Albert Osborn, A Biography


Length: 956 words (2.7 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

Albert S. Osborn (1858 - 1946) is a pioneer in forensic science that was involved and developed all of his time to the study of evidence in questioned documents. Question documents involves with handwriting. So, the job of the experts is to find out how, when, and by whom certain documents were prepared. They also search and involve with dating the documents, ink identification, copy, and forgery - copying someone's signature. Albert Osborn has started to devote his life into the field of question document around 1910. Albert S. Osborn is the first generation of Osborn family practice that has been qualified as an expert in courts. He has testified on the subject of original documents in both civil and criminal cases for the United States Government and many states of law enforcement agencies. Such states as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York are states that often used Osborn as an expert on the subject of disputed documents. One of the famous cases was the Lindbergh kidnapping trial or also known as State of New Jersey v. Hauptmann (O'Brien & Sullivan, p. 186). This case took place in 1935 and both Albert S. Osborn and his son, Albert D. Osborn, testified in the case on behalf of the prosecution. Moreover, many scientists and experts consider Albert S. Osborn the father of examination of disputed documents in the United States. In 1910, he wrote and published his first significant book, Questioned Documents. Furthermore, in 1922 he authored another important text, The Problem of Proof. These two famous books are still considered the main references for document examiners (Saferstein, p.5). In 1913, Osborn have had an idea of creation of an unofficial program for the interchange of concepts and research information where examiners will discuss different questions relating to the subject of field. First, Osborn invites Mr. Stein and later on, many other specialists were added to the program. These examiners learn from Mr. Osborn a large amount of information. They have learned that in order to uncover successfully all efforts, the examiners of the documents must obtain certain techniques. "Some of the techniques are to know to utilize the techniques of microscopy, photography, and even such analytical methods as chromatography. Alterations of documents through overwriting, erasures, or the more obvious crossing out of words must be recognized and characterized by the examiner as efforts intended to alter or obscure the original meaning of a document" (O'Brien & Sullivan, p.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Albert Osborn, A Biography." 123HelpMe.com. 19 Nov 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=110437>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Albert Einstein: Pure Genius Essay - In the Mutter Museum in Philadelphia, there is one unordinary thing. A brain was kept for several years for studies and further research. scientist is finding how the person whom the brain belonged is a genius comparing to other who with his intelligence made the scientific world upside down and laid foundation to most of the important findings today. This is none other than Albert Einstein who was considered the most influential scientist in the 20thcentury. He who inspired a lot of people and supported that every man should be respected....   [tags: Albert Einstein Biography]
:: 13 Works Cited
1925 words
(5.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Albert Camus and The Absurd Essay - The Stranger, by Albert Camus, is the story of Meursault, a man who cares not for the future, nor the past. He lives without meaning, without rationality, without emotions. On one fateful day at the beach, Meursault shoots and kills an Arab, leading to a chain of events that causes his death. Throughout the judicial process, Albert Camus criticizes the society he lives in and the values it holds. The Stranger is the definitive work on Camus' own thoughts, and the basis of title as the Professor of the Absurd....   [tags: Albert Camus]
:: 4 Works Cited
1540 words
(4.4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Biography of Albert Arnold Gore Essay - Biography of Albert Arnold Gore On March 31, 1948 Albert Arnold Gore Jr. was born in Washington D.C. He was born into a highly political family. Albert Gore Sr. was serving his fifth term in the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Tennessee's fourth Congressional District. His mother Pauline worked side by side with her husband in the office. Al was their second child. He had an older sister Nancy who was ten years older than him. Albert Gore Jr. lived two different lives while growing up....   [tags: Papers] 872 words
(2.5 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
The Biography of Albert Einstein Essay - The Biography of Albert Einstein Born in 1879, Albert Einstein is known today for his incredible mathematical ability and… well, his wild hair. But more important than the physical attributes of his cranium, is the fantastic information which it provided. He will probably always be remembered as the greatest mathematical genius of the modern world. Honors he has received for his works include the Nobel Prize, which he was awarded in 1921, the Royal Society Copley Medal, which he was awarded in 1925, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1921, and he became an AMS Gibbs Lecturer in 1934....   [tags: Papers] 2098 words
(6 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Albert Einstein Essay - The Biography of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born on March 14th, 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, into a Jewish Family. His mother's name was Pauline Einstein, and his father's name was Hermann Einstein, who was a salesman. In 1800, The Einstein Family moved to Munich, in which Hermann Einstein (Albert's Father) and his uncle founded a company called Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie. Which made electrical equipment that allowed Munich suburbs of Schwabing to be provided with the first light....   [tags: Biography] 1373 words
(3.9 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Albert Einstein Essay example - Einstein was born on March 14th, 1879 in a quaint city known as Ulm, Germany to Hermann and Pauline Einstein. His parents, not aware that the beautiful baby boy in front of them would make the most brilliant theories to different scientific fields. One interesting fact about his parents was that neither had any concrete knowledge on the study of science or math. During his early childhood years, Einstein did not show any real skills but at the same time he was a very curious kid, being very detailed-oriented and observing everything that was around him....   [tags: Biography] 1278 words
(3.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Albert Einstein - Albert Einstein was a great scientist and physicist. From his childhood to the end of his life he was interested in science because when he was young, he couldn’t explain some things which pushed him towards science. He was a true genius according to his grades and other people who noticed it and could prove it. He always went ahead of other people which made it easier and more advanced at things that would help him in the future. The push towards science came from his childhood, to the time when he worked hard in school and college, and when he worked, discovered amazing things, and how he succeeded his life....   [tags: Biography]
:: 4 Works Cited
1002 words
(2.9 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Albert Schweitzer Essay - Albert Schweitzer once said, "I don't know what your destiny will be, but one thing I do know. The only ones among you who will be truly happy are those who have sought and found how to serve."12 Schweitzer was a true citizen of the world. Already known as a brilliant expert in music and theology, he decided to study to become a medical doctor to help people who were suffering. He believed in showing love and compassion toward all living things, which he called ‘reverence for life.'1 When Schweitzer went to school as a boy, he noticed that his family was better off than many of the other families in his village....   [tags: Biography Schweitzer] 1326 words
(3.8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Albert Einstein Essay - Biography * Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in the town of Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany. * Albert's family moved around Europe, including Munich, Italy and Aarau Switzerland. * Albert attended the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich where he trained to be a teacher in both physics and mathematics. * Upon his graduation in 1901 he was awarded Swiss citizenship and unable to find a teaching position, so he decided to work as a technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office where he worked on much of his famous research....   [tags: biographies biography bio] 363 words
(1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Albert Einstein - Albert Einstein Einstein was born in 1879 in Germany. When he was a small child he didn’t show any high intelligence. In fact he even took a while to learn how to speak. He was a smart kid but it took a while for people to notice his intelligence. He would ask questions his own teachers couldn’t answer and he even taught himself calculus. He took an entrance exam for Swiss Federal Polytechnic School and failed. He failed but he was still admitted a year later. While doing his regular work he also studied physics on his own....   [tags: Albert Einstein Essays] 676 words
(1.9 pages)
Good Essays [preview]



172). Moreover, specialists are applying their knowledge that they gathered through years of training and experience to identify the authors of writings. Furthermore, the meetings are educational and annual attendance and participation in the program were requirements for continuing invitation. If a member is showing the lack of interest to participate in a program, that member will lose its membership in the organization. An examiner will know if he or she lost their membership. They will know it because they will not receive an invitation. In 1942, members of the organization formally structured the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) with Albert S. Osborn as president.

Many people do not realize the full scope of the examination work. they think it is limited to the identification of handwriting. In reality, a considerable percentage of document problems involve questions other than the identification of handwriting. The ASQDE organization has case files of any imaginable document problem. For example, members of the club are always willing to talk about document problems including the identification of common signature and handwriting. They can discuss typewriter, printer, photocopy, alteration, addition, and obliteration problems as well.

Albert Osborn introduces eight scientific principles to experts in his book, Questioned Documents:


  1. The most identifying characteristics are those, which are most divergent from the regular system or national average.
  2. Repeated characteristics, which are inconspicuous, should be sought first and given the most weight.
  3. Regular or national system similarities are not alone sufficient to base judgments.
  4. It is the combination of particulars, common and uncommon, that identifies.
  5. It is impossible to discover how all-strange and peculiar characteristics came to be developed.
  6. People do wholly unaccountable things in their speech, gestures, and writing.
  7. An individual characteristic may be the survival of an error overlooked by a teacher.
  8. Many characteristics are outgrowth or copies of an at one time admired design.


These eight basic principles grounded in handwriting comparison as evidence of individual characteristics (O'Hara & Osterburg, p. 483).

Children learn to write by copying a fashionable at the time style of writing that is taught to them by their teachers. This style of writing is known as national system. When the child gets older, his/her act of writing begins to pick up habitual shapes and patterns. These habitual shapes and patterns of the child are distinguishable from the habitual shapes and patterns of other people. The habitual shapes and patterns are most evident with capital letters and numerals in the child's style of writing. Handwriting of as person has individual characteristics; therefore, two different people cannot have identical unconscious handwriting. It is unlikely for two different individual to have the exact same unconscious handwriting because of the physical, mental, and mechanical factors. As a result, it is essential that documents of known origin be obtained under condition as similar as possible to the conditions present at the time the questioned documents were created.

Albert D. Osborn also gets involved with questioning documents. Albert D. Osborn also starts to participate in the meeting ASQDE in 1919. He has learned a lot of information from his father and other specialists. He also has testified as his father in courts in this unique field of identification. One of the famous cases that the testified in is the Lindbergh kidnapping case. Later on, he passes on his knowledge to his son, Paul A. Osborn, or the third generation of this family practice. He also took a course of study in the organization that his grandfather formally established in 1942. His biggest achievement is that he served as the President of the ASQDE organization from 1990 to 1992. He is presently an active member of his grandfather's organization. In 1982, John Paul Osborn, Paul A. Osborn's son joined the practice, continuing the work started by his great grandfather. He becomes a forensic document examines as well. Moreover, he is a member of the ASQDE organization. One of the major achievements in his life is that he holds a bachelor's degree from Susquehanna University in Pennsylvania. It shows the dynasty of Osborn's family. They invest a lot of their time and knowledge in questioning documents.

Bibliography

O'Brien, K. & Sullivan, R. (1972. Criminalistics: Theory and Practice. Boston: Holbrook Press, Inc.

O'Hara, C. & Osterburg, J. (1972). Introduction to Criminalistics: The Application of the Physical Science to the Detection of Crime. Bloomington, London: Indiana University Press.

Saferstein, R. (1998). Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Ilya Rubinov

Forensic Science 108

Pr.

July 15, 2003



Return to 123HelpMe.com