in the different
departments is checked and action will be immediately taken to patch
up any faulty steps from the initial plans, which consists of keeping
a constant grip on all steps of the daily duties and the costs
involved. By controlling, the manager of Tesco makes sure that
everything is running as planned and he keeps an eye on the progress
made by each employee. He ensures that their working environment is
safe and that they are abiding by the rules and regulations concerning
the health and safety of the workplace. He makes sure that equipment
needed to perform their daily task is working properly and not
dangerous to the health of the staff. Basically, this activity of
controlling is more concerned about the manager dealing with the
different attitude of the workforce and his ability to demonstrate
that he can keep up them.

v Motivating: This is the action of getting people to do something
because they want to rather than because they are forced to. For this
activity, Tesco managers deal with staff problems, make sure that
everything is put in place to make employees feel at ease at work and
achieve more. In Tesco, they motivates the employees by offering
on-site physiotherapist, offering incentives like benefits, pension
schemes and nursery for working parents at the Littlehampton site,
training and job development, and helping the staff to understand the
organisation’s goals and targets through induction, etc. All these are
put up in place for the employees to be more confident and they will
conduct their duties more confidently and that will benefit the
company.

v Communicating: Part of instilling a performance-led culture within
the business, relies on all employees being aware of the Company’s
financial performance. In support of this, employees receive daily
updates on the sales performance across all the regions. In addition,
the managers in Tescos employ a mix of communication vehicles to help
employees feel engaged and informed about the business and the
opportunities for them to become directly involved in business
programmes including volunteering and campaign initiatives. They use
electronic, voice messaging and some limited paper-based
communications, as well as videoconferencing, face-to-face meetings
and action stations. Paper-based communication in the form of
newsletters remains the primary means of communicating to employees in
our stores Tescos Management of communication at different Levels such
as:

[IMAGE]


Strategic

[IMAGE] Vertical flow of

Communication

Tactical

[IMAGE]


Operational

[IMAGE]


All these level as mentioned above need specific information and
requirement and make different type of decision.

Strategic

q Management need both short-term and long-term information to make
future decisions.

q Management require information from both internal and external
sources.

q Management do not want non-routine information.

q A highly summarised and fully explained information in both
graphical and text is required.

Tactical

q Qualitative information is needed.

q Internal sources of information.

q Require less summarised information.

q They require routine information.

Operational

q Daily, frequent and regular information are needed in order to
perform any task.

q They require short-term information.

q They mainly use internal sources of information.

q And they only need and use qualitative information

For the management in Tescos to be able to increase the business
performance listed above they have to consider both the Internal and
external factors of the business environment.

The External factors to be considered within Tescos are as follows:

P – Political

E - Economic

S – Social

T - Technological

L - Legal

E - Environmental

Ø Political - This factors consist of the government and parliaments
in the Uk as well as the European Commission, Council and European
Parliament passing of laws and regulations which might affect the
business and the way the business operates and functions. The network
of the laws, regulations, directives and court decision presents a
complex environment for business. Tescos usually respond to this
political factor by studying the prospective legislation in order for
them to develop a business strategy, which deals with new legal
framework within the necessary time span.

Ø Economic: This has effect on Tescos based most particularly for two
reasons namely:

v As it relates to price level changes on the company

v The level of economic activity which indicates the general
likelihood of consumers spending either rising of falling, which
affects the company’s sales, wage rates, cost and profit.

The economic environment is mostly determined in Tescos by the
following due to the effect they have on the business based on the
fact that they are stakeholders in Tescos and they are:

§ The Supplier: They provide the organisation with raw material s and
components for its needs. Tesco has to purchase these at a Price and
quality which they can afford and still make profit from it

§ Customers: They influence the growth of Tesco because their demand
determines the business produce and din which way the goods and
services are going to be rendered, at what price for the goods to be
sold.

§ Government: With fiscal policies and monetary policies this
influences Tesco as in relation to cost and availability of credit,
the level of taxation, interest rates and exchange rates. Especially
if the company import their goods

§ Investor (Existing and Potential): The confidence and willingness of
investors to lend or give money are linked with the expectations of
the future level of the economic activity. The state of the general
economic determines the ability of Tesco to borrow money for
investment purposes or for stake and share holders to continue to
invest

§ Competitors: They are simply the threat to the Tesco in the economic

Ø Social: This makes up the major part of element in the Tescos
business environment. This is most important because it determines the
class of the environment of the business such as Age, Sex, Political
beliefs e.t.c.This has a significant influence the business an the way
the business is being managed as the organisation is made up of
people.

Ø Technological: This has a great influence on the ways in which a
Tescos operates. Revolutionalised computers have helped in the new
product development, Packaging and manufacturing. This also changes
work patterns as most jobs are been done through computers, which has
eased the workload of business staffs.

Ø Legal: This factor is a constraint on Tesco. The law sets out the
operating conditions for most business which ranges from certain
conditions such as bans of specific items, behaviour. Tescos has to
comply with laws on employment, practices such laws include:

The Race Relations Act 1976

This act came into effect in 1976; its legal requirement states that
people should not be discriminated on the grounds of colour, race or
ethnic origin.


Trade description Act 1968
--------------------------

This statute prohibits any person, in the course of a trade or
business such as Tescos, from applying a false description to goods,
or from supplying or offering any goods with a false trade
description.


Sex Discrimination Act 1975
---------------------------

Similar to the race discrimination act, it was implemented a year
before and it was designed to prohibit discrimination on the grounds
of sex and marital status.


Data protection Act 1984 & 1998
-------------------------------

This act was the first piece of legislation to come into force that
addressed growing popular fear that information about individuals,
which was stored on computer files and processed by computer, could be
misused. In particular, it was felt that an individual could easily
be harmed by the existence of computerised data, which was inaccurate
or misleading.


Obscene Publications Act 1959 & 1964
------------------------------------

State that it is an offence to publish an obscene article, “whether to
gain or not”. An article is defined as obscene if the effect is
likely to deprave or corrupt persons who are likely to read, see or
hear the matter embodied in it. Basically, promotions should not
contain anything likely to cause widespread offence or distress.

I have linked all the acts above to the functional departments at
Tescos because they are by law required to operate under the legal
standards.

Example:

The Human Resources would have to be careful how they interview
applicants. Turning down an application for a job simply because the
applicant is disabled would be an offence under the Disability
Discrimination Act 1975.

Ø Environment: This comprises of the various goods and bad of the
business environment. If employment falls then my business could face
problems, because as a result people would not have enough money to
spend on takeaways, however, the opposite may occur if employment goes
up. If more jobs and wages were promising then there will be more
disposable income and then more people would purchase. They also need
to obey the laws set out for the environment such as the:

Environmental protection Act 1990

Has applicant for the way in which we produce good and services. It
seems to prevent pollution of air, water and land from emissions
resulting from the product process. It controls waste disposal
methods, litter, odours, vibration, noise and other side effects of
business that may damage the environment, create a public nuisance.

Other factors that needs to be considered by the manager of Tescos to
improve the business performance are its:

Strengths

Weakness

Opportunity

Threats

STRENGTHS: Tescos is big; Tesco offers a wide variety of food
products, in-store bakeries, household goods, clothes and toiletries.
Tesco understand their customers needs and has also adapted to the
rapid technological changes, increasing its sales by 26% (£447m) from
last year, on the on-line sales site – Tesco.com, alone. Tesco has
achieved this position as Britain’s number one food retailer by
offering excellent value for money and service to its customers to
retain their position.

Tesco’s reputation as the supermarket choice has grown in the last
five years. It now has a 53.93% (as at 21/11/03) Market share of the
Food & Drug Retailers sector.



WEAKNESSES: Due to lots of competitors Tescos has had to diversify
into different market, which is costing them lots of money and as
competitors stick only to consumer’s goods and services. With too many
branches they get short of staffs sometimes.

OPPORTUNITIES: Tescos quickly overtook Sainsbury to become the
largest food retailer in the UK, with 1,982 UK stores, consisting of
62 Extra stores, 442 Superstores, 167 High street stores, 109 Express
stores, with many accompanying a Tescos petrol station, and 1,202
newly acquired T&S stores, which was a leading convenience retailer.

THREATS: Tescos competitors are a major threat because they have the
capabilities and the know how of getting customers because they have
been around as long as Tesco some have even been Longer before Tescos
so there is no doubt that they’ll have a few tricks up their sleeves
to maintain their share of the market.

TASK 3

Describe ways in which a manager’s role includes the management of
resources.

Managers are responsible for the administration processes of Tescos
plc as I have said earlier on in this assignment, but managers roles
is quite vast because they act or work on behalf of stakeholders and
other part-owners of the business.

These managers can be departmental managers such as Finance manager,
Human Resource manager, Production manager or even Line managers like
Floor manager, Supervisors manager, Health & Beauty manager etc.
Regardless of which section the manager is being placed in charge of,
he/she is accountable to the shareholders or part owners of the
business in terms of resources availability, sufficiency, and
maintenance.

As I have explained earlier in this assignment that there are several
resources that are being managed by Tescos managers, they are:

ü Human Resources.

ü Finance Resources.

ü Physical Resources

ü Technological Resources.

HUMAN RESOURCES

This department is concerned with dealing every issue related to staff
recruitment, development and training. The HR manager ensures that
employees has signed a contract stating what is expected from him/her
and showing the incentives he can get like maternity pay, sick pay,
etc and the number of hours he has to work. They also have Effective
recruitment and selection policy which includes advertise, short
listing, interviewing to select right staff, promoting equal
opportunities in relation to paying people the right amount; in
recruitment and targeting the right people for the right job at the
right time with the right qualifications. As part of Tescos plc’s
policies, The HR management has the duty to keeps employees bout key
issues within the company as soon as they are aware of about the
equipment, health and safety procedures, working conditions,
anti-theft policies, any sales promotion and so on.

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]


Demand of
labour
Supply of labour

Number of workers
needed
Existing workforce

Skills
required
Skills shown through skills audit

[IMAGE]Location of employees

[IMAGE]


Human Resources Plan

Recruitment

Training

Redundancy and Deployment

Here are other aspects of the Human Resources work:

Ø Providing fair wages and good working environment to employees: The
manager of Tescos ensures that the new staffs are given induction to
settle in quickly, work effectively, and most important their skills
match their job description. As being a company behaving ethically,
they promote equal opportunities, good interracial relations, and do
not discriminate on sexual orientation, marital status or disability
basis.

Ø Providing Promotion Prospects: their management team has developed a
programme called Project Quest, which is designed, to offer
appropriate learning to all levels of management: The management
development programmes is:

Be Curious - for employees in junior management roles

Be Inspired - for employees in middle management roles

Ø Professional and Skills training: The Company provides programmes
covering as management as well as technical skills development. The
company also promotes professional qualifications by supporting
employees financially and with study leave

Ø Motivating the workforce: offer to employees something like bonuses,
paid holidays, company cars, promotion, higher responsibilities, etc.
But pay rise can have a negative impact because employers can lose
money if they spend more than they have.

Ø Discipline and Dismissal: sadly, the HR manager is also responsible
for taking disciplinary procedures when an employee acts against the
company aims and objectives and sometimes this resolves in the
employee’s dismissal. They recognize external collective
representation where the majority of employees in a workplace request
it. All employees are free to join a union of their choice.

Most of all, human resource managers are responsible for co-ordinating
all departments e.g. marketing, finance, personnel, research &
development to work together by delegating tasks which would
contribute towards meeting the goals and objectives of the company.

FINANCIAL RESOURCES

Tescos needs to manage their financial resources because it needs to
have and constantly handle money flowing both within and outside the
business. But the finance department in Tescos also carries out a
number of activities such as :

- Records all the financial activities of the business, listing
revenue earned by the business and the expenditure necessary for
production.

- Employees in the finance department monitor the expenditure of all
departments and advise if expenditure appears too high.

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- The Finance manager in the finance department overseas customers
accounts to ensure that Tescos receives the money to which it is
entitled.

- Employees in the finance department also interprets financial data
for senior or middle management to ensure that decision-making is
based on the most up to date information possible.

- The finance manager also provides financial information about Tescos
tax liability to external bodies

Financial information

External bodies


[IMAGE]Corporation Tax
Inland Revenue

Income
Tax

[IMAGE]VAT
HM Customs & Excise

Tescos is now implementing policies to involve more people in the
management of finance. This will involve de-layering, which involves
reducing the number of levels of hierarchy in the structure. This
means that employees lower down the hierarchy have greater authority
and greater control over their working lives. This will have a
significant change and mean that the finance department will have
greater responsibility for:

1. Training non-specialist employees in managing finances

2. Supporting colleagues on an on-going basis

3. Monitoring financial decisions on a large number of colleague

[IMAGE]


The system is constantly being monitored by the Accounts/Finance
manager so as to ensure that their total expenses does not exceed the
total revenue that is being generated into the business as this may
result in bankruptcy. Advances in technology have advanced de-layering
and the way that functions are carried out, such as the use of
spreadsheets. This enables Tescos to provide much more detailed
information quickly and cheaply.

Accurate financial information is essential in allowing Tescos to
maximise profits, achieve sustained growth, maximise revenue from
sales and meet set objectives



PHYSICAL RESOURCES
==================

Tescos has various kinds of physical resources that are being managed
by its managers e.g. the management ensures that the building/premises
and facilities are in good working condition by doing a review on the
building and making notes of any faults in order for improvements or
repairs to be made. Building and premises facilities in which they
operate are secured with CCTV system to keep an eye on the premises
and to ensure the safety of the employees.

Management have to make sure that equipment and machinery are checked
on a regular basis and those are safe to be used. Equipment must be
labelled according the way they must be used and if they have any
damages or faults, the employees must be aware of any risks involved
and training should be given to employees to show tem how to use the
materials.

Tescos plc has a waste disposal system in place to ensure that the
working environment is clean and germs free. As being
environmentally concerned, most of the wastage is disposed of using a
compacter to compress all cardboards and plastic wastes and a skip is
used to keep all other wastes such as glasses, food and so on but
managers are responsible for making sure that the system is being
emptied on a regular basis by the Council Team of the area where they
are operating.

Tescos also make sure all bills are paid and services rendered to
clients are to their satisfaction.

Tescos managers physical resources that they need to manage includes
such as:

Building and facilities: management will have to secure the building
of which they operate in and make sure they organise a security in
place to prevent robbery. Management will maintain the building and if
there is a chance to do renovation they do, to prevent and future
accident. And management will have to register all their fixed assets
and update it regularly.

Plant and Machinery and equipment: management will have to make sure
regular checks are done on all the machinery that they use and make
sure they are safe. Equipment must be labelled according to how a
machine works. In order to safe the company money, management will
have to secure all equipment so that if there is a fault or if
anything happen to the equipment, they won’t have to pay money for
repairs. Training must be given to all employees as to how to use the
equipments.

Stock: management will have to make sure they control the stock coming
in, in order no to waste stock which will lead to Tescos losing money.
In purchasing stock management will have to make sure they obtain the
best quality stock so that the company don’t lose money. Management
will have to do regular check on the stock and put security so it will
be safe and no one could steal it

The manager’s roles in the management of the physical resources of
Tescos are very vital and they are:

Ø Provide service level sufficient to meet the operational needs of
the departments thereby providing and giving instructions services to
the employees

Ø Maximize and make useful use of the business physical plants and
machinery

Ø Provide good working environments to work in and conducive for the
customers as well

Ø Make amendments and renovations for facilities and the introduction
of new facilities

Ø Provide protection for the staffs in the case or injury

The managers usually implement techniques to help manage their
resources through the introduction of Insurance, providing for
emergencies and securing the companies asserts.



TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES
=======================

Technological resources are things like software applications,
Internet, and video and so on. The fact that technology is always
improving and Tescos plc has to update its system e.g. fast internet
access via broadband connection is a very good example of
technological resource and the way manager’s role fit in here is they
have to be aware of changes in technological environment and they have
to adapt the company to those changes.

Technological resources within the company are classified as equipment
that helps facilitate their business activities or reduce workload
e.g. computers, fax machine, photocopier machine, franking machine and
many more. These equipment are being managed effectively by
supervisors simply by carrying out basic checks like seeing if the
photocopier has sufficient toner in it or the cartridge has enough
ink, enough papers and ordering/providing more if not sufficient so as
to reduce the risk of a breakdown.

Tescos plc also has a maintenance review plan in place to ensure that
its technological resources are in good working conditions, and
technicians are consulted every six months or as soon as something
breaks down to observe the performance of equipment and to make notes
of any faults or malfunctions that they consider to be potentially
disruptive to business activities of the company i.e Tescos plc and
then, these technicians report to the managers about their observation
findings.

Most of all, it is obvious that all technological resource rely on the
supply of electricity in order to function. Managers ensure that
there is a supply of electricity through out the company in order for
those technological resources to function properly and also to provide
good and improved working conditions for their staffs as well as their
customers such as the provision of:

Trolleys to their customers, which are time saving and less work of
lifting of heavy loads by customers.

Provision of access for their disabled customers for easier and more
comfortable shopping

In conclusion, managers at Tescos plc stores are doing their best to
manage the different resources required to run the company
successfully. Those resources are very important for the business to
succeed in achieving their aims and objectives. Managers have to
secure and protect these resources and make sure that they are well
taken care of.

If not well managed, those resources might become a problem to Tescos
plc to function well, which might result in low profits and therefore
less return on dividends for the shareholders and loss of market
share. Well manage resources will help improve performance.

TASK 4

Demonstration the role of a manager’s interpersonal and communication
skills and make recommendations for the improvement of his own
interpersonal and communication skill.

There are a vast list of skills that can be shown or used by managers
in a business in order to set good examples for its employees or to
improve working relationships within the workplace. These skills are
classified as:

v Communication skills

This skill involves the ability to transmit messages, thoughts, and
information and so on by talking, writing etc. Good communication is
required within the workplace so that employer and its employees can
maintain good working relationship. Good communication simply refers
to the ability to communicate effectively i.e. being able to interact
with or understand people from various backgrounds, level of
education, ethnicity, race etc. It is also a good way of informing
employees of what is happening in the company through advertising,
meetings and e-mail. For example, when there are internal vacancies
available, you have to communicate through advertising, mouth-to-mouth
information and meeting. Businesses need to communicate effectively –
both internally and with outsiders such as customers and suppliers.
Effective communication is essential if the business is to be
successful.

There are a number of different channels of communication, which
operate within a business and other organisations.

· Internal or external – with people inside or outside

· Up and down and across the hierarchy

· Formal and informal - an official method of communication or a
message just heard from someone else.

· Open and restricted – everyone receiving the information or just a
selected few.

Different types of communication exist in Tescos, which are:



Oral communication
==================

This is the type of communication that involves talking face to face
with someone and each person respond directly to whatever the other is
saying. It can be done by telephone, two-way radio, talkie-walkies,
and private radio and mobile phone, which are more used nowadays.



Written Communication
=====================

This is a form of communication that has referrals and records, which
allows easier retrieval of stored. This form of communication can also
be referred to as the action of constructing phrases, graphs and
sentences to form a meaningful document or sentence so it will be
understood by anyone who reads it. It can be done by mail or
transmitted electronically, and examples are letters, banners,
newsletters, notice boards, etc.

Purpose of communication

Ø To stimulate an action

Ø To give out data and information about what is happening both
internally and externally

Ø To measure their impact in the market and financial industry

Ø To make notification of results of achievement and suggestions in
change of work method used in the business or change in product
service

Ø Itemising of problems encountered such as equipment breakdown for
consultation on partner business problems.

The causes of ineffective communication

Tescos plc managers sometimes experience difficulties in communicating
with the employees and these can include:

* Communication and size: As Tescos is constantly growing; it tends to
have more layers of hierarchy. This makes communication more difficult
as message from the Main Board to let say the employees will take
longer as it has to pass through too many people. This will slow-down
decision making strength of the company because by the time the
message gets to the intended audience, it might distorted or lost.

* Sender’s difficulties: Sometimes, the sender doesn’t pay enough
attention to the content of the message and the message can difficult
to be read by the receiver. Often, the sender does not know how to
properly use the means of communication he want to ends up sending it
to the wrong audience or messing up the whole thing.

* Choice of channel: As there too many ways to communicate in Tescos,
sometimes managers are confronted to which one is the most effective?
The correct choice of channel should be the one which is time saving,
most effective and easy for everyone to use and the one want who can
reduce the risk of failure or misinterpretation.

* Information overload, which might lead to, lost in transmission and
poor retention of information

* Biased interpretation of given information and data such as natural
barriers and status barriers, which results in reluctance in the
passage of information due to fear of incurring criticism



STRENGHT OF COMMUNIOCATION
==========================

Ø Communication helps get information passed across easily in
different method and efficiently such as the use of telephone, memos
and faxes.

Ø The use of more advanced technology helps in the fast passage of
information e.g. computer and E-mails.

Ø Provision of quality services compared to other leading banks in the
market

Ø Complaints been handled properly for efficiency and effectiveness of
business through the use of information.

Ø Organisation, which makes the retrieval of data quicker, safer and
perfect for the organisation with use of advanced technology in the
storage of information.

Advantages of good communication

Ø Good communication is also a form of motivating workforce

Ø It also important because it helps to know how people are getting on
with their respective jobs, if they are doing the right thing and it
also helps them to know their strength and how to improve themselves.

Ø Good information provides managers with information needed, in a
clear and understandable form and at the appropriate time.

Ø By having a good communication channel, managers are more likely to
have a much-focused staff, more manageable and committed staff.

Ø Good communication help the managers to recognise staff achievements
meets their ego whilst simply showing an interest helps in meeting
their social needs.

How to improve Communication Skills

Communication can also be improved by taking certain precautions to
ensure that the listener or others who are engaged in the conversation
can comprehend what has been said. This can be achieved by:

o Using gestures i.e. facial signals such as moving the eyebrow, body
signals to support what you are trying to get across.

o Speaking clearly i.e. avoid mumbling when making conversation or
passing information because vital the audience may not hear
information you are interacting with.

o Keeping eye contact with the people you are engaged in a
conversation with as this builds reassurance and it can also improve
their understanding of you have said e.g. blinking the eyes when
making conversation may result in the audience/workers or customers to
think that you are lying.

o Managers have to set up seminars where employees should be asked
about their views. He can ask simple questions like; when he is giving
them instruction do they understand it? Or asking them, some of the
ways they can communicate well within the organisation.

o To encourage everyone to participate and contribute towards
organisation goals. For example, team discussion where everyone should
contribute which will help the manager to know his or her strength and
weaknesses and any need of training.

v Interpersonal skills

Good interpersonal skills are essential as part of a managers role is
the way he manages, the ways in which he is handling difficult
situations within the workplace e.g. problem solving skills which is
very useful in dealing with conflicts in interpersonal relationships,
conflicts in meetings, conflicts in negotiations and most of all
showing professional standards in situations where disagreement
towards an idea, suggestion etc is required.

The interpersonal skills cover the following areas:

Ability to negotiate:

The Tescos plc’s managers should be able to negotiate with their
colleagues and employers in order for them to know that the managers
can use their own ability and initiative to negotiate effectively
without misunderstanding or confusions. Tescos plc managers should be
able to appreciate these aspects when discussing a situation with
employees and superiors. Managers should be able to try to find or to
obtain agreements with their employees and outsiders when there is
something going on between them. Managers should be able to negotiate
credit terms with banks, suppliers about the amount of money they have
to pay for the raw materials ordered.

Agreeing target and budget:

Tescos plc’s have agreed to set targets and budgets for cost or
revenues that their departments must aim to reach over a given period
of time. As a manager, interpersonal skills will help him/her to
estimate budgets by planning all the activities within the
organisation and their costs. Good Interpersonal skills will help
managers to negotiate with other companies and business or government
councils and trade unions or in terms of new products or consumers’
ever-changing trends, and creditors to increase or give them credit
facilities.

Co-operating with others:

Tescos plc managers have to co-operate effectively with employees,
line managers or colleagues in order to achieve goal congruence, which
is one of the most important aims and objectives of the company. This
enable the managers and other employees to work together, act together
for effective work to be done successfully.

Resolving conflicts

As a manager at Tescos plc, you will have to be able to resolve
conflicts and this is crucial within the organisation but it can be
difficult to choose the right one. Tescos plc managers have to
encourage the employees to make a list of their opinions or ideas.
When this is done with, the manager has to show impartiality in
examining evidence or justification by avoiding showing any emotions,
criticisms of other views. The company’s managers ought to ask each
staff his version of the facts and try to contribute positively about
each idea to resolve the conflicts

Interview skills:

As a manager, one should be able to use interview skills to exchange
information, ideas and opinions between people to emphasise a dynamic
link between people throughout the Tescos.The manager should be clear
and precise and sufficient time should be allowed to complete the
interview. A short and friendly topic can be discussed to put the
interviewee at ease and feel more relaxed.

The manager’s interpersonal skills will help him initiate the
discussions genuinely where he can generates new ideas and perceive if
the interviewee is selling his/her true self. The manager have to be
sure that the person being interviewed understand the job descriptions
perfectly and what should be expected from him/her if she/he got in.
The manager should be indulgent and allow a little to the interviewee
to think and ask any questions he/ she is not sure about or any
further point which are sometimes forgotten because the interviewee or
the manager are under a lot of stress. This will enable Tescos plc to
get qualified and skilled workers for the company to improve the
business performance.

Persuasions skills:

The manager of Tesco has to use his interpersonal skills to make sure
that employees follow his orders to meet deadlines on a daily basis.
He has to be able to know the needs and wants of his staff and help
them achieve their best. Good persuasion skills can help the manager
to obtain credit and loans terms for the company and it will be easy
for him to attract and retain potential customers and existing ones.

The interpersonal skills can be improved by:

Conflicts in interpersonal relationships:

Often, interpersonal relationships, which include those between
managers and staff, there might a conflict that managers are not aware
of mangers can have sense of this conflict when sometimes someone is
always upbeat and friendly, out of nowhere start avoiding you and
being rude to you but remains outgoing and cheerful with others. In
such situation, you have to proceed through those steps to try to sort
out everything.

* Managers have to try to find out any existing problem between him
and the other person.

* If there is any problem, arrange a private meeting for both of you
to have a discussion.

* Calmly introduce the subject of the discussion by asking the other
person the cause of his/her behaviour towards you. If he /she says no,
tell me that you think there is a problem and as grown-ups, you should
sort out.

* Ask for feedback as you progress in the discussion. Avoid accusing
him/her.

* Listen attentively to the other’s statements and vice versa and
respect each other opinions

* Finally, try to have a compromise, which can suit both of you

Conflicts in meetings:

When having a meeting, things can become disruptive fast because some
people are disrespectful and their opinions hurt and shock. But this
can be very useful because having arguments reflects the fact that
there are disagreements between the workforces and listening to them
might give one an insight of what is wrong within the organisation.
However if the arguments are taken to another level, and people start
to feel insulted, certain steps should be taken. Those steps are the
following:

* In spite of the disrespectful arguments, try to see if the person
isn’t saying a bit of truth and set it aside for later to be handled
in the meeting.

* Allow you to have some time with each individual and identify areas
of agreement.

* Agree that the person has a valid point and there may be some way
to make the situation work for both parties.

* Ask anyone else for recommendation or response and have a
compromise that works for both parties

Conflicts in negotiations:

When negotiating with stakeholders (competitors, colleagues,
suppliers, etc), it is crucial to bear in mind that both parties are
defending their positions and are after a Win/Win situation. Conflicts
are most of the time generated because each party feels that they
taken advantage of and feels that they are giving away something
important for nothing.

In this situation, here are certain rules one can apply to raise the
chances of having a successful negotiation:

* By taking your time to understand everything everyone is saying

* Ask a lot of questions and make sure that they are answered.

* As communication is more listening, try to understand the other
parties opinions and for more effect try to see it their way.

Rules for disagreeing diplomatically:

As a manager in Tescos, there are certain rules, which must be
followed whenever you are trying to resolve a conflict or trying to
bring harmony within the company. Which are as followed:

* As a manager, state your opinion and show the other person that his
feelings and opinions are taken into consideration by saying phrases
like “I am listening to your statement and your opinion is taken into
account and I will go after you”.

* Saying words like “I hear you and respect you” shows that as a
manager, you value and respect the person in front of you despite the
difference of your opinions.

* Managers should state their position or opinion show the other
person that they can discuss comfortably and he doesn’t have to
display his superiority

To conclude this, Tescos managers will have to look at Tescos
organisation structure. As Tescos organisation structure is the formal
and systematic way the management of Tescos is organised. Managers
have to look at the impacts of the structure on Tescos. The title of
the directors is to sit at the top of Tescos organisation structure to
ensure that, all those functions are coordinated. For instance, when
the entire department plays its part properly, the whole Tescos will
succeed. Also, the managers have to look at the chain of command. For
instance, in the hierarchy structure like Tescos where by the number
of lawyers in the structure reflect the number of supervisory and
managerial level, ranks or grade. The more the level the greater the
opportunity for miscommunication so managers in Tescos should fine and
effective way to be able to communicate to employees effectively.
Manager must use clear and understanding language to talk to employees
and try as much as they can to listen to employees’ view of point and
also avoid using abusive language to speak to employees. If managers
at Tescos are able to do this it will help raise the performance of
the company because everyone will try and do their possible best as
they as happy in their working environment.

Being an effective communicator means people feel comfortable sharing
ideas and feelings with you. Leading and directing others means
winning the hearts and minds of people to commit to goals, action and
frank feedback in an open and trusting climate. Persuasive
communication provides skills, methods and techniques to achieve a
positive outcome from one-to-one and group communications

TASK 5

Evaluate the role of management in improving business performance.

Performance management is the activity of monitoring employees’
performance in Tescos or their investment over a certain period of
time against company’s specific targets, finding out weaknesses and
jumping at any opportunity for improvement. The purpose of performance
management is to improve performance in weak areas by measuring them
against the company’s goals and objectives. Managers in Tescos have a
certain way of improving their role in the way they operate. As said
before, Tescos is a well-known company and they must improve
themselves in order to continue to be the leaders in the market in
which they operate and to be able keep ahead of their competitors.

Management’s duties are to look after Tescos interests by ensuring
that all the departments work together towards meeting the company’s
aims and objectives. This will benefit Tescos in the long run as it
will guarantee the survival of the company.

In order for the company to survive in the long run, Tescos managers
must build a reputation for the company for providing goods and
products at fair prices for and to their customers in order to retain
them. Furthermore, profitability in this condition means manager’s
role in improving performance involves the increase of productivity to
a high standard.

The management of Tescos plc have to respect, protect and preserve the
external environment. As they have a well-deserved reputation
concerning the environment, Tescos management make sure internal
campaigns are run to focus employees on improving environmental
performance in the workplace. These may be in the form of energy
reduction through switching off monitors, computers and lighting when
not in use, and reductions in stationery usage through re-use of
envelopes and economic use of paper for printing and photocopying.

The role of the manager in improving on human resources issues
contributes to other departments of the company. The Human Resources
Managers as giving advice on suitable opportunity for staff; will as
well organise social events for them to enjoy themselves. With the
Health and Safety manager, will organise intensive training and
awareness around health and safety issues. He will also have to work
jointly with the other department managers to increase their chances
of achieving goal congruence and help the business meet its
objectives.

Managers’ role in improving business performance includes working
together with all the other managers as well as the staff to carry out
the daily activities of the business. As the Finance department is the
department giving the money to deal with the day-to-day activities,
the other managers have to make sure that the amount given is enough
to carry on the day smoothly and check that their budgets forecasts
are met. The Finance manager of Tescos is concerned with paying, the
employees’ wages and salaries, dealing with suppliers, etc.

Likewise, the managers carry out an internal investigation to find out
their areas of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. By
doing this, the managers are able to consider key actions to improve
the weaknesses and give intensive training where needed the most.
Tescos plc management have to decide on these important strategies,
which involve considering current performance and the external
environment and find out whether they are abiding the government’s
rules and regulations.

Improving Tescos plc weaknesses can be done via opportunities whereby
they can open outlets in some parts of Africa where they are not yet,
to be able to expand on current premises, as well as developing a
clothing range like its competitor Sainsburys or invest in a jewellery
department. Management can also use their ability to negotiate for
more investment, which will benefit the company.

Moreover, the management carry out the SWOT analysis to improve their
business performances. The management find the analysis useful at
departmental, sectional level and at individual level. The initial
stand for analysing strength, weakness, opportunities and threats.
The management should examine and consider the key action to achieve
overall objectives through adopting these policies. Tescos management
have to decide on these important strategies, which involve
considering current performance and the external environment.

Tescos management strength and weaknesses cover topic such as output
and productivity, market share, investment programmes and human
resources. These would be divided into strength and weaknesses. For
example, the need to automate is recognised and a continuing programme
is operating but financial costs are escaping and causing problems as
delays are caused through lack of funds.


Challenges or problems faced by managers in improving business
performance
--------------------------------------------------------------

As every big business, Tescos managers face difficulties in meeting
the company’s objectives and as well as improving performance. Here
are some of the challenges they are facing in the completion of their
work:


Ø Technological changes
-----------------------


New introduction of technology will mean Tescos will have to be able
to also introduce it and this affect both employees and Tescos
because, employees will not know how to use the new technology and
they will either have to be trained in order to able to use the new
technology or they will want to leave. And if an employees leaves,
they might be going with all their skills, which will lead Tescos to
recruit another person who may not have the same skills and the person
who left has. So this can bring the improvement of performance down.
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Ø Poor motivation practice

Motivational practices can have a negative effect on people if the
wrong one is used. Motivation theory such Douglas Mc Gregor’s Theory X
stipulates that most people are naturally lazy and preferred to be
directed and supervised. It also states that people are not interested
in responsibilities. As being a traditional way to motivate people,
managers using this are more autocratic and run their business with an
iron fist. These managers are constantly supervising the staff and
telling them to conduct the daily tasks as they say and want. If
applied intensively, this type of motivational practice can cause a
great level of absenteeism from the workers because the manager would
be too harsh and self-achievement in the company will be impossible.
More important, the employees will have to work in hard situations and
the environment in which they are working will be unfriendly as they
will be too afraid to do something the manager didn’t approve of.

Ø Competition threat

As being a big company and always in the limelight, Tescos managers
have to do everything in their powers to keep ahead of their
competitors and keep their position of market leaders. They have to
make sure that their consumers’ needs and wants are satisfied. As
price war can cause Tescos to lose all or most of its consumers, they
have to make sure that they keep on with and don’t lose to their
competitors. They also need to keep up with innovating the business to
remain competitive.

Ø Lack of resources

The managers have to be sure that all the resources needed to carry
out their daily tasks are always available and ready to be used. If
not, work won’t be done on tome or not at all and this can result in
the slowing down of the company performance.

Ø Poor communication between management and employees

The managers in Tescos have to know how to communicate effectively
with the employees or their fellow colleagues. Poor or lack of
communication will lead to misinterpretation of something or will also
lead to a really bad atmosphere within the company as people will be
afraid to say their thoughts or might think that they will get
punished for what they have said. This might also result in employees
leaving the company or cause absenteeism. It will affect the
performance of the business because employees won’t what is expected
from them and the tasks won’t be carried on time.


Ø Training cost
---------------

In order for Tescos managers to improve performance, they have to
introduce new products or apply the new technology concept. This also
means that they have to train the staff in the purpose to be able to
use the new equipment and complete their tasks effectively and
efficiently. The training will cost more money to the company if done
off the premises. However they can manage to save some money by having
a training team specialised in the new technology and does the
training within the company’s premises.


Ø Bad Reputation or poor image
------------------------------


Tescos managers have to maintain its good image and reputation by
treating all its stakeholders well. But sometimes things can go wrong
when for example If Tescos get bad a reputation, it will be difficult
for management to improve performance, customers will not want to buy
items from a company that has bad image and bank and creditors or
suppliers will not want to lend them any goods since they know they
are not reliable or have got bad image and this can damage the
improving of performance down
---------------------------------------------------------------------


When an employee isn’t satisfied or had a fight with a manager, he can
say bad things about the organisation as a whole. This might result in
the boycotting of the company and bring down the company performance
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Effective Management to Tescos:

Effective management is making the best use of resources to attain
high level of performance thereby successfully achieving its business
aims and objectives while still meeting its responsibilities to its
Stakeholders, customers and potential and existing investors.
Effective management means a lot to Tescos as good and continually
running of the business and meeting its aims and objectives are very
vital for this reasons the effective and well function management has
help Tescos in a lot of ways thereby increasing Tescos effectiveness
in the following areas:

Ø Been Market leaders running for almost four year beating their
competitor to prices, product range and diversification into other
leading market product

Ø The biggest retail business with their own brand names and product,
thereby making them another manufacturer of own products and good
range

Ø Continual increase in Shares prices thereby provide them with more
investors nation and world wide

Ø Ability to respond to fast opportunities and sudden threats

Ø Strong visionary leadership from the top management to the lowest
with powerful management team has helped in the effective management
of tescos as they achieved most of their goals and accomplish their
short and long term strategies.

Consequences of effective management to Tescos as seen are:

· Continuous Market growth

· Survival

· Increase in market share

· Diversification into other leading markets

· Excellent reputation

Ineffective management in Tescos might lead to the following:

Influence in their share prices of the business, market share or their
business reputation

Hostile take over by competitors, which puts the business at the risk
of other organisation buying or controlling them

Poor management of resources, which might lead to pressure groups
suing the business

Tecos also to lose their investors, which might lead to the business
going bankrupt. They face the consequences of declining market share
under performance of delivery of services e.t.c

However if managers at Tescos do not do their activities well to help
improve performance the following are what will happen:

Employees will unwilling perform well in their capacity; this will
drag the up going of the company into the pits of deserter. I said
this because scheduled project would not be finished in time talking
about finishing ahead of the time.

Tescos market shares will go down due to poor performance of
Management and there will be fall in share price as well. There will
also be inadequate quality control, which may lead to the image of
Tescos down.

To conclude, Performance management shows that staff of Tescos Plc can
be motivated and improve performance. Performance management can also
set out goals for improvement, identifies opportunities of development
of skills or for promotion. It may make the employee feel valued and
therefore committed in achievement of the organisation business
objectives. The application of motivational practices such as the
Theory X of Douglas Mc Gregor in Tescos has to be done very carefully
because sometimes, an autocratic leader can cause absenteeism from the
workers under him. By his harshness, he can also conduct to the
employees leaving the company for another place less rigid. I think
that the best to work is somewhere where you can achieve your goals,
with a friendly atmosphere and where the employees can use their
intuition. Tescos management’s performances will help to know their
threats for example, possibility of new agents opening, new
legislation restriction operations, high interest rates and risk of
recession. This analysis should indicate various strategies of the
market, pricing, training and loans. Tescos management should be able
to relate this analysis to production or customer service problems by
adopting a way to solve it. Management, knowing their organisation
strength and weakness reduces the risk of errors and decision-making
can improve performance. Management should monitor the out going
expenses and the incoming money in order not to over spend above the
budget. Tescos management should also plan and organise all their
activities in order to meet deadline and maintain their good image.
Management must ensure quality at all stage in the product they sell
as to be able to keep their customers and to help them have high
market share.

Task 6

Evaluate the different ways in which key management functions may be
met more effectively through the use of key interpersonal and
communication skills

Good communication and interpersonal skills help the managers of
Tescos to responsibly and effectively carry out their key functions.

As they may have been working together for a long time, managers and
employees of Tescos will start to develop a certain relationship
despite the fact they might be from different departments of the
organisation. For instance, an employee of the production department
can regularly go the stores and affiliate with the other staff. This
kind of relations will benefit the company in the way they are run and
will profit the mangers because that will display and speed up their
interpersonal skills.

Furthermore, the flow of communication between the different
departments of the company will depend on the managers’ ability to
come up together and work jointly towards meeting the company’s
targets.

It is the responsibility of the manager to use his communication and
interpersonal skills in order to plan, organise, lead, control and
motivate the staff to achieve their to the benefit of the company.

Tescos managers have to use their interpersonal and communication
skills to motivate employees so that they will be able to enjoy
themselves whilst working at the same time. Good appraisal system
should be implemented and during the sessions, using those two skills
stated above, managers should be able to point out any strength and
weakness in a certain way so that employees should feel relaxed and be
able to have a normal conversation. Managers must bear in mind that
for every weakness found out, an appropriate training should be given.

If Tescos is Planning to expand or invest in a new range of products
such as tecso own Trainers, mangers will have to utilise their
interpersonal and communication skills to discuss the new projects and
try to convince the other mangers to go along with them and make them
see how it is going to benefit the company as a whole. If Tescos
management are also planning to expand or open another branch,
management will have to be able to use their communication skills to
discuss about the new project and how it will have and manager will
have to use their interpersonal skills to convince the other managers
about the new project they are suggesting and how it will help Tescos
as a whole. After these new project have been excepted mangers will
have to communicate to employees who may be affected by this decision
and try to arrange either training and be able to convince them in
also coming to terms with the new project.

Tescos plc managers have to show their ability to use their
interpersonal and communication skills to Organise training for their
employees in need or those who are going to work in the new projects
and organise their daily tasks in such a way that they are not going
to cause any difficulty to the company. Tescos managers will have to
be able to use their interpersonal skills to organise training for
those employees that will be affected by the new project. Let just say
the new project is Tescos wants to go into the music industry, so they
will have to organise some training for employees to be able to use
the new equipment and work more efficiently

Controlling is another key management’s function in Tescos that can be
done successfully through the use of communication and interpersonal
skills. Some employees are very conscious and maybe sensitive about
the way their managers communicate with them when it comes to
controlling. As a company that has adapted an autocratic structure,
Tescos has also implemented system whereby employees can fill out a
grievance form against their managers if they feel unsatisfied with
the way the managers control their activities within the store.
Management is aware of this issue because it has occurred on a number
of occasions so they try as much as possible to establish a good
working relationship with employees who work under them by utilising
their interpersonal skills i.e. applying a persuasive and reasonable
tone when asking employees to carry out activities. So therefore, to
achieve a good level of control management needs to be able to
communicate effectively without any bias with their employees so as to
avoid any misunderstanding, disputes or conflicts.

Leading is just as important to Tescos as other functions of the
management because it is the way in which the company is being
represented, in other words leading can be directly linked to
corporate image in the sense that whatever employees or their managers
do is perceived by customers and the local community as their
organisational culture. Therefore, if employees are very helpful
towards customers this would be perceived by such customer not only a
good business attitude by that employee but a helpful company as a
whole and the customer would not hesitate to shop with them in future.
For the company to create a positive and promising image, its
management needs to set good examples through communication and
interpersonal skills. For example, a manager must learn to lead
employees by displaying positive attitude towards his/her job role
even when store appears to be extremely busy and deadlines prove
difficult to meet. If a manager allows himself to get wind up by
heavy workload he/she may end up getting stressed out unnecessarily
and employees do pick up on those sort of things by saying things like
“well, if a manager can be stressed as a result of high workload, why
should I overwork myself for the company because at the end of the day
I am not getting paid for causing myself to be stressed”. The way
management can avoid such circumstance is by showing that even when
pressure mounts they can still maintain their job role as managers;
these are positive interpersonal skills that does not require too much
to display.

Often, Tescos managers seem to have limited power because of the way
the structure of the organisation is built, which is quite autocratic
and dictatorial to employees because all instructions come from the
Main Board and employees have to do whatever is expected from them
without arguing or questioning someone. I think that given those
reasons, employees are entitled to less/or no privileges in terms of
freedom and the managers have to use their interpersonal and
communication skills to give employees the chance to state their
opinions, use their own initiative and make them feel valued.

Tescos managers could use their communication skills and interpersonal
skills to Monitor activities of employees, by communicating their
employees and making sure they don’t over spend beyond their budget.

Lastly, the effective Tescos communication requires a climate or
culture that supports effective communication. Culture can be defined
as improvement by mental and physical training or the way things are
done within the organisation. Therefore, managing culture is
important because, it help management to develop and reinforce a
proposed culture within the organisation which will assumes the change
will improve productivity. To achieve this change often involves
extensive study and alteration to management style, management
behaviour and attempts to alter attitudes, beliefs and values.
Managers, have to analyse the prevailing culture by assessing features
such as values and climate. They have to take various forms of action
to demonstrate sincerity, to explain the changes, to indicate the
objectives and advantages to the workforce.

After the completion of this coursework, I have noticed that the role
of a manager is very complex and broad. The manager has to try to
bring harmony and peace while at the same working towards meeting the
organisation. His key functions which include motivating, planning,
leading, organising, etc will help him to ensure the company survival
and the well-being of the staff. The ability to use his skills
(communication and interpersonal) effectively and efficiently will
allow him to negotiate with third parties and represent his company
brilliantly and win the respect of his superiors and colleagues within
the company.

Tescos management team are doing their best to make their company
successful. Through the writing of this report, I have found out how
management are using their activities, which are planning, organising,
leading, Communication or co-ordinating and Motivating to achieve
Tescos Aims and objectives. I have also got to know the role of Tescos
management and how they are helping Tescos Plc improve their
performance.

Tescos Plc uses different resources in managing their company and if
management take good care of these recourses, it will help the company
attain their position in the market as the will want. And if these
resources are not well taking care off, it can bring the performance
of the company down since there will be no good resources to use to
help build the company.

Management in Tescos have to have good communication skills and
interpersonal skills to help them communicate better to their
employees, customers, creditors, and suppliers. Management will have
to have the ability to negotiate good credit facilities for Tescos so
as not to put Tescos in much debt. Management will have to have good
interpersonal skills to resolve conflict and be able to have good and
friendly working environment where employees will feel free and happy
to work to raise the performance of Tescos.

Lastly I found out how management interpersonal skills and
communication skill to help them with the key functional areas

Bibliography

Aldine house Publisher Jed Cope, HNC HND BTEC Business

Dian Moyniha and Brian, Advance Business Second Edition

Lecturers handouts and in Class jottings

Website

www.Tescos.com

www.google.com

www.Businessmanagement.com

www.courseworks.com

www.bezid.ac.uk

www.bbc.co.uk

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