Temperature and Respiration in Crickets


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Temperature and Respiration in Crickets Planning

I am going to investigate respiration in crickets and how temperature
varies the rate of respiration. The calculation for aerobic
respiration is:

[IMAGE]Oxygen + Glucose Carbon dioxide + water + energy

[IMAGE]6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 +6H2O + (J)

I will do the experiment safely by making sure that the water will not
be too hot or too cold, this is a safety precaution for me as well as
the crickets. As we don't want to cause the crickets too much distress
or pain.

It will be a fair test and accurate because I will:

v Use the same crickets

v Same mass of crickets

v Let the crickets return to room temperature

v Reset the measuring device after each experiment

v Do each experiment 3 times to get an average

I predict that the lower the temperature the lower the rate of
respiration.

Equipment list:

v 2 beakers- a lager one that will hold the different temperatures of
water, a smaller one to hold the ink marker.

v Crickets- to test on

v Bung- containing delivery tube and waste (reset) tube

v Ink- to mark distance on the scale

v Delivery tube with scale on- to mark distance

v CO2 remover- to remove the CO2

v Excess tube for reset.

I will measure the amount of oxygen used by the crickets by measuring
how far the ink marker has traveled up the scale, the rate of

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respiration at different temperatures and conditions.

The variables that affect the rate of respiration are:

v Size of cricket (the greater the mass the greater amount of
respiration needed)

v Surface area of the cells (the greater the surface area the more
space for respiration to occur)

v Metabolic rate (the lower, the less respiration required)

v Activity (the less, the less respiration required)

v Temperature of surroundings (the lower the temperature the less
respiration occurs)

v Amount of oxygen present (less oxygen means less aerobic respiration
can take place)

v The amount of glucose present (less glucose present means less
respiration can occur)

Insects' respiratory systems use a system called Tracheal Systems.
Tracheae are tubes that carry air to cells for gas exchange. Spiracles
are openings at the body surface that lead to tracheae these branch
into smaller tubes known as tracheoles. Body movements or contractions
speed up the rate of diffusion of gases from tracheae into body cells.
However, tracheae will not function well in animals whose body is
longer than 5 cm.

[IMAGE]

(Image from Purves, Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by
Sinauer Associates).

First the crickets will be weighed and the weight recorded, then the
equipment will be setup as below. After we will change the temperature
of the water to see the effect of the temperature on the crickets'
respiration rate. We will measure the distance traveled by the ink up
the scale. After a certain time we will reset the equipment and let
the insects return to room temperature before setting up the next
experiment. The variable for this experiment is the temperature and I
think that if we raise the temperature the respiration rate (the
amount of oxygen used) will increase.

I think that when I lower the temperature that the crickets are in,
the amount of oxygen used up for aerobic respiration will decrease
because when you lower the temperature you also lower the metabolic
rate and making the cricket less active so the cricket can conserve
energy to heat the vital organs that need to be kept at a certain
temperature. For example when a human is in a heated environment they
are comfortable (unless it is too hot) but if they are placed in a
very cold area they try to make them selves as small as they can so
the heat doesn't have to travel as far and excrete the energy. This is
why I think my prediction is correct.

We will take three different sets of results at the same temperature
to get an average. We will take 5 different temperature readings. This
is so we have a wide range of results to analyse.


Obtaining Evidence
------------------

Temperature ( C)

Distance ink bubble traveled in 5 mins (CM)

Average

Predicted average

Difference between predicted and actual

0

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.233

0.150

0.083

5

0.5

0.7

0.4

0.533

0.550

-0.017

10

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.633

1.600

0.033

15

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.167

2.200

-0.033

20

3.2

3.1

3.3

3.200

3.200

0

25

4.4

4.2

4.1

4.233

4.250

-0.017

30

5.2

6.9

5.1

5.733

5.150

0.583

35

6.8

6.5

5.9

6.400

6.600

-0.2

Predicted averages are estimates.

In yellow are the actual results that our group made the rest are
class results. (4.4, 6.8 in gray) were also ours.

In gray are the anomalous results.

In black is the worst result.

These experiments that we collected were made fair and accurate by
using the same crickets, the same mass of crickets, let the crickets
return to room temperature and reset the measuring device after each
experiment.


Analysis



Mathematical analysis of graph
==============================

Variables

Slope 0.1858 ± 0.01038

Y-intercept -0.2375 ± 0.2171

X-intercept 1.278

1/slope 5.383



Best-fit values
===============

SPAN -671.4

K 0.0002780

PLATEAU 671.1

Half Life 2494



Std. Error
==========

SPAN 29292

K 0.01234

PLATEAU 29292

95% Confidence Intervals

SPAN -75980 to 74639

K -0.03144 to 0.03200

PLATEAU -74640 to 75982

Half Life 21.66 to infinity



Goodness of Fit
===============

Degrees of Freedom 5

R² 0.9813

Absolute Sum of Squares 0.6892

Sy.x 0.3713



Data
====

Number of X values 8

Number of Y replicates 1

Total number of values 8

I found out that when I decreased the temperature that the crickets
were in less oxygen was used up we get this because the ink traveled
less at lower temperatures. The Scale had no meaning but the volume
inside the tube would mean that less oxygen was used if the ink
traveled less.

There is a positive linear trend in the results, so the relationship
is when temperature is increased the distance of the ink traveled also
increased.


Conclusion

To conclude when you increase the temperature the ink marker travels
further up the scale and thus the crickets consume a greater amount of
oxygen. This is because when you lower the temperature you also lower
the metabolic rate and making the cricket less active so the cricket
can conserve energy to heat the vital organs that need to be kept at a
certain temperature.

My results support my prediction because I predicted that:

"I think that when I lower the temperature that the crickets are in,
the amount of oxygen used up for aerobic respiration will decrease."
And my results show exactly that, but there is a catch after a certain
temperature the respiration rate will decrease as the optimum
temperature has been reached and adding a greater amount of
temperature would cause the cricket to act differently and it's cells
to denature. So this proves that my prediction was correct.

Evaluation

The results that we used were not calculated results (apart from the
one's in yellow that were made by the group that I was in. So the
results are not very good because they are not results they are
numbers that were approximations of what should have happened.

The results are not very accurate because they are not proper results
and the one's that our group did were only a single set and so may not
have been accurate.

The anomalous results have been marked on the table in gray and the
worst result in black, these may have gone wrong because the results
were not recorded accurately and the equipment may have not been reset
properly; these were not proper results as they were copied from the
board. The anomalous result that we made may have been because the
crickets could have been distressed and cause a strange result, as the
temperature was rather high. Again inaccurate reading or not following
the fairness rules we set up could have caused it, the fairness rules
were:

It will be a fair test and accurate because I will:

v Use the same crickets

v Same mass of crickets

v Let the crickets return to room temperature

v Reset the measuring device after each experiment

v Do each experiment 3 times to get an average.

The method was really quite difficult because the setup meant that if
too much oxygen was consumed you could lose the ink marker and by some
strange occurrence water got into the tube and drowned some crickets,
this meant that the whole process had to be restarted. We changed the
method twice because we found that the first way of doing it meant
that the water got in too easily and the crickets drowned but the
second method was better but still the water came in so, in the end we
copied the results off the board.

If I did the experiment again I would not use different temperatures
of water because of the drowning problem, I'd probably change the
temperature of the air around and inside the tube. This would stop the
drowning problem but may not be as easy to get the right temperatures.

I can reach a firm conclusion up to a point because after a certain
temperature the cells of the cricket would start to denature, the
optimum temperature. If we had gone over this point we would get a
curved graph as the distance traveled by the ink would have decreased
as the cells couldn't respire properly. So my trend is correct up to
that point but after that point the trend doesn't work and a new trend
is formed.

To improve the experiment I would:

v Not use different temperatures of water because of the drowning
problem; I'd probably change the temperature of the air around and
inside the tube. This would stop the drowning problem

v I could use a different insect to see how the rate of respiration
varies between insect to insect

v I could use a different group of living thing to see how the groups
vary. I would have to consider size, mass, amount of cells though.

v Warm-blooded and cold-blooded creature see how the temperature would
affect their oxygen consumption

v Light intensities could cause a difference in respiration rates, as
plants can't photosynthesise with any light present.

v Change the oxygen and glucose levels

These improvements may also help me with my theories and give me a
greater amount of evidence to suggest why what happens, happens. They
would do this because they would test all aspects of respiration
between creatures and so give me a greater amount of evidence.

I may find that light is a factor, that cold-blooded and warm-blooded
creatures respire differently and so do different groups. By groups I
mean:

v Mammals

v Fish

v Plants

v Insects

v Reptiles

v Amphibians





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