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The Effect of Exercise on Pulse Rate and Breathing

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The Effect of Exercise on Pulse Rate and Breathing

My aim for the coursework is to do 12 minute running to see my pulse
rate and also breathing rate. I will be checking how the exercise
affects your pulse rate and breathing. After each exercise I will
check how long it takes to recover. For this investigation I would do
exercises to get more accurate results. I know my practical is safe
because I would not do things that would affect people and also I
would not do dangerous activities. Before I do the exercise I must
check there is nothing in front of me e.g.: glass and also to be
careful by stretching my muscles which would affect the exercise. I
would need to use a stopwatch to check my pulse rate and also a pen
and paper to write down my pulse rate. I will make my practical a fair
test by testing the pulse rate at a certain amount of same time on
exercises and also to make sure I would do it in the same place e.g.:
park will keep all these things the same by checking my pulse rate at
the same time after each exercise. I would also check my pulse rate at
a certain time for each exercise and also to try and do it in the same
place. I will change this 4 times. The range that I would be using is
running, seat ups, walking, and also seating. I would be doing this to
see how my pulse rate changes during the exercise and after. I will be
making 4 measurements or observations I have chosen the measurements
because think that these exercise affect my body the most during the
programme. The other reason is that I think it is safe for me. The
things that might change during the investigation that I cannot
control Is my pulse rate increase or decreasing, breathing rate and
also the time it takes me to recover. I think that the pattern in my
results will be my pulse rate going increasing during the time of
exercise and also my breathing rate will be faster than normal.

When exercising or competition in sports the body undertakes a number
of changes. We breathe in heavier and faster therefore our heartbeats
faster and our muscles stretch and therefore we sweat. These are all
normal responses towards exercises whether we work out normally or
once a while. When we carry out exercises our muscles act like
electric motors. Our muscles take in a source of energy and use it to
generate force. An electric motor uses electricity to supply its
energy. Our muscles are biochemical motors, and they use a chemical
called adenosine triposphate for their energy source. During the
process of “burning” our muscles need three things, which is oxygen
because of chemical reactions required by adenosine triposphate. They
need to get rid of metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide and lactic
acid so that the chemical reactions are generated. They also need to
get rid of heat. Just like an electric motor, a working muscle
generates heat that it needs to get rid of. In order to keep
exercising muscles must continuously make adenosine triphosphate. To
make this happen the body must supply oxygen to the muscles and get
rid of the waste products and heat. If these requirements are not
accomplished the person conducting the exercise will stop and the body
will become exhausted. Exercise can affect respiration and the heart
dramatically too. Muscles need energy to maintain their functions.
This energy is provided through a process called respirations.

When the heart is at a resting rate oxygenated blood is being pumped
around the body for a stable state of aerobic respirations. Resting
rates vary between different people. The lower the heart rate of the
person the healthier the person is. Anaerobic respiration is the
release of energy from glucose in the presence of oxygen. In order our
body tissues glucose can be broken down to release energy, which may
be used for bodily functions such as muscle contractions. The general
equation for the process of anaerobic respiration is:

Glucose + oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

Anaerobic respiration takes place in all living things. The waste
products of this process are carbon dioxide, excess water and energy.
Carbon dioxide and water can easily be excreted and the energy is used
up in the body where desired. If there is a shortage of oxygen we
respire an aerobically which looks like this

[IMAGE] Glucose Lactic acid + (less) energy

During the exercise we conduct the heat rate increases. Anaerobic
respiration will prolong if the necessary amount of oxygen and helps
produce enough energy for the muscles to continue functioning.
Anaerobic respiration occurs when muscle cells do not receive enough
oxygen to produce the energy the energy needed. This occurs during
vigorous exercises. The heart can’t pump enough oxygenated blood to
the muscles when they become exhausted. The heart rate increases in an
attempt to send more oxygen to the muscles but when it fails anaerobic
respiration takes place.

There are more toxic waste products as a result of anaerobic
respiration than there is a result of aerobic respiration. Lactic acid
is an organic acid, which is produced as a waste product during
anaerobic respiration. Lactic acid is toxic if it remains in the body
and it can cause cramps and other muscle pains. Lactic acid can be
broken down by oxygen. When anaerobic starts to take place energy are
taken from glucose without using oxygen to break it down. This creates
an oxygen debt which paid back oxidizes lactic acid to carbon dioxide
and water.

When the heart rate is at its maximum it is pumping as much oxygen to
the muscles as possibly it can. After exercises the heart will take a
while to return back to its resting rate. In this time the oxygen debt
is paid back so that any lactic acid is oxidized. Our body contains
plasma, which carries just about everything around the body, but most
importantly for respiration oxygen carrying red blood cells. When we
start exercising our heart, beats faster as we do more exercise to get
the oxygen and glucose to the muscles cells where it is needed so that
respiration can take place. We then need to breath at a more rapid
rate to provide more oxygen so that it can be absorbed into the blood
stream and carried to where it is needed. This is how respiration is
linked to pulse rate.

Athletes spend a great deal of time training. It allows their body to
adapt its basic response to exercise and to improve athletic
performance. Training can:

* Make our muscles perform better.

* Improve the efficiency of oxygen delivery to the working muscles.

* Get the athlete adapted to the competition environment.

From the pervious scientific knowledge I have predicted that while
carrying out the exercises the body’s temperature, breathing rate and
the heart rate will increase. I predict this because I predict this
because when muscles are in use they produce heat. It is this heat
that affects the body’s temperature. The body will also try to keep
the original heat and will sweat to cool the body down. Muscles need
oxygen and glucose to work properly. The formula for respirations
tells us that glucose and oxygen are taken in and energy and carbon
dioxide are given out. The muscles will need more oxygen and glucose
as they work harder, therefore the breathing rate should rise to allow
a bigger intake of the two. For this now larger intake the heart must
pump this oxygen and glucose, situated in the blood, to the muscle
cells more rapidly. This means that the heart rate would increase. The
fitter the body the slower the heart rate and breathing rate would
increase.

Type of exercise

Pulse rate after I min

Pulse rate before exercise

How long to recover

Running

112

44

1min

Walking

50

45

5sec

Seating

45

44

0

Press ups (1min)

98

45

1 min

I have tested my exercise again to make sure I gain more accurate
results. As you can see below I have done the same exercise again
which includes same exercise, same amount of time and also same place.

Type of exercise

Pulse rate after I min

Pulse rate before exercise

How long to recover

Running

113

45

1min

Walking

51

44

5sec

Seating

44

44

0

Press ups (1min)

102

45

1 min

I have found out that the longer the exercise you do the faster your
heartbeats. I have also learned that there is a certain amount of
recovery time for example if your exercise is long then it would be
long to recover but if your exercise is short the quicker your
recovery rate. The pattern in my results shows that as the exercise
increases my pulse rate will increase; also my breathing would be
faster.

From my results I can make a conclusion is the pulse rate increases
during the exercise. If you do exercise like walking it would not
affect your pulse rate a lot but if you do jogging it would effect
increase your pulse rate more. The longer the exercise the more oxygen
you will need and also I have noticed during the exercise your mouth
goes dry. I have learned that you would will have energy at the first
exercise but not a lot at the last exercise, this is because you have
used it during the exercise. When I was resting before the exercise
my pulse rate was 44-45(1min). The walking did not affect my pulse
rate a lot only it went up by one. When I was running it was 114,
which is nearly 3 times higher than my normal rate. It took me 1 min
to recover, which shows I am fit because my heart can get oxygen back
quick. I found the pulse rate test very good and useful because I know
understand how my pulse rate increases and decreases during the
exercise. I have also learned what happens in your body during an
exercise.

The scientific explanation for my conclusion is the more exercise you
do the more glucose and oxygen you will need because your body needs
to supply oxygen to the working muscles. The longer exercise you do
the more oxygen you need. Energy is very important because if you do
not have enough energy you could not do the exercise properly and
long. The energy is released from respiration. My heart has to work
harder to get the glucose and oxygen in to the muscles. Most people’s
heart takes a while to recover because the muscles have respiring
anaerobic –ally. The glucose was broken down to give energy with out
oxygen it is lactic acid. Lactic acid is poisonous and it makes your
muscles ache, it can also give you a stitch. To get rid of lactic acid
you need to get extra oxygen to the muscles. The oxygen is used to
break down the lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water, which is
paying back the oxygen debt.

[IMAGE]

My simple comment about the plan and method is I have understood how
exercise affects the body and what changes during an exercise in your
body. I have understood how pulse rate increases and decreases. All
the type of exercise I done increased as I predicted.

I know the apparatus I used gave me an accurate result because the
equipment I used was working and fine.

I could have used a heart monitor (stethoscope) because to see when my
pulse rate increases and it would be much clearer. The anomalous
results in my investigation were all the results I done was what I
expected. I recovered quickly because I am fit which shows my heart is
healthy.

The problem with the method or plan was there was no problem only if I
had used a stethoscope it would be better for the exercise and
accuracy. I would also see when the pulse rate increases.

If I did the investigation again I would make it better by doing the
exercise because I am fit. I would use a stethoscope because t would
be easier and I will know what is happening and safe.

Evaluation: I think my results are quite accurate although we have an
anomalous result for our 12-minute exercise, which we marked on the
graph. You can see they are quite accurate by looking at an bar chart
and also scatter diagram graph this is another reason that we knew
that one of the results was anomalous. If I was to do this
investigation again I would gather more results as it would lead to a
better average as was proven with our anomalous result which brought
the average down so did not give us as accurate results as I would of
hoped but they still showed us what needed to be shown. Overall I am
happy with the way this investigation went, as my Hypothesis was
correct.

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MLA Citation:
"The Effect of Exercise on Pulse Rate and Breathing." 123HelpMe.com. 28 Jul 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=148304>.




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