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PSY 301, Introductory Psychology, Fall 2005, Exam 2 Form A

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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

Introductory Psychology, Fall 2005 (Hawkins)

Exam 2

Instructions: Write your name and the date on the top of this exam. Your must turn in this

exam along with your answer sheet. On the answer sheet, print your EID, blacken the letters of your EID and provide the other information requested. Remember to blacken your choice for each item on the answer sheet (A, B, C, or D) and completely erase your questions. Good luck!







1.The ability to perceive the Greek letter psi in the textbook stereogram illustrates the importance of:



A)language.

B)interposition.

C)retinal disparity.

D)relative motion.

E)perceptual adaptation.



2.Your sensitivity to taste will decline if you:

A)smoke heavily.
B)consume large amounts of alcohol.
C)grow older.
D)do any of the above.

3.The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

A)size constancy
B)accommodation
C)depth perception
D)perceptual adaptation
E)figure-ground perception

4.The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the:

A)sensory adaptation threshold.
B)difference threshold.
C)subliminal threshold.
D)absolute threshold.

5.The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is:

A)interposition.
B)relative height.
C)proximity.
D)linear perspective.
E)relative size.

6.The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as:

A)the opponent process theory.
B)Weber's law.
C)feature detection.
D)sensory interaction.

7.The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

A)sensory interaction.
B)subliminal perception.
C)accommodation.
D)sensation.

8.Hypnosis is a social interaction in which a hypnotist suggests to a subject that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Subjects who are hypnotizable and will carry out a hypnotic suggestion typically

A)have rich fantasy lives.
B)have low self-esteem.
C)are subject to hallucinations.
D)are hidden observers.

9.Receptor cells for our sense of ________ reproduce themselves every week or two.

A)vision
B)hearing
C)taste
D)equilibrium

10.The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel respond to specific aspects of ________ stimulation.

A)taste
B)visual
C)auditory
D)olfactory
E)kinesthetic

11.When there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more senses, which sense tends to dominate the others?

A)hearing
B)vision
C)smell
D)touch
E)none of the above; the senses work together as equal partners

12. Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?

A)rods
B)cones
C)bipolar cells
D)feature detectors

13.News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and Coca-Cola involved false claims regarding:

A)parallel processing.
B)difference thresholds.
C)kinesthesis.
D)sensory interaction.
E)subliminal stimulation.

14.Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to ________ obesity and ________ memory.

A)promote; facilitate
B)inhibit; impair
C)promote; impair
D)inhibit; facilitate

15.The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs is called:

A)intolerance.
B)narcolepsy.
C)withdrawal.
D)retraction.
E)dissociation.

16.Sixteen-year-old Bethany is becoming increasingly concerned about her use of marijuana on weekends. In order to reduce her use of this drug Bethany should:

A)recognize that life is stressful and often beyond control.
B)be warned that marijuana interferes with female sexual functioning.
C)stop associating with friends who use marijuana.
D)recognize that drug use results from her own lack of social skills.

17.Boys who tend to be fearless and impulsive at age 6 are ________ likely to smoke and ________ likely to drink alcohol as teens.


A)less; more
B)more; less
C)less; less
D)more; more

18.Consciousness is:

A)the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.
B)the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
C)the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.
D)effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.
E)our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

19.The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:
A)30 minutes.
B)90 minutes.
C)2 1/2 hours.
D)4 hours.

20.The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of this century was:

A)psychoanalysis.
B)behaviorism.
C)functionalism.
D)structuralism.
E)Gestalt psychology.

21.The cocktail party effect provides an example of:

A)REM rebound.
B)latent content.
C)selective attention.
D)narcolepsy.
E)dissociation.

22.Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of:

A)insomnia.
B)narcolepsy.
C)dissociation.
D)physical dependence.
E)REM rebound.


23.Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is:
A)dreaming.
B)entering the third stage of sleep.
C)ready to sleepwalk.
D)exhibiting a sleep spindle.
E)experiencing a night terror.

24.Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?
A)amphetamines
B)barbiturates
C)hallucinogens
D)opiates


25.While a student provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates:


A)narcolepsy.
B)REM rebound.
C)dissociation.
D)posthypnotic amnesia.
E)change blindness.


26.A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called:
A)narcolepsy.
B)dissociation.
C)paradoxical sleep.
D)posthypnotic amnesia.


27.John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):
A)physiological psychologist.
B)cognitive psychologist.
C)behaviorist.
D)psychoanalyst.
E)operant conditioner.


28.In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of:

A)negative reinforcement.
B)operant conditioning.
C)respondent behavior.
D)observational learning.
E)spontaneous recovery.

29.The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:

A)Watson.
B)Skinner.
C)Bandura.
D)Pavlov.
E)Wundt.


30.Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for:

A)extinction.
B)spontaneous recovery.
C)observational learning.
D)extrinsic motivation.

31.Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:

A)shaping.
B)acquisition.
C)generalization.
D)spontaneous recovery.
E)latent learning.

32.Who highlighted the importance of observational learning?

A)Watson
B)Bandura
C)Skinner
D)Pavlov

33.Our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others best illustrates:


A)respondent behavior.
B)prosocial behavior.
C)operant conditioning.
D)observational learning.

34.In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n):

A)conditioned response.
B)unconditioned stimulus.
C)unconditioned response.
D)conditioned stimulus.


35.Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________.

A)operant conditioning; classical conditioning
B)intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
C)an unconditioned response; a conditioned response
D)a fixed-interval schedule; a variable interval schedule

36.An aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a:

A)negative reinforcer.
B)punishment.
C)conditioned stimulus.
D)delayed reinforcer.
E)conditioned reinforcer.


37.Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:


A)generalization.
B)secondary reinforcement.
C)shaping.
D)latent learning.
E)spontaneous recovery.


38.In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n):

A)conditioned response.
B)unconditioned response.
C)unconditioned stimulus.
D)conditioned stimulus.

39.The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called:

A)state-dependent memory.
B)retroactive interference.
C)the serial position effect.
D)the spacing effect.
E)proactive interference.


40.In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that storage decay contributes to:

A)absent-mindedness.
B)repression.
C)transience.
D)implicit memory.


41.Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.

A)short-term
B)implicit
C)


mood-congruent




D)


explicit




E)


automatic





42.


Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited storage capacity?




A)


echoic memory




B)


short-term memory




C)


long-term memory




D)


state-dependent memory





43.


Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called:




A)


retrieval cues.




B)


deja vu.




C)


iconic traces.




D)


context effects.




E)


schemas.





44.


Chunking refers to:




A)


getting information into memory through the use of visual imagery.




B)


the effortless processing of familiar information to get it into long-term memory storage.




C)


the combined use of automatic and effortful processing to ensure the retention of unfamiliar information.




D)


the organization of information into meaningful units.





45.


A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.




A)


state-dependent




B)


flashbulb




C)


short-term




D)


sensory




E)


implicit





46.


The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve:




A)


encoding failure.




B)


repression.




C)


implicit memory loss.




D)


the hippocampus.




E)


interference.





47.


When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as powerful:




A)


encoding devices.




B)


iconic memories.




C)


automatic processing devices.




D)


retrieval cues.





48.


Automatic and effortful processing involve two types of:




A)


encoding.




B)


retrieval.




C)


interference.




D)


storage.




E)


repression.





49.


The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.




A)


serial position




B)


misinformation




C)


next-in-line




D)


priming




E)


spacing





50.


Which of the following poses the greatest threat to the credibility of children's recollections of sexual abuse?




A)


the serial position effect




B)


the spacing effect




C)


the misinformation effect




D)


long-term potentiation




E)


the next-in-line effect





Answer Key



1.


C

2.


D

3.


C

4.


D

5.


A

6.


B

7.


D

8.


A

9.


C

10.


B

11.


B

12.


B

13.


E

14.


C

15.


C

16.


C

17.


D

18.


E

19.


B

20.


B

21.


C

22.


D

23.


A

24.


B

25.


E

26.


B

27.


C

28.


D

29.


D

30.


C

31.


B

32.


B

33.


D

34.


A

35.


B

36.


B

37.


A

38.


B

39.


E

40.


C

41.


A

42.


C

43.


A

44.


D

45.


E

46.


E

47.


D

48.


A

49.


A

50.


C


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