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The Supreme Court

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The Supreme Court

*Purpose of the Supreme Court*
The United States Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. The Supreme Court each year hears a limited number of the cases it is asked to decide. Those cases may begin in the federal or state courts, and they usually involve very important questions about the Constitution or federal law. Appealing the state courts decision, you can ask it to be taken to the Supreme Court. To get their higher opinion.

*The Justices of the Supreme Court*
John G. Roberts, Jr., is the Chief Justice of the United States. He was born in New York, on January 27, 1955. In 1996 he married a women named Jane Marie Sullivan, they have two children named John and Josephine. Roberts was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 2003. George W. Bush nominated John G. Roberts, Jr. as Chief Justice of the United States, and he took his seat on Sept. 29, 2005.
John Paul Stevens is the Associate justice and was born in Chicago, Illinois on April 20, 1920. He is married and has four children. Stevens received his A.B. from the University of Chicago and his J.D. from Northwestern University School of Law. President Ford, who recently passed away, nominated him as Associated Justice of the Supreme Court, and he took his seat Sept. 26, 1986.
Antonin Scalia, he was born in Trenton, N.J., March 11, 1936. Antonin served the federal government as General Counselor of the Office of Telecommunications policy from 1972 – 1974. He was appointed Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 1982. Reagan nominated him as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and Antonin Scalia took his seat in 1986. He has a wife named Maureen McCarthy and has nine children.
Anthony M. Kennedy, born in Sacramento, California, on July 23, 1936. He is Associate Justice and his married and has three children. He received his B.A. from the London School of Economics and Stanford University. Anthony has served in several positions during his career, the board of the Federal Judicial Center and is a member of the California Army National Guard. President Reagan also nominated him and Kennedy took his seat Feb. 18, 1988.
David Hackett Souter, born on September 17, 1939 in Massachusetts, in a small town named Melrose. He graduated from Harvard Law School and soon joined the New Hampshire attorney general's office. Souter was promoted to state attorney general in 1976, to the state's Superior Court in 1978, and to its Supreme Court in 1983. President George H, W. Bush nominated him and took his seat October 9, 1990.
Clarence Thomas was born in Pin Point, Georgia a small community outside Savannah. Thomas later attended College of the Holy Cross, where he co-founded the school's Black Student Union. President Bush appointed him to the federal court of appeals in 1990 – 1991 and to the US Supreme Court. He became the second African American to take seat.
Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice, and was born in Brooklyn New York. Ginsburg's older sister died when she was very young. Her mother struggled with cancer throughout Ginsburg's high school years and died the day before her graduation. Ginsburg was appointed a Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, Circuit by President Carter in 1980. President Clinton nominated her as an associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and she took her seat August 10, 1993.
Stephen G. Breyer was born in a Jewish family in San Francisco, California, August 15 1938. Breyer's younger brother Charles is also a judge. He is happily married to Joanna Hare and they have three children. Breyer served as a law clerk to Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg during the 1964 term. Clinton nominated him and Breyer took his seat August 3, 1994.
Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr., born on April 1, 1950 in Trenton, New Jersey. He was Assistant U.S. Attorney, District of New Jersey, and Deputy Assistant Attorney General U.S. Department of Justice. Alito was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit in 1990. President George W. Bush nominated him and took his seat on January 31, 2006.

*Procedures of the Supreme Court*
The Supreme Court of the United States acts as the highest authority in the third branch of the U.S. government. The Supreme Court starts on the first Monday in October and most of the courts sessions continue until June and sometimes run into July. The term is split between sittings. Sittings are when the Justices hear cases and deliver their opinions. The Court is intended to be free from political influence and making it able to make its own decisions. During the recess period the Justices can deliberate about the case and ague their opinions. The Justices terms can be unlimited or until they retire or can no longer do their job.

*Brown vs. Board of Education*
This is one of the most important Supreme Court cases ever. Oliver L. Brown believed that schools should be equal between all different races and no longer be segregated. This courts decision would be a major factor for many things to come in the future between African Americans and Caucasians. The Supreme Court Justices were behind Brown's action; therefore Oliver Brown won the case. This had a huge impact on American history and helped the African American people to have the same opportunities and whites. If the Board of Education would have won the case, schools and local businesses would still be separated.

*Three Recent Supreme Court Cases*
Grutter vs. Bollinger upheld the University of Michigan Law School's consideration of race and ethnic in its admissions and that it had to be changed. The cases got to be such a huge issue it was brought to the Supreme Court so they could give their decision and end the argument. " O'Connor said. However, the court ruled that the University of Michigan's undergraduate admissions system, which awarded twenty points to African American, Hispanic, and Indian applicants, was "nonindividualized, mechanical," and thus unconstitutional.

Cunningham vs. California, John Cunningham was a former police officer and was convicted by a jury in Contra Costa County, California, of sexually abusing his son. One year after the abuse began, his son told a cousin about his father's actions, including forcing him to perform sexual acts. During the trial, the prosecution introduced a videotape made by the Children's Interview Center, that interviewed the boy about the sexual assaults he claimed had taken place. The judge made a decision in sentencing John Cunningham to 16 years in prison for the continuous sexual abuse. The case as been now accepted by the Supreme Court and they will give the verdict later this month.
Carey vs. Musladin. Mathew Musladin was convicted of shooting Tom Studer, the fiancé of his estranged wife, to death in San Jose, California, in May 1994. At Musladin's trial, the Studer's family wore buttons showing pictures of the dead victims. Musladin's attorney asked that the judge tell the family to take off the buttons because they were prejudicial to the defense, but the judge denied the request and said to continue with the case. In a unanimous decision the Court case written by Justice Clarence Thomas, reversed the Ninth Circuit and ruled that the state court's decision was not an unreasonable application of any clearly established Supreme Court precedent.

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