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Vaccine - ... According to Black’s Medical Dictionary in 2010, in 1988 a vaccine known to us as the MMR was released to replace the single measles vaccine. This vaccine is a three in one vaccine, while the previous measles vaccine was just strictly for measles. This new vaccine is said to be given at 13-15 months of age, and also a booster must be readministered by 4-5 years of age along with “the pre-school booster doses against DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS and POLIOMYELITIS.” (Black's Medical Dictionary, 2010) Some minor symptoms may occur with this vaccine as with any other vaccine in general the child may report “malaise, fever, and rash” (Black's Medical Dictionary, 2010) which can occur immediately or take about “5-10 days after immunization.” (Black's Medical Dictionary, 2010) After this vaccine was released, there has been a significantly decreased amount of the population with any of these three diseases....   [tags: Medicine, Autism] 1558 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Vaccine War - ... Scientist Hank Jennings says, “They still want it to be a choice. They don’t want it to be compulsory” (Palfreman, 2010). Additionally, despite the scientific fact that vaccines are safe, government rule regarding parental choice is another component increasing the fight against vaccines. Throughout The Vaccine War, the particular theory exemplified on the human behavior is Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Cognitive Dissonance Theory is a notion created by Leon Festinger that disputes that dissonance is an awkward feeling that encourages people to take action to diminish it....   [tags: Medical Ethics ]
:: 3 Works Cited
1168 words
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Vaccine Testing - HIV Vaccine Testing in Africa The United Nations estimates that 5.8 million people per year become infected with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ninety percent of these infections occur in sub- Saharan Africa, where infected persons do not have access to antiviral therapy. Approximately 2.4 million Africans died of AIDS in 2002, and 3.5 million occurred in the region. Where in the United States $12,000-$15,000 is usually spent on treating an HIV-infected person per year, only $6 is spent annually per person in Uganda....   [tags: essays research papers]
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1091 words
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The Polio Vaccine - The Polio Vaccine The discovery of the polio vaccine was an important medical and scientific breakthrough because it saved many lives since the 1950s. In the summer of 1916 the great polio epidemic struck the United states. By the 1950s hundreds of thousands of people had been struck by the poliomyelitis. The highest number of cases occurred in 1953 with over 50,000 people infected with the virus. When hygienic conditions were poor polio attacked infants. The disease was spread by contaminated water and contact with fecal contamination....   [tags: Papers] 1070 words
(3.1 pages)
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polio vaccine - Poliomyelitis (shortened to polio) has been around for thousands of years, and there is still no cure, but at the peak of its devastation in the United States, Dr. Jonas Salk introduced a way to prevent it. Polio attacks the nerve cells and sometimes the central nervous system, causing muscle wasting, paralysis, and even death. The disease, whose symptoms are flu like, stuck mostly children, and in the first half of the 20th century the epidemics of polio were becoming more devastating. Salk, while working at the Virus Research Lab at the University of Pittsburgh, developed a polio vaccine, and the medical trials to prove its effectiveness and safety are still being analyzed....   [tags: essays research papers] 617 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative - THE CANADIAN HIV VACCINE INITIATIVE Description- The Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative is a Canada based body, which works for the progress of HIV vaccines and testing method, at a global level. Though this organization was established by the Ministry of Canada, it involves enough cooperation and interactivity from other international organizations too. ________________________________________________________________________ Keywords- Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative, Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiatives, CHVI, Canadian Ministry HIV Vaccine Initiative, Initiatives by Canada towards AIDS, Canada Ministry’s initiatives for AIDS, HIV in Canada, Canada fighting HIV, Goals of the Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative, goals of CHVI, objectives of Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative, objectives of CHVI, Technical objectives of CHVI, collaborates of Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative....   [tags: Health Care] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine - The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine The unforgettable story of vaccines is a story of triumph and controversy. The saddest part of the story is persistent ignorance and a lack of education, comingled with the personal need of some parents to explain away the problems of their children, have caused the controversy to arise. The good news is that the triumphant reality of vaccines as a whole is still the larger enduring legacy. The human papillomavirus vaccine is not an exception to this rule; in fact despite all the controversy surrounding the vaccine, it is one of medicine’s greatest lifesaving gifts to us....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer]
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The Importance of the Influenza Vaccine - ... P. Laidlaw were investigating a pandemic in England at the same time as Shope was conducting his research. They began attempting to infect ferrets by giving them filtered human mucus that contained influenza virus; the first experiment was a resounding success. By collaborating together, these scientists learned that the cause of influenza was a virus. In the years after Richard Shope made his discovery, scientists continued to research influenza. In 1936, these scientists discovered that influenza can be grown in hen’s eggs....   [tags: Health Care]
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1503 words
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The Impact of the Tuberculosis Vaccine - The Impact of the Tuberculosis Vaccine Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most infectious diseases in the world. With almost one third of the world infected with this virus, people are striving to help prevent the spread of this disease (NIAID, 2001). One prevention technique for tuberculosis is the BCG (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin) vaccine. In the early twentieth century Calmette and Guerin worked together to isolate a strain of the disease creating the first BCG vaccine. Throughout the century the scientists improved the BCG vaccine and today there are several different strains of the vaccine available....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease TB]
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1623 words
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Hiv: The Search For A Vaccine - In 1985, over 10,000 cases of AIDS were reported worldwide (White and Fenner 1986). Just over a decade later, in 1998, the Global AIDS Policy Coalition estimated that 30.6 million people were infected with HIV worldwide. It has also been projected that by the year 2000, between 40 and 70 million adults will be infected with HIV (New Generation Vaccines 1997). Over 90% of all HIV-1 infected individuals live in developing nations: 50% in Southeast Asia and 40% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, even with all of these alarming statistics and projections, there is hope for the future of humanity....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1319 words
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2004 Influenza Vaccine Shortage - 2004 Influenza Vaccine Shortage Internal PR Action Plan MKT 438 November, 22, 2004 Abstract This year’s flu season is supposed to bring a strain of the virus with a severity unlike any other seen in previous years. This supposed new strain is a mutated, currently untreatable strain that is expected to be responsible for several deaths. The media has caused such a wide spread panic over the Influenza bug this year and then claimed that 48 million vaccines mysteriously became contaminated rendering the public virtually helpless against the attack of this new strain of flu....   [tags: essays research papers] 1401 words
(4 pages)
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The HPV Vaccine and Its Effect on Cancer Screening and Prevention - The HPV vaccine and its effect on cancer screening and prevention Introduction Human Papillomavirus(HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) around 20 million people are infected with HPV and additional 6.2 million people are newly infected every year. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2003-2004 among sexually active women (57% of 14 to 19 years and 97% of 20 to 59 years) HPV was highest prevalent in youngest age group (40% of 14-19 years and 50% of 20-24 years)....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 1653 words
(4.7 pages)
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Anthrax Prevention - Missing Works Cited Aside from treatments of the disease, there is also another way to fight anthrax: an anthrax vaccine. For some time now, a vaccine to protect animals from anthrax has been available. It wasn’t until “…1970, when a human vaccine was licensed called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)” (Joellenbeck). It was licensed for workers at high risk for occupational exposure to anthrax. The vaccine is “…a cell-free filtrate containing protective antigen as the principal immunogen” (Joellenbeck)....   [tags: Anthrax Vaccine] 809 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Science, Technology, and Ethics of HIV Vaccine Research - The Science, Technology, and Ethics of HIV Vaccine Research An annual report recently released by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS indicated that the number of HIV-infected individuals increased 10 percent in the last year, bringing the number of people worldwide who are now carrying the virus to over 33 million. According to the report, half of these new infections were in people15 to 24 years old, and there were 11 new infections a minute. Sub-Saharan Africa reportedly accounts for two thirds of the infected population and about 12 million AIDS related deaths....   [tags: AIDS Third World Countries Poverty Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited :: 2 Sources Cited
4292 words
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The Dynamics of the Dengue Fever Virus and the Creation of its Vaccine - The Dynamics of the Dengue Fever Virus and the Creation of its Vaccine Abstract: I investigated Dengue Fever and the dynamics of creating a drug or vaccine to cure it. After acquiring a basic knowledge of the virus I dove into various topics including variants on the virus such as Dengue Shock Syndrome and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Then I looked into the molecular structure of the disease’s proteins and how their shape relates to how it can be treated by drugs. Professor Tantillo’s lectures about drug design, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, Toxicity) connected the concepts of protein molecular structure and effective ways to treat diseases....   [tags: Medical Biology Dengue Fever Virus]
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1301 words
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Role of Smallpox Vaccine in the Prevention and Treatment of Variola major and Variola minor - Role of Smallpox Vaccine in the Prevention and Treatment of Variola major and Variola minor Smallpox has claimed the lives of many ever since the Middle Ages. However, it has now been eradicated due in part to a very effective vaccine. The vaccine has saved the lives of thousands and has eradicated the disease in the history of man kind. This miracle vaccine can greatly diminish the effects variola and even stop the disease from becoming fatal. The vaccine is also the only known way to fight the smallpox, and until an antiviral agent is found, it will be humanity’s only defense against this deadly and devastating disease....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical]
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1164 words
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The Flu Shot Should Not Be Mandatory - Should the Flu Shot Be Mandatory. Vaccines have been proclaimed by many people as one of the miracles of modern medicine. Vaccines are credited with saving thousands of lives and wiping out many contagious diseases. Recently, there has been a tremendous debate whether annual influenza vaccines should be mandatory. Influenza vaccines should be voluntary because people have the right to examine data on vaccinations and make their own informed decisions. Although people should have the freedom to choose to be vaccinated, the public needs to be educated about the personal, economical, and social benefits of receiving the influenza vaccine....   [tags: Influenza Vaccine Papers]
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1095 words
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anthrax vaccine - A. Attention Getter 1. Yentl is born at wrong time and place to follow her dreams 2. Father says, “Yentl, you have soul of a man” 3. Yentl knows she does not want woman’s life 4. Could not do domestic thimgs like cook or sew 5. Thought women had boring life 6. Did not want to raise children B. Thesis statement 1. Yentl believed she had the soul of a man, but her Jewish background did not allow her to make the choices in life that she wanted. C. Overview 1....   [tags: essays research papers] 806 words
(2.3 pages)
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Rabies Control - Rabies Control Rabies is widespread due to the lack of control, especially in third-world countries that obtain the virus usually through being bitten by the animals in the wild. Nevertheless, rabies cases overall has decreased compared to previous years due to increased restrictions that includes vaccinations and laws. This has made countries such as the United States and Great Britain average about only a couple of cases of rabies a year. Unfortunately, rabies will most likely remain as it is impossible to vaccinate every mammal and there are animals that can live successfully with the disease....   [tags: Disease Vaccine]
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1607 words
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Smallpox Treatment - Smallpox Treatment Smallpox has threatened our world for the past twelve thousand years. Treatments were desperately searched for until a cure called variolation was discovered. Variolation is the use of the virus placed into a being to which they will receive the illness to a lesser degree and overcome the illness forming an immunization to it. This process was started in China and went worldwide after Lady Montagu took the process from Turkey and informed the British about it....   [tags: Vaccination Vaccine Variolation]
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2114 words
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Austism and Vaccines - Every year, tens of thousands Americans die from the seasonal flu alone. This alarming statistic is what led the United States government to urge the country to vaccinate themselves, as well as their children every November, when the flu season is fast approaching. Though countless Americans do follow the government’s plea, many others insist that these vaccines distributed every year (as well as other year-long vaccines) contain an abnormally high amount of thimerosal, (a mercury-based chemical in vaccines designed to prevent the growth of bacteria) which could eventually lead to autism....   [tags: autism, vaccines, ] 632 words
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The Pharmaceutical Industry and the AIDS Crisis in Developing Countries - The Pharmaceutical Industry and the AIDS Crisis in Developing Countries · Describe the nature of supplying drugs to emerging markets at an affordable price without undermining their profits · Research and analyse in depth the effectiveness of one proposed policy response to this issue. Introduction 1 2001 saw a flurry of events, as highlighted in the excepts of the case study, which caused an awareness by the international community of the inequality between rich and poor nations in the care and treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS....   [tags: AIDS Vaccine Drugs Supply Demand] 1837 words
(5.2 pages)
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Vaccines - ... Table 1 lists the current vaccination schedule for early childhood vaccinations. Negatives for Vaccinations More than any other matter, the question of autism has stirred the battle over vaccines. Since the 1980’s, the quantity of vaccinations that children get has doubled, and in that same time, autism diagnoses have tripled. In 1998, Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist of London's Royal Free Hospital published a paper in the journal the Lancet in which he stated the results of a study that he did....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Immunology] 1147 words
(3.3 pages)
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Influenza Vaccines - ... Influenza viruses are injected into chicken egg embryos, where they are allowed to incubate and multiply for several days. A machine extracts the virus from the egg, which is then purified and chemically killed and made into the vaccine. (Tenpenny, 2008, Davidson, 2007-2009, Offit, 2008). It takes about eight months for the vaccines to be developed using chicken eggs. If another pandemic were to arise, we would not have access to the vaccines for at least eight months. Moreover, once the vaccines are made, they must be used....   [tags: Disease ]
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Influenza Vaccines - ... The vaccines do include the three influenza viruses; two against different strains of type A, and one against the type B virus. (Davidson, 2007-2009, Offit, 2008). Traditionally, flu vaccines are made using chicken eggs. With this as the only method of creating vaccines, it poses a problem, because chicken eggs are only available during March and April, and not at any other time. Therefore, access to the chicken eggs is restricted to March and April. It also takes approximately one to two chicken eggs to create one dose of influenza vaccine....   [tags: Immunology]
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Benefits of Vaccines - ... . younger than 19 years of age.” This federally funded program helps those who have the inability to pay for vaccinations. There is another program that may help provide free vaccines called, the Michigan Vaccine Replacement Program. Gail Brink is the finance director for the health department and notes that uninsured or underinsured people have increased the last few years and more are applying for programs (“Cost of Vaccines Have Risen Drastically”). According to an analysis by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, every dollar spent on immunizations saves $18.40 in medical costs, creating a total of $42 billion in savings from treating unvaccinated diseased individuals....   [tags: Health ]
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2014 words
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DNA vaccines Vs Traditional - DNA vaccines Vs Traditional ( TURKI ) Convectional vaccines have had many limitations and disadvantages that another solution had to be Coined Out (Cui, 2005). Some of the weakened and attenuated viruses reverted to their virulent state and led to death of many patients. In other wjords, some of the attenuated virus regain their fatal stage in invading the body and causing severe infection. Some other vaccines for example diphtheria and tetanus vaccines were associated with toxins that compromise the health of the patient (Cui,2005; Davis, 1998)....   [tags: Health]
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Prolonging and Separating Vaccines - ... Most adults have either had the diseases that infants are vaccinated against or have had the vaccine to protect themselves; therefore infants will develop this immunity in utero, allowing for delayed vaccination safely. One aspect of research showing that it may be better to prolong infant immunizations until after the age of two is the study of neuroimmunology, or more specifically, the microglia within the brain and neurological system. One study has shown that when vaccines are given close together, or too soon before the neurological system has had a chance to mature, these specialized immune cells, called microglia, can create and release toxic elements (Miller, 2004) causing neurological disorders resulting from damaged brain cells....   [tags: Health, Vaccination]
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Vaccines: Helping or Hurting - ... It has been found that many harmful substances exist in vaccines. “Vaccinations contain additional chemicals such as formaldehyde, mercury (thimerosal), and aluminum phosphate, which are extremely toxic substances that can lead to hazardous effects” (Hamdan). The thought of these harmful substances being directly injected into peoples’ bloodstreams, should scare everyone. In addition to the dangerous substances contained in vaccines, the age at which they are being administered is becoming a problem as well....   [tags: Medicine]
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1557 words
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Edible Vaccines - Edible Vaccines Missing Works Cited Today eighty percent of infants are being vaccinated for diphtheria; pertussis (whooping cough), polio, measles, tetanus and tuberculosis (Landrige 2000). This percentage is up from about five percent in the mid-1970s; however, the death toll from these infections is roughly three million annually. Millions still die from infectious diseases for which immunizations are non-existent, unreliable, or too costly. Vaccines all function with the same idea in mind, priming the immune system to swiftly destroy specific disease-causing agents, or pathogens, before the agents can multiply enough to cause symptoms (Landrige 2000)....   [tags: Papers] 1600 words
(4.6 pages)
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West Nile Virus Vaccines - This first discovered virus was identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa named West Nile Virus. West Nile virus is a single stranded RNA virus that lies within the family of flavivrus, which is part of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of viruses. It is found in both tropical and temperate regions. It is known to infect vertebrates and certain insects. The most common route in which it infects humans is through the bite of an infected mosquito. West Nile Virus hit the United States the summer of 1999 in New York....   [tags: Disease]
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Presentation on DNA Vaccines - Vaccines • Vaccines are “one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine” • In developed nations, vaccines have almost exterminated polio and smallpox and tightly controlled diseases like hepatitis A and B or typhus • There are three generations of vaccinations • First generation vaccines are either weakened or killed forms of whole organisms • There is a problem with first-gen vaccines: the pathogens can still revert to dangerous forms and cause diseases in immunocompromised vaccine recipients....   [tags: Powerpoint Presentation] 1527 words
(4.4 pages)
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Meningococcal Disease Treatments and Vaccines - Meningococcal Disease Treatments and Vaccines Meningococcal disease is a large concern in the medical field because it is unbiased towards the patients it infects. There has been limited success in trying to eliminate this disease. Antibiotics play a role in helping to treat patients with bacterial meningitis, and steroids have been tested to help reduce risk factors. Prevention has also become a key issue because meningitis can only be spread through direct contact with infected body fluid. The best prevention is to maintain clean hygiene....   [tags: Bacterial Meningitis]
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3064 words
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Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines - Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines Edward Jenner (1749-1823) trained in London, under John Hunter, and was an army surgeon for a period of time. After that, he spent his whole career as a country doctor in his home county, Gloucestershire (West of England). His research was based on careful case studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain what viruses and diseases actually were. His innovative new method was successful to such an extent that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
(2.2 pages)
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Vibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines - Vibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines Cholera remains a drastically severe disease, killing hundreds of people each outbreak. When ingested, it attaches to the mucosal lining of the intestines and disrupts the normal flow of ions so that there is more sodium, chloride, and water in the intestinal lumen than normal and results in massive diarrhea. Cholera has made a global impact and been endemic in almost all parts of the world. Cholera control strongly emphasizes sanitation, clean drinking water, isolation, and careful food preparation....   [tags: Cholera]
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Controversy About Vaccinations Against Infectious Diseases - Vaccination Against Infectious Diseases Vaccines are one of the most controversial topics in modern medicine and will continue to attract more attention in the years ahead. Most new parents dutifully take their babies to their doctor to be vaccinated, at the prescribed times. However, over the last few decades, there have been several scares concerning vaccinations, and the possible side effects of them. Some parents have refused to have their child vaccinated because of some of these scares, and the truth is, they have been blown out of proportion by the press and it can be very confusing for the general public....   [tags: Medicine Papers Vaccines] 1094 words
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Vaccinating against H1N1 - As the flu season continues to draw closer, the fear of contracting the H1N1 virus, more commonly known as the swine flu, persists in spreading throughout the world. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million people nationwide have already been infected with the H1N1 virus, but families are still skeptical about the new H1N1 vaccine and refuse to take it. I believe the best way to prevent children and adults from the influenza is to receive the H1N1 vaccine....   [tags: Vaccinations, H1N1, USA,] 532 words
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H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu - H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu There is currently a debate going on between the regular flu and the swine flu (H1N1). Both are viruses, but there is a difference between them. In this report, I will be discussing what a virus is, how it is transmitted, how it is proliferated, and what types of symptoms one has if they get the virus. I will also be discussing vaccines, how they are developed, why they are used, what a flu vaccine is in particular, how the early flu vaccine is different from H1N1 vaccine, and why there is a concern about the swine flu verses the regular flu, since swine flu season occurs yearly....   [tags: Compare Contrast, Virus, Flu] 785 words
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HPV Vaccination - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. That would be as though, 25 out of the 30 students in this classroom have or have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one group of desks in this class would be safe from its harmful effects. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 892 words
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HPV Speech - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. Compared to this class, 25 out of the 30 students here have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one of your tables is safe. The rest of you are all at risk. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 878 words
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Childhood Vaccinations: A Game of Russian Roulette? - ... You have the federal health infrastructure that funds the state public-health infrastructure. Together they have decided they are going to use vaccines to eradicate disease causing microorganisms from Earth. Then there are the drug companies that manufacture the vaccines; they have a profitable relationship with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Center of Disease Control and Protection (CDC). Everyone is committed to the same premise. What we are trying to make the public realize is that no money whatsoever has been portioned to independent researchers who work outside this very profitable, self-reinforcing loop,” (Cameron, 1998)....   [tags: Health Care]
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A Perilous Cure - Throughout history, mankind has encountered multiple obstacles. One of the main roadblocks has been illness. From a simple cold to the bubonic plague, viruses and diseases were once thought uncontrollable and deadly. Scientists have recently found ways to combat such illnesses – vaccines. When administered, the weak virus in a vaccine is easily overwhelmed by a healthy immune system. The human body remembers the virus structure and is capable of fighting the full version. In manufacturing vaccines, it is necessary to prevent bacterial or fungal growth in the event that the vaccine is accidentally contaminated, as might occur with repeated puncture of multi-dose vials (Questions and Answers)....   [tags: Medicine] 1258 words
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Understanding Polio - Understanding Polio Polio runs rampant in countries with very unhealthy sewage practices. Luckily, polio can be isolated from sewage, but anytime unclean water is let into a river, stream, lake, or other water body, it can spread into any unknowing person who uses that water to drink. People in the 30's, 40's and 50's were afraid to swim because of that. Polio after being digested, heads for the cells covering the intestines. There are three main strains of Polio. Two of them only produce a low-grade fever, headache, sore and inflamed throat, nausea, and vomiting....   [tags: Informative, Expository] 296 words
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Vaccinations Necessary to the Nation’s Youth - ... In the mid-1980’s, countless individuals brought lawsuits against pharmaceutical manufacturers in civil court claiming and “adverse reaction to a vaccine” (Binski 15). Vaccine manufacturers soon built up a cost damage of 3.5 billion dollars between the years 1980 and 1986. Due to the fear of limitless liability in future lawsuits, an abundance of pharmaceutical manufacturers began to greatly limit or altogether cease the production of vaccines. The general public’s faith in vaccines began diminishing, because diseases that vaccines originally protected people from had been all but eradicated, which made parents less concerned about the disease and more concerned with the possible adverse side effects (Binski 16)....   [tags: Medical Research, Immunization]
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Common Symptoms and Damages of Measles - The Latin name for measles is rubeola. The pathogen which causes the disease is a paramyxovirus, which is one of a group of RNA (ribonucleic acid) viruses. Measles is a respiratory disease caused by a virus, and also comes out in a rash. The virus enters the body via the respiratory system, and grows in the cells at the back of the throat and in the cells that line the lungs, from there it then enters the blood stream and circulates the body. Common Symptoms Usually a person doesn’t start to get symptoms of measles until they have been infected with the virus for 7-11 days....   [tags: measles, medical, ] 581 words
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To vaccinate, or not to vaccinate? - Currently, one cannot explore the news without coming across the topic of the swine flu, scientifically known as H1N1. Swine flu is a respiratory infection derived from the influenza virus. The virus contains genetic materials from human, swine, and avian flu viruses. It was first identified in spring 2009, and since then has spread rapidly across the globe. The infection’s spread has been verified as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. As soon as the swine flu virus was isolated, scientists quickly developed a swine flu vaccine....   [tags: Disease] 1456 words
(4.2 pages)
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Flu Season - Each year the winter seasons brings with it cold, snow, holidays, and to a lucky few a break from work or school. To many, however, winter brings the dreaded Influenza virus, a virus which, if left to it’s own devices, can bring death, especially to the young, the old, and the infirm. This year winter also brought with it a shortage of the Influenza vaccine, which was due to a contamination of one manufacturer’s supply. (Flaherty A02) The resulting decrease in supply caused a dramatic increase in the price demanded by suppliers (and the price paid by consumers)....   [tags: essays research papers] 666 words
(1.9 pages)
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The Anthrax Threat - The Anthrax Threat Today's US military personnel around the world face a new threat: Biological weapons. To protect the US troops against Biological weapons; the Department of Defense implemented a mandatory vaccination program against anthrax. This was justified to counter an increasing threat from hostile countries and possible terrorist groups that now or in the future will likely possess the capability of fielding weaponized anthrax spores as a Biological Weapon. This decision has resulted in court-martials and disciplinary hearings among U.S....   [tags: Papers] 778 words
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Cervical Cancer - ... As the percentage of funding from drug companies increases, more and more money is directed toward putting drugs on the market. Critics are concerned that the FDA is pressured by drug companies and that this pressure may hurt its objectivity. As Gardiner Harris has pointed out, the FDA keeps receiving a larger percentage of its budget from such companies: Indeed, half of the budget for the agency’s Centre for Drug Evaluation and Research, the principal office that oversees drug reviews and safety, will come from drug industry user fees, up from nothing in 1992 and 31 percent in 1998....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Human Papilloma Virus] 1801 words
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Vaccinations: A Clear Benefit - Vaccinations: A Clear Benefit Vaccination: A Clear Benefit A clear definition of a vaccination is, “the generic term for immunization procedures. Immunization is a procedure whereby living or nonliving materials are introduced into the body…:” (Nosal, 1999) The concept that people who survive an infectious disease do not get the same disease again is the basis for the administering of vaccinations. Vaccines are normally given to healthy individuals for the prevention of diseases....   [tags: essays research papers] 1967 words
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INOCULATION TO DISABILITY AND DEATH - ... A sharp and persisting rise in children autism diagnose, started following the introduction, in 1978, of the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella) when also mercury-laced Hepatitis B and Hemophilus- influenza- type-b vaccines were introduced. Previously these vaccines had been inoculated separately. After the three were combined into the MMR vaccine’s formula, and added with Hepatitis and Influenza ones containing mercury, the incidence of autism began abruptly increasing. Comparable increases have taken place in ADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder) and learning disabilities diagnosis....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The History of Swine Flu and the Current Worldwide Outbreak of this Virus - A long time ago, the world has been greatly hit by the virulent disease of swine flu in 1918, 1976, 1988, 1998, 2007 and now finally in the year of 2009. This flu is also referred to as swine influenza, hog flu, or pig flu. The swine flu that has hit humans has been mainly associated with bonds of the H1N1 virus. In the past, in Mexico, the Midwestern United States, South America, China, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of Eastern Asia have been found tainted with swine flu. Over the very past years this virus has shown its evil face along the entire world....   [tags: health, medical]
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I Think Everyone Should Get Vaccinated Against H1N1 Influenza - H1N1 is a global flu pandemic that is currently all around the world. The Swine Flu spread through Mexico in April, 2009, and by June 11th, the World Health Organization raised the alert level to a full-blown pandemic across the globe. The virus spread rapidly throughout the world. Luckily, the government of Canada, and of other nations, has offered an immunization flu shot against this pandemic that is available to some citizens at the present time. In “Swine Flu Vaccine: What Is Fair?,” from the journal Hastings Center Report in 2009, Lawrence O....   [tags: H1N1, vaccinations,] 853 words
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The Global Fund - ... The United Nations Childen’s Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank have joined together to ensure that 33 African countries add the vaccine to its routine vaccination programs. These organizations have shown studies that the vaccine would be cost-effective (Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunizations, 2005). As pointed out, funding for the vaccine is a major problem and concern for these poverty-stricken economies. The WHO (2010) is launching an appeal to raise $30 million dollars to secure the vaccine stockpile for 2011 to 2015 for all 33 African countries....   [tags: Health, Diseases, HIV/AIDS] 833 words
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A Comprehensive Study of Jonas Salk - ... Cannan. During his work he discovered a method of obtaining pure samples of bacteria (Bankston 20; Kluger 34). Salk returned to school a year later and graduated in 1939. He also married to Donna Lindsay, a brilliant psychology major, on June 9, 1939. Lindsay’s father required Salk to adopt his medical title and a middle name for the wedding invitations. With his new bride by his side and a medical degree in his hand, Dr. Jonas Edward Salk was ready to tackle the medical epidemics of the world (Oshinsky 99)....   [tags: Biography] 1080 words
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The Importance of Childhood Vaccination - ... In Japan in 1974, there was a roughly 80% immunization rate against pertussis, which resulted in about 400 reported cases of the illness and zero deaths (“Childhood”). When a safety scare involving the vaccine occurred and the immunization rate dropped to about 10%, the number of cases skyrocketed to over 13,000 and resulted in 41 deaths (“Childhood”). This is a staggering 32,500% increase in the number of sick children from this specific reduction in vaccinations alone. There have also been similar disease outbreak issues in the United States....   [tags: Medicine Vaccinations]
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Diptheria - Diphtheria Introduction Diphtheria is a bacterial disease caused by the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is a respiratory disease and can be a skin infection, but this is less common. The Corynebacterium diphtheriae multiply on the lining of the throat, nose or larynx, from here they divide and excrete a poisonous toxin. The bacteria and toxin destroy the lining of the throat, and a thick coating is formed and then the patient will develop serious inflammation of the throat. The coating in the throat can become detached and obstruct airways which makes breathing very difficult and can cause asphyxiation....   [tags: Disease] 579 words
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Flawed Protection - ... Polio has been pretty much eradicated because of vaccinations, although it is not 100% gone. If you stop vaccinating, the virus can spread and cause partial paralysis or even death. Some examples are Hepatitis B, Whopping cough, Tetanus, and Mumps. Hepatitis B sometimes causes fatal liver damage. Whooping Cough is a serious illness that can last for weeks and can lead to pneumonia. Tetanus is bacteria that are found in dirt, animal waste and many other places, which can potentially cause muscle spasms....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Anthrax - Anthrax Vaccine: Safe and Effective, or Not. Intro: The Anthrax vaccine is a mandatory shot for military; while some people are willing to take the shot to save their lives, others believe if they take it, it will ruin theirs. I. The Anthrax Disease A. Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus Anthracis. 1. It primarily affects livestock, but can occasionally spread humans. a. The infection can be treated, but is almost always fatal. 2. The bacterium produces spores that lay dormant for years in soil and on animal products....   [tags: essays research papers] 881 words
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Polio - Poliomyelitis, infectious virus disease of the central nervous system, sometimes resulting in paralysis. The greatest incidence of the disease, also known as infantile paralysis, is in children between the ages of five and ten years. The disease was described in 1840 by the German orthopedist Jacob von Heine. In its clinical form it is more prevalent in temperate zones. Symptoms The virus usually enters the body through the alimentary tract and spreads along nerve cells to affect various parts of the central nervous system....   [tags: essays research papers] 430 words
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Pre-existing Knowledge - ... These patients want to believe so strongly that these new techniques will work that their mind makes them believe that they are actually being healed. In the Biology class we watched the movie Contagion. In this movie, a deadly, extremely contagious virus is being spread across the world. In one part of the movie a blogger crates a video where he says he has a vaccine for this disease. The people who are desperate believe him and production of the so-called vaccine is increased. This vaccine creates riots at pharmacies across the United States....   [tags: Scientific Research]
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Mumps Virus - Mumps Virus Mumps is a paramyxovirus that is closely related to the parainfluenza virus. Its symptoms were first described in the 5th century BC, and it was a very common childhood affliction until the last several decades. It was identified as a virus in 1934, and an effective vaccine was developed in 1967. Mumps is acquired by aerosol, necessitating close human interaction for spread. Human beings are the only known reservoir for mumps virus, and there is only one serotype. Multiplication The virus is primarily spherical shaped and roughly 200nm in size, surrounded by a host-cell derived membrane....   [tags: ] 715 words
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Aids and its History - For the fast several years an AIDS vaccine has been the key focus in AIDS research. While the government sees the vaccine as a termination to the disease, but a portion of the public along with many renowned scientists from around the world would argue against a vaccine. The United Nations and the US military have threatened to administer a mandatory vaccine to children at the age of 12 and all military employees. Reports predict a massive resistance to a mandatory AIDS vaccine in the US. (www.newsmax.shtml) The Committtee to Protect Medical Freedom warned that the vaccine would infact put more people at risk of contracting the deadly disease....   [tags: essays research papers] 1195 words
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Anthrax - ANTHRAX One of the most important responsibilities a Secretary of Defense has is to make sure the United States’ military members are protected as much as possible from any type of harm. Since the cease-fire of the Gulf War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff have discovered that anthrax has become the number one biological threat to our troops. With finding this information, the Secretary of Defense, William S. Cohen, has decided to ensure that each military member is protected from anthrax with its vaccine....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Military Anthrax Vaccination - Military Anthrax Vaccination Missing Works Cited Since the end of the Persian Gulf War, the United States along with the United Nations has struggled with Saddam Hussein to locate his “weapons of mass destruction”. Saddam’s persistence and dubious manner towards the United States military has raised concern for military protection. To combat biological threats, Secretary of Defense William Cohen implemented a mandatory military wide vaccination of all military members. Since the inception of the program, the program has been the subject of criticism by military members, Veteran Associations, Doctors, and many Senators on Capital Hill....   [tags: Papers] 1175 words
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Importance of Immunizations - My Audience will know the Importance of Immunizations I. INTRODUCTION The Importance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases A. ATTENTION GETTER “Fact Texas is ranked last in Immunization coverage rates among the 50 states” B. ESTABLISH THEME Un immunized kids are starting to become a risk factor in our Texas school, to a point where they are starting to exclude students from school activities. C. CREDIBILITY I speak from first hand knowledge, not only am I faced with these problems on a day to day basis, my daughter was diagnosed with pertussis from an un immunized contact person, so I know the importance of immunizations....   [tags: essays research papers] 494 words
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The Hepatitis B Virus and Vaccination - The Hepatitis B Virus and Vaccination   The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a long history of being shrouded in mystery concerning its cause and transmission and the treatment of its resulting symptoms and diseases. As more was learned about the virus in the first half of this century, it came to be identified largely with homosexuals and intravenous drug users. Due to its prevalence among such already marginalized members of society, hepatitis B was viewed as a highly stigmatized disease and further research concerning HBV was not a top priority in the United States....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Media Distorting Information on Illnesses - The Media Distorting Information on Illnesses Make sure you always use a condom or you might catch AIDS, a disease which will most likely kill us all anyway. Oh, and get your flu shot because this is going to be the worst flu season ever. And do not even think about eating that hamburger or you might put yourself at risk for Mad Cow Disease. Don’t be so quick to open up your mail, or you might get infected with Anthrax. Did you dump all the water out of the pool in the backyard. If not, mosquitoes infected with the West Nile Virus may kill you and your whole family....   [tags: Health Medical Essays]
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Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance....   [tags: essays research papers] 2213 words
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Possibility of a Future Avian Flu Pandemic - Possibility of a Future Avian Flu Pandemic Influenza is a dangerous virus and highly contagious that has potential to devastate populations should an outbreak occur. A common influenza virus that humans are familiar with is the human influenza. Researchers and scientists are concerned about an especially threatening strain of influenza virus called H5N1, commonly known as the avian flu. Although this flu is mainly susceptible to wild birds, there have been outbreaks that show that humans also become infected....   [tags: Bird Flu Influenza H5N1]
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History and Vectors of Rabies - History and Vectors of Rabies Literally meaning “madness and fury”, rabies is commonly recognized by the characteristic foaming of the mouth and wild behavior. However, this is only the tip of the iceberg. This disease is spread through the saliva of infected carriers. Rabies is a viral disease that targets the nervous system which is always fatal with the exception of a single case. Natural remedies and spiritual therapies were used in hopes of warding away this fatal disease until the discovery of vaccination revolutionized medicine....   [tags: Medical Disease]
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Small Animal Diseases - Louise Pasteur, a Frenchman who was neither a physician nor a veterinarian moved into the spotlight to help find a vaccine for Rabies. He began the study of Rabies when two rabid dogs were brought into his laboratory. One of the dogs suffered from the dumb form of the disease: his lower jaw hung down, he foamed at the mouth, and his eyes had a rather vacant look. The other dog was furious: he snapped, bit any object held out to him, and let out frightening howls (McCoy 65). Through the studies already observed, rabies was transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal, and that the incubation period varied from a few days to several months....   [tags: essays research papers] 3437 words
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Animals Are Good - cures await discovery. Although the list is pretty much endless, here are some examples, by decade, including the main species used that were crucial to the discovery: Pre-1900: Treatment for rabies (dogs, rabbits), smallpox (cows), anthrax (sheep). 1900s: Cardiac catheterization techniques (dogs, rabbits), treatment for rickets (dogs). 1920s: Discovery of insulin (dogs). 1930s: Development of modern anesthesia (dogs), prevention of tetanus (horses), development of anticoagulants (cats). 1940s: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (rabbits, monkeys), discovery of the RH factor (monkeys), prevention of diptheria (horses), antibiotics (rats, mice, rabbits, etc), treatment for whooping cough (pigs and rabbits)....   [tags: essays research papers] 747 words
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Rabies the Fatal Disease - Rabies: A Fatal Disease in Wild Life and Man Kind Abstract: Rabies is a dangerous disease that affects both animals and humans. Rabies is caused by the lyssa virus and is almost 100% fatal. The majority of the people infected die from it but there have been a small number of miraculous cases where people have survived. One very special case took place in the life of Jeanna Giese because she recovered without the use of rabies vaccines. There are four FDA approved vaccines for public usage but they are not guaranteed to cure....   [tags: Lyssa virus Diseases]
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Impact of West Nile Virus on Humans - The Impact of West Nile Virus on Humans (or Why We Should Worry) West Nile virus can infect humans, but there are more drastic ways that it affects our lives. The virus normally lives in birds and is transmitted among them and other animals by mosquitoes. There is no other definite method of transmission, and people do not have to worry about contracting the virus through contact with infected humans or animals. Hundreds of species of birds and many mammals, including several endangered species, are vulnerable to the virus....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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Rabies: Closer Than You Think - Rabies: Closer Than You Think Rabies, a virus of the nervous system and salivary glands is a fast moving killer; it’s not something to mess around with. Rabies comes from the Latin word “to rage”. Rabies is easily associated with rage. When people think of rabies, they usually think of a mad raccoon or dog, foaming at the mouth and running around crazy; dying soon after. The thought of going crazy is a pretty reasonable guess for how rabies torments its victims. The virus enters through a bite or transfer of infected saliva and makes its way through the nerves toward your spinal cord and brain....   [tags: science] 1555 words
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The Global Eradication of Polio - The Global Eradication of Polio   The possibility of the eradication of polio worldwide is an imminent and exciting prospect as the "goal" year quickly approaches. In 1988, the World Health Assembly, which governs the World Health Organization, set the goal of eliminating polio from the world by the year 2010. Many organizations have joined the effort along with the World Health Organization: the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, UNICEF, Rotary International, Global Health Network, the US Agency for International Development, National Immunization Day, and the International Broadcasting Bureau....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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INFLUENZA - Influenza, also known as “the flu,” is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it's almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100° to 103°F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and usually extreme tiredness. There are sometimes other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea but usually only in rare cases with young children....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Understanding the Importance of Immunisation - Understanding the Importance of Immunisation According to http://www.amfar.org/cgi-bin/iowa/bridge.html, immunisation is the administration of antigenic components of an infectious agent to stimulate a protective immune response. Immunisation is a technique that is used to increase immunity to specific diseases in humans by exposing the individual to an anti-gen in order to raise ant-bodies to that anti-gen. Immunisation is a way of protecting against serious diseases such as tuberculosis and polio....   [tags: Papers] 1595 words
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Bacillus Anthracis - Bacillus Anthracis Background: Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming rod. It was the first bacterium to be used to prove that bacteria caused diseases, when Robert Koch (1877) produced anthrax spores and injected them into animals. Bacillus anthracis is a commonly found in soil of grazing areas. Bacillus anthracis is not a major threat to humans and natural cases are rare even where spores are present. Encounter: Bacillus anthracis is commonly found in soil in low amounts. It affects livestock and can be transmitted to humans through improper handing of an infected animal or by eating undercooked meat from the animal....   [tags: Medical Biology Bacteria Essays] 737 words
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