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The Skeletal System

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The Skeletal System

The Skeletal System provides us with many important functions, it
provides us with the shape and form for our bodies as well as
supporting, protecting, allowing our body to move freely, producing
blood for the body, and storing minerals. The Skeletal System is the
system of our body that gives our body its physical shape and with the
help of the Muscular System it keeps us moving and makes us able to do
tasks that we don't think about like raising our leg to kick a
football or using our legs to boost us into the air to spoil the mark.
The Skeletal System works directly with the help of the skeletal
system which would explain why it is often referred to as the
musculo-skeletal System. The average adult skeleton has 206 bones that
are joined up with ligaments and tendons to make a protective and
supportive framework for the muscles and the soft tissues which lie
underneath it. The 206 bones form a rigid framework that the softer
tissues and organs of the body are attached to, the vital organs are
also protected by the Skeletal System, the brain is protected by the
skull just like the heart and lungs are protected by the sternum and
rib cage.

The skeleton has two main parts: The Axial Skeleton and The
Appendicular Skeleton, The Axial Skeleton contains the skull, spine,
ribs and the sternum (which is the breastbone) and includes another 80
bones. The Appendicular Skeleton includes two limb girdles (the
shoulders and the pelvis) and their attached limb bones (arms and
legs). This part of the skeletal system contains 126 bones, 64 in the
shoulders and upper limbs and 62 in the pelvis and lower limbs. The
limbs are probably some of the easiest bones to break as they are away
from the bodies protection and seeing as we can land on the awkwardly
and break them.

The movement of the body is carried out by the muscular and skeletal
systems, the muscles are connected to bones by tendons, bones are
connected to each other by ligaments, where bones meet each another is
normally called a joint. Muscles which cause movement of a joint are
joined to two different bones and contract to pull them together.

The Skeletal System is used in the game of Australian Rules Football
all the time because we it is needed to run and stop quickly, we need
to be able to stay on our feet when coming down from a marking contest
or from punching the ball. The bones also keep everything in place and
give us the ability to be able to take a hard hit to the stomach or a
knee to the ribs and to be able to hold our arm firm to handball the
ball.

Football is played with 18 players on the ground at one time with a
maximum of five players sitting on the bench for each team. The
objective of the game is for the players to pass the ball around by
hand and foot to kick a goal, the ball can be marked when it has
traveled fifteen metres or more by foot and is marked with out it
touching the ground by a player, this player then has time to go back
and have his kick. A goal is scored through the tall white sticks at
either end and points are scored through the smaller red posts, each
team only kicks one way and swaps ends with the other after every
quarter. The quarters go for twenty minutes plus time on (time made
allowance for by injuries, free kicks and goals).

[IMAGE]The skeleton plays an important part in movement by providing a
series of movable levers that can move on their own, which the muscles
can pull on to move different parts of the body, it also supports and
protects the internal body organs. The skeleton is not just a movable
frame, however; it is an efficient factory which produces red blood
cells from the bone marrow of certain bones and white cells from the
marrow of other bones to destroy harmful bacteria. The bones are also
used as a storehouse for minerals like calcium, which can be supplied
to other parts of the body. Babies are born with 270 soft bones which
is 64 more than an adult has but many of these bones will mould
together by the age of twenty or twenty-five into 206 hard, permanent
bones.

The Red Spongy Marrow is the part of the bone that

produces the red blood cells, the red blood cells

are pumped around the heart and provide

nutrients and oxygen to the rest of the body.

1. Long Bones (longer than they are wide): clavicle, humerus,
radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, metacarpals.

Purpose: provides support and serves as the consistent set of levers
and linkages that allow us to move (formed from hyaline/articular
cartilage)

2. Short Bones: carpals and tarsals: consists mainly spongy bone
covered with a thin layer of compact bone.

Purpose: allows movement, provides elasticity, flexibility, & shock
absorption.

3. Flat Bones: ribs, sternum and scapula.

Purpose: protects and provides attachment sites for muscles.

4. Irregular Bones: skull, pelvis, and vertebrae.

Purposes: support weight, distributes loads, protects the spinal cord,
contributes to movement and provides sites for musclar attachment.

5. Sesamoid Bones: a short bone embedded within a tendon or joint
capsule, i.e. patella.

Purpose: alters the angle that the muscle if inserted into.

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