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Your search returned over 400 essays for "utilitarianism"
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Utilitarianism, Economics and Ethics - Imagine a child living in a hot, government owned apartment in Chicago. He has no father. With his single, jobless mother he struggles to the words of the founding fathers: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...” (The Declaration of Independence). This is one of the most famous phrases in the US Declaration of Independence and has become the underpinning of the dreams of millions of people around the world....   [tags: Flaws in Utilitarianism]
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1747 words
(5 pages)
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Theory of Utilitarianism and the Innocent Baystander - The ultimate desire of humanity and the focal point of human endeavor has been that elusive beacon of life that flutters, flickers, teases but pleases only a few. That beacon of happiness is sought and hunted by all as the ultimate goal. In this essay, I will outline the theory of utilitarianism along with a very compelling objection to it, called the ‘innocent bystander’ objection. I will begin my paper by defining the ethical theory of utilitarianism, preference and hedonistic utilitarianism, lay out the innocent bystander objection and provide support....   [tags: utilitarianism, baystander objection]
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1450 words
(4.1 pages)
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The History of Utilitarianism - Fudging records and misstating corporate revenue to management, shareholder, and the IRS is unlawful activity. Therefore, Alex in this case scenario must abide by the law and take the right action that is in accordance to the law. The ethical implications of this case the consequences of doing what it right to those who are involved in the scenario. This paper is going to analyze the theories of virtue ethicist, act utilitarianism, and Kant’s duty ethicists based on the given scenario for this case, and assume what a person representing these theories would recommend Alex as the right thing to do....   [tags: virtue ethicist, utilitarianism, Kant, duty ethics]
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1069 words
(3.1 pages)
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Utilitarianism: The Greatest Happiness Principle - Utilitarianism was first brought up along the nourishing of “The Greatest Happiness Principle” introduced by Jeremy Bentham and further developed by John Stuart Mill, who was a follower of Bentham (Sweet, 2013). Based upon its principle, Utilitarianism states that to be good is to generate the greatest possible amount of happiness for the greatest number. In contrast with rational egoism, Utilitarianism focuses more on maximizing the overall net happiness of the majority. When facing a decision to make, utilitarianism provide us the evaluations of actions taken based upon their consequences (Sweet, 2013)....   [tags: utilitarianism, happiness principle, utilitarian] 525 words
(1.5 pages)
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Utilitarianism: Greatest Happiness Principle - Utilitarianism, originally introduced by Jeremy Bentham and extended by John Stuart Mill, (Mark Timmons, 2006) is an ethical theory which states that to be good is to deliver the greatest amount of happiness to most of the people based on the consequences of the action. Utilitarianism considers the good for the majority is the final solution rather than everyone severing only their own interests. Utilitarianism mainly focuses on the possible consequences of a decision....   [tags: utilitarianism, ethical theory, happiness] 1627 words
(4.6 pages)
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Utilitarianism and Its Shortcomings - Utilitarianism is the argument that all actions must be made for the greatest happiness for the greater number of people (Bentham, 42). However, utilitarianism cannot always be the basis of one’s decisions due to the fact that people need to look out for their own pain and pleasure before consulting others’ wellbeing. I will first explain the arguments of the utilitarianism ideal. Then I willl explain why this argument is unconvincing. Ultimately, I will then prove why people consider their own happiness before considering others....   [tags: Happiness, utilitarianism, Bentham]
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1268 words
(3.6 pages)
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John Stuart Mill's Selections From Utilitarianism - John Stuart Mill, a very important philosopher in the 19th century, is one of the earliest advocates of Utilitarianism. In his essay, Selections From Utilitarianism, Mill defines what the theory is and provides his responses to common misconceptions people have against it. Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, states that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (77 Mill). Utilitarianism focuses on the general good of the world over individual pleasure....   [tags: Utilitarianism Essays] 580 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Idea of Utilitarianism According to Jeremy Bentham - Utilitarianism is a moral calculus – dependent upon a cost-benefit analysis – whose function is to maximize utility, which determines right from wrong. Jeremy Bentham, who argued, that the highest principle of morality is to maximize happiness, founded the doctrine; hence, according to him, the right thing to do is anything that maximizes utility. Moreover, Bentham contended against the opponents of the principle of utility that every moral argument must implicitly draw from the idea of maximizing happiness....   [tags: utilitarianism, utility, individual liberty] 871 words
(2.5 pages)
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Higher and Lower Pleasures: Their Effects on Millian Utilitarianism - In this paper, I examine Mill’s distinction between higher and lower pleasures that he presents in his Utilitarianism. Then, I raise objections to Mill’s distinction by focusing on the ambiguity of his definition of pleasures and his concept of the competent judge. I conclude that, with a recalculation of the definition of pleasures, his distinction of higher and lower pleasures can support a broader theory of utilitarianism. 1. Examining Mill’s Distinction Utilitarianism is a moral theory that is rooted in the belief that happiness, which is understood as pleasure and the privation of pain, is the only thing that is intrinsically good....   [tags: Utilitarianism, Mill's Distinction]
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1253 words
(3.6 pages)
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What does Utilitarianism Has to do with a Surgeon - The guiding principle, being utilitarianism, is to act in the way which will always produce the maximum overall amount of goodness in the world. The basic purpose of morality is making the world a much better place to live in (Hinman, 2014). Morality is also about producing some good consequences and not having any kind of good intension. It also states that we should be doing whatever brings the maximum benefit (intrinsic value) to the entire humanity. Case: rule utilitarian vs....   [tags: surgeon, utilitarianism, morality]
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1551 words
(4.4 pages)
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Utilitarianism, by John Stuart Mill - Explain why Mill distinguishes between higher and lower pleasures and assess whether he achieves his aim or not. In his essay, Utilitarianism Mill elaborates on Utilitarianism as a moral theory and responds to misconceptions about it. Utilitarianism, in Mill’s words, is the view that »actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.«1 In that way, Utilitarianism offers an answer to the fundamental question Ethics is concerned about: ‘How should one live?’ or ‘What is the good or right way to live?’....   [tags: Utilitarianism Essays]
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1395 words
(4 pages)
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Utilitarianism - This essay will present the key features of Utilitarianism and identify the problems of Utilitarianism to the extent to which they make Utilitarianism unacceptable. Jeremy Bentham founded Utilitarianism. He lived at a time of great change. With revolutions in France and America, demands were being made for human rights and greater democracy. Bentham worked on legal reform. Utilitarianism is associated with the principle of utility. Utility means the amount of satisfaction or pleasure that somebody gains from consuming a commodity, product, or service, i.e.; useful....   [tags: criticisms of utilitarianism] 1212 words
(3.5 pages)
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The Theory of Classical Utilitarialism - In this essay, I will talk about the theory of classical utilitarianism. My objection will be about how classical utilitarianism ignores justice and moral rights, and I will argue how this can undermine the theory. I will then discuss how this theory cannot be saved from this objection. Classical utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism where actions are judged only by the consequences of the action (act based). According to Hodgson (1967), the act is only right if it was to have the best consequences for any alternative acts open to you....   [tags: utilitarialism,moral rights,consequentialism]
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1029 words
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John Rawls And Utilitarianism -      The social contract theory of John Rawls challenges utilitarianism by pointing out the impracticality of the theory. Mainly, in a society of utilitarians, a citizens rights could be completely ignored if injustice to this one citizen would benefit the rest of society. Rawls believes that a social contract theory, similar those proposed by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, would be a more logical solution to the question of fairness in any government. Social contract theory in general and including the views of Rawls, is such that in a situation where a society is established of people who are self interested, rational, and equal, the rules of justice are established by what is mutually acc...   [tags: Rawls Utilitarinism Philosophy Essays]
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2028 words
(5.8 pages)
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Is rule-utilitarianism preferable to act-utilitarianism - Is rule-utilitarianism preferable to act-utilitarianism. Classical utilitarianism is a normative ethical theory which holds that an action can only be considered as morally right where its consequences bring about the greatest amount of good to the greatest number (where 'good' is equal to pleasure minus pain). Likewise, an action is morally wrong where it fails to maximise good. Since it was first articulated in the late 19th Century by the likes of Jeremy Bentham and later John Stewart Mill, the classical approach to utilitarianism has since become the basis for many other consequentialist theories such as rule-utilitarianism and act-utilitarianism upon which this essay will focus (Driver,...   [tags: killing,ethical theory, consequentialism]
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1769 words
(5.1 pages)
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Deontology Will but Utilitarianism Will Not - Deontology Will but Utilitarianism Will Not My brother once introduced a song to me that described a scene so gruesome and so cruel that I could not help but shed a tear or two. This particular song was based on an experience by rapper, Immortal Technique. He encountered this in his youth when he was swept away by a lifestyle that promised riches and lavish things at a very expensive cost, the life of a gangster. The song starts off with a solemn tune and then moves on by telling the tale of Billy, a feeble young man desperate to prove he was evil; but what ever the case may be his greed over took him and he then decides to roll with the big thugs....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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On Utilitarianism - In Utilitarianism, J.S. Mill gives an account for the reasons one must abide by the principles of Utilitarianism. Also referred to as the Greatest-happiness Principle, this doctrine promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people. More specifically, Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, holding that the right act is that which yields the greatest net utility, or "the total amount of pleasure minus the total amount of pain", for all individuals affected by said act (Joyce, lecture notes from 03/30)....   [tags: Ethics] 1122 words
(3.2 pages)
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Ethics and Utilitarianism - ... This image is a visual representation to a utile situation, it shows how we must consider all the negative outcomes and all the positive outcomes and weigh them accordingly, if the positive outweighs the negative more than another outcome then the actions that produces that outcome is sought to be morally correct. ( meaning sum) Jeremy Bentham define Utilitarianism by two major parts: act-utilitarianism and hedonistic utilitarianism. Act-Utilitarianism is used to measure the amount of good and bad produced by actions and hedonistic utilitarianism is used to measure the amount of pleasure and pain....   [tags: Morality, Happiness] 1181 words
(3.4 pages)
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Utilitarianism in Government - In its political philosophy utilitarianism provides an alternative to theories of natural law and the social contract by basing the authority of government and the sanctity of individual rights upon their utility, or measure of happiness gained. As an egalitarian doctrine, where everyone’s happiness counts equally, the rational, relatively straightforward nature of utilitarianism offers an attractive model for democratic government. It offers practical methods for deciding the morally right course of action - “...an action is right as it tends to promote happiness, wrong as it tends to diminish it, for the party whose interests are in question” (Bentham, 1780)....   [tags: Government]
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1664 words
(4.8 pages)
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Importance of Utilitarianism - When it comes to utilitarianism, the definition or what it actually is differs from one person to another depending on their situation. It all boils down to one question: “What will make the most people the most happy?” Even though it seems like an easy question to answer, the decisions you must face in answering it are not. Should you make yourself happy or should you make others happy. Is it okay to sacrifice the happiness of a couple of people if it makes everyone else happy. What happens to the few who get sacrificed for the happiness of the many others....   [tags: Happiness, Morality] 556 words
(1.6 pages)
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In Mill's Utilitarianism - In Mill’s Utilitarianism, he described what he defines what is happiness and unhappiness by using the greatest happiness principle. The greatest happiness principle is where the action is justified if it promotes happiness and is wrong when they promote the opposite of happiness. Happiness occurs when there are elements of intending pleasure and having an absence of pain. Since the elements of happiness are things that are ends in themselves, and the only thing is good. Happiness having no higher means of life makes other occurrences or experiences wanted only to a certain extent because it produces pleasure....   [tags: maximizing pleasure, happiness] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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Types of Utilitarianism - ... For him, the question of ‘ought’ or of ‘ought not’ in the multitude of situation makes the concept of moral obligation much more problematic. He thinks that non naturalistic writers in ethics have consistently tried not only to account for the concept of moral obligation, but also they defend and explain the fact of unconditional moral obligation. There are three important theories of this type: the first is from a source of obligation in the will of God; the second is from Immanuel Kant’s theory of deontology; the third is from the source of moral obligation in value and virtue ethics....   [tags: act and rule, obligation] 1196 words
(3.4 pages)
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Critisism for Rule and Act Utilitarianism - “Utilitarianism is the view that the supreme principle of morality is to act so as to produce as much happiness as possible, each person counting equally” (Mill, 114). By ‘happiness’, this includes anything that is pleasurable and free of pain. Simply put, utilitarianism is the theory that an action is right, as long as it produces the greatest good for the most number of people (Peetush). The central point to this theory is that one must consider every consequence before taking any action. There are two classical forms of utilitarianism; rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism....   [tags: utility, individuals, justice] 1170 words
(3.3 pages)
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Utilitarianism is a Form of Consequentialism - Current utilitarianism was created by mixing Jeremy Bentham’s account for utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill’s account for utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham’s account for utilitarianism focused on pleasure. He defined utilitarianism by recognizing the fundamental role of pain and pleasure, approving or disproving the actions based on the amount of pain or pleasure brought on by the consequences, equating good with pleasure and evil with pain, and in return measuring whether pleasure exceeded pain....   [tags: moral theories]
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1657 words
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Comparing and Contrasting Utilitarianism and Kantianism - ... Good is equated to happiness (satisfaction) and alternatively bad only comes close to sadness (dissatisfaction) and brings no pleasure. Utilitarianism is used to identify the best and satisfactory course of action based on a program that clearly points at the most advantageous channel. Maximized goods consider among others people in the society affected by the chosen course of action in the present circumstance. b) Cost-Benefit Analysis: Utilitarianism breaks down moral law into different quantifiable units that interact to define an ethical decision: Entire pleasure- Entire Pain= Total Utility (Lukas 47)....   [tags: theories on ethics]
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2126 words
(6.1 pages)
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Taking a Look at Utilitarianism - ... With rule utilitarianism, one first tries to determine which rules would maximize net happiness, then acts according to those rules. Act utilitarianism says: an action is right iff it, of the available actions, maximizes net happiness. Rule utilitarianism says: an action is right iff it is consistent with the rules that would maximize net happiness. According to the writings of the British philosopher John Mill, no human being would be willing to give up his or her capacity for thought in order to secure even a lifetime of simple physical pleasures....   [tags: philosophical analysis]
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641 words
(1.8 pages)
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Utilitarianism in the World Trade Organization - Ethical traditions are useful in helping to understand the complex situations found in international relations that occur in an anarchical international system. One way to participate in the international system is through trade with other states. At first glance, trade does not seem unethical, for it benefits those involved. However, trade amongst the world’s various states comes with some dilemmas. This paper will focus on how the World Trade Organization (WTO) acts in a utilitarian manner, producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people and causes the least amount of harm to the fewest people as possible....   [tags: Ethics, Purpose, Principles, Problems]
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1414 words
(4 pages)
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Using Utilitarianism to Address Abortion - ... So if a parent decides not to get an abortion and has the baby, and the baby grows up to live a terrible life filled with misery and unhappiness, then in this case abortion would be morally impermissible. If the parents, family members, or anyone involved with abortion is effected in a negative way that outweighs the positives, then abortion is morally impermissible again. In another case, if an abortion produces more good than bad in the parents, babies, or anyone else involved in the abortion, then abortion is morally permissible....   [tags: act and rule, morality] 1293 words
(3.7 pages)
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On Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics - 1. Introduction (Beginning unfinished) In this paper, I will introduce two arguments against Classical Utilitarianism and explain why they are compelling and tenable objections. I will then anticipate how a non-utilitarian Consequentialist might try to avoid these problems. In the last section, I will use the example of poverty relief to explain why Kantian Ethics immunes from the harsh criticisms faced by Utilitarian. 2. Two Objections to Classical Utilitarianism Classical Utilitarianism is the doctrine that an act is morally right if and only if it maximizes overall (actual or expected) utility, and each person’s utility is counted impartially in the calculation....   [tags: phylosophy, greek, classic]
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1357 words
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Is Utilitarianism Too High for Humanity - ... In our lives, people have made many choices with ulterior motives. For example most people who have a part-time job does not necessarily like the job itself but rather they want money and to obtain that money they will do their jobs. One of the objections to utilitarianism says that it is too high for humanity saying that as humans we cannot always do what's right considering that we have our own interests still, such as the example above, Mill's reply to this says that Utilitarianism does not care about the motive about the person, but rather the consequences of it....   [tags: choices, happiness, motives] 578 words
(1.7 pages)
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On Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics - ... Many have suggested that Classical Utilitarianism is too demanding to be a plausible moral theory, not simply because CU demands tremendous sacrifices; after all, nearly every moral theory (except, perhaps, Ethical Egoism) demands that people make sacrifices under certain circumstances. The objection is perhaps better summarized as follows: Let a be the act of sacrificing one’s own interest for the sake of improving a stranger’s life. For example, in Singer’s case, a refers to the act of donating one’s money to Bangladesh strangers instead of using it for personal expenses....   [tags: ethical theories, contemporary philosophy] 1689 words
(4.8 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Classical utilitarianism, the theory as described by 17th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, states that the only thing that matters is that are the happiness and unhappiness that is created as a consequence of an action; those actions are to be judged right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences, everything else is irrelevant. The theory also states that each person’s happiness is equally important. According to Mill, the right actions are actions that produce the greatest possible balance of happiness over unhappiness....   [tags: Philosophy] 1269 words
(3.6 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is an ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and defended by James Mill. The theory says, that all the activities should be directed towards the accomplishment of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism is impractical and very unrealistic because, it refuses to focus on the individuals values, morals, and happiness. Utilitarianism endorse risking ones life for the sake of other is not and in fact it rewards such behavior. Utilitarianism mentions that if the outcome of the one persons death saves many lives then therefore it is obligated to do so....   [tags: Psychology] 748 words
(2.1 pages)
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism seeks what is good for a human-being to receive pleasure and happiness; no matter if it causes pain. I’m looking for pleasure that will satisfy my inner being, because I consider myself to be the most important person here on earth and my happiness comes first. I decided, if my happiness is good for the people around me then at this point, I will allow it to flow and touch them as long as it doesn’t interfere with my pleasure. Taking a stand with utilitarianism is a risky and dangerous method of living our live because you will have a sense of loneliness that in the long run will not bring you happiness....   [tags: Religion]
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1034 words
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Utilitarianism, by John Stuart Mill - In John Stuart Mill’s work Utilitarianism, Mill is trying to provide proof for his moral theory utilitarianism and disprove all the objections against it. Mill defines utilitarianism as a theory based on the principle that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness" (Ch. II, page 7). He calls this the “greatest happiness principle. Mill says, “No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except the fact that each person desires his own happiness, so far as he thinks it is attainable....   [tags: Morality Principle, General Happiness]
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2028 words
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Utilitarianism and the Case for Euthanasia - Unitarianism and the Case for Euthanasia One of greatest moral issues facing society today is that of freedom. Freedom is a principle that this country was founded on at the start of its inception. Freedom is still a cause that requires our attention. The great debate on simple liberties such as the right to decide what happens to one’s body is still an issue that society has failed to resolve. It is a moral quandary that will continue to be discussed and a deliberated on as long as humankind are free moral agents with personal moral preferences....   [tags: Argument For Assisted Suicide]
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1362 words
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Utilitarianism - The United States flag stands to the world as a signal of freedom and most importantly choice. The constitution gives our citizens that right to choose how to live life, how to use our liberty, and how to pursue our own happiness. But what happens when a citizen decides to opt for no life. Is that not a choice. This is the argument for one of the most controversial questions of the past decade, should assisted suicide be deemed legal in the United States. The root of the controversy is the involvement of medical community in such a choice....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Physician Assisted Suicide] 3159 words
(9 pages)
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Utilitarianism in Dickens' "Hard Times" - ‘Hard Times’ is a wonderful story, but when one thinks about the reality that lies behind the work, the novel becomes a masterpiece. This novel becomes very important because utilitarianism was the main thought in Victorian era. Utilitarianism, “the forms of liberty and equality that will produce the greatest happiness depend on the state of the educational, political, economic, and social structure” (Harris). Everything is explained by logic and facts. It is easy for the reader to find out that Dickens teases this theory, but the exciting thing is how he does it through the characters....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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1226 words
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Rules in Utilitarianism Reconsidered - Is utilitarianism able to account for the importance of justice and honesty. Be sure to discuss both rule and act utilitarianism. Do either of these accounts work. Explain your answer. Justice and Honesty: Rules in Utilitarianism Reconsidered Utilitarianism, with the Principle of Utility or Greatest Happiness Principle being its core, is a consequentialist theory which attaches the greatest importance to the consequences of each action. While acting justly and honestly may not always bring the best consequences, some criticize its conflicts between traditional moral rules or virtues, such as justice and honesty....   [tags: greatest happiness principle]
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1472 words
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A Brief Look at Utilitarianism - ... The most common accident occurs when the discharge chute gets plugged tempting the operator to reach into the chute to unplug it, leading to cut off or badly injured fingers when operators reach in too far. Because of this Charlie Burns, the president, calls a meeting with the legal staff and engineers to figure out a way to reduce the companies’ legal liability associated with selling the Model 1 Pulverizer. The legal department suggests they do the following: 1. Put bright yellow warning signs on the Model 1 Pulverizer that say, “Danger....   [tags: philosophical analysis] 1341 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Ethical Theory of Utilitarianism - ... Despite all these positive economic impacts, this industry is plagued with contention and conflict. (Sagebien, 2008) Anti-development effects of mining thought of as the “resource curse” includes twisted economics, unfavourable social and environmental consequences at the community level, domestic economic dependence on extraction to the exclusion of other more sustainable industries, loss of biodiversity, broadening income and wealth inequalities, and widespread corruption. From an environmental aspect, while advances in technology that has improved mining safety and reduced harmful environmental impacts, mining operations occupy large expanses of land that take away top soil and vegeta...   [tags: morally correct, economy, mining companies] 716 words
(2 pages)
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Absent Trust Within Utilitarianism - ... As a utilitarian, one realizes that others want the peace of mind of knowing that their wishes will be fulfilled and promises kept more than anything. Because of this, the utilitarian simply gives that person the piece of mind they are in search of and then instead performs an action that increases their own utility. For example, if someone has an extremely ill relative who asks only of that person to bury them with their last hundred dollar bill, a utilitarian would obviously ensure that person that they will honor their wish....   [tags: trust, happiness, emotions] 913 words
(2.6 pages)
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Defending Utilitarianism- Mill's Answer - ... 33). The conditions are the following: once inside the experience machine, the subject cannot distinguish any of his experiences from those he would have outside of it. Thereby, before entering and after every two years in the machine, one will have a short time to cherry-pick the experiences of the upcoming two years in the tank. He requests his audience to ignore practical issues they could have with the machine. Namely, others can also plug to have their desired experiences, so there is no necessity to stay unplugged to serve them....   [tags: posthumous, Nozick, experience machine]
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1154 words
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Unfinished theory of Utilitarianism - Introduction Utilitarianism is a school of thought from consequentialism. Consequentialists believe that we must guide our actions by the consequences that follow them. Utilitarian’s specifically believe that we should maximize happiness, and we ought to implement the actions that bring the most happiness overall. I will consider two cases from a utilitarian’s perspective, and then give reasons why this would not be a good theory to undertake. Our first main issue is conflicts with impartiality; a utilitarian is required to be impartial in order to produce greatest amount of happiness....   [tags: Consequentialism, School of Thought]
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1189 words
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Singer, Bentham and Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism was initially a school of thought brought about by Jeremey Bentham throughout the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries. John Stuart Mill would later go on to shape it closer to the form we know today. On the surface the Utilitarian way of thinking seems simple: every action must be done for the sake of the greater good. However, as one digs deeper into this notion it is clear that this cannot be achieved by relying solely on a common sense approach to life. In the following paragraphs we will explore the history of Utilitarianism and those who formed it, how it is meant to guide life, and how it is relevant to life in the Twenty-first Century....   [tags: philosophical schools of thought]
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1951 words
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Arguments against Act Utilitarianism - ... A rational being can see that regardless of the result of applying AU, it would be unjust and morally wrong for David to kill the innocent individual regardless of how many lives are saved, and thus AU is not a correct ethical theory. This can be presented as follows - 1. If AU is true, David should kill the healthy patient and transplant his organs. It is false that David ought to kill the healthy patient and transplant his organs. Therefore, AU is false. Opponents of AU use this example to highlight how AU can produce unjust, and thus incorrect results to ethical dilemmas....   [tags: ethical theory, justice]
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1220 words
(3.5 pages)
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Torchwood, Egoism, and Utilitarianism - Torchwood’s third season “Children of Earth,” contains many momentous events which question human rationality, having good sagacity, judgment, and equanimity. Throughout these events two ethical philosophies unravel. The first philosophy, egoism, actions with solely one’s interests in mind, plays a major role in the season. Ethical egoists believe that one should look out for no one else but themselves, and a theory of psychological egoism states that whatever the reasoning is behind an action, the action is always an individual’s self-interest....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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2066 words
(5.9 pages)
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The Flaws of Act-Utilitarianism - In this paper I will argue that John Stuart Mill, the presenter of the most compelling theory of act-utilitarianism (AU), ultimately falls short in addressing the moral complexities which factor into man’s virtues and its effect on his motives for certain actions. John Stuart Mill’s core arguments follow and contrast many theories established by Jeremy Bentham. Combining the idea of consequentialism, that consequences of actions are the sole factor in moral evaluation, and hedonism—which states that pleasure is the sole factor in considering the value of overall intrinsic good—AU argues that an action is right if its consequences yield the greatest amount of happiness for the general well...   [tags: Mill vs. Bentham] 1551 words
(4.4 pages)
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Mill's Utilitarianism - Mill’s Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a consequentialist moral theory, meaning the morality of our actions is judged according to the consequences they bring about. According to utilitarianisms, all our actions should promote happiness. For Mill, happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain. In this paper, I will discuss the objection to Utilitarianism that is only fit for a swine, and Mill’s responses to that objection. Those people who reject this moral theory will say utilitarianism does not grant human life enough value compared to that of a pig....   [tags: moral theory, happiness]
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984 words
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The Theory of Utilitarianism - THEORY-- The theory of Utilitarianism states that actions should be judged as right or wrong depending on whether they cause more happiness or unhappiness. It weighs the rightness and wrongness of an action based on consequences of that action. PRINCIPLES-- (1) CONSEQUENCE PRINCIPLE: Actions are to be judged right or wrong mainly by their own consequences. Nothing else matters. Right actions are those that have the best consequences. -No act is right in and of it self. -No act is wrong in and of it self....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Effectiveness of Utilitarianism as a Modern Moral Theory - ... The rule and act of Utilitarianism have sprung up to counter the obvious flaws in ideal Utilitarianism. This is obviously an accepted part of Utilitarianism that rules should be applied to opt the right action when faced with a choice. The subject performing should already have a preordained sense of what is right and wrong, and he should apply that knowledge in making his decision”. Rule Utilitarianism gives a more central place to rules as opposed to the initial theory, and it takes a less flexible approach that was initially intended....   [tags: avenues to reason, philosophy] 940 words
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The Effect of Utilitarianism - The importance of human life, is really relative to the person is evaluating it. It differs from person to person. To me, I value life dearly, because everything which has happened to me is pleasant so far. But to some other people, it may not have been such an enjoyable experience. And in some cases, people change their view of human life, as incidents happen which affects the way they evaluate the importance of their lives. Such as people who experienced near-death, or people who attained freedom after long periods of hardship and torture....   [tags: essays research papers] 1415 words
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Arguments Against Utilitarianism - As a philosophical approach, utilitarianism generally focuses on the principle of “greatest happiness”. According to the greatest happiness principle, actions that promote overall happiness and pleasure are considered as right practices. Moreover, to Mill, actions which enhance happiness are morally right, on the other hand, actions that produce undesirable and unhappy outcomes are considered as morally wrong. From this point of view we can deduct that utilitarianism assign us moral duties and variety of ways for maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain to ensure “greatest happiness principle”....   [tags: Happiness, Morality, Actions] 1464 words
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Utilitarianism versus Deontologism - Introduction Utilitarianism is normative ethical theory from a school of thought that believes we must guide our actions always by the consequences that can from follow them. Utilitarian’s believe we ought to implement the actions that bring the most overall happiness. Deontologists believe in an ethical theory that is guided by maxims, which means the action you choose must be applied to all scenarios, for example even if lying is the best option in one particular situation, in most regular situations lying will cause more damage so we must follow that as a principle all the time....   [tags: sociological/phylosophical analysis]
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Deontology and Utilitarianism: Ethical Theories for Nurses - Deontology and Utilitarianism: Ethical Theories for Nurses Ethics is not a concept that is thought about often, but it is practiced on a daily basis. Even while unconscious of the fact, people consider ethics while making every choice in life. There are many theories to which people allude, but two radically different theories that are sometimes practiced are deontology and utilitarianism. Deontology deals with actions in a situation while utilitarianism examines the consequences of those actions....   [tags: immanuel kant, philosophy]
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Hapiness and Utilitarianism in Mill´s Essay - ... After this, Mill looks at the idea that states it is degrading towards humans to say that the meaning of life is pleasure. Replying to this, Mill says that humans hold superior pleasures when in comparison to animalistic ones. Mill says that once people start to understand that they have higher expectations of pleasures, they will never be happy to just try to ‘get by.’ there are some pleasures that are demeaning, yet this does not mean all of them are: in/stead, some pleasures are ‘better’ than others....   [tags: Pleasure, Pain, Moral] 567 words
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Philosophy: Two Differetn Types of Utilitarianism - John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was one of the leading British moral philosophers of the nineteen-century (Feinberg, 596). As presented in class, Mill’s principle of utility is known as the greatest happiness principle which is defined as “actions are right as they tend to promote happiness and wrong as they tend to promote unhappiness” or in simple words “right actions maximize overall happiness” (Feinberg, 597). Mills definition of happiness is seen as “pleasure absent of pain” (Feinberg, 597). There are two different types of utilitarianism: act and rule....   [tags: switch case, fat man case, kant]
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Utilitarianism and Retributivism Views of Capital Punishment - The court handles all cases with extreme seriousness; however, different cases are handled differently. For instance, murder cases have different pre-trial procedures to be followed as compared to a case like violation of traffic rules. This paper outlines philosophers’ view of punishment and how the County District Court Division handles capital punishment. To begin with, punishment is an act that involves intentional infliction of agony or misery to a person for wrong doing, with the aim of correction....   [tags: Capital Punishment, Death Penalty]
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Utilitarianism: Declaring My College Major - Every college student who wants to graduate has to choose a major. Some decide their major while they are in high school, others come to college having a general feel of what they want to pursue but do not decide on a major until they take some classes they are interested in. Unfortunately, I have not chosen a major and need to choose one by the end of the semester in order to enroll again. I want to choose the major through which I can do the most moral good. However, without holding to any philosophy concerning moral good, I have realized choosing this major is quite difficult....   [tags: Personal Decision] 1154 words
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Discussion of Utilitarianism - Discussion of Utilitarianism In this paper I will be discussing utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the theory proposing the principle of utility as the correct ethical standard. I will also be talking about the THEORY of RIGHT CONDUCT, which is also a part of moral theory. I have been asked to prove if Bentham or Mills’ version of utilitarianism is right for the sadistic voyeur case. I will begin by telling you about the case. Case: this man enjoys watching women being brutally raped; he is locked in a room....   [tags: Papers] 820 words
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Flaws with Utilitarianism - Among the most glaring problems that I see with Utilitarianism is its inclusion of animals under the umbrella that blankets this theory. It seems irrefutable that there exists an inordinate number of cases where the consequence that is against the best interest of an animal is favorable to humans, yet that dictating action is one that has been continually taken and condoned by the general public. This is a fundamental challenge, as the Utilitarian philosophy decrees that the pleasure and pain experienced by all individuals, including animals, has equal worth and must be considered when determining the net benefit of an action’s consequences....   [tags: essays research papers] 637 words
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Utilitarianism: Explanation And Study of Criticisms - Utilitarianism: Explanation And Study of Criticisms The dictionary definition of Utilitarianism is: 'The doctrine that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principal of conduct.' When making a moral decision, we should look at the outcome of an action. Whatever brings the greatest happiness to the most people is the morally 'right' decision. It is a consequentialist principal where the majority rules. It is also relative as each situation is looked at differently and will have a different outcome....   [tags: Papers] 3062 words
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Political Philosophy: Is Utilitarianism the Best Way to Fight Discrimination? - ... The initial starting place of utilitarianism as a political philosophy that exudes equality is the idea of efficacy which suggests that the overall level pleasure or gratification that a person is able to attain for their own reasons. Value measures happiness and it’s conclusive objective of all private and public actions. Utilitarian's state that the proper objective of any government is to maximize to amount of happiness and utility attained by every citizen in their society. The utilitarian idea of reorganization of profits is founded on the belief of diminishing fringe utility (West, 7)....   [tags: differences, equality, principles]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory. An action is right or wrong based on its consequences. John Stuart Mill was an important philosopher in developing the idea of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism holds that any action that results in a greater amount of happiness in the world is a right action and any action that results in pain or less happiness is wrong. Utilitarianism can be divided into different versions. Act utilitarianism is one of the versions of utilitarianism....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
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A Brief Analysis of John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism - This work has probably received more analysis than any other work on utilitarianism available. However, I seek to do here what many others have been unable to accomplish so far. I hope to, in five paragraphs, cover each of the chapters of Utilitarianism in enough depth to allow any reader to decide whether or not they subscribe to Mill's doctrine, and if so, which part or parts they subscribe to. I do this with the realization that much of Mill's deliberation in the text will be completely gone....   [tags: Literature Review]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism There are many essays, papers and books written on the concept of right and wrong. Philosophers have theorized about moral actions for eons, one such philosopher is John Stuart Mill. In his book Utilitarianism he tries to improve on the theories of utilitarianism from previous philosophers, as he is a strong believer himself in the theory. In Mill's book he presents the ideology that there is another branch on the utilitarian tree. This branch being called rule-utilitarianism. Mill makes a distinction between two different types of utilitarianism; act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism....   [tags: Papers] 1254 words
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism What is Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a philosophical concept that holds an action to be held right if it tends to promote happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarians define the morally right actions as those actions that maximize some non-moral good or happiness and minimize some non-moral evil. Pleasure is an example of a non-moral good and pain is an example of a non- moral evil. A utilitarian will fous on the consequences of an act rather than on the intristic nature of the act or the motives of the agent....   [tags: Papers] 779 words
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Jeremy Bentham : Father of Utilitarianism - Assess the merits of Utilitarianism (24 Marks) Utilitarianism is a theory aimed at defining one simple basis that can be applied when making any ethical decision. It is based on a human’s natural instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Jeremy Bentham is widely regarded as the father of utilitarianism. He was born in 1748 into a family of lawyers and was himself, training to join the profession. During this process however, he became disillusioned by the state British law was in and set out to reform the system into a perfect one based on the ‘Greatest Happiness Principle,’ ‘the idea that pleasurable consequences are what qualify an action as being morally good’....   [tags: Ethics Morals Philosophy] 1451 words
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Critique Of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism - Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person's intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other hand there is the teleological view which holds that it is the result of an action is what makes that act right or wrong....   [tags: essays research papers] 1762 words
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The principle of Utilitarianism ‘greatest happiness of the greatest number’ can be traced back to Frances Hutchinson and David Hume of Scotland in the 18th century. Utilitarianism theory was developed first by Jeremy Bentham. His student John Stuart Mill who is the most famous Utilitarian then took on this theory. America had fought for and gained their independence from the British to obtain their freedom and greater democracy....   [tags: Papers] 704 words
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Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment - Utilitarianism in Crime and Punishment       Raskolnikov's mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism.  Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based on its calculated worth.  Raskolnikov appears to employ the fundamentals of utilitarianism by pitting the negative consequences of murdering his old landlady against the positive benefits that her money would bestow onto society.  However, a true follower of utilitarianism would be outraged at Raskolnikov's claim that murdering the old woman can be considered morally r...   [tags: Crime Punishment Essays]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the greatest good of the greatest number. It takes the view that an action is right if it is likely to produce the best consequences compared to all the other possible actions. The best consequences are those which involve the maximization of what is good and the minimization of what is bad. The worst consequences are which involve the maximization of what is bad and the minimization of what is good. The basic premise is the idea that the greatest good comes from creating happiness for the greatest number of people....   [tags: Papers] 946 words
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is mainly associated with the principle of Utility summarised by Jeremy Bentham, a social reformer, in 1768. This principle was to apply ‘the greatest good of the greatest number’ theory to all situations that may arise. This theory was that which is good is the act which provides the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain....   [tags: Papers] 1020 words
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Jeremy Bentham and John Mill's Classical Utilitarianism - In this essay I will analyse Jeremy Bentham and John Mill’s Classical Utilitarianism theory. I will present the objection that the expected impartiality of a moral agent is impractical and therefore seriously undermines the theory itself. This essay will focus on this opposition in order to determine whether or not such a theory can be salvaged through a possible modification. Classical Utilitarianism is an ethical theory which promotes the moral decision as one which produces the most utility. Utility is often described as pleasure or happiness in consideration of both the individual and the world as a whole, and results in the greatest balance of pleasure over pain....   [tags: sociological phylosphy analysis]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The most important question of all is what should one do since the ultimate purpose of answering questions is either to satisfy curiosity or to decide which action to take. Complicated analysis is often required to answer that question. Beyond ordinary analysis, one must also have a system of values, and the correct system of values is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the system of values stating that maximizing the total happiness of all people is good. Happiness of people should be sacrificed only to bring greater happiness to other people....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers] 2011 words
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a moral theory that has long been the subject of philosophical debate. This theory, when practiced, appears to set a very basic guideline to follow when one is faced with a moral dilemma. Fundamental Utilitarianism states that when a moral dilemma arises, one should take action that causes favorable results or reduces less favorable results. If these less favorable results, or pain, occur from this action, it can be justified if it is produced to prevent more pain or produce happiness....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development, including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk the future in the sake of gains in the present....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Philosphy: Criticism and The Way People Perceive Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is a ethical belief that if an deed seized creates extra good than bad for all than that deed ought to be taken. It is the calculation of the conclude result of meteorological conditions your decision will lead to a good cause or not. If the deed brings happiness to all, than you are acting the right thing. John Stuart Mill, acknowledged for this theory, explains that utilitarianism is a theory established on the pursuing, “actions are right in proportion as they incline to advance happiness, wrong as they incline to produce the reverse of happiness”....   [tags: ethical thinking, hapiness]
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Bentham's Utilitarianism in Victorian England - Bentham's Utilitarianism in Victorian England   The philosophy of Utilitarianism influenced many of the social reforms in Great Britain during the early half of the nineteenth century. The name most frequently associated with Utilitarianism is that of Jeremy Bentham. Bentham's philosophical principles extended into the realm of government. These principles have been associated with several reform acts entered into English law such as the Factory Act of 1833, the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, the Prison Act of 1835, the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, the Committee on Education in 1839,the Lunacy Act of 1845, and the Public Health Act of 1845....   [tags: European Europe History]
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Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism This was written in responce to the following questions: What is the principle of utility. Do you regard it as an adequate basis for judging the progress of society or the desirability of different social institutions. What are its virtues and limitations. How would a utilitarian aproach to judging society differ from a more traditional moral approach. The principle of utility was Jeremy Bentham's idea on how society progresses through maintaining the greatest happiness / good for the greatest number of people....   [tags: Philosophy essays] 546 words
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