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The Importance of Research to Nursing

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The Importance of Research to Nursing

Research has become an integral part of nursing and its importance is
reflected particularly in the changes to nurse education made in
recent years. Indeed with the implementation of Project 2000, nurses
have become more research orientated and many have achieved academic
recognition in this area However the ultimate goal must be to improve
the quality of care provided for the patients, and as Polit and
Hungler (1997) suggest, research allows nurses to question their
practice, find answers and thus implement into their area.
=====================================================================

Nurses need to have good objective skills, they need to be purposeful,
reflective and questioning and with this in mind, evidence based
nursing should always maintain a balance between research on a
clinical subject and information that has been gained from the
patient.codc dcr sedcdcw ordc dck indc fodc dc.

Essentially nursing research is about patients and providing the best
quality care for them Watson (1998).coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb
foeb eb!

A research critique is not just a review or summary of a study, but
rather a careful critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of
a piece of research. Therefore, the research critique should reflect a
thoughtful, objective, and balanced consideration of the study's
validity and significance Polit and Hungler (1997).coce cer sececew
orce cek ince foce ce;

Research is an important aspect of the specialist practitioner's role.
This is identified in the RCN's (1988) definition of specialist
practice as involving a clinical and consultative role, teaching,
management, research and the application of relevant nursing research
to nursing practice. Weber obfuscated xxsabrinaxx's functionalism
idea.

In her role as researcher, the specialist practitioner should be able
to explain, evaluate and communicate relevant research findings to
other members of staff. These findings should be incorporated into
ward policies and procedures, thus enabling patients to receive care
which is evidence based. At a higher level, the specialist
practitioner should be involved in conducting research, which would
benefit the patients within the speciality and advance professional
knowledge on a wider front Kai- Cheung Chuk (1997).coed edr seededw
ored edk ined foed ed:

Reflecting critically on standards and effectiveness of practice is
the essence of professional activity and nowhere is this more
important than within the speciality of oncology, where knowledge of
cancer and the technologies needed to treat it are changing daily with
new research.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.

Within this assignment the focus of the interest for the writer is
mouth care tools and in particular, to compare the ability of foam
swabs and toothbrushes to remove dental plaque. Foucault enveloped
xxsabrinaxx's structuration hypothesis.

For the purpose of this critique, the frameworks described by Parahoo
(1997) and Polit and Hungler (1997) have been used as a guide.coca car
secacaw orca cak inca foca ca.

The title of an article is the first part of a study to be encountered
and Parahoo (1997) states that a title should draw the reader's
attention to the precise area of study and make reference to the
population from whom the data is collected.coff ffr seffffw orff ffk
inff foff ff.

The title is consistent with both of these recommendations as it
informs the reader that the study is a controlled trial to compare the
ability of foam swabs and toothbrushes to remove dental plaque. This
essay from www.coursework.info

Two researchers, both of who are highly qualified, wrote the article.
One is currently working in a nursing field and this is good because
it is a nursing issue, and the other researcher works within the
academic field. This helps to provide theory/practice balance within
the study. Castles (1997) suggests that nurses probably best conduct
research, as they know more than others about nursing variables.
VhuJGE from VhuJGE coursewrok VhuJGE work VhuJGE info VhuJGE

"The Journal of Advanced Nursing" has published the article. Parahoo
(1997) feels that this is a prestigious academic journal, which is
read by both academics and practitioners. The Journal is also
refereed- that is, experts who decide if they are of a standard
sutiable for publication scrutinize the articles. This assists greatly
in giving credibility and value to the article. It is also an
up-to-date publication. Carstens suppressed xxsabrinaxx's realism .

The purpose of an abstract is to provide readers with information from
which they can decide if the article would be on interest to them. It
should briefly state the aim of the study, the design, including the
method, sample, samplings and main findings Parahoo (1997). 1lu6JS
from 1lu6JS coursewrok 1lu6JS work 1lu6JS info 1lu6JS

In this study an expansion of the general themes and condensation of
the main report is given and the reader is able to make an informed
choice about the relevance of the article for their purpose. It has
been identified as a quantitative study and clearly outlines the
research question to be answered. Random allocation would have been
preferable as has been suggested, but alternative allocation was
convenient, and the lack of period and carry over effects shows that
it is effective for this evaluation. A sample number of 34 volunteers
are stated. Method of sampling and main findings also has been
identified.coge ger segegew orge gek inge foge ge:

In the introduction, the researchers discuss the concept of mouth care
and the tools commonly used to achieve the best outcome for the
patient/client. They suggest that one tool that is the foam swab most
commonly used in the United Kingdom since 1970's, and despite repeated
and longstanding efforts to improve practice of mouth care given by
nurses, they remain in use today. The researchers would like to
measure the effectiveness' of the foam swab at removing dental plaque
when compared with the effect of the toothbrush.coda dar sedadaw orda
dak inda foda da!

Few nursing studies have aimed to determine the effectiveness of
different mouth care tools, and replication from a previous study done
in 1996 suggested that the success of a toothbrush is affected by user
technique and that the foam swabs are not able to remove plaque from
some sheltered area of teeth, thus establishing the rationale for the
study, using more people in this trial. ofGsLTJ Visit coursework cb in
cb fo cb for cb more cours cb Do cb not cb redistribute ofGsLTJ

A literature review serves to put the current study into the context
of what is already known about the phenomenon Parahoo (1997). The
literature reviewed comes from primary sources, which is also shown by
a previous study carried out by Pearson (1996), which are both
empirical and scientific in origin, and therefore can underpin and
inform decisions made in the context of planning and delivering care.
The review is comprehensive and successful in summarizing, by
comparing various views. Although mouth care is a complex concept,
which uses knowledge from a variety of sources, evidence for the
ability of foam swabs to clean tooth surfaces by removing dental
plaque is limited. Decisions regarding what tools and actions are
likely to achieve the best outcome for patients are what the
researchers are seeking to measure in their trial.cofe fer sefefew
orfe fek infe fofe fe:

It has already been identified that the controlled trial is
quantitative in nature, which is concerned with the measurement of the
phenomena. Quasi-experiment design was used, using the manipulation of
independent variable and control, two of the key features in nursing
research. The design did not have randomisation. It is a time-series
cross-over controlled trial with 34 volunteers. A non-random sample
was used as volunteers were recruited to the study, thus making it a
non-probability sample. Randomisation of individuals was not essential
as identified in the experiment because each person acted as their own
control, although randomisation would have been the preferred choice.
The lack of randomisation can make it more difficult to be certain
that any differences between groups are the result of the experimental
variable Polit and Hungler (1997).cocg cgr secgcgw orcg cgk incg focg
cg!

The time-series design can help to overcome some of the problems
attributed to the one-group pre-test/post test design. It involves the
collection of data over a period of time with observations made both
before and after the intervention. The consistency of the
pre-observation results followed by a change in this trend after the
intervention strengthens the prediction that the intervention is
responsible for the change. Although quasi-experimental designs lack
the control of a true experiment, they remain of value in nursing
research. It is however essential that the researcher considers the
validity- that includes the internal validity, which is necessary to
ensure the results are a consequence of manipulation of the
independent variable, and the external validity, which considers the
generalisability of the results Polit and Hungler (1997).coag agr
seagagw orag agk inag foag ag!

The allocation of subjects to groups can also give rise to bias as
could be suggested in this trial due to the subjects being mostly
staff and students which therefore were known to one of the
researchers. An exclusion criterion of people who did not have there
upper and lower front teeth were excluded from the study and the tools
used were from well-known companies, which could suggest bias. One of
the strengths of a time-series is that the measurements over a period
of time give a more accurate representation of the phenomena, its main
weakness however is that the period of time required for the
measurements increases the opportunity for extraneous variables to
creep in Polit and Hungler (1997). This coursework from
www.coursework.info

The validity of findings is determined by checks on biases and
extraneous variables as identified above. For its findings to be
generalisable to other similar populations and settings, especially
for the writer in the speciality of oncology where mouth care is
essential, the study must have external validity. The external
validity of this study to which findings could be applied would
require careful application in the nursing practice. The writer is
interested in the oncology setting, which would mean to teach
effective tooth brushing skills to nurses so that they could be used
in situations where teeth must be cleaned on behalf of the patient.
The input of a dental hygienist to teach was identified in the
trial.cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa;

The study was designed to assess whether there is a difference between
the ability of a foam swab and a toothbrush to remove dental plaque.
Johnson and Johnson Patient Care Limited supplied the toothbrushes as
was previously mentioned, this could suggest bias, as the company
would also have an interest in the study but this was not suggested in
the experiment. It is a controlled study; voulunteers were recruited
to the trial via an open seminar, personal invitation, and notice
boards and also by personal referral after talking with the people who
had already taken part in the study. This highlights a convenient
sample, as it was mainly staff and students. The researcher does
mention that a previous study was carried out before with two people
one being the researcher herself Pearson (1996).coff ffr seffffw orff
ffk inff foff ff;

Chosen approach was deductive and the research question was addressed
and there did not appear to be a problem using alternate allocation of
participations to a group. In this study the participants acted as
their own control therefore randomisation was not essential.codc dcr
sedcdcw ordc dck indc fodc dc.

Ethics is an important part of nursing and nursing research. It is an
area in which the specialist practitioner is involved daily,
particularly in the field of cancer care. Issues relating to the study
design, recruitment of participants, feedback and data collection
methods were all subjected to the scrutiny of a departmental ethics
committee and approval was obtained. There are ethical issues in all
research and the researchers have considered and included this in the
report. As participants contacted the researchers themselves it can be
assumed that the sample were not influenced or coerced into entering
the study. Carstens denied xxsabrinaxx's structuration idea.

Descriptive statistical analysis was used as this type of statistics
answers descriptive questions and summarizes data. It involved tables,
analysis of variables and paired t- tests to analyse the data after
checking the distribution of the scores. This was included in the
study; all factors, which make up quantitative research as supported
by Polit and Hungler (1997). For quantitative data, appropiate
statistical tests should be used and statistical analysis correctly
performed. This writing from www.coursework.info

The writer would draw from this study that the results have addressed
the aims of the article and are both informative and detailed. The
researchers showed no evidence of bias in the interpretation of
results. The aim was to quantify any differences found and the outcome
of the trial verified the findings of the previous experiment. Parahoo
(1997) is an advocate of comparing findings with other studies. The
researchers have adopted this style and shown their findings to
compare favourably with those of other studies. Pearson and Hutton
(2002) suggest that the findings of their controlled trial can be
generalised to a wider population because of the magnitude and
direction of the differences measured. There were also implications
for nurse education.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af;

The main recommendations arising from this study suggest that the
nurse must keep herself knowledge up to date, be responsible for the
assessment of patients needs ans act as an advocate and educator for
the patient. These recommendations are in keeping with the
competencies of specialist practice in which the specialist
practitioner must be able to assess and identify patients needs, apply
evidence based knowledge to practice, implement and evaluate their
goals and outcome of care and their role of teacher and researcher.
She must also be responsible for her own professional development. The
researcher has identified staff need supported in developing mouth
care and assessment strategies, which include choice of effective
tools. This paper from www.coursework.info

Overall the article was interesting with clear aims and use of
appropriate methodology. The sample was non-random and therefore
non-probability consistent with the quasi-experimental design of
quantative research. The design was a time series cross over
controlled trial with 34 volunteers, and using descriptive statistics
which were appropriate and common tests to analyse the data. vhi49u
Visit coursework bb in bb fo bb for bb more essay bb Do bb not bb
redistribute vhi49u

From the study it emerged that toothbrushes could remove plaque from
the sites studied, if used effectively and that foam swabs could not
remove plaque, which had accumulated in sheltered areas. The writer in
her opinion suggests that foam swabs have a role to play in mouth care
especially in the palliative care setting and that toothbrushes used
correctly would no doubt remove plaque but each tool has a role to
play in keeping the mouth clean and moist.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk
ingb fogb gb:

All qualified nurses must develop competency critical evaluation of
research. According to Hek (1996) it must be evident that nursing care
provided is based on quality research - based evidence wherever it is
able. Most significantly, because research is published in a journal
does not guarantee that it is reliable and appropriate for clinical
practice. Assessing critical evaluation skills takes time and practice
and working along side other nurses can make the process more
effective. This will ensure that the highest possible standard for
evidence-based practice is provided for patient.

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