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The Reaction Between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid

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The Reaction Between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid



Investigation Research
======================

The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction
takes place. It is important to remember that a rapid reaction is
completed in a short time. Some reactions are very fast, e.g. the
formation of silver chloride precipitate when silver nitrate and
hydrochloric acid solutions are mixed. Other reactions are very slow,
e.g. the rusting of iron. For practical reasons, reactions used in the
laboratory for studying rates of reaction must not be too fast or too
slow. A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they
collide (hit each other). Particles may be atoms, ions or molecules.
There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in
order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less
than this minimum energy, then they just bounce off each other and no
reaction occurs. This minimum energy is called the activation energy.
The faster the particles are going, the more energy they have. Fast
moving particles are more likely to react when they collide. You can
make particles move more quickly by heating them up (raising the
temperature). Raising the temperature has the same effect on all three
reactions.

Raising the temperature makes the particles move faster. This means
that more particles collide with each other per second. The rate of
the reaction increases.

Also, the faster the particles are travelling, the greater is the
proportion of them
, which will have the required activation energy for reaction to
occur. As a general guide, raising the temperature of a reaction by 10
°C will double the rate of the reaction. The gradient of the plot will
be twice as steep.

Increasing the concentration (in solution). Increasing the
concentration of a substance in solution means that there will be more
particles per dm3 of that substance.

The more particles that there are, the more will collide per second,
and so the rate of the reaction increases. In the reaction between
sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid as the
concentration is increased the rate of the reaction is increased.

HCl + sodium thiosulphate arrow sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide +
sulphur + water.
HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) arrow NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l)

Increasing the pressure (in gases). Increasing the pressure of a
reaction where the reactant is a gas is similar to increasing the
concentration. A gas at higher pressure will have more particles per
dm3 of the particles (usually molecules) of the gas.

The more particles that there are, the more will collide per second,
and so the rate of the reaction increases. If the reaction is
reversible, then increasing the pressure will shift the equilibrium
towards the side of the reaction, which has the smaller volume,
(see the Haber Process)

Increasing the surface area of a solid. A solid in a solution can only
react when particles collide with the surface. The bigger the area of
the solid surface, the more particles can collide with it per second,
and the faster the reaction rate is. You can increase the surface area
of a solid by breaking it up into smaller pieces.
A powder has the largest surface area and will have the fastest
reaction rate.
This is why catalysts are often used as powders.



Aim
===

To investigate the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid



Prediction
==========

I predict that the magnesium will react the fastest in the solution
with the highest temperature. This is because of scientific knowledge
I think that particles move faster when heated and collide much more
often.



Fair Test
=========

In order to keep my experiment a fair test I will have to make sure
that I keep the following factors the same:

· Volume of acid used (2M Concentration of hydrochloric acid)

· Surface area of the magnesium

· Clean the magnesium with emery paper before experiment

· Length of magnesium

The only factor that I will change is the temperature of the
hydrochloric acid



Apparatus
=========

I used the following equipment:

5 boiling tubes

A measuring cylinder

5 equal strips of magnesium (3cm length)

A stop clock

Test tube rack

Hydrochloric acid (20cm3 in each test tube)

Beaker (to hold hydrochloric acid)

Thermometer

Heater



Safety
======

The things that I will need to do to keep my experiment a safe one for
myself and other students around me are as follows:

· Wear safety goggles as I am using concentrated hydrochloric acid

· Care to eyes and the skin besides all the other people is always
vital and necessary

· Care in using glassware since it is sharp when broken and can cut
skin

· Care when returning all used glassware and equipment at the end of
the experiment



Method
======

Firstly I gathered all the apparatus needed for the experiment. After
this I used a measuring cylinder to poured 20 cm3 of hydrochloric acid
to each test tube. Next I put the 5 test tubes in different heater
temperatures. A bit later I took out one of the test tubes and checked
the temperature. I then added a strip of magnesium into the solution
and started the stop clock. Afterwards I wrote down the time taken to
react. I repeated this action 5 times with different temperatures.
After I got the readings for all 5 temperatures I repeated the
experiment 3 times to make it a fair test.

Results

Experiment 1

Temperature of hydrochloric acid (C)

Time taken to dissolve (seconds)

Room temperature (C)

Temperature after

(C)

25

27.53

25

31

30

27.93

26

33

40

27.63

26

44

50

28.78

25

52

60

29.28

26

59

Experiment 2

Temperature of hydrochloric acid (C)

Time taken to dissolve (seconds)

Room temperature (C)

Temperature after

(C)

25

27.22

25

32

30

27.68

26

34

40

27.81

26

44

50

29.84

25

54

60

34.25

26

64

Experiment 3

Temperature of hydrochloric acid (C)

Time taken to dissolve (seconds)

Room temperature (C)

Temperature after

(C)

25

23.22

25

31

30

27.78

26

33

40

27.09

26

43

50

26.75

25

54

60

30.56

26

64

Experiment Averages

Temperature of hydrochloric acid (C)

Time taken to dissolve (seconds)

Room temperature (C)

Temperature after

(C)

Rate of Reaction (3d.p)

25

25.99

25

31

0.038

30

27.80

26

33

0.036

40

27.18

26

43

0.037

50

30.56

25

53

0.033

60

31.36

26

62

0.032

Conclusion

I have concluded that the rate of a reaction can be altered by many
factors. In this case temperature was the main factor. The temperature
of the reaction affects the speed of the particles. As the temperature
increases the particles collide faster creating more friction, which
speeds up the reaction. Surface area and the concentration of the acid
could also affect the rate of a reaction. These things did not effect
the reaction because they were all kept the same. Maybe in further
investigation I could investigate other things, which affects the rate
of a reaction. Also I can see that my results supported the theory
that I put forward in my prediction, therefore my predictions were
correct. In my graph I came across an odd result. The temperature was
40’C and it took an average of 27.18 seconds to dissolve. This odd
result may have come from my lack of concentration during the
experiment. Also the rate of reaction had a pattern, the higher the
temperature the faster the rate of reaction. This happens because
particles move faster with heat. This is shown in the averages table.
The word and symbol equation for the reaction between hydrochloric
acid and magnesium is:

Magnesium + hydrochloric acid arrow magnesium chloride +
hydrogen

Mg + 2HCl arrow MgCl2
+ H2

Analysis

During my investigation I came across many minor errors, which could
have affected the accuracy of my experiments. These errors were
measurements. The timing of the magnesium dissolving could have been
plus or minus 1 second. This is due to the reaction time between
noticing that the magnesium is gone and actually stopping the stop
clock. Also the measurements of the acid could have been plus or minus
1 cm3.

This is due to the accuracy of the judgement of acid. This is because
the acid is not 100% still when measuring. There is also not enough
time to wait until it is near enough 100% still. The length of each
magnesium measured could have been plus or minus 1mm. This could be
because we would have to consider the efficiency rate of the magnesium
measured. Also the temperature measured could have been plus or minus
1’C. This is due to the accuracy of measuring the temperature at its
peak and the judgement of the temperature. Many of these errors are
down to the accuracy of human judgements. If I were to repeat this
experiment I would consider these errors and try to concentrate more
when measuring.



Evaluation
==========

On the whole I think that my experiment went well. Still I feel that I
could have done many things to improve the accuracy of my results. In
some occasions I feel that I could of done various things to make my
experiment a fairer test. I could have repeated the experiment a
couple more times. I could of experimented with more temperatures and
make the difference between each temperature the same. I could of
concentrated more during measurements and not get distracted by peers.
I think that my results were quite accurate. If I were to repeat this
experiment I would change the variables and try investigating other
aspects that could change the rate of a reaction. For example how the
surface area, the concentration of acid and the pressure and can
affect the rate of a reaction. I could also try using different acids
such as sulphuric acid. I could also experiment with different
metals, that way I could investigate their relative activity. In the
future I would also like to investigate how catalysts can affect the
rate of a reaction

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The Reaction Between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Apr 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=148762>.




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