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PSY 301, Introductory Psychology, Fall 2005, Exam 3 B

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Form B

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

Introductory Psychology, Fall 2005 (Hawkins)

Exam 3

Instructions: Write your name and the date on the top of this exam. Your must turn in this

exam along with your answer sheet. On the answer sheet, print your EID, blacken the letters of your EID and provide the other information requested. (Don't forget to put which form of the exam you took!) Remember to blacken your choice for each item on the answer sheet (A, B, C, or D) and completely erase your questions. Good luck!



1.


Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior, is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:




A)


gender identity.




B)


sexual role.




C)


sexual orientation.




D)


gender type.




E)


gender schema.





2.


Mentally rehearsing one's resentments contributes to ________ perspiration levels and ________ blood pressure levels than mentally rehearsing forgiveness.




A)


lower; lower




B)


higher; higher




C)


lower; higher




D)


higher; lower





3.


State University's psychology department and school of medicine are co-sponsoring a new professional program that applies behavioral and medical knowledge to health and disease. State University will clearly be offering a new degree in:




A)


medical psychology.




B)


human engineering.




C)


behavioral medicine.




D)


neuropsychology.





4.


Rush hour traffic is to upset stomach as ________ is to ________.




A)


fight; flight




B)


Type B; Type A




C)


lymphocyte; macrophage




D)


hypertension; indigestion




E)


stressor; stress reaction





5.


Research on taste aversion in rats led to the discovery that suppression of the immune system can be influenced by:




A)


biofeedback.




B)


Type A behaviors.




C)


elevated cholesterol levels.




D)


classical conditioning.




E)


aerobic exercise.





6.


According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.




A)


facial expressions; cognitive labels




B)


emotion-arousing events; physical arousal




C)


physical arousal; overt behavior




D)


cognitive labels; physical arousal





7.


The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they:




A)


are more willing to help others.




B)


perceive the world as a safer place.




C)


make decisions more effectively.




D)


experience a more positive self-image.




E)


report greater satisfaction with their whole lives.





8.


British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of:




A)


spontaneous remission.




B)


perceived control.




C)


the general adaptation syndrome.




D)


alternative medicine.





9.


The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by:




A)


Walter Cannon.




B)


Robert Zajonc.




C)


William James.




D)


Stanley Schachter.




E)


Richard Lazarus.





10.


In response to stress, the adrenal gland releases:




A)


epinephrine.




B)


lymphocytes.




C)


uric acid.




D)


teratogens.




E)


acetylcholine.





11.


Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble”?




A)


Stanley Schachter




B)


William James




C)


Walter Cannon




D)


Richard Lazarus




E)


Charles Darwin





12.


Stress lowers the body's resistance to:




A)


viral infections.




B)


bacterial infections.




C)


cancer.




D)


heart disease.




E)


all of the above.





13.


The universally understandable language of human emotion consists of:




A)


hand gestures.




B)


body postures.




C)


facial expressions.




D)


tone of voice.




E)


music and dance.





14.


The guilty knowledge test is typically used to:




A)


provide emotionally troubled individuals with a way to safely release their aggressive urges.




B)


assess a suspect's responses to details of a crime.




C)


screen potential employees for possible past misdeeds.




D)


assure people that they are no worse than others with whom they compare themselves.





15.


Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:




A)


reaction formation.




B)


projection.




C)


regression.




D)


displacement.




E)


repression.





16.


The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to:




A)


Allport.




B)


Rogers.




C)


Adler.




D)


Bandura.




E)


Jung.





17.


Contemporary psychologists are least likely to agree with Freud's belief that:




A)


conscience and gender identity form as children resolve the Oedipus complex.




B)


conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited.




C)


memories are often distorted and incomplete.




D)


defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety.





18.


Humanistic theorists have been criticized for:




A)


overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality.




B)


underestimating the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another.




C)


overestimating the degree of similarity among people.




D)


underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.





19.


Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit:




A)


passive dependence.




B)


an inferiority complex.




C)


an Electra complex.




D)


compulsive neatness.




E)


messiness and disorganization.





20.


Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.




A)


collective unconscious




B)


Oedipus complex




C)


inferiority complex




D)


Barnum effect




E)


self-concept





21.


Which theorist emphasized that personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?




A)


Allport




B)


Jung




C)


Rogers




D)


Freud




E)


Bandura





22.


When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his:




A)


superego.




B)


collective unconscious.




C)


ego.




D)


id.




E)


Oedipus complex.





23.


The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her:




A)


individualism.




B)


ideal self.




C)


gender identity.




D)


attributional style.




E)


unconditional positive regard.





24.


Projective tests are most closely associated with the ________ perspective.




A)


social-cognitive




B)


psychoanalytic




C)


humanistic




D)


trait





25.


A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as:




A)


fixation.




B)


free association.




C)


reaction formation.




D)


hypnosis.




E)


projection.



26.


The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a:




A)


confirmation bias.




B)


fixation.




C)


heuristic.




D)


framing effect.




E)


prototype.



27.


If a test is standardized, this means that:




A)


it accurately measures what it is intended to measure.




B)


a person's test performance can be compared with that of a pretested group.




C)


most test scores will cluster near the average.




D)


the test will yield consistent results when administered on different occasions.





28.


Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:




A)


heuristics.




B)


prototypes.




C)


algorithms.




D)


fixations.





29.


The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.




A)


babbling




B)


telegraphic speech




C)


oneword




D)


grammatical




E)


syntactic





30.


Children first begin to use sounds to communicate meaning during the ________ stage.




A)


one-word




B)


two-word




C)


echoic




D)


telegraphic




E)


babbling





31.


The ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-term goals is most clearly a characteristic of:




A)


emotional intelligence.




B)


heritability.




C)


mental age.




D)


savant syndrome.




E)


the g factor.





32.


Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving, decision making, concept formation, and forming judgments?




A)


developmental psychology




B)


social psychology




C)


clinical psychology




D)


cognitive psychology




E)


personality psychology





33.


College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of:




A)


framing.




B)


functional fixedness.




C)


the availability heuristic.




D)


the representativeness heuristic.




E)


overconfidence.





34.


Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.




A)


one-word




B)


babbling




C)


two-word




D)


echoic





35.


Boys are most likely to outnumber girls in a class designed for students gifted in:




A)


reading.




B)


speech.




C)


mathematics.




D)


a foreign language.





36.


Spearman's g factor refers to:




A)


the internal consistency of an intelligence test.




B)


the genetic contribution to intelligence.




C)


a general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks.




D)


a highly developed skill or talent possessed by an otherwise retarded person.




E)


the ability to understand and regulate emotions.





37.


A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:




A)


validity.




B)


standardization.




C)


reliability.




D)


normality.





38.


The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is:




A)


less than that between children and their biological parents.




B)


equal to that between identical twins reared together.




C)


equal to that between fraternal twins reared together.




D)


greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together.





39.


The set point is:




A)


the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm.




B)


the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.




C)


the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal.




D)


the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.





40.


Motivation is defined by psychologists as:




A)


an impulse to accomplish something of significance.




B)


rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.




C)


a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.




D)


the cause of behavior.





41.


In a British survey of bank and university staff, men were ________ likely to be overweight than were women, and men were ________ likely to perceive themselves as overweight than were women.




A)


more; more




B)


less; less




C)


more; less




D)


less; more





42.


Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that:




A)


homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been sexually abused during childhood.




B)


homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been overprotected by their mothers.




C)


homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been raised in a father-absent home.




D)


homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been exposed to a gay or lesbian schoolteacher.




E)


the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.





43.


An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological need is called a(n):




A)


instinct.




B)


incentive.




C)


drive.




D)


set point.





44.


Rigid patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice are called:




A)


set points.




B)


drives.




C)


instincts.




D)


needs.




E)


incentives.





45.


Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by:




A)


an unusually high rate of metabolism.




B)


cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness and obesity.




C)


frequent migraine headaches.




D)


an obsessive fear of becoming obese.





46.


For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:




A)


homeostasis.




B)


a drive.




C)


an instinct.




D)


the refractory period.




E)


metabolic rate.





47.


In most mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when:




A)


testosterone levels are lowest.




B)


testosterone levels are highest.




C)


estrogen levels are lowest.




D)


estrogen levels are highest.





48.


James Dabbs and his colleagues observed that male collegians' ________ levels were especially likely to increase while they were conversing with a ________ college student.




A)


testosterone; female




B)


insulin; male




C)


glucose; female




D)


PYY; male





49.


Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:




A)


needs.




B)


incentives.




C)


set points.




D)


drives.





50.


If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical gestation period, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.




A)


estrogen




B)


insulin




C)


PYY




D)


orexin




E)


testosterone










Exam 3 Form B Key





Answer Key

1.


C

2.


B

3.


C

4.


E

5.


D

6.


D

7.


A

8.


B

9.


D

10.


A

11.


B

12.


E

13.


C

14.


B

15.


C

16.


D

17.


A

18.


D

19.


A

20.


E

21.


C

22.


D

23.


D

24.


B

25.


B

26.


B

27.


B

28.


A

29.


A

30.


A

31.


A

32.


D

33.


E

34.


C

35.


C

36.


C

37.


A

38.


D

39.


D

40.


C

41.


C

42.


E

43.


C

44.


C

45.


D

46.


B

47.


D

48.


A

49.


B

50.


E


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