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Utilitarianism - Classical utilitarianism, the theory as described by 17th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, states that the only thing that matters is that are the happiness and unhappiness that is created as a consequence of an action; those actions are to be judged right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences, everything else is irrelevant. The theory also states that each person’s happiness is equally important. According to Mill, the right actions are actions that produce the greatest possible balance of happiness over unhappiness....   [tags: Philosophy] 1269 words
(3.6 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is an ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and defended by James Mill. The theory says, that all the activities should be directed towards the accomplishment of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism is impractical and very unrealistic because, it refuses to focus on the individuals values, morals, and happiness. Utilitarianism endorse risking ones life for the sake of other is not and in fact it rewards such behavior. Utilitarianism mentions that if the outcome of the one persons death saves many lives then therefore it is obligated to do so....   [tags: Psychology] 748 words
(2.1 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism seeks what is good for a human-being to receive pleasure and happiness; no matter if it causes pain. I’m looking for pleasure that will satisfy my inner being, because I consider myself to be the most important person here on earth and my happiness comes first. I decided, if my happiness is good for the people around me then at this point, I will allow it to flow and touch them as long as it doesn’t interfere with my pleasure. Taking a stand with utilitarianism is a risky and dangerous method of living our live because you will have a sense of loneliness that in the long run will not bring you happiness....   [tags: Religion]
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1034 words
(3 pages)
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Utilitarianism - ... How can a person see another suffer sometimes for decades and deny that person of the gift everlasting peace, a relief from a physically and emotionally painful existence. Other countries like Germany have not penalties any one for assisted suicide since 1751 (Humphrey, 2005). The list of countries that either have not laws or do not enforce penalties on physician assisted suicide goes on and on. How can a people around the world are made to suffer unthinkable amounts of physical and mental anguish, so that those who cannot understand the heartache feel better about their values....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Physician Assisted Suicide] 3159 words
(9 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory. An action is right or wrong based on its consequences. John Stuart Mill was an important philosopher in developing the idea of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism holds that any action that results in a greater amount of happiness in the world is a right action and any action that results in pain or less happiness is wrong. Utilitarianism can be divided into different versions. Act utilitarianism is one of the versions of utilitarianism....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
(1.5 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism There are many essays, papers and books written on the concept of right and wrong. Philosophers have theorized about moral actions for eons, one such philosopher is John Stuart Mill. In his book Utilitarianism he tries to improve on the theories of utilitarianism from previous philosophers, as he is a strong believer himself in the theory. In Mill's book he presents the ideology that there is another branch on the utilitarian tree. This branch being called rule-utilitarianism. Mill makes a distinction between two different types of utilitarianism; act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism....   [tags: Papers] 1254 words
(3.6 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism What is Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a philosophical concept that holds an action to be held right if it tends to promote happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarians define the morally right actions as those actions that maximize some non-moral good or happiness and minimize some non-moral evil. Pleasure is an example of a non-moral good and pain is an example of a non- moral evil. A utilitarian will fous on the consequences of an act rather than on the intristic nature of the act or the motives of the agent....   [tags: Papers] 779 words
(2.2 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The principle of Utilitarianism ‘greatest happiness of the greatest number’ can be traced back to Frances Hutchinson and David Hume of Scotland in the 18th century. Utilitarianism theory was developed first by Jeremy Bentham. His student John Stuart Mill who is the most famous Utilitarian then took on this theory. America had fought for and gained their independence from the British to obtain their freedom and greater democracy....   [tags: Papers] 704 words
(2 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the greatest good of the greatest number. It takes the view that an action is right if it is likely to produce the best consequences compared to all the other possible actions. The best consequences are those which involve the maximization of what is good and the minimization of what is bad. The worst consequences are which involve the maximization of what is bad and the minimization of what is good. The basic premise is the idea that the greatest good comes from creating happiness for the greatest number of people....   [tags: Papers] 946 words
(2.7 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism a) What are the key features of Utilitarianism And b) Identify the problems of Utilitarianism to what extent do they make Utilitarianism unacceptable. Jeremy Bentham founded Utilitarianism. He lived at a time of great change. With revolutions in France and America, demands were being made for human rights and greater democracy. Bentham worked on legal reform. Utilitarianism is associated with the principle of utility....   [tags: Papers] 1005 words
(2.9 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is mainly associated with the principle of Utility summarised by Jeremy Bentham, a social reformer, in 1768. This principle was to apply ‘the greatest good of the greatest number’ theory to all situations that may arise. This theory was that which is good is the act which provides the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain....   [tags: Papers] 1020 words
(2.9 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The most important question of all is what should one do since the ultimate purpose of answering questions is either to satisfy curiosity or to decide which action to take. Complicated analysis is often required to answer that question. Beyond ordinary analysis, one must also have a system of values, and the correct system of values is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the system of values stating that maximizing the total happiness of all people is good. Happiness of people should be sacrificed only to bring greater happiness to other people....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers] 2011 words
(5.7 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a moral theory that has long been the subject of philosophical debate. This theory, when practiced, appears to set a very basic guideline to follow when one is faced with a moral dilemma. Fundamental Utilitarianism states that when a moral dilemma arises, one should take action that causes favorable results or reduces less favorable results. If these less favorable results, or pain, occur from this action, it can be justified if it is produced to prevent more pain or produce happiness....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
(2.1 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development, including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk the future in the sake of gains in the present....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine which essentially states that which is good is that which brings about the most happiness to the most people. John Stuart Mill believed that the decisions we make should always benefit the most people as much as possible regardless of the consequences to the minority or even yourself. He would say all that matters in the decision of right versus wrong is the amount of happiness produced by the consequences. In the decisions we make Mill would say that we need to weigh the outcomes and make our decision based on that outcome that benefits the majority....   [tags: essays research papers] 661 words
(1.9 pages)
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On Utilitarianism - In Utilitarianism, J.S. Mill gives an account for the reasons one must abide by the principles of Utilitarianism. Also referred to as the Greatest-happiness Principle, this doctrine promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people. More specifically, Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, holding that the right act is that which yields the greatest net utility, or "the total amount of pleasure minus the total amount of pain", for all individuals affected by said act (Joyce, lecture notes from 03/30)....   [tags: Ethics] 1122 words
(3.2 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism *Missing Works Cited* The principal of utility is to maximize the happiness in ones self by using benefits misusing the harms. It acts as to produce advantage, pleasure, good or happiness and the greatest net balance of benefits over harms for all affected impartially. In Utilitarianism, J.S. Mill was trying to show that actions and institutions should increase the overall amount of happiness in the world, and stressed the importance of utilitarianism as the first principle in ethics....   [tags: Papers] 890 words
(2.5 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism This was written in responce to the following questions: What is the principle of utility. Do you regard it as an adequate basis for judging the progress of society or the desirability of different social institutions. What are its virtues and limitations. How would a utilitarian aproach to judging society differ from a more traditional moral approach. The principle of utility was Jeremy Bentham's idea on how society progresses through maintaining the greatest happiness / good for the greatest number of people....   [tags: Philosophy essays] 546 words
(1.6 pages)
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John Rawls And Utilitarianism -      The social contract theory of John Rawls challenges utilitarianism by pointing out the impracticality of the theory. Mainly, in a society of utilitarians, a citizens rights could be completely ignored if injustice to this one citizen would benefit the rest of society. Rawls believes that a social contract theory, similar those proposed by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, would be a more logical solution to the question of fairness in any government. Social contract theory in general and including the views of Rawls, is such that in a situation where a society is established of people who are self interested, rational, and equal, the rules of justice are established by what is mutually acceptable and agreed upon by all the people therein....   [tags: Rawls Utilitarinism Philosophy Essays]
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2028 words
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Utilitarianism in Government - ... As one cannot promote the interest of the community without factoring in the interest of the individual, all actions have to “...augment the happiness of the community greater than any it has to diminish it”. This is a non-ethical explanation of altruism and government conforms to the principle when it increases the greater good of the community. With the belief that “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness,” (Mill, 1871), citizens of a state would feel compelled to respect laws and regulations as it would maintain harmony within the community....   [tags: Government]
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1664 words
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Deontology Will but Utilitarianism Will Not - ... Theoretically speaking, if there was a machine invented with the intentions that if one was submerged into it we would fall in the hands of a different dimension. In this dimension your life is pre-progammed to experience no other emotion but happiness and pleasure for the rest of your existence. If there was a machine like this would you want to follow through with this machine. Some would say yes, and others would say no. Yes, because a life without pain sounds explicitly wonderful; but I dare to question, is happiness everything....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1169 words
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Mill's Utilitarianism - Mill's Utilitarianism When faced with a moral dilemma, utilitarianism identifies the appropriate considerations, but offers no realistic way to gather the necessary information to make the required calculations. This lack of information is a problem both in evaluating the welfare issues and in evaluating the consequentialist issues which utilitarianism requires be weighed when making moral decisions. Utilitarianism attempts to solve both of these difficulties by appealing to experience; however, no method of reconciling an individual decision with the rules of experience is suggested, and no relative weights are assigned to the various considerations....   [tags: essays research papers] 1327 words
(3.8 pages)
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Explaining Utilitarianism - Explaining Utilitarianism Utilitarianism, in its most basic form is ' the greatest happiness for the greatest number'. Coming from the Latin word, 'utilis', which means useful. Jeremy Bentham wrote, in one of his books in 1789, that utility is, 'a property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness…or… to prevent the happenings of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness'. It is easy to assume that utilitarianism is based on the fact that if something is useful, then it is moral....   [tags: Papers] 1048 words
(3 pages)
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The Theory of Utilitarianism - THEORY-- The theory of Utilitarianism states that actions should be judged as right or wrong depending on whether they cause more happiness or unhappiness. It weighs the rightness and wrongness of an action based on consequences of that action. PRINCIPLES-- (1) CONSEQUENCE PRINCIPLE: Actions are to be judged right or wrong mainly by their own consequences. Nothing else matters. Right actions are those that have the best consequences. -No act is right in and of it self. -No act is wrong in and of it self....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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519 words
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Discussion of Utilitarianism - Discussion of Utilitarianism In this paper I will be discussing utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the theory proposing the principle of utility as the correct ethical standard. I will also be talking about the THEORY of RIGHT CONDUCT, which is also a part of moral theory. I have been asked to prove if Bentham or Mills’ version of utilitarianism is right for the sadistic voyeur case. I will begin by telling you about the case. Case: this man enjoys watching women being brutally raped; he is locked in a room....   [tags: Papers] 820 words
(2.3 pages)
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Ethics in Nursing - ... In contrast with deontology, there is utilitarianism, which is a consequentialist theory. Utilitarianists consider consequences to be an important indicator of the moral value of one’s actions (Rich, 2008). In consequentialist analyses, conclusions about what is right or wrong are based on the consequences (Tanner et al., 2008). Utilitarianism is to promote the greatest good for the greatest amount of people that is possible in situations. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were two early and influential proponents of utilitarianism....   [tags: Deontology, Utilitarianism] 1924 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Effect of Utilitarianism - The importance of human life, is really relative to the person is evaluating it. It differs from person to person. To me, I value life dearly, because everything which has happened to me is pleasant so far. But to some other people, it may not have been such an enjoyable experience. And in some cases, people change their view of human life, as incidents happen which affects the way they evaluate the importance of their lives. Such as people who experienced near-death, or people who attained freedom after long periods of hardship and torture....   [tags: essays research papers] 1415 words
(4 pages)
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Flaws with Utilitarianism - Among the most glaring problems that I see with Utilitarianism is its inclusion of animals under the umbrella that blankets this theory. It seems irrefutable that there exists an inordinate number of cases where the consequence that is against the best interest of an animal is favorable to humans, yet that dictating action is one that has been continually taken and condoned by the general public. This is a fundamental challenge, as the Utilitarian philosophy decrees that the pleasure and pain experienced by all individuals, including animals, has equal worth and must be considered when determining the net benefit of an action’s consequences....   [tags: essays research papers] 637 words
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The Greatest Happiness Principle - ... Mill links this continuous search with dignity (Mill 90). Due to the sense of dignity, “someone will not feel envious of those who bear imperfections because he does not understand the benefits of those limitations” # (Mill 91). In explaining this concept, Mill compares a human being dissatisfied to a pig satisfied and Socrates dissatisfied to a fool satisfied. The pig and fool reason that they are well-off, but the human being and Socrates know they are superior because they are further educated (Mill 91)....   [tags: Philosophy, Utilitarianism] 1362 words
(3.9 pages)
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Utilitarianism: Happiness For All - It must be ironic for a small child in the Appalachian mountains living with his single, jobless mother in a shack without electricity, to read, if he can, the words of the founding fathers: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...” (Kindig, 1995). This is one of the most famous phrases in the US Declaration of Independence and has become the underpinning of the dreams of millions of people around the world....   [tags: Government ]
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Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Times" - ... She is in between both the world of facts and the world of fancy. Louisa has realized that her father's training has denied her a life of any “aspirations and affections” (Stiltner) but one reason for claiming this is the fact that she was a grown woman before she was able to stand up to it, so it may have been too late for her to leave everything ever taught to her completely behind. Even at the end of the novel, she could see things happening to other people around her, but for herself she could not imagine anything good happening....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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Torchwood, Egoism, and Utilitarianism - ... During Frobisher’s interrogation of the 456, the need and form of use of the children is questioned. Instead of verbally acknowledging the question, the 456 believe it is necessary to demonstrate their actions. In the isolation tank, the 456 has a child from the previous 1965 abduction attached to it, aside from looking different, the child has not aged at all. As a result, everyone at the scene comes to the disgusting realization that the children are not being used as life-support, but as a form of “high.” The pre-pubescent children secrete chemicals, hormones, giving the 456 a dosage of utter pleasure that they covet....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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2066 words
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Utilitarianism: Declaring My College Major - Every college student who wants to graduate has to choose a major. Some decide their major while they are in high school, others come to college having a general feel of what they want to pursue but do not decide on a major until they take some classes they are interested in. Unfortunately, I have not chosen a major and need to choose one by the end of the semester in order to enroll again. I want to choose the major through which I can do the most moral good. However, without holding to any philosophy concerning moral good, I have realized choosing this major is quite difficult....   [tags: Personal Decision] 1154 words
(3.3 pages)
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Utilitarianism: Explanation And Study of Criticisms - Utilitarianism: Explanation And Study of Criticisms The dictionary definition of Utilitarianism is: 'The doctrine that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principal of conduct.' When making a moral decision, we should look at the outcome of an action. Whatever brings the greatest happiness to the most people is the morally 'right' decision. It is a consequentialist principal where the majority rules. It is also relative as each situation is looked at differently and will have a different outcome....   [tags: Papers] 3062 words
(8.7 pages)
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Critique Of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism - Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person's intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other hand there is the teleological view which holds that it is the result of an action is what makes that act right or wrong....   [tags: essays research papers] 1762 words
(5 pages)
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Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment - Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment       Raskolnikov's mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism.  Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based on its calculated worth.  Raskolnikov appears to employ the fundamentals of utilitarianism by pitting the negative consequences of murdering his old landlady against the positive benefits that her money would bestow onto society.  However, a true follower of utilitarianism would be outraged at Raskolnikov's claim that murdering the old woman can be considered morally right....   [tags: Crime Punishment Essays]
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Preference-utilitarianism and Past Preferences - Preference-utilitarianism and Past Preferences ABSTRACT: A well-known problem for preference-utilitarianism is to what extent it should exclude from consideration certain preferences. In this paper I focus on past preferences. I outline three general and some particular positions that a preference-utilitarian reasonably would want to take with regard to past preferences and why I think that endorsing each of these positions create new problems for the preference-utilitarian. At the end I sketch on a possible solution to the axiological problems here presented....   [tags: essays research papers yyy] 6388 words
(18.3 pages)
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Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism - Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism Ethics can be defined as "the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs with the aim of improving, extending or refining those beliefs in some way." (Dodds, Lecture 2) Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism are two theories that attempt to answer the ethical nature of human beings. This paper will attempt to explain how and why Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism differ as well as discuss why I believe Kant's theory provides a more plausible account of ethics....   [tags: Papers Immanuel Kant Ethics Morals]
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1353 words
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Jeremy Bentham : Father of Utilitarianism - Assess the merits of Utilitarianism (24 Marks) Utilitarianism is a theory aimed at defining one simple basis that can be applied when making any ethical decision. It is based on a human’s natural instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Jeremy Bentham is widely regarded as the father of utilitarianism. He was born in 1748 into a family of lawyers and was himself, training to join the profession. During this process however, he became disillusioned by the state British law was in and set out to reform the system into a perfect one based on the ‘Greatest Happiness Principle,’ ‘the idea that pleasurable consequences are what qualify an action as being morally good’....   [tags: Ethics Morals Philosophy] 1451 words
(4.1 pages)
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Bernard Williams and Utilitarianism - The utilitarian faces many problems because he loses any ability to live a personal life. By this is meant that in making decisions the utilitarian must consider the steps which lead to the highest level of goodness in society. The utilitarian reaches for the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Two main aspects dominate the light of utilitarian beliefs. The consequentialist principle explains that in determining the rightness or wrongness of an act one must examine the results that will follow....   [tags: Ethics] 686 words
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Kantian Ethics vs. Utilitarianism - 1. Explain Onora O’neil’s argument for preferring Kantian ethics to Utilitarianism. 2. How would Richard Taylor respond to O’neil’s defense of Kantianism. In the following questions, Onora O’neil defends Kantian ethics while Richard Taylor agrees more with the Utilitarian ethics view. To fully understand both views and why each author defends their view, a brief introduction of each author and who they are is necessary. Onora O’neil is a philosophy professor at Cambridge University, while Richard Taylor also teaches philosophy, at the University of Rochester....   [tags: essays research papers] 1188 words
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Bentham's Utilitarianism in Victorian England - Bentham's Utilitarianism in Victorian England   The philosophy of Utilitarianism influenced many of the social reforms in Great Britain during the early half of the nineteenth century. The name most frequently associated with Utilitarianism is that of Jeremy Bentham. Bentham's philosophical principles extended into the realm of government. These principles have been associated with several reform acts entered into English law such as the Factory Act of 1833, the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, the Prison Act of 1835, the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, the Committee on Education in 1839,the Lunacy Act of 1845, and the Public Health Act of 1845....   [tags: European Europe History]
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Utilitarianism And Kantian Ethics - Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics Ethics is one part of philosophy that will always be studied, and like most subjects in philosophy, will never be viewed the same by everyone. There are so many cultures that have so many different beliefs about the way a person's life should be lived out. Things like religion, poverty, and mental health all contribute to our beliefs in ethics. Some people believe that the mental state of a person or the motive for that person committing a crime should be factors when sentencing time comes....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism - John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism Utilitarianism defined, is the contention that a man should judge everything based on the ability to promote the greatest individual happiness. In other words Utilitarianism states that good is what brings the most happiness to the most people. John Stuart Mill based his utilitarian principle on the decisions that we make. He says the decisions should always benefit the most people as much as possible no matter what the consequences might be. Mill says that we should weigh the outcomes and make our decisions based on the outcome that benefits the majority of the people....   [tags: Philosophy Morality John Stuart Mill ] 1321 words
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Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill - Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill, in his Utilitarianism, turns morality into a practical problem. His moral theory is designed to help one evaluate his moral principles and senisibilites and be able to ajudicate conflictions in moral conflicts. Mill postulates that actions are right so far as they tend to promote happiness and minimize pain. This theory manifests itself as an impartial promotion of happiness. Morally "right" actions are ones which promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number number of people and reduce pain....   [tags: Philosophy Ethics] 2814 words
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Moral Theories - ... What one does here is judged from a threshold that measures how one’s act will affect the majority (Hansen 1996). What brings joy/happiness to the majority can therefore be considered to be morally acceptable (Hansen 1996). In applying this utilitarianism theory, we can argue that contacting his uncle (to help in securing the concerned employment) will be morally unacceptable. Looking at it closely, when such system of favoring particular people apart from merit is encouraged, it means that efforts put to hard work (by competitors for opportunities) will be redundant (West 2004)....   [tags: Theory of Utilitarianism, Deontology Theory] 1485 words
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A Brief Analysis of John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism - This work has probably received more analysis than any other work on utilitarianism available. However, I seek to do here what many others have been unable to accomplish so far. I hope to, in five paragraphs, cover each of the chapters of Utilitarianism in enough depth to allow any reader to decide whether or not they subscribe to Mill's doctrine, and if so, which part or parts they subscribe to. I do this with the realization that much of Mill's deliberation in the text will be completely gone....   [tags: Literature Review]
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Utilitarianism vs. Cultural and Ethical Relativism - Utilitarianism vs. Cultural and Ethical Relativism Utilitarianism is an example of Consequentialist Ethics, where the morality of an action is determined by its accomplishing its desired results. In both scenarios the desired result was to save the lives of thousands of people in the community. Therefore, a Utilitarian would say that the actions taken in both of the scenarios are moral. Since an (Act) Utilitarian believes that actions should be judged according to the results it achieves. Happiness should not be simply one's own, but that of the greatest number....   [tags: Papers] 718 words
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Industrialization and Utilitarianism in Dickens' Hard Times - Industrialization and Utilitarianism in Dickens' Hard Times     Charles Dickens uses his fictitious town in Hard Times to represent the industrialization of England at that time or close to it. Most of this representation, however, isn't accurately described compared the way things really were during industrialization. It is important to remember throughout this paper that not only is Hard Times a work of fiction, it was meant to be a satire, a parody of ideas and ways of thinking at the time....   [tags: GCSE English Literature Coursework]
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Utilitarianism or God, do we have to choose? - Utilitarianism or God, do we have to choose. During many years that question is being formulated and many scholars had a very difficult time to decide if it was possible to follow God’s will and the principle of utility maximization. The principle of utility maximization was a theory created by John Stuart Mill and presented in his book Utilitarianism (1863). Societies throughout the years have argued that those theories are hard to combine, since Utilitarianism seeks for self-development and God’s teachings seek for community growth....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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An Examination of Deontology and Utilitarianism in Deeply Moral Situations - An Examination of Deontology and Utilitarianism in Deeply Moral Situations Samuel Adams (1722 - 1803), an American patriot and politician, once stated, "Mankind are governed more by their feelings than by reason"[1]. This statement is significant, as it undermines two of the primary ethical doctrines in philosophy - the deontological perspective defended by Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) in Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (634), and utilitarianism, supported by John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873) in his essay, Utilitarianism (667)....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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Comparing Morality in The Prince, Second Treatise of Government, and Utilitarianism - Comparing Morality in The Prince, Second Treatise of Government, and Utilitarianism Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill present three distinct models of government in their works The Prince, Second Treatise of Government, and Utilitarianism. From an examination of these models it is possible to infer their views about human nature and its connection to the purpose of government. A key to comparing these views can be found in an examination of their ideas of morality as an intermediary between government and human nature....   [tags: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays]
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The Differences in John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham's Versions of Utilitarianism - The Differences in John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham's Versions of Utilitarianism In what ways did John Stuart Mill's version of utilitarianism differ from that of Jeremy Bentham. Which do you consider preferable. The Cambridge International Dictionary of English defines utilitarianism as "the system of thought which states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is the one which most benefits the most people". This is the main idea of the system of thought and it is from this the beliefs and opinions of John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873), Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1832) and other early utilitarians were developed....   [tags: Papers] 2152 words
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The Extent to Which Utilitarianism is Considered Inadequate as a Means of Solving Moral Dilemmas - The Extent to Which Utilitarianism is Considered Inadequate as a Means of Solving Moral Dilemmas Jeremy Bentham who first popularised utilitarianism theorised that it was a principle that supported the majority’s happiness. After arriving at this, he decided to introduce the hedonic principle to measure the quantity of pleasure. This however still left many questions unanswered and so his disciple J.S.Mill came about a qualitative theory. Though an amendment has been made, there still lies the following criticism....   [tags: Papers] 437 words
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Compare Utilitarianism with the religion that you have studiedUtilitarianism VS Christianity - Compare Utilitarianism with the religion that you have studied Utilitarianism VS Christianity BASIC MAXIM – “THE GREATEST HAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER” JEREMY BENTHAM – Act Utilitarianism (each action should be judged on its ability to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number) - Devised principle of utility - Established a hedonic calculus to measure pleasure/pain brought about by each action. JOHN STUART MILL – Rule Utilitarianism (rules should be formulated first, based on utilitarian principles....   [tags: Papers] 686 words
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The British Tradition from Thomas Hobbes to the Utilitarians - The British Tradition from Hobbes to the Utilitarians Hobbes Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is an outstanding example of the independence of mind that became possible in Protestant countries after the Reformation. God does, to be sure, play an honourable role in Hobbes's philosophy, but it is a dispensable role. The philosophical edifice stands on its own foundations; God merely crowns the apex. Hobbes was the equal of the Greek philosophers in his readiness to develop an ethical position based only on the facts of human nature and the circumstances in which humans live; and he surpassed even Plato and Aristotle in the extent to which he sought to do this by systematic deduction from clearly set out premises....   [tags: Politics Philosophy Sociology] 743 words
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Society Must be Governed by Rules - Society Must be Governed by Rules According to Sober, "Utilitarianism is an ethical theory whose central idea is 'the greatest good for the greatest number'" (Sober 430). Utilitarianism rose in opposition to the idea that the upper crust of society had the right to arrange the rules of society as they saw fit. The concern of Utilitarianism is the most good for the most people, not the most good for the people that "matter." From this standpoint, Utilitarianism appears to be an attractive ethical theory....   [tags: Papers] 1295 words
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The Case Study Concerning Joelle - Ethics plays a very important role in one social system and basically on how the people will make their actions or decide on a particular thing on whether it is the right or the wrong thing. Ethical consideration is very important. It helps a person or a group of person understands whether the actions are right or wrong. Ethics is a very critical factor most especially when considering where the ethical standards are to applied. Aside from it, weighing results of actions or decision is also another major concern because of the fact that a person has critically analyze whose side is needed to satisfied....   [tags: Business Ethics]
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Rawl's "A Theory of Justice": Defining the Fairness Theory - ... Rawls rejects this ideal based on his principle of liberty, saying, “Each member of society is thought to have an inviolability founded on justice or, as some say, on natural right, which even the welfare of every one else cannot override.”(25) In a teleological ethic, the right of the individual could be sacrificed to support the good. Under utilitarianism, if the benefit of the good outweighed the benefit of preserving an individual's right, the good would be chosen. In denying the teleological ethic, Rawls advocates a deontological ethic....   [tags: Literary Review ]
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Global Ethics: The Personal Philosophy of an American Expatriate - ... (Velasquez, Andre, Thomas Shanks, & Meyer, 2010, para. 5). Virtues are developed through learning and practice. Velasquez et al. suggest that a virtuous person is an ethical person, as virtue-based ethics provides the ideal, mantra, or life principles that shape the life and behavior of this individual. According to Velasquez et al., virtue-based ethics describes the character which helps individuals to decide on an ethical behavior. Virtue-based ethics differ from utilitarianism and deontological ethical theories, which are action-based theories because they focus entirely upon the actions which a person performs....   [tags: Personal Reflections]
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?Explain why Mill distinguishes between higher and lower pleasures and assess whether he achieves his aim or not.? - »Explain why Mill distinguishes between higher and lower pleasures and assess whether he achieves his aim or not.« March 2005, St Andrews In his Essay Utilitarianism Mill elaborates on Utilitarianism as a moral theory and responds to misconceptions about it. Utilitarianism, in Mill’s words, is the view that »actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.«1 In that way, Utilitarianism offers an answer to the fundamental question Ethics is concerned about: ‘How should one live?’ or ‘What is the good or right way to live?’....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Aldous Huxley A Brave New World - ... An argument in support of utilitarianism follows the three basic propositions of utilitarianism which are: "(a) Actions are to be judged... by virtue of their consequences ... (b) consequences... [are based on] the amount of happiness or unhappiness created ... (c) each person's happiness counts the same" (Rachels1, pg 100). The Controller explains how there is more happiness for more people when they do not have individual thought. In the name of duty, truth has been eliminated from thought through conditioning....   [tags: aldous huxley]
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Why Giving Away Millions of Dollars is Okay - ... Early childhood education programs can help a community in many ways. For one, early childhood education has been shown to improve the benefits of subsequent education, may lead to fewer drop-outs in high school, and a higher intelligence level. Mill says happiness and contentment are confounded, and that the idea that superior person is happier than an uneducated person is an imperfect view. Mill expresses, "it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Gay Marriage - “The only rational course of action is to allow people to override the rules in the interest of the greatest utility.” Act and Rule Utilitarianism are said to be very similar and maybe even collapse into each other when trying to distinguish one from the other. One article has distinguished between act and rule utilitarianism by referring to them as "extreme" and "restricted" utilitarianism. This article claims that the extreme or act version of utilitarianism will use the rules of morality as rules of thumb only....   [tags: essays research papers] 842 words
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Abortion from an Ethical Point of View - Abortion from an Ethical Point of View It is widely accepted that the fact of abortion has been a subject of conversation and controversy for many decades. Since the proportion of people who accept abortion as a ?normal. procedure is equal to the proportion of those who think of abortion as a ?crime?, through time a lot of measurements have been taken against abortion but concerning it?s defense as well. Although the fact of abortion has been examined through it?s scientific and religious side, in this assignment we will try and examine abortion from an ethical point of view....   [tags: Papers Birth Pregnancy Life Essays Papers]
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FBI's Capture and Prosecution of Mitnick - Highlight the main ethical issues that this case brings to light and critically apply :  Consequence based  Duty based  Character based Ethical theories to discuss whether the FBI were correct in attempting to capture and prosecute Mitnick. Introduction to ethics “Ethics”, in general, is nothing but a principle of conduct. Ethics can also be defined as moral philosophy which is used to answer questions related to morality. The word ‘Ethics’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘Ethos’ which simply meant “the state of being” or “to keep ones soul pure”....   [tags: Ethics] 2637 words
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Outsourcing: A Utilitarian Approach to An Ethical Issue - ... Hence, opportunities should be divided in local people as well as foreigners in a justified manner, so that, a balance could be maintained in both sides. As, it is not a healthy practice to behave partially with the persons, so, it's better for an organization that people should be equally treated and all should have their 'stake in outcome' as, it is a necessary part of informal training and should be compulsory for all, not only for those who need it specifically. People should have a clearly set goal for them, so that, during dealing with customers, they may feel responsibility that, they are doing something worthwhile....   [tags: Business Ethics, Globalization]
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Moral Philosophies - ... Individuals in a business may seek their own interest by way of cooperation with others in the business (Shaver, 2010). An ethical egoist may socialize with individuals in the business that they do not get along with in order to seek favor with those individuals. This can only be true if the egoist sees the outcome, possibly a promotion, as more important than the sacrifice they make. In a business, philanthropy is Ethical Egoism because the business is seeking its own interest by giving. “However, Ethical Egoism does not say that you should avoid actions that help others....   [tags: Ethics ]
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Actions and Their Labels of Either Right or Wrong - Actions and Their Labels of Either Right or Wrong In this academic essay there will be an in depth look at the words of Mill, in terms of actions and their labels of either right and wrong, and those connotations to happiness and, so to speak the reverse of happiness. There will be an attempt through various different channels, to illustrate the absurdity of utilitarianism, in the sense of its mere provisional assessment of promoting happiness. Furthermore this essay will also emphasize the fact that happiness is subjective and the ripple effects this would have on the utilitarian theory....   [tags: Papers] 1212 words
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Fight for Rights - Fight for Rights Can you imagine a life without pre-meditated murder. In his movie Minority Report, Steven Spielberg brings this vision to reality in the trappings of a police state. The pre-crime unit is charged with the elimination of pre-meditated murder using three pre-cogs, humans with the ability to predict violent crime. Minority reports- sporadic, erroneous predictions- indicate the fallibility of this system of imperfect procedural justice. Civilians have their rights to privacy violated on a regular basis for collection of intelligence....   [tags: Rights Politics Government Essays]
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Kant - Utilitarianism is a consequential perspective, in that, a decision in based on the effects it ----will have on society and what it will generally lead to. Also, the utility or usefulness of an action is determined by the amount of happiness that will result. Therefore, no action in itself can be deemed wrong; consequence alone are the important matter. Using this principle, one should consider the possible results of each potential action. One clear flaw of the utilitarian perspective is there that there seems to be a lack of the concept of justice....   [tags: essays research papers] 1871 words
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Development of a Rat Model for Studying Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury - This study conducted by Cheng et al endeavored to develop an accurate model for blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, 96 rats were placed under conditions where they were subjected to shock waves produced by an electric detonator with an equivalent force of 400mg of TNT. While some subjects survived the traumatic trauma, all the rats in each subgroup were later eventually killed so that a craniotomy could be carried out. All procedures of this experiment were approved by the Institution Animal Care and Used Committee of the Sichuan University....   [tags: Research Ethics] 503 words
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A Case Study Depicting the Importance of Ethics in Medicine - To protect the individual’s right and confidentiality, the client involved would be referred to as ‘Marge’. Introduction ‘Work for health requires moral commitment’ (Seedhouse, 2009 p. xiviii). Therefore, the obligation rests on healthcare professionals faced with ethical dilemma in their practice to make moral decision which should promote and enhance health ( Rumbold, 1999; Sim, 1997). Ethics is concerned with the basis on which an action is determined as either right or wrong (Rumbold, 1999; MacIntyre, 2005)....   [tags: Medical Ethics, Nursing]
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Business Theory Comparison - 1. What is the purpose of business. This question can have an endless amount of answers and they all can be correct. The goal will not be to find a definite answer but to explore four main business ethics theories to get a better understanding of what the purpose of business is. 2. A solely profit based business model would define stockholder theory in which the paramount goal of the business is to produce the most earnings for their stockholders. Prioritizing profits over a positive public image Goldman Sachs becomes an excellent example of stockholder theory....   [tags: Business] 749 words
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Four Normative Theories Which Help Guide Ethical Decision Making - Ethics permeates all aspects of society, both on an individual and societal level for it involves human interaction. The ethical decision-making models, like humans – are complex and do not exist in isolation, thus finding a set of uniform ethical values and standards in a multicultural society is highly challenging. This essay will briefly overview four Normative theories which help guide ethical decision making, regarding the hypothetical scenario case given from the teacher’s perspective. Main Ethical Issue This scenario offers a plethora of complex situations; however the main ethical issue appears to surround the lack of safety, understanding and respect due to different cultural views, perspectives, values and needs of others....   [tags: Ethics]
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Consequentialism, Non- Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics - Introduction This essay will provide a theoretical understanding of the four ethical frameworks: Consequentialism, Non- Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics. When applied to a situation these frameworks help teachers to resolve and justify their decision making. The objective is to apply the four frameworks to the scenario Helping Molly, to establish the most ethical course of action. Finally, a recommended course of action will be justification. The overarching ethical issue present within the Helping Molly scenario is the community sponsorship and the alignment with school beliefs and initiatives....   [tags: Ethics]
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Ethics: Where Do We Learn What Constitutes Right or Wrong? - ... Utilitarianism ethics values living based upon the motto that the end justifies the means, particularly when the ends benefit the majority rather than the minority. One who follows this school of thought will when forced to make a decision that requires them to determine the right or wrong of their actions will follow the belief that their actions must benefit the largest segment of a group in order to be the right decision. Deontological ethics, in comparison to Utilitarianism, follows the prescription that in order to decide whether something is right or wrong, duty to those around you as well oneself comes first....   [tags: Ethics ]
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Is Capital Punishment Ethical? - ... Each approach provides a unique look in the idea of capital punishment and will help to look at the consequences at the present time, as well as in the future. The question of whether it is ethically acceptable to take the life of someone is at the heart of this issue. In order to determine if it is ethical I am going to first try and look at this issue using the utilitarianism approach, by looking at whether the decision will result in the most amount of pleasure with the smallest amount of pain....   [tags: Capital Punishment, Death Penalty] 2403 words
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morality - Philosophy Papers Same Day Delivery. Only $9.95/page + FREE Bibliography!!. Papers On More Philosophers & Philosophies Page 3 of 36 Previous Next Immanuel Kant's 'Critique Of Pure Reason' [ send me this paper ] A 5 page paper that provides an analysis of Kant's work and focuses on the ideal of pure reason as a central development. No additional sources cited. Filename: Kantreas.wps Immanuel Kant's Concept of Good Will Analyzed [ send me this paper ] A 5 page paper which examines German philosopher Immanuel Kant's good will principle as articulated in his 1785 work, The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals (also known as The Grounding For the Metaphysics of Morals....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Happiness - John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Happiness Along with other noted philosophers, John Stuart Mill developed the nineteenth century philosophy known as Utilitarianism - the contention that man should judge everything in life based upon its ability to promote the greatest individual happiness. While Bentham, in particular, is acknowledged as the philosophy’s founder, it was Mill who justified the axiom through reason. He maintained that because human beings are endowed with the ability for conscious thought, they are not merely satisfied with physical pleasures; humans strive to achieve pleasures of the mind as well....   [tags: John Stuart Mill Philosophical Essays] 1114 words
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