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Investigating the Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate

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Investigating the Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate

Aim: - To investigate the effect of exercise on the heart rate.
===============================================================

Hypothesis: I thinkthat when the length of exercise increases, the
number of beats per minute will rise. The number of beats per minute
will rises steadily because the amount of exercise will gradually
increase causing the heart to bear faster. Aerobic respiration is the
release of energy from glucose in the presence of Oxygen. Aerobic
means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air that is necessary for
aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration is in the absence of air.
This has a major part of your pulse rate rising during exercise
because your heart starts to pump more blood faster so that energy can
be delivered to the working muscles as quickly as possible.

Method: -

· One person should be timing how long the other person should be
skipping.

· You start skipping for 30 seconds until your partner tells you to
stop.

· Quickly find your pulse on your wrist.

· Start counting the amount of times your heart beats for a minute
long. Your partner will be timing this again.

· When your partner will tell you when to stop and you record you
results in the table.

· You do each time given 3 times so that you have a fair test.

· After the 30 second timing you go onto doing 60, 90, 120 and 180
seconds.

· You should have 15 records altogether in your table.

· Once you have got them all work out the averages for each one and
put it into a table.

Apparatus: -

· Stop Clock

· Skipping Rope

Health & Safety: -

If you have laces to your shoes make sure that you have tied them up
tightly making sure that you do not trip. Also make sure that you r
are skipping on a flat surface making sure that when you skip you do
not injure yourself in any way.

Fair Test: -

If the investigation is to be fair and to gain accurate results I must
carry out the following. Make sure that when you exercise it is done
accurately, not be under the time limit or over. Do not stop skipping
in the middle of the experiment because this may have an impact on the
results.

Research: -

Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the
presence of Oxygen. Aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the
air that is necessary for aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration
is in the absence of air. This has a major part of your pulse rate
rising during exercise because your heart starts to pump more blood
faster so that energy can be delivered to the working muscles as
quickly as possible.

Here is a molecular model of a glucose molecule. Glucose contains six
atoms of Carbon (shown in blue), twelve atoms of Hydrogen (shown in
green), and six atoms of Oxygen (shown in red).

[IMAGE]

In our tissues glucose can be broken down to release energy.

[IMAGE]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

Aerobic respiration takes place in almost all living things. It is
easy to get rid of the Carbon Dioxide and excess water, this is
excretion and maximum energy is released from the glucose so that when
you exercise there is a continuous supply of energy to your working
muscles. Unlike anaerobic exercise, aerobic exercise uses oxygen to
keep large muscle groups moving continuously at a strength that can be
maintained for at least 20 minutes. Aerobic exercise uses several
major muscle groups throughout the body, especially demands on the
cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to the working
muscles. As a person engages regular aerobic exercise, the heart,
lungs, and muscles all become more efficient at using oxygen. The
heart pumps more blood with each stroke, the lung capacity of each
inhalation increases, and the muscle fibres extract more oxygen from
the blood.

Some organisms can respire in the absence of air. This is anaerobic
respiration. This does not release so much energy and it produces much
more toxic waste products. However, if Oxygen is not available,
anaerobic respiration is better than nothing. When this happens in our
muscles we produce lactic acid that gives you cramps.

The metabolism of glycogen or glucose to provide energy for exercise
occurs in one of two ways, depending on the presence of available
oxygen to the muscle, which in turn depends on the type of exercise
being performed.

Word Equation: -

[IMAGE]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water

Symbol Equation: -

[IMAGE]C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

Results: -

30secs

1min

1min 30

2mins

2min 30

Test 1

110bps

120bps

136bps

157bps

182bps

Test 2

105bps

118bps

128bps

162bps

175bps

Test 4

112bps

115bps

141bps

167bps

189bps

Averages

109bps

118bps

135bps

162bps

182bps

[IMAGE]

Analysis: -My graph shows that as the length of exercise increases the
pulse rate raises which then cause the heart rate to increase. The
highest increase in the pulse rate occurs at 180sec.

When the body is exercising the muscles respire to produce energy, so
the muscles can contract. Oxygen is needed the oxygen is carried in
the haemoglobin of the red blood cell. The heart and lungs need to
work harder in order to get a greater amount of oxygen to the muscles
for respiration. In muscle cells digested food substances are oxidised
to release energy. When muscles use oxygen in order to respire the
process is called aerobic respiration:

[IMAGE]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water (Aerobic)

[IMAGE]C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

The heart rate rises because during exercise, respiration in the
muscles increases, so the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises.
Carbon dioxide is slightly acid; the brain detects the rising acidity
in the blood, the brain then sends a signal through the nervous system
to the lungs to breathe faster and deeper. Gaseous exchange in the
lungs increases allowing more oxygen into the circulatory system and
removing more carbon dioxide. The brain then sends a signal to make
the heart beat faster. As a result this, heart rate would rise.

My graph confirms my hypothesis in that as the length of exercise is
increased, the number of beats per minute will rise. The number of
beats per minute rises steadily because the amount of exercise is
gradually increased. The heart reacts to this by increasing the number
of times per minute that it beats so that the muscles have enough
oxygen and glucose to work with the greater amount of exercise. The
only way in which my results do not coincide with my prediction is
that the graph does not begin to level off. This is because the
maximum heart rate was not reached during exercise. Overall my
prediction has been proven correct so far that my results support my
theory.

Evaluation: - I believe that I have a positive conclusion. I have
decided this due to a number of factors. I repeated my results three
times in order to take an average that would produce more reliable
results. All my results were of a similar pattern. Although my results
were very similar the test itself was not totally fair this is because
if you stacked on the skipping rope time would pass by and you would
have start the exercise again. If I were to do the experiment again I
would try my best into not stopping or tripping over the skipping
rope. Also as the length of exercise time got larger I became tired
and in the outcome of this it may have affected the results. By
looking at the graph there are no specific anomalies that can be seen.
My graph continues to become steeper because the length of exercise
had become more so more amount of heart beats would be needed.

Overall I am quite pleased with my method of experimenting because I
think I was as accurate as I could be and I also reached my initial
aim which in some ways shows how I was successful. Although on the
other hand I am not that pleased with it as well because I could have
made me experiment more fairer by not stopping in the middle of
skipping even though it became quite tiring, even though this did not
show up in my results very clearly it may have had an impact on the
results.

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"Investigating the Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Apr 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=147942>.




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