Production of Zinc Sulphate
My aim for this investigation is to make Zinc Sulphate and find the
percentage yield. I am going to produce 14g of Zinc Sulphate.
I predict that when we mix Zinc oxide (Zno) with sulphuric acid
(H2so4), I will get an end product which is a cleanly white solution.
The solution is Zinc Sulphate
(Znso4) and water (H2o). I also predict
that there are other chemicals which can also be mixed with Sulphuric
acid to produce Zinc Sulphate. The chemicals are Zinc hydroxide (ZnoH)
and Zinc carbonate (Znco3). I think the Zinc Sulphate produced with
these different chemicals will have different reaction rates. I also
think that Zinc Oxide is the compound which will produce 14g Zinc
Zinc sulphate is a compound which is made up by mixing either zinc
oxide, zinc carbonate or zinc hydroxide with sulphuric acid. Zinc
sulphate is produced in the industry and in the laboratory.
Description of Zinc Sulphate:
Appearance and Odour:
White free-flowing powder (anhydrous and hydrate); anhydrous ZnSO4 is
hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).
Exists as anhydrous salt (ZnSO4), monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O) and
heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H20). Zinc sulphate has many similarities
(properties and hazards) to other inorganic zinc salts. /Some
information in this record is given specifically for zinc sulphate.
Much information applies to inorganic zinc salts in general.
Physical And Chemical Properties:
100 deg C (212 deg F); loses water at 280 deg C (536 deg F)
Does not boil. Decomposes at 500 deg C (932 deg F)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity):
3.54 (anhydrous); 1.97 (hydrated) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water:
Very soluble (1.7 kg/L)
Solubility in Other Liquids:
Very soluble in glycerol (200 g/L); soluble in methyl alcohol;
insoluble in ethyl alcohol.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient):
4.5 (saturated solution)
Saturation Vapour Concentration:
Stability And Reactivity:
Will not occur
Corrosivity to Metals:
Uses of zinc sulphate:
1. It is used to preserve fish skin.
2. It is used as a catalyst.
3. It is used as antalkali in printing and dyeing.
4. It is used as raw material for production
of inorganic pigments
(such as lithopone).
5. Other zinc salts such as zinc stearate and zinc carbonate are used
as preservatives for wood and leather.
6. It is used as raw material for production of lithopone and in
synthetic fibre industry.
7. It is used in zinc plating.
8. It is used as a raw material in making pesticides and as a weed
killer in agriculture.
9. It is used in making trace element fertilizer and feed addictive.
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS
Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure
Dusts or mists (solutions) are probably non-irritating or mildly
irritating. No human information is available, but inhaled zinc
sulphate caused no observable toxic effects in animal tests.
Reversible loss of the sense of smell may occur, based on data from
Zinc sulphate is not likely to cause irritation to the skin.
Zinc sulphate is moderately irritating to the eyes (3), but damage is
normally reversible.(9) Dilute solutions of zinc sulphate have been
used as astringent eye drops.(4)
Low doses of zinc salts are probably not toxic by ingestion. An excess
of zinc salts can cause vomiting, burning sensation in the throat and
stomach, followed by abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea, convulsions,
changes in blood pressure and coma. Death may ensue after ingestion of
a few grams, although the emetic effect of zinc sulphate (typically
0.6 to 2 g) makes severe poisoning unlikely.(3,13)
First aid Measures:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move
victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.
If irritation occurs, as quickly as possible, flush contaminated area
with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 10 minutes, by the
clock. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g.,
watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical advice
immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather
goods before re-use or discard.
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently
flowing water for 20 minutes, by the clock, holding the eyelid(s)
open. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice
Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing
consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse
mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink
240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally,
rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Obtain medical advice
immediately. NOTE: Zinc sulfate is an emetic (can induce vomiting).
First Aid Comments:
Consult a physician and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for
all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a
physician familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the
1. Bunsen burner
2. Evaporating dish
4. Tripod stand
5. Zinc oxide (28 crystals)
6. Zinc hydroxide (28 crystals
7. Zinc carbonate (28 crystals
8. Sulphuric acid (1 mole)
1. I will wear protective goggles to prevent my eyes.
2. I will open all windows for good ventilation.
3. I will not inhale Zinc Sulphate.
4. I will be careful when boiling the sulphuric acid because it can
boil and bubble down.
5. Sulphuric acid is corrosive and irritant so I will be careful with
1. I will keep the amount of sulphuric acid the same 1 mole for all
2. I will work with the same amount of all types of Zincs.
3. I will remove the Sulphuric acid immediately when it boils.
Method with Zinc oxide (Zno):
Firstly I put 1 mole of sulphuric acid on an evaporating dish and
heated it and waited for it to boil. When it boiled, I stopped heating
and waited for it to cool. When it cooled, I added Zinc oxide. I
stopped adding Zinc oxide when reaction stopped. I waited for the
solution to cool and I dried it with a paper. After drying the
solution was Zinc sulphate.
Zinc oxide + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water
Zno + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o
I saw fumes being produced.
Method with Zinc Carbonate (Znco3):
Zinc carbonate is highly reactive so, I did not boil sulphuric acid. I
put 1mole of sulphuric acid to an evaporating dish. Then I added Zinc
carbonate till it stopped reacting. I waited for the solution to cool
and I dried it with a paper. This is Zinc sulphate.
Zinc carbonate + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water + Carbon
Znco3 + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o + Co2
I saw fumes being produced.
Method with Zinc hydroxide (ZnoH):
I did not have Zinc Hydroxide so I made my own by adding water to Zinc
Oxide which gave Zinc Hydroxide solution. Then I boiled 1 mole of
Sulphuric acid and then I added ZnoH solution. I waited for the
solution to cool. I poured the cooled solution to a paper to dry. This
is Zinc sulphate.
Zinc Hydroxide + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water + Hydrogen
ZnoH + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o + H
I saw fumes being produced.
Name of chemical
Number of crystals
Amount of sulphuric acid
Colour of solution
Chalky white solution
Creamy white solution
Calculating the yield:
Calculating the percentage yield
Formula: 100% yield == mass of crystals made x 100
Mass of crystals= 28
== 28 ÷ 14 x 100 == 200%
Calculating the actual yield
Formula: Actual yield x 100
28 ÷ 14= 2
2 ÷ 14= 0.14…
0.14x 100= 14g
My prediction was correct because in this experiment I have found out
that Zinc Oxide is the best chemical to use while producing 14g zinc
sulphate. This is because I boiled the sulphuric acid and reacted
quickly. I did not boil the sulphuric acid while combining it with
Zinc Carbonate because it is highly reactive. This can cause the
product I will get to be under 14g because I don’t know how much water
Although my experiment was successful, I believe that there are a few
changes which can be made to make it truer. I did not dry the solution
I got because I did not have enough time. If I was to do this
experiment again, I will wait for the solution to dry and see the
amount of zinc sulphate produced. I would also time the reaction to
see the reaction rates of the chemicals I use.