Essay Color Key

Free Essays
Unrated Essays
Better Essays
Stronger Essays
Powerful Essays
Term Papers
Research Papers





Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Wiggle of a Maggot

Rate This Paper:

Length: 978 words (2.8 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Red (FREE)      
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Wiggle of a Maggot


Planning
========


Prediction
----------

I think that the rate of wriggle of the maggot will increase as the
temperature increases, up until the temperature reaches around 40°C
and the rate of wriggle will stay constant. As the temperature reaches
60°C the rate of wriggle will be almost zero.


Scientific knowledge

The rate of wriggle will depend on the amount of chemical reactions
taking place in the maggot. Most or all of these reactions depend on
enzymes. These are biological catalysts. Enzymes are large proteins
that speed up chemical reactions. In their globular structure, one or
more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small
number of amino acids to form the active site. This is the location on
the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place.
Enzyme and substrate fail to bind if the shape is not an exact match.
This is often known as the lock and key theory as it is specific to
one and only one substrate. This ensures that the enzyme does not
participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by
the reaction. When the products have been realized, the enzyme is
ready to bind with a new substrate. Temperature is one of the main
factors along with pH that affect the working of enzymes. An increase
in temperature would mean that the substrates were moving around
faster, and therefor, more collisions will occur with the correct
substrates. This is called the collision theory. This would involve a
faster rate of reaction. When this occurs in the maggot, if affects
the rate of respiration which is where the maggot gets a lot of its
energy from. The chemical and word equations for this reaction are
below:

Oxygen + Glucose è Carbon + Water

Dioxide

602 + C6H12O6 è 6CO2 + 6H2O

If the temperature is too cold, the enzyme shape is altered slightly
and the reaction does not happen, as the substrate no longer fits in.
This does not have a long-term effect on it as if the enzyme is warmed
up; it will return to its original shape.
If it's too hot (say above about 38°C), the enzyme shape is again
altered and so the reactions once more do not happen. This is bad news
though as the higher temperatures actually permanently destroy the
enzyme. If boiled, for example, the enzyme would never go back to its
original shape. It would never work again.
The best temperature or "optimum" temperature is when the enzyme's
shape is the best to fit the substrate molecule. For warm-blooded
mammals like humans, this is our body temperature (37°C).


This is the shape of graph I am expecting:

[IMAGE]


The red represents the steady increase in enzyme activity as the
temperature rises.

The blue represents the start of the denaturing of the enzymes

The green represents the total denaturing of the enzymes and the
stopping of the wriggling.

The X represents the optimum temperature.

Preliminary

The main object of my preliminary is to determine what 1 wriggle is
and to decide how often and over what range to take my measurements.
Results of preliminary:

[IMAGE]
From this I have decided that I am going to take the temperature for 1
minute and I will count as 1 wriggle a movement from side to side as
follows:


Safety

The main safety concern in this experiment comes from the hot water
used to heat us the maggot. To minimize the risks, avoid handling
anything containing the hot water.


Method

· Place 1 maggot in a test tube with gauze in the bottom as shown on
the diagram

· Insulate a beaker with tin foil

· Heat water up to required temperature and pour into beaker

· Place test tube into the beaker and the start timer

· After 30 seconds start counting the amount of wriggles

· After a further minute, stop timer and record the amount of wriggles

· Repeat for temperatures from 30°C - 60°C

· Repeat whole experiment twice

Diagram of apparatus

[IMAGE]




Measurements

Record amount of wriggles in a minute every minute. Do this for 30°C,
35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C and 60°C. Repeat experiment twice and
calculate averages so as to reduce the effect of anomalous results.

Equipment list

· Maggot

· Beaker

· Test tube

· Timer

· Water

· Kettle

· Thermometer

· Tin foil

· Gauze

Fair test

To make this a fair test I am going to leave the maggot in the test
tube and beaker for 30 seconds to climatize. This is to make sure that
the recorded results are for the correct temperatures. I also
insulated the beaker to try and keep the temperature constant
throughout the 90 seconds. If possible I will also do at the
experiments on the same day so that room temperature is the same and
the maggots I use will all be the same age.

Obtaining evidence

Changes

I have made no changes to my original plan.

Results

[IMAGE]


Analysis of Results

Trends

I can see from my graph that my prediction was correct in that the
rate of wriggle increases with the temperature. Then it stays at a
constant for approximately 10°C and by 60°C almost all wriggling had
stopped due to the denaturing of the enzymes. This is because when the
substrates become hotter, they move faster. This means that the
substrate collides with the enzyme more frequently and therefore more
reactions occur. At around 38°C the enzymes reach their optimum
temperature. At any temperature above this, the proteins in the
enzymes begin to change shape and denature. This means that the
substrate will no longer fit into the active site and the reaction
cannot be completed. If the reaction cannot be completed then
respiration will not take place and no energy can be converted and
therefore the maggot wriggles less and less until it finally stops.

Obtaining Evidence

Problems

The main problem I faced whilst doing this experiment was keeping the
water and the maggot at the correct temperature. Apart from this
problem which I did predict would happen and therefore I used
insulation, there were no other problems.

Anomalous results

The most obvious anomalous result is for °C. This drop in rate of
wriggle did not fit the line of best fit I had drawn as the amount of
wriggles was less than it should have been at that temperature. This
may be for many reasons. Possibly because the maggot we used was
different to the rest, or the room temperature may have dropped and
therefore the temperature of the water and the maggot would have
dropped faster than it did for the rest of the experiments

Possible changes to plan

If I were to do this experiment again I would use a water bath instead
of a beaker full of water, as it is much more accurate in keeping the
temperature constant. I would also make sure all the experiments were
done on the same day so as to keep room temperature as stable as
possible. I would also use temperatures closer together between

35°C and 55°C so I could get an accurate curve on the top of the
graph.

I could have done this experiment many different ways - Including
timing how long it took to reach a certain amount of wriggles at
different temperatures, or counting wriggles every 10 seconds for a
minute. All of these would back up the work that I have done and the
conclusions I have come to.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Wiggle of a Maggot." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Apr 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=120790>.




Related Searches





Important Note: If you'd like to save a copy of the paper on your computer, you can COPY and PASTE it into your word processor. Please, follow these steps to do that in Windows:

1. Select the text of the paper with the mouse and press Ctrl+C.
2. Open your word processor and press Ctrl+V.

Company's Liability

123HelpMe.com (the "Web Site") is produced by the "Company". The contents of this Web Site, such as text, graphics, images, audio, video and all other material ("Material"), are protected by copyright under both United States and foreign laws. The Company makes no representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the Material or about the results to be obtained from using the Material. You expressly agree that any use of the Material is entirely at your own risk. Most of the Material on the Web Site is provided and maintained by third parties. This third party Material may not be screened by the Company prior to its inclusion on the Web Site. You expressly agree that the Company is not liable or responsible for any defamatory, offensive, or illegal conduct of other subscribers or third parties.

The Materials are provided on an as-is basis without warranty express or implied. The Company and its suppliers and affiliates disclaim all warranties, including the warranty of non-infringement of proprietary or third party rights, and the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. The Company and its suppliers make no warranties as to the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the material, services, text, graphics and links.

For a complete statement of the Terms of Service, please see our website. By obtaining these materials you agree to abide by the terms herein, by our Terms of Service as posted on the website and any and all alterations, revisions and amendments thereto.



Return to 123HelpMe.com

Copyright © 2000-2013 123HelpMe.com. All rights reserved. Terms of Service