Urban Land Use Models


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Urban Land Use Models

Often in geography models are used to try to explain something that we
can see in the physical environment. During the 20th century a number
of models were developed to try to explain how urban areas grew.
Although models show a very general idea of the shape of the city, all
of the ones described here have aspects that can be seen in most
cities in the developed and developing world.

The Burgess Model

In 1925, E.W. Burgess presented an urban land use model, which divided
cities in a set of concentric circles expanding from the downtown to
the suburbs. This representation was built from Burgess's observations
of a number of American cities, notably Chicago.

According to this model, a large city is divided in concentric zones
with a tendency of each inner zone to expand in the other zone. Urban
growth is thus a process of expansion and recon version of land uses.
For instance on this figure zone II (Factory zone) is expanding
towards zone IV (Working class zone), creating a transition zone with
recon version of land use.

Although the Burgess model is simple and elegant, it has drawn
numerous criticisms:

* The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural
applications up to the 1950s. It is a product of its time.

* The model was developed when American cities were growing very
fast in demographic terms and when individual transportation was
still uncommon. Expansion thus involved recon version of land
uses. This concept cannot be applied in a contemporary (second
half to the 20th century) context where highways have enabled
urban development to escape the recon version process and settle
in the suburbs.

* The model was developed for American cities and has limited
applicability elsewhere. It has been demonstrated that

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pre-industrial cities, notably in Europe, did not at all followed
the concentric circle model. For instance, in most pre-industrial
cities, the centre was much more important than the periphery,
notably in terms of social status.

* There were a lot of spatial differences in terms of ethnic, social
and occupational status, while there was low occurrence of the
functional differences in land use patterns. The concentric model
assumed a spatial separation of place of work and place of
residence, which was not the generalized until the twentieth
century.

However, the Burgess model remains useful for approximation of
concentric urban development and as a way to introduce the complexity
of urban land use.

The (Homer) Hoyt Model

By 1945, it was clear to Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman that many
cities did not fit the traditional concentric zone or sector model.
Cities of greater size were developing substantial suburban areas and
some suburbs, having reached significant size, were functioning like
smaller business districts. These smaller business districts acted as
satellite nodes, or nuclei, of activity around which land use patterns
formed. While Harris and Ullman still saw the CBD as the major centre
of commerce, they suggested that specialized cells of activity would
develop according to specific requirements of certain activities,
different rent-paying abilities, and the tendency for some kinds of
economic activity to cluster together. At the centre of their model is
the CBD, with light manufacturing and wholesaling located along
transport routes? Heavy industry was thought to locate near the outer
edge of city, perhaps surrounded by lower-income households, and
suburbs of commuters and smaller service centres would occupy the
urban periphery.

The Multi Nuclei Model

Harris and Ullman (1945) argue that land use patterns do not grow from
a single central point in a city but from multiple points or nuclei.
Some of these points existed before the city began to grow, while
others develop as the city grows. Nuclei may include the original
retail or market area of the city and important transport links such
as railway stations, ports or the airport.

The areas of the city that they recognise are similar to the ones
noted by Hoyt and Burgess but the location of these areas will be
different in different cities. The central business district will
often be found near the original retail area of the city. Warehousing
and light industrial areas will develop adjacent to the CBD and along
transport links such as railways and roads. Heavy industry will locate
on the outskirts of towns or where the outskirts were when the
development took place, since growth of the urban area may have
overrun this area by now. Residential areas will be found in the
remaining space, with high-class housing situated in the better areas
with good drainage, often on high ground and away from nuisances such
as noise and poor air quality. Lower quality housing will be forced to
occupy the less attractive areas of the city.

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How do these models relate to Blackburn?

The Burgess Model is quite identical to Blackburn. This is because
Blackburn has a CBD (central business district) in the middle. As we
progress outwards we can see that there are factories and industry,
which is also part of the Burgess model. And again as we progress even
more outwards we can see houses that are around for many years. This
is because people never had much transport and had to walk to places.
As a result of this they use to live near their workplaces so they
didn't have to work much. This model does cover the town of Blackburn
because there is a commuter zone. This means that people travel from
the outskirts to their workplace as this is shown on the Burgess
model. And also it is true that there is high class housing on the
outskirts but this is not mentioned on the Burgess model. And again it
is not precise because there is a wide range of houses inside the town
as well as the ones on the periphery.

The Hoyt Model is also quite identical to Blackburn. This is because
Blackburn has a CBD (central business district) in the middle. As we
progress outwards we can see that there are factories and industry
which is also part of the Hoyt model but is also true that there are
some factories that progress outwards towards the periphery. And again
as we progress even more outwards we can see houses that are around
for many years but they gradually become more modern even though they
are low quality housing. This model is quite precise because it shows
that the commuter zone does go from the CBD to the periphery. It is
also true that there is high-class housing on the outskirts. It is
also very precise that the kinds of houses differ as they go out
towards the periphery but they have the odd spots where there are high
class houses inner towards the CBD and old class houses are near the
periphery and this is shown on the model.

The Multiple Nuclei Model is also very identical to Blackburn. This is
because Blackburn has a CBD (central business district) in the middle.
As we progress outwards we can see that there are factories and
industry which is also part of the Multiple Nuclei model but is also
true that there are some factories that progress outwards towards the
periphery. And again as we progress even more outwards we can see
houses that are around for many years but they gradually become more
modern even though they are low quality housing. This model is not
very precise because it doesn't show the commuter zone that goes from
the CBD to the periphery whereas in the other two models it is shown.
It is also true that there is high-class housing on the outskirts but
it doesn't show that there is high quality near the CBD because in
Blackburn there are quite a few. It is very precise that the kinds of
houses differ as they go out towards the periphery but they have the
odd spots where there are high class houses inner towards the CBD and
old class houses are near the periphery but unfortunately it does not
show this on this model. Also this model is quite correct in saying
that there are new businesses being opened on the periphery, which is
quite true when relating it to Blackburn because there is a new
business being opened on the periphery. (JJB)

In conclusion I think that Homer Hoyt's model is the best model
related to Blackburn. It shows that are some factories that progress
outwards towards the periphery. It is also very precise that the kinds
of houses differ as they go out towards the periphery but they have
the odd spots where there are high class houses inner towards the CBD
and old class houses are near the periphery and this is shown on the
model.

[IMAGE]


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