Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium


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Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium

The variables that could be used are:

1. Concentration
2. Particle size/surface area
3. Pressure (for reactions involving gas)
4. Temperature
5. Light
6. Presence of a catalyst.

I decided to use the concentration of acid as my variable. I used 5
different strengths of hydrochloric acid. These strengths would
determine the rates of reactions. I decided to measure the acid in
millilitres.

When the magnesium ribbon reacts with the hydrochloric acid, magnesium
chloride is formed. I wrote down the equation to show this:

Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen
Mg + 2HCl = MgCl + H

I think that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the
reaction between magnesium ribbon and the hydrochloric acid. This
would be because there were more acid molecules to react with the
magnesium ribbon. I decided that I would do 5 experiments and the
different concentrations of hydrochloric acids were:

50ml of pure acid

40ml of acid - 10ml of water

30ml of acid - 20ml of water

20ml of acid - 30ml of water

10ml of acid - 40ml of water

To measure the rate of reaction I will see how long it takes for the
magnesium and hydrochloric acid to produce one test tube full of
hydrogen as shown in the diagram.

To make the experiment a fair test I used the same amount of the
solution for all experiments, only changing the concentrations. I used
the same size of magnesium ribbon, I also started the stop clock when
the magnesium touched the acid and stopped it when the test tube was
full of hydrogen for each experiment. I always washed out the test
tubes when an experiment had finished so the different concentration
wouldn't get mixed together causing strange results.

I decided I would do 5 experiments, three times each.

To ensure a safe experiment and working environment I need to wear

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safety goggles at all times when using acid, use a test tube rack
instead of holding the test tubes, secure all equipment and make sure
that all the equipment were fully functional and not damaged.


The apparatus I will use is:

Two test tubes

Measuring cylinder

Stop watch

Strips of magnesium ribbon

Bowl of water

Diagram

[IMAGE]First I measured out the amount of hydrochloric acid using the
measuring cylinder then the amount of water and poured them both into
the same test tube. I then set up the rest of the experiment. I then
got a piece of magnesium ribbon about 2 cm long and dropped it into
the acid and started timing the moment that the magnesium ribbon
touched the acid solution. When the test tube in the bowl of water had
emptied and filled up with hydrogen I stopped the clock and recorded
the number of seconds taken for the reaction to fill the test tube of
hydrogen. I took it out of the water and very quickly placed a bung on
top of it so later I could make sure it was hydrogen by putting a lit
splint in if it popped then it was definitely hydrogen.

Results

Concentration of Solution

(Hydrochloric Acid / Water)

Time taken to fill test tube full of Hydrogen (Seconds)

50ml

20

40ml / 10ml

49

30ml / 20ml

126

20ml / 30ml

143

10ml / 40ml

273

The results above and graph support my original prediction the more
concentrated the acid the faster the rate of reaction because it shows
the time difference between the different strengths of acids. In a
higher concentration there are more acid particles to react with the
magnesium ribbon and therefore it is eaten away faster.
I conclude that changing one factor does have a significant effect on
the rate of reaction as we have seen.

Looking at the set of results obtained, you can clearly see that they
all follow the expected pattern. This is pattern suggests that the
reaction rate increase when the concentration of the acid increases
because if you increase the concentration of the acid you are
introducing more particles into the reaction which will in turn
produce a faster reaction because there will be more collisions
between the particles which is what increases the reaction rate.

I used the variable of concentration, which seemed to be of a good
choice as it would show the results of how more acid molecules
reacting with magnesium, would result in a faster reaction.

Every time I washed a test tube or a measuring cylinder, I did not dry
it before using it. This may have affected the rate of reaction, as
water would dilute the acid. To improve my results, I could dry the
test tubes and the measuring cylinder after they are washed to prevent
diluted acids. The size and weight of the magnesium would have
affected the rate of reaction. The experiment could be improved by
measuring, adjusting and weighing the magnesium ribbons so they all
are the same size and weight. I also found out from background
information, that the magnesium ribbon is covered with a whitish
deposit. This deposit was magnesium oxide where the magnesium had
reacted with the air. I would imagine that some pieces had only a
little of this oxide and some had a lot. The pieces of magnesium
ribbon that did not have much oxide on them reacted faster than those
with a lot. To improve my results, I could clean the magnesium oxide
of all the magnesium pieces using some sandpaper, and this would mean
that the acid would not have to eat through the magnesium oxide before
reacting with the magnesium. In my investigation I used concentration
as my variable. To improve my investigation further, I could use other
variables such as, surface area, temperature, pressure for gas, and a
presence of a catalyst, these variables would hopefully prove that
they all help speed up a chemical reaction.


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