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The Effect of Changing Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Its Reaction with Carbon Dioxide

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The Effect of Changing Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Its Reaction with Carbon Dioxide

Plan

Carbonates, including all forms of limestone, react with hydrochloric
acid to produce Carbon Dioxide:

Calcium ┼ Hydrochloric → Calcium ┼ Water ┼ Carbon

Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide

I'm going to experiment with changing the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid in this reaction and seeing how it affects the
amount of Carbon Dioxide that is produced. I predict that the amount
of Carbon Dioxide will increase as the acid is more concentrated. The
ideas behind this prediction are that a high concentration acid will
have more particles, so there will be more chance of collision between
particles and therefore a faster reaction.

The equipment I am going to use is listed here:

* Small marble chips (calcium carbonate)

* Hydrochloric acid

* Water

* Scales (to weigh marble chips)

* Measuring cylinder (to measure the hydrochloric acid/hydrochloric
acid and water solution)

* Gas syringe (to measure the amount of carbon dioxide produced)

* Delivery tube

* Conical flask

* Stop Watch

* Retort stand

Method

[IMAGE]

First I will measure out the marble chips (I will decide how much I
will use each time during the preliminary experiment) and hydrochloric
acid solution (This will be a 10ml mixture of water and hydrochloric
acid). This is how much hydrochloric acid and water will be used in
each experiment:

Concentration of acid

Amount of 2 molar * hydrochloric acid (mls)

Water (mls)

Experiment 1

2M

10

0

Experiment 2

1.5M

7.5

2.5

Experiment 3

1.25M

6.25

3.75

Experiment 4

1M

5

5

Experiment 5

0.5M

2.5

7.5

* 2 molar is the concentration of acid I will be using

After measuring the products I will set up the gas syringe as shown in
the diagram and put the products into the conical flask. I will
quickly start the stop watch, and after 3 minutes I will see how much
carbon dioxide has been produced by seeing how far back the gas
syringe has gone. I will do each experiment 3 times and take an
average amount of each experiment for an accurate result.

A fair test is making sure that only one variable is changed at any
one time and everything else is kept the same. My test is fair because
the only thing I'm changing is the concentration of the hydrochloric
acid. I'm not changing other variables such as the size/mass of marble
chips, amount of hydrochloric acid and water solution, time given for
each reaction.

Preliminary Experiment

Amount of Hydrochloric acid

Amount of Water

Amount of Carbon Dioxide Produced

10ml

0ml

100ml (after only 50 seconds - maximum amount on gas syringe)

I used 1g of marble chips in this experiment and found that I couldn't
measure the amount of gas produced because too much was produced too
quickly. I am therefore going to reduce the amount of marble chips to
0.5g and measure after only 1 minute instead of 3 minutes. I will do
another preliminary experiment to make sure that these measurements
work.

Amount of Hydrochloric acid

Amount of Water

Amount of Carbon Dioxide Produced

10ml

0ml

36ml

This worked well. My preliminary experiment caused me to alter the
mass of calcium carbonate as 1g was too much. It also caused me to
change the time to 1 minute because I thought that the results would
be too similar after 3 minutes.

Results

The results I have taken are given in this table:

Concentration of acid

Amount of 2M hydrochloric acid

Amount of Water

Amount of CO2 produced (Test 1)

Amount of CO2 produced (Test 2)

Amount of CO2 produced (Test 3)

Average amount of CO2 produced

2M

10ml

0ml

26ml

33ml

39ml

32.7ml

1.5M

7.5ml

2.5ml

45ml *

29ml

24ml

26.5ml

1.25M

6.25ml

3.75ml

30ml

23ml

22ml

25ml

1M

5ml

5ml

24ml

20ml

17ml

20.3ml

0.5M

2.5ml

7.5ml

15ml

11ml

7ml

11ml

* This result is anomalous - something has obviously gone wrong as the
result shouldn't be this big. I have therefore chosen to ignore it
when working out the 'Average amount of CO2 produced'

Conclusion

I am going to present the results in a graph. I am expecting to notice
that as the concentration of the acid decreases, the amount of carbon
dioxide produced decreases. I will plot 'concentration of acid (M)'
against 'average amount of carbon dioxide produced (ml)'.

[IMAGE]

My results and graph show that as the concentration of acid increases,
the carbon dioxide produced increases. This is because when there is a
higher concentration of acid there are more particles so more chance
of collision between particles. The reaction is exothermic, meaning
that bonds formed (which give out energy) is greater than bonds broken
(which takes in energy). This is why I chose not to change the
temperature as my variable in my plan. It would be difficult to do
this as exothermic reactions give off heat anyway so it would be hard
to control the temperature.

My results agree with my prediction that the amount of Carbon Dioxide
will increase as the acid is more concentrated. The reason I made this
prediction was because I knew that there are more acid particles in a
more concentrated solution, so there is more chance of collision. My
results prove that my ideas were correct.

Evaluation

My experiment went fairly well, as it proved my prediction and showed
to me clearly that more concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid
produce more carbon dioxide. However, some of my results appear to be
inaccurate, such as the result I discarded for being too high (in the
1.5 molar solution). If I hadn't have discarded this result then the
averages for 2 molar and 1.5 molar solutions would have been the same,
which is not accurate, and this would have affected the shape of my
graph. There were a couple more results that seemed a bit odd, but I
didn't discard them as they weren't totally obscure didn't really
affect the averages (such as Test 1 of the 2 molar solution appears to
be too little). The method wasn't very good, which I think must be the
reason why some of my results were odd. The reason why it wasn't good
is because I had to mix the products, put the lid on the conical flask
and set the timer at the same time. This was obviously very difficult.
This would have affected the results because as soon as the products
were mixed they began to react, but I didn't start timing until after
I'd put the lid on, so the beginning of the reaction was always
ignored. I could improve the method by having someone to time the
reaction for me. This way I would only have to concentrate on mixing
the products and putting the lid on. This would still affect the
results (although not by as much as before) because the carbon dioxide
that would be given off before I put the lid on the conical flask
would not be measured in the measuring cylinder.

Even though some of my results were affected by the unfair method I
used, I think that I have enough evidence to give a firm conclusion.
My graph still has a line of best fit, which shows that a higher
concentration produces more carbon dioxide. The results could be more
reliable, but they are good enough to make a basic conclusion.

If I was to make my results more reliable I would do the experiment
again, making changes to the method. These would include:

· Having someone to do the timing for me - this would enable me to
have more accurate timing for the reactions.

· Use only powdered calcium carbonate - I found that it was hard to
use chips of the same size each time, making the experiment unfair, as
there are more available particles on smaller chips or powders as they
have a larger surface area.

· Cleaning the conical flask properly after each experiment - residue
from the previous experiment could affect the next experiment.

· Experiment with more concentrations - this could give me more of a
range of results to see and would show me if the amount of carbon
dioxide produced increases by the same amount as the concentration of
the acid gets higher and higher (I would have to use a higher
concentrate for the original acid used).

How to Cite this Page

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"The Effect of Changing Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on Its Reaction with Carbon Dioxide." 123HelpMe.com. 01 Sep 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=147894>.




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