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Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

Plan:

In my experiment I will measure the rate of reaction between calcium
carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The rate of the reaction is the speed
that the reaction takes place so by measuring the rate I will measure
the amount of time the reaction takes. Hydrochloric acid is a strong
acid that is found in digestive juices in the stomach, it is also used
for cleaning metals before they are coated. Calcium carbonate has a
few forms including chalk and limestone the main use of these two
materials is in the making of concrete, which is used for many things
such as buildings.

When you put calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid together they
react to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water.

Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate arrow calcium chloride + carbon
dioxide + water.

HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) arrow CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Things that affect the reaction rate of this experiment are:

1. The temperature of the hydrochloric acid.

2. The amount of hydrochloric acid.

3. The concentration of the hydrochloric acid.

4. The surface area of the calcium carbonate.

5. The amount of calcium carbonate.

6. The form of calcium carbonate. (It is available in three forms
powder, small stones or large stones)

7. You can speed up the reaction by stirring the solution.

8. You can also change the rate of the reaction by adding a catalyst,
which is something that speeds up the reaction.

In my experiment I will change the temperature of the hydrochloric
acid. I will not change anything else; I will keep the amount of
calcium carbonate, the form of calcium carbonate, the concentration of
hydrochloric acid, the surface area of the calcium carbonate and the
amount of hydrochloric acid all the same. I will not add a catalyst to
my solution and I will not stir my solution.

· I will use 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid.

· I will use 1g of calcium carbonate.

· I will use 0.5 molar concentration of hydrochloric acid.

· I will use small chips of calcium carbonate.

By keeping everything the same apart from the temperature I am
creating a fair test. I will also wash out the beaker in which I will
perform the experiment after each use. I will also repeat my
experiment twice to confirm that the results are correct and that
there are no anomalous results.

I could get results for this experiments by recording a number of
things, I could record:

· The amount of time it takes for the calcium carbonate to dissolve.

· The amount of gas produced by the reaction in a certain amount of
time.

I am going to record the amount of gas produced by the reaction in two
minutes.

Prediction:

I predict that when I increase the temperature of the hydrochloric
acid the reaction will take place quicker so more gas will be produced
in a shorter amount of time. I think this will happen because at a
higher temperature the ions have more kinetic energy so they move
through the solution faster so the ions will collide more often and
more vigorously meaning there is a greater chance they will react as
reactions happen when ions collide. When I draw a graph of my results
the line of best fit will go through the origin because after no time
no reaction has happened if I leave the experiment for long enough all
the lines on my graph will level off and meet as shown below in fig
1.1. I will draw a second graph that plots the rate of reaction
against the temperature and I predict that on this graph the curve
will go up with the increase in temperature.

[IMAGE]

r



[IMAGE] a All the lines meet and level off
==========================================

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e

Fig 1.1

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temperature

Method:

· I will measure out 50cm³ of 1 molar Hydrochloric Acid and pour this
into a small beaker.

· I will set up the clamp stand and gas syringe.

· I will heat the hydrochloric acid to 30 degrees.

· I will weigh out 3g of Calcium Carbonate powder on very accurate
electronic scales.

· I will tip the calcium carbonate into the beaker of acid.

· I will quickly attach the syringe to the beaker of solution.

· I will note down in my table how much gas is in the syringe every 20
seconds for 120 seconds. So I will take 7 readings at 0, 20, 40, 60,
80, 100 and 120 seconds.

· I will repeat this all again.

· I will use the same method with the hydrochloric acid being room
temperature (22 degrees), 40, 50 and 60 degrees.

Apparatus:

· Thermometer.

· Beaker.

· Measuring cylinder.

· Water bath.

· Electronic scales.

· 500cm3 of 1 molar hydrochloric acid.

· 30g of calcium carbonate.

· Timer.

· Clamp.

· Stand.

· Gas syringe.

· Bung.

For safety I will wear safety goggles to protect my eyes from the
possibility of the acid splashing on my face. I will also wear a
protective lab coat to stop the acid splashing and burning my clothes
and skin.

To make my experiment accurate I am repeating the experiment twice, I
am measuring the temperature of my mixture carefully and keeping the
temperature constant throughout the experiment and I am measuring the
calcium carbonate carefully on highly responsive scales finally I am
measuring the amount of hydrochloric acid very carefully and
accurately.

I will record my results in a table like the table below:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Preliminary work:

As preliminary work I will perform a dummy run, which is a practice
run of the real experiment. After I have completed this preliminary
work I will be able to see if I need to change anything in my method
or apparatus.

When I did my preliminary work the amount of gas produced at room
temperature almost went of the scale on the gas syringe so I realised
that when I repeated the experiment at 60 degrees according to my
prediction even more gas will be produced form the reaction. Therefore
I made the following changes to my method:

1. I will use 40cm3 of hydrochloric acid instead of 50cm3.

2. I will use 1gram of calcium carbonate instead of 3grams.

This is what my final method looks like:

· I will measure out 40cm³ of 1 molar Hydrochloric Acid and pour this
into a small beaker.

· I will set up the clamp stand and gas syringe.

· I will heat the hydrochloric acid to 30 degrees.

· I will weigh out 1g of Calcium Carbonate powder on very accurate
electronic scales.

· I will tip the calcium carbonate into the beaker of acid.

· I will quickly attach the syringe to the beaker of solution.

· I will note down in my table how much gas is in the syringe every 20
seconds for 120 seconds.

· I will repeat this all again.

· I will use the same method with the hydrochloric acid being room
temperature (22 degrees), 40, 50 and 60 degrees.

As I have made these changes to my method I have to change my
apparatus, as I will no only need 400cm3 of hydrochloric acid instead
of 500cm3, I will also only need 10g of calcium carbonate instead of
30g.

My new list of apparatus looks like this:

· Thermometer.

· Beaker.

· Measuring cylinder.

· Water bath.

· Electronic scales.

· 500cm3 of 1 molar hydrochloric acid.

· 30g of calcium carbonate.

· Timer.

· Clamp.

· Stand.

· Gas syringe.

· Bung.

These are the results I got from my experiment:

Room temperature - 22 degrees centigrade:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

0

0

0

20

3

3

3

40

4

4

4

60

5

6

5.5

80

8

9

8.5

100

10

12

11

120

13

16

14.5

30 degrees centigrade:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

0

0

0

20

7

8

7.5

40

15

15

15

60

25

22

23.5

80

37

35

36

100

42

40

41

120

52

50

51

40 degrees centigrade:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

0

0

0

20

8

10

9

40

17

19

18

60

28

31

29.5

80

40

43

41.5

100

52

55

53.5

120

64

68

66

50 degrees centigrade:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

0

0

0

20

11

10

10.5

40

23

20

21.5

60

33

29

31

80

47

43

45

100

61

56

58.5

120

71

67

69

60 degrees centigrade:

Time (seconds)

Volume of gas attempt 1 (cm3)

Volume of gas attempt 2 (cm3)

Average volume of gas (cm3)

0

0

0

0

20

22

22

22

40

37

36

36.5

60

47

46

46.5

80

62

61

61.5

100

72

70

71

120

83

81

82

Analysis:

Conclusion:

I found out that the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid increases when you increase the temperature of the
hydrochloric acid. You can see this by looking at the lines of best
fit on my graph and seeing that they get steeper to confirm my
prediction I calculated the rate of reaction from my graph I did this
by taking two points on the graph and drawing a line down on the
highest point (line a) and across on the lowest point (line b) and
drawing until they join and make a triangle I then divided the length
of line 'a' by the length of line 'b'. I have put the results in the
table below:

Temperature (degrees)

Line 'a'

Line 'b'

Gradient/rate of reaction (a/b)

22

8

80

0.1

30

16

40

0.4

40

30

60

0.5

50

22

40

0.55

60

29

40

0.725

The higher the gradient the steeper the line is so the higher the rate
of reaction the faster the reaction takes goes. The gradient is
literally how many squares the line goes up for every square it goes
across. As you can see the gradient is higher for the higher
temperature this confirms my prediction that the rate of reaction
increases with the temperature. The reason why this happens is because
at a higher temperature ions have more kinetic energy so they move
through the solution faster so the ions will collide more often and
more vigorously so there is a greater chance of a reaction happening
as reactions happen when ions collide. All my lines of best fit go
through the origin as after no time no reaction has happened. All of
my lines of best fit are more or less directly proportional so when
you double the amount of time the amount of gas released also doubles.
This is because at double the heat the ions move double as fast so are
twice as likely to have collisions.

My results almost completely agree with my prediction as I said in my
prediction the rate increases when the temperature increases and my
lines of best fit on the graph go through the origin. I also predicted
that on my second graph that shows the rate of reaction it would be a
steady curve increasing with the temperature and as you can see it is.
The one thing that does not agree with my prediction is that the lines
on my first graph do not all level off and finally meet although I
think I could have solved this problem by continuing to take results
for longer and then this would of happened as I predicted.

Evaluation:

I think that the method I used got me accurate and reliable results as
you can see by the fact that they matched my prediction and I did not
really have any anomalous results I think my results were accurate
because I carried out my experiment with care repeating the experiment
twice and measuring out my substances carefully and accurately. The
one major problem with my experiment was that I did not continue to
measure the amount of gas produced for enough time so I could not see
that all the lines in my graph would level of and meet at the same
place I could solve this easily by repeating the experiment and taking
reading every twenty seconds for longer than I did for about five
minutes instead of the previous two. To improve the reliability of my
evidence I could have taken readings more often for example every ten
seconds for a longer amount of time such as five minutes. I could also
have repeated the experiment three or four times at each temperature
and done the experiment at more different temperatures. I think that
the evidence I got was quite reliable and was as reliable as it could
be in the amount of time given. To extend my investigation I could do
the same experiment at but using a different variable such as changing
the concentration or the amount of calcium carbonate. I could also
repeat the experiment using different catalysts.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Rate of Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid." 123HelpMe.com. 28 Nov 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=122747>.




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