Biology Experiment


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Biology Experiment

Prediction

The temperature I thought the experiment would work best at is 37 c. I
think this because your body temperature is 37oC and it is same as
cows. Rennin is from a cow and that is what we used. Rennin is an
enzyme and it is affected by temperature.

Theory

The lock and key theoryis simply a way of describing how specific an
enzyme is for its substrate. Just like a lock requires a specifically
shaped key for it to work so does an enzyme. Each enzyme is a protein
which is a polypeptide chain folded into a complex 3 dimensional
structure. Part of that structure contains the active site which is
where the enzyme can bind to the substrate on which it will perform
some chemical reaction. Because each enzyme performs a specific task
on a specific substrate the active centre of the enzyme can be
considered to be the "lock" which requires the specific "key" or
substrate to perform the function.

[IMAGE]

Collision theory is when two chemicals react; their molecules have to
collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to
take place. This is collision theory. You can speed up the reaction by
rising the temperature. A successful collision may require that the
two molecules or species must collide with the correct collision
geometry, that is, be oriented in just the correct fashion so that
certain atoms will encounter each other during the collision. It is
similar to saying that when putting a piece into a jigsaw puzzle, you
can't just put it in any way you want.... the piece will only fit
successfully if it is the right side up and is turned with the correct
orientation so that the projections and indentations match up ....
That is, it must have the correct "collision geometry".

What enzymes are?

· All made in living cells.

· All made of protein.

· If they get too hot they denature (50-55).

· The speed up reactions - and do not get used up - Catalysts

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.

Cheese making

Cheese making has been around for a long time. Cheese makers need to get the milk to coagulate as quickly as possible to speedup the cheese making process. Cheese is especially difficult to make because of the difficulty of finding what is called a starter. The bacteria culture added to the milk to start the curd formation. It is possible to make cheese without a starter, but the starter is what gives different cheeses their distinctive flavour, and without one the cheese almost always ends up tasting like pot cheese, more commonly known as farmer's cheese or cottage cheese.

To make cheese: Take a hell of a lot of milk (10 gallons will make less then 1/2 a gallon of cheese) and cook it slowly on the stove. For flavourful cheese, it is best to use unpasturized milk, which is almost impossible to buy and must be obtained from a cow, or goats milk, which tastes good even when pasteurized. As the curds form, add a cube or two of rennet, found at most specialty stores. This will cause the curds to coagulate. Constantly stirring the curds at this point will give you something more like mozzerella, which can be great. Instead, let the curds for naturally for something more like a jack cheese. Let the curds cook until you are satisfied with your yield, and then remove, placing them in cheese cloth and allowing them to drain. Then press into a mold.

How I did a fair test

I did a fair test by using the same amount of milk for each
experiment. I put 4 drops of rennin for each test tube. As soon as the
first drop hit the milk we started the timer. We did 3 test tubes for
each temperature and then found the average. We put all the test tubes
in the same water bath. We kept adding hot water when the temperature
dropped past the temperature it should be at so it stayed the same. We
timed all three test tubes for 1 temperature at the same time. We
weighed the filter paper before we put the milk in and after.

Diagram

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Water Thermometer Beaker Pipette Test tube Whey Filter paper Curds

Milk Stirring rod Rennin Test tube Funnel

List of apparatus

* Beaker (Water bath).

* 3Test tubes.

* 10 ml Measuring cylinder.

* Pipette.

* 4 drops of Rennin per experiment.

* 5cm3 of milk per experiment.

* Thermometer.

* Filter paper.

* Funnel.

* Test tube rack.

* Stirring rod.

* Top pan balances.

What is the best temperature will Maxiren (rennin) work best at
clotting milk for cheese making?

Method

1. First we got a water bath and filled it with water. We got 3
filter papers and wet them so they where damp. We weighed the
filter paper and wrote the weight down on a piece of paper.

2. We filled 3 test tubes with 5cm3 of milk and put them in the
water bath. We folder each filter paper into a small triangles
then put them in the 3 funnels. We got 3 empty test tubes and put
the funnels in the tops.

3. We got a pipette with rennin in then put 4 drops into each test
tube that was in the water bath. As the first drop touched the
milk we started the timer.

4. After 5 minuets we took the test tubes out of the bath and poured
them each into the funnels that we prepared earlier. After the
milk had passed through the filter paper we took them out and
weighed them again. Then we wrote the weight down. After that we
found an average of the clotted filter paper by adding them all
together then dividing them by 3.

5. We repeated this experiment with the water bath at 30oC, 40oC,
50oC and 60oC.

Table

Temperature

Test tube 1

Test tube 2

Test tube 3

Average.

20oC

Didn't work

Didn't work

Didn't work

Didn't work

30oC

2.31

2.11

2.24

2.22

40oC

3.71

3.91

3.34

3.65

50oC

4.16

Didn't work properly

5.27

4.72

60oC

Denatured

Denatured

Denatured

Denatured

Conclusion

At 20oC the milk didn't clot at all because we didn't leave it long
enough for the enzyme to react. At 30oC the milk had clotted a bit but
needed more time. At 40oC the milk was half way clotting. At 50oC
there was a bit of milk passing through the filter paper so there was
lots clots. At 60oC it had denatured. The best time would probably be
55oC.

The results wouldn't be very good for the cheese maker because I
didn't do the temp 55oC and that would have worked the best. The
cheese maker would want to make the most cheese in the shortest time
so he would make cheese at 55oC.

Evaluation

The results were reliable because we did each temperature 3 times then
found the average. I could improve my work by taking more time on the
practical, I could of done the temperature 55oC so I got a better
result and more accurate. We had 1 result that didn't work we were not
Shaw what we did wrong though. I predicted that the experiment would
work best at 37oC because that is what temperature of the cow's
stomach and rennin is from a cow's stomach. We used maxiren and it
didn't work the same as rennin.


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