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Thermodynamics - The word thermodynamics is derived from the Greek words therme, meaning heat and dunamis, meaning power. Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on systems at the macroscopic scale by studying the motion of their particles. A system is the subject of study. Heat means energy in transit and dynamics relates to movement of particles; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement....   [tags: physics thermodynamics]
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics is basically concerned with heat transfer, energy transfer and conversion between heat and work and is also applied to describe phase change of a substance, such as condensation and evaporation. 1.1 Determination of steam quality Saturated water is water in the condition in which any amount of energy put into the water or absorbed by the water can result in water-steam, two phase mixture, formed. In this case, latent heat, enthalpy of evaporation, is referred to as the energy required to change water into steam....   [tags: Energy] 1011 words
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to any form of energy. In thermodynamics, both the thermodynamic system and its environment are considered. A thermodynamic system, in general, is defined by its volume, pressure, temperature, and chemical make-up. In general, the environment will contain heat sources with unlimited heat capacity allowing it to give and receive heat without changing its temperature. Whenever the conditions change, the thermodynamic system will respond by changing its state; the temperature, volume, pressure, or chemical make-up will adjust accordingly in order to reach its original state of equilibrium....   [tags: essays research papers] 948 words
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although every body has a feeling of what energy is, it is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamics (power), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter....   [tags: physics science] 1241 words
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Second Law of Thermodynamics - The second law of thermodynamics involves the concept of entropy, an idea that explains disorder in our world. The concept of entropy associates useful matter and waste with low entropy and high entropy, respectively. In order to look at entropy, we must first define the system of interest. For the remainder of this paper, the system will be Earth. Many people believe that everything we use up can be recycled and reused if we can develop the appropriate technology. However, the Second Law makes it essentially impossible to achieve complete recycling....   [tags: Chemistry] 431 words
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First Law of Thermodynamics - First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is shared with most of science; it is one of the fundamental principals that have shaped our understanding of the working world. TOTAL ENERGY OF THE SYSTEM AND IT'S SURROUNDINGS IS CONSTANT or ENERGY IS CONSERVED, Brings back that long established idea that nothing can be created or destroyed. How do we know this. This is an empirical law, which means that we know that energy is conserved because of many repeated experiments by scientists....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
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Energy Demand - ... The exergy of a system from the 2nd law is defined as the maximum useful mechanical work as can be produced as the system is brought to thermal mechanical and chemical equilibrium with its environment through reversible processes [1]. Unlike energy, exergy is not a conserved quantity and can be destroyed during the process due to irreversibility. Rakopoulos and Giakoumis [1], Caton J.A. [2], Som and Datta [3] studied the destruction of exergy in a diesel engine for various operating parameters with different types of fuel....   [tags: Environment, Thermodynamics] 587 words
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Where's Reality Going? - Where's Reality Going. In Layman's terms the first and second laws of Thermodynamics state that there is a finite amount of energy in the universe and as this energy is always reorganizing itself a certain amount always becomes less organized. Therefore, the rate of disorganization is always greater than the rate of organization. The universe is constantly becoming less and less organized. At this rate the dissipation, the disorganization of all energy is inevitable. Though these laws ensure our bodily death the eternity of our energy is also guaranteed....   [tags: Thermodynamics Humanity Essays] 1049 words
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Sadi Carnot - Sadi Carnot was a French engineer (one of the few engineers that history remembers) who contributed greatly to the development of the field of thermodynamics. Although he only published one paper, which went largely unrecognized during his life, a testament to the influence of his ideas is the fact that his ideal heat engine is well known to modern day students of thermodynamics. Sadi Carnot was born in France in 1796. His life took place during turbulent times; France endured thirty-five years of war, revolution, and unending political turmoil....   [tags: physics biography bio thermodynamics] 1231 words
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The Physics of Cooling Techniques - There are many reasons for wanting to cool things, but whatever the reason, the Second Law of Thermodynamics dictates that cooling something will take effort (sorry, no spontaneously cool sodas). Different techniques have been developed to address this issue, each having its own limitations and ideal uses. The most commonly used method of cooling is with vapor-compression cycles, because it is fairly easy to construct a cooling device employing this method and the cost is low. In fact, conventional refrigerators use this method of cooling to keep your leftovers and drinks chilled....   [tags: thermodynamics physics refrigerator] 2370 words
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Thermodynamic Elements of Engines - The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases The question now is wherein the mistake consists and how it can be removed. Max Planck, Philosophy of Physics, 1936. While it is true that the field of thermodynamics can be complex,1-8 the basic ideas behind the study of heat (or energy) transfer remain simple. Let us begin this study with an ideal solid, S1, in an empty universe. S1 contains atoms arranged in a regular array called a "lattice" (see Figure 1). Bonding electrons may be present....   [tags: Engineering] 1770 words
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Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Over an Isothermal Moving Plate - ... f^'' (η)+f(η)f'(η)=0 (7) With these boundary conditions: f(0)=0 ,f^' (0)=λ (8) lim┬(η→∞)⁡〖f^' (η)〗 = 1 Where λ=u_w/u_∞ is the plate velocity ratio that represents the direction and magnitude of the moving plate. The skin friction coefficient C_f can be defined as: C_f=τ_w/(ρ〖〖 u〗_∞〗^2 ) (9) Where τ_w is the surface shear stress which is given by: τ_w=├ μ(∂u/∂y)┤| y=0 (10) Substituting Eqs.(5),(6) into Eqs. (9) and (10) we obtain: √(2〖Re〗_x ) C_f=f^' (0) (11) Where 〖Re〗_x is the local Reynolds number....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Over an Isothermal Moving Plate - ... Fig.10 shows the values of local Nusselt number versus λ. We can realize that when λ increases, the heat transfer coefficient increases too. As it was expected when λ<1 more changes can be seen in Nusselt number in contrast with λ>1. Value of Bejan number for different λ inside the boundary layer is plotted in Fig.11. As we can see the values of Be is in the vicinity of unity, which means that heat transfer irreversibility dominates. Due to the equality between velocity of the plate and fluid when λ=1, there is no velocity boundary layer, and consequently heat transfer between the plate and fluid is the outcome of thermal gradient....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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A Technical Definition of Entropy - ... Most scientists have come to accept this fact and it has become the foundation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. However, the reason why some of the energy was always wasted as heat was unknown. In order to find the answer, German physicist Rudolph Clausius (Figure 1) introduced the concept of entropy. Entropy was used to define the energy that in not available to produce useful work. This wasted energy always led to an increase in disorder in the surrounding environment (Weisstein, 2007)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Maxwell's Demon - Not a Perpetual Motion Machine - Maxwell's Demon - Not a Perpetual Motion Machine Entropy is not a difficult concept to just take at face value, but it is a difficult topic to gain a good understanding of. To do this some background must be given such as the first and second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics states that any event that occurs spontaneously must result in an increase in the randomness of lhe syslem. This means that as an ice cube melts the water molecules that it is composed of will progress toward a less ordered arrangement....   [tags: Physics Essays] 725 words
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Tom Stoppard's Arcadia - Tom Stoppard's Arcadia Tom Stoppard parallels the Second Law of Thermodynamics with the human experience in his play Arcadia. The parallelism suggests truths about the evolution of science and human society, love and sexual relationships, and the physical world. The Second Law drives the formation of more complex molecular structures in our universe, the diffusion of energy, such as heat, and is inhibited by the initial energy required to unlock potential energies of compounds. Stoppard takes these concepts and explores human genius and the sexual interactions of people, with an eye towards universal human truth....   [tags: Tom Stoppard Arcadia Essays]
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Solar Cell Electricity - In order to competently compare photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cell's production of electricity i.e. solar cell electricity, they both must be defined. Photosynthesis is defined as, (Biology Online, 2010) “The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, and light energy (from sunlight) captured by light-absorbing pigments, such as chlorophyll and other accessory pigments.” According to Thomas gale, ( Thomas gale, 2006), solar cells create electrical energy by converting sun light into electricity by using photovoltaic effect....   [tags: Energy]
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Arcadia - Arcadia refers to a Utopian ideal: the idea of harmony with nature and the entire world. The term is derived from a Greek province, which bears the same name. The Province’s mountainous landscape and history of containing a sparse population of farmers later caused the word “Arcadia” to develop into a poetic byword for an idyllic vision of unspoiled natural beauty. The inhabitants are regarded as living without pride and avarice that corrupted other regions of the world. The inhabitants of Arcadia are regarded as living close to nature, uncorrupted by civilization, and being virtuous....   [tags: Plays] 581 words
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The Necessity of Positive and Normative Economics - The Necessity of Positive and Normative Economics Keynes once wrote: “The object of a positive science is the establishment of uniformities, of a normative science the determination of ideals.” (Blaug, 122) This is the dichotomy that economists recognize when approaching their field of study. The social scientist must recognize both positive and normative distinctions, means and ends, as important factors of fruitful research. Secondly, they must clearly express the conditions and assumption which theories holds in order for economics to be useful for society....   [tags: essays papers] 1127 words
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Purified PG of Ecc BR1 - Abstract The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of purified polygalacturonase (PG) of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) BR1, with emphasis on thermal behavior in presence of different pH conditions and salts, were studied since characterization of an enzyme is significant in the context of burgeoning biotechnological applications. Thermodynamic parameters for polygalacturonic acid hydrolysis by purified PG were as follows: ΔH* = 7.98 kJ/mol, ΔG* = 68.86 kJ/mol, ΔS*= −194.48 J/mol/K, ΔGE−S = −1.04 kJ/mol and ΔGE−T = −8.96 kJ/mol....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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Max Planck - Max Planck On April 23, 1858 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was born in Kiel, Germany. He was the sixth child of a law professor at the University of Kiel. At the age of nine his interest in physics and mathematics was developed by his teacher Hermann Muller. When he graduated at the age of seventeen he decided to choose physics over music for his career. Although he is know for physics he was an exceptional pianist who had acquired the gift of being able to hear absolute pitch. His favorite works of music were known to be Schubert and Brahms....   [tags: essays research papers] 896 words
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Time's Arrow by Martin Amis - Time's Arrow by Martin Amis The human being is an analytical creature. From scientists to philosophers to star-crossed teenaged lovers, the human is internally motivated to understand the world around him. That world provides countless puzzles for the human to solve, whether these puzzles lie in the forests of the heart, the laws of mathematics or the annals of history. However, some of the most unfathomable aspects of this world have been entirely created by humans. The Holocaust is one of the most unfathomable events in human history....   [tags: Time's Arrow Martin Amis Essays]
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James Prescott Joule - James Prescott Joule was born December 24, in 1818. James Joule was born into the wealthy brewing family of Benjamin and Alice Joule. In 1847 James Joule married Amelia Grimes, a daughter of the Liverpool Comptroller of Customs. James Joule and Amelia had three children: Benjamin Arthur (born 1849), Alice Amelia (born 1852) and a son who died in 1854 along with his wife during child birth. In 1843 James Joule read his paper to the British Association, entitled "On the Calorific Effects of Magneto-Electricity and on the Mechanical Value of Heat." This paper described the physical constant that showed that heat was a form of energy....   [tags: biographies biography bio] 1284 words
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Arrow of Time: Towards a New Epistemology of Science - Arrow of Time: Towards a New Epistemology of Science ABSTRACT: Humanity has tried to comprehend two fundamental events since time immemorial: the birth of the universe and the emergence of life. Recently, it is claimed that these events can be understood comprehensively by means of a metaphor: the 'arrow of time.' The purpose of the present paper is twofold: (1) to build an epistemological structure that underlies the principle of time's arrow; and (2) to pursue the unity of science in a novel fashion....   [tags: Scientific Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Should Evolution be Taught in Schools? - Evolution has been taught in all public schools for as long as many can recall. Though the process of evolution is not the only theory, schools have been teaching it as if it is the complete truth, ignoring other aspects and only focusing and targeting on Darwin's theory of Evolution. However, there are still many other ideas that the students should be informed of as well because all are theories, all are hypothetic. Teaching of the evolution theory have yet to be proven reliable and confirmed by all scientists, thus it should not be taught in schools and should be left for students to wonder and discover by themselves....   [tags: Evolution, public schools, ] 753 words
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Aerodynamics Q&A - ... These are pressure, temperature and volume in the engines, most of which are gas turbine engines. There is usually a propulsion system by the engines in order to generate a thrust. These three elements are related to each other under certain conditions. The conditions within which these elements are related can be analyzed by using several gas laws. One of these is Charles gas law which states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature at constant pressure. This can be written as It therefore means that the air entering the compressor would remain in its initial volume with a change in temperature unless there is a change in pressure....   [tags: Aviation ]
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Creationism and the Classroom - Creationism and the Classroom The American classroom is suffering from a major deficiency. The science curriculum supports one theory of evolution and no other theory as to how the existence of the universe has come to be. This narrow-minded approach has kept many young minds from seeing a very broad picture of this world. Scientific creationism should be included in our public school curriculum because it is paramount to the progress of modern science. Duane Gish, who has a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Berkeley, says, “…neither creation nor evolution may be referred to as scientific theory since neither can offer eyewitness evidence of what happened in the past.” Gish further states, “Both are ultimately based upon inferences derived from circumstantial evidence....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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James Prescott Joule - - James Prescott Joule - - Born: 1818 Died 1889 - Joule's career in the sciences began quite early in his life. As early as 16, Prescott was under the tutelage of James Dalton. His experiments soon followed in a laboratory he built in his family's basement. By this time, many scientists had begun hypothesizing on the interrelationships between heat, electricity, and magnetism - and by the 1840's Joule had formulated not only the well known "Joule's Law" but also a principle for conservation of energy....   [tags: biographies bio] 461 words
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Understanding Black Holes - Understanding Black Holes Our solar system consists of ten planets revolving around the Sun. The Sun serves as a magnet that uses its gravitational pull to hold the solar system together. If the Sun were to disappear, what would hold the planets together. The answer might be a black hole. A black hole is a theorized body whose gravity is so strong that even light can’t escape from within it (Shipman 64). If light can’t escape from a black hole, then it must be invisible - therefore how can we know that the black holes exist....   [tags: Papers] 1150 words
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Evolution: Fact or Fiction? - Evolution: Fact or Fiction. One of the greatest questions of all time is: "Where the heck did we come from?" One of the most popular answers to this question is creationism, the idea that everything was created by a higher being. Another idea is evolution, the idea that all living organisms descended from a less complex organism. Up and coming in the last century, evolution possesses a new way of thinking that is being greatly accepted by the scientific community. Despite this fact many people argue that evolution has no facts to support it and there are several reasons why evolution can't happen....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 1434 words
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Physiology of Exercise - Physiology of Exercise Class Assignment #3 Chapter 3 1. Define the terms aerobic and anaerobic. A: Aerobic – Oxidative formation of ATP by the use of O2. Anaerobic – Formation of ATP via the PC pathway and glycolysis that doesn’t involve the use of O2. (Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance by Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley pg 29) 2. Discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics. What role does NAD play in glycolysis. A: Glycolysis is an anaerobic pathway used to transfer bond energy from glucose to rejoin Pi to ADP....   [tags: essays research papers] 1355 words
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Creationism vs. Evolution: How did it really happen? - Creationism vs. Evolution: How did it really happen. Ever since 1859 and the publication of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin1, his first publication of his observations, much debate has come about concerning the issue of how life on earth came to be. Both the Creationists and Evolutionists believe in the "Big Bang" theory of creation of life; however, the mechanism for the development of new life provides the conflict. Evolutionists believe the cause of life on earth to be accidental, random atomic collisions (non-living matter), known as abiogenesis2....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Roller Coaster Physics - Undoubtedly roller coasters are the kings of amusements parks. Whether you enjoy a older, rickety wooden roller coaster with its thrill of positive and negative G's and a fairly wobbly feeling. Or, you prepher something newer, a tube steel roller coaster. A coaster that is faster, one that includes death defying speeds, hairpin turns, and of course the cr�me de la cr�me, loop de loops. However, regardless of you personal tastes and preferences, through exploring this page you will find that all roller coasters are indeed bound by the same fundamental laws....   [tags: physics amusement theme park] 1485 words
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The Selfish Gene - Creationism is a Bible&#8211;based view of human origin that states humans were created in their current form and have not changed, or evolved, throughout the years. However the belief that our species has changed over time to suit our environment is considered evolution. As both sides possess strong evidence for their conclusions, the debate that stemmed many years ago, even before the famous Scopes trial, has no end in sight. Recently state education boards in Kansas, Alabama and Kentucky have given school districts the opportunity to decide for themselves whether creationism will be taught, along with evolution, in their classrooms....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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William Thomson's Biography - William Thomson's Biography Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) was a Scottish physicist who was one of the founders of modern physics, and quite probably the greatest applied scientist of the Victorian era. William Thomson is famous for the creation of the Kelvin scale and conversion factors for the scale, which led to the second law of thermodynamics. William Thomson was born on June 26, 1824. He grew up in Belfast, Ireland as the fourth child in a family of seven....   [tags: Papers] 485 words
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Understanding Evolutionary Misunderstanding - The debate among creationists and evolutionists as to the origin of modern life on Earth has pushed increasingly into the limelight over the last several years. Unfortunately, such mainstream coverage has caused many of the related issues to become skewed and misinterpreted. In the article “Five Major Misconceptions about Evolution,” Mark Isaak attempts to make clear the true nature of evolutionary theory so that, if it must be challenged, such arguments can be made on a purely factual basis rather than, as Isaak says, “against a set of misunderstandings that people are right to consider ludicrous” (“Misconceptions” Para....   [tags: Evolution Theory]
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How the Universe was Created - ... Newton’s theory of gravity led Marquis de LaPalace to argue that the universe was predictable. He suggested that there should be a set of scientific laws that would allow us to predict everything that would happen in the universe. This idea was rejected by many people, and people believed it went against God’s words. It remained an assumption of science Werner Heisenberg discovered a uncertainty principle. It stated that in order to predict the future position and velocity of a particle, one has to be able to measure its present position and velocity accurately....   [tags: science] 1105 words
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History Of Monte Carlo Method - It could be argued that current physics research could be divided into three areas - theoretical, experimental and computational. Numerical approach, in which systems are mimicked as accurately as possible using a computer or in which computer models are set up to provide well - behaved experimental systems are increasingly providing a bridge between theory and experiment, for instance; the Monte Carlo method (MC) and the molecular-dynamics method (MD). In Monte Carlo method the exact dynamical behavior of a system is replaced by a stochastic process, whereas the MD methods are based on a simpler principle and consists of solving a system of Newton's equations for an N-body system....   [tags: essays research papers] 365 words
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The Story of the Water - ... Methane oxidation is a major source of water in stratosphere, and has been increasing over the industrial period, however, the observed trend in stratospheric water vapor during the last half of the 20th century is too large to be attributed to methane oxidation alone [5, 9]. The temperatures near the tropical tropopause should control the stratospheric water vapor content according to the equilibrium thermodynamics, importing more water vapor into the stratosphere when temperatures are warmer....   [tags: Water Vapor] 610 words
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Is Death Responsible for Diversity? - Is Death Responsible for Diversity. Some of the hardest questions we struggle to answer in life surround the phenomenon of death. What happens when we die. Is there something beyond death. Is one way to go better than another. Is it possible to escape death. Why do we die, anyway. Why couldn't we just live forever. One explanation for death may come from the story of evolution. To explore this question, let us imagine a hypothetical situation, a world in which nothing dies. (We will imagine also, for now, that organisms would continue to evolve along the same trajectory as they do at present.) Every organism that has ever existed in the past would exist now, along with every organism present and every organism that has yet to exist....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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The Physics of a Diesel Engine - The Physics of a Diesel Engine The world we live in is surrounded by diesel engines. They are on the freeways, railways, airways, and are one of the leading electricity producers in the world. They are also becoming more popular in automobiles. These engines are efficient and reliable and they are getting very sophisticated. However, the physics behind these engines has not changed. By way of definition, courtesy of Diesel Engine Engineering: [a] diesel engine is an internal combustion engine in which the chemical energy of fuel is transformed into thermal energy of the cylinder charge, in consequence of the self-ignition and combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder after compression of the air charge in the cylinder (p1 Makartchouk)....   [tags: Energy Automobiles Essays]
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The Fundamentals of Energy - The Fundamentals of Energy Energy, the capacity to do work, is an essential part of everyday life for almost every human being. Be it a commodity, an ecological resource, a social necessity, or used for strategic purposes (Lecture notes, January 7th, 2002), energy holds great significance at an international, national, and household level. The main fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and oil, supply about 85% of the fuel energy used in the United States. (Kraushaar, Jack J., and Robert A. Ristinen....   [tags: Energy Research Papers]
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Creationism - In a typical American high school, Mr. Doe, the science teacher begins his discussion on the theory of evolution. John, a student opposes the idea the humans came from apes and evolved. John believes that men came from God and that man was created in 6 days. Jane hears this and argues against John, “How could anything possibly be created in 6 days. This sort of project would take millions of years!” By using up all 45 minutes of class time discussing creationism and evolution, this is a metaphor to the eternal debate as to the origin of the human species....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Evolutionism Vs Creationism - Questions on the origin of life and of the universe must have challenged human curiosity and imagination as soon as early man had time for activities other than survival. In 1859, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, and since then, people have debated between the creationism and evolutionism theories. The theory of evolution has been supported only through various religious writings, particularly the Bible. Creationists believe in a divine creator, God. Creationism has a broad range of beliefs involving a reliance on God’s miraculous work to explain the origin of the universe, of life, and of the different kinds of plants and animals on Earth....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Origin of the Universe - The Origin of the Universe Since the dawn of intelligent man, humanity has speculated about the origins of the universe. There is evidence, which indicates that the universe started around 15 billion years ago. This is probably the greatest discovery imaginable; however, the universe still seems to be a very controversial subject. Most scientists agree that there was a beginning but there is a lot of speculation of how it (the universe) actually started. The much-celebrated Greek philosopher, Aristotle, denied the fact that there ever was a beginning....   [tags: Astronomy Physics]
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Wormholes - Wormholes Throughout the ages, outstanding physicists, to the movies, to some of the greatest science fiction novels of all time, have pondered the idea of time-travel. The thought of actually being able to travel to another time or universe has long since enthralled, enveloped, and overwhelmed some of the greatest minds in the history of physics. No one person can actually prove any of their theories, but a few actually make sense. Meaning that they do not violate the laws of physics. One of the main theories suggested, are wormholes....   [tags: essays research papers] 1745 words
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Physics and Fish Bioenergetics - Welcome to the world of fish physics. Many of us understand basic fish behavior and can reach logical conclusions about where the best place to throw a fishing line is. But when we don’t think much further than that we are missing out on some very interesting details of fish behavior. We can never fully understand why we find some fish in one location and some fish in other locations until we consider the concept of fish bioenergetics. Ultimately, fish behavior is a product of bioenergetics....   [tags: physics fish bioenergetics]
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Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot - Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832 Nicolas Carnot was born on June 1, 1796 in Paris, France. He was the son of Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot. When Sadi was born his father was a member of the Directory, which was the French Revolutionary government. Sadi was brought up in a rough evironment of clashing politics and sciences. His father retired from his position as napoleon's minister in order to devote his time to educating his two sons. At the age of 16 Sadi was sent to Lycee Charlemagne in Paris in order to prepare him for the testings to get into Ecole Polytechnique....   [tags: biography biographies bio] 739 words
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Determinism - Determinisms- Is the view that there are no free acts. Saying that there in no free will. Soft-Determinisms- Which maintains that free will is compatible with determinism. Libertarianism- is the view that there are some free acts, they admit that there are some acts which are not free. For example you don’t have the ability to jump the moon. Arguments against Determinism- Is to challenge the assumption that we are purely material beings. Another objection would be to challenge the premises that matter is determined....   [tags: essays research papers] 464 words
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Maxwell Relations - My topic for the report is Thermodynamics Maxwell Relations, and in this report I will show how to derive the Maxwell Relations, as well as give several examples of how and when they are supposed to used. The change in U depend on the changes in the system entropy, volume and XI’s this idea may be abbreviation (1-1) U = U(S, V, XI) In system of constant mass and composition, whose work can be expressed only in terms of its PV properties, there are no X’s and U is changed only by reversible heat and P dV work....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Analyzing Different Types of Energy - Analyzing Different Types of Energy In order for work to be done by machines or human beings, they need to possess energy. It is measured in the same units as work, namely joule (I) with practical values often being expressed in kilojoule (kJ), megajoule or gigajoule (GJ). Energy, like work, does not possess direction and is as quantity. It can take several forms and may be converted from one form to another. Kinetic energy This is the energy that a body possesses because of its motion....   [tags: Papers] 802 words
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William Thomson - Born on June 26th 1824 in Belfast Ireland, William Thomson was one of many children. He was primarily raised by his father, James Thomson, as his mother died when he was six. James Thomson raised his family in a strict Presbyterian fashion. Although his father was strict and demanding, William mangaed to maitain a close relatioship with his father. James Thomson was the professor of engineering in Belfast and later was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Glasgow. He taught his son mathematics at a very early age and as a result, William Thomson became an accomplished mathematican beyond that of universities....   [tags: biographies biography bio lord kelvin] 913 words
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Personal Narrative: Facing My Demons - It is inevitable that everyone’s high school experience will be different. For most people, high school is about having fun and enjoying their last few years before they are forced out into the cold, dark world. However, for the rest, it is about expanding their knowledge potential and gaining skills to fight off everyday battles. My high school adventure was a mixture of the two. My general physics teacher had a habit of making my classmates and I stand as soon as he walked in the room. Every morning he would tell us, “remember children, the reason I have you stand is to show respect to the person better than you.” He acted as though he ruled the world with a flaming spear....   [tags: essay about myself, Personal Experience] 943 words
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The Sock Gremlin - “… Where are my socks. I had exactly twenty-seven pairs of socks. I’m missing not one but three socks. I distinctly remember placing twenty-seven pairs of socks into the laundry machine, and I took them out and folded them and put them in the basket and now there are only fifty-one socks…” Jane Goodman was a middle-aged woman with a plump figure and a vaguely unappealing face, usually possessed of a worried scowl. She was a mother of two. She was also quite probably afflicted with OCD, though she had never been formally diagnosed....   [tags: Creative Writing Essays] 943 words
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Energy Transmission - In energy systems where the energy-collection process in an energy-material is needed as a step physically separated from the Processing Unit, the transportation of the energy-material that contains the energy is required. In the case of biomass-based energy systems, this step encompasses all the infra-structure associated with the logistics of supplying biomass to the Processing Unit: machines, roads, pipes, etc. Although the energy that flows through this stage is tied to the amount of raw material demanded by the processing plant, its cost structure may vary freely, dependent upon the type of transportation technology adopted (i.e.: pipelines, trucks, railroads), distances, daily demand of the processing unit, operation time, and physical characteristics of the raw material (as density)....   [tags: Energy] 869 words
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The Nature of Deity - The nature of deity is a topic that has been debated and dickered over amongst religions the world over. Gods grand purpose, his will, divine reasoning, and expectations of the human race are a topic of hot debate among great learned men and the theological elite . These differences are glaringly apparent when Judas-Christian is compared with Hinduism. Lets start with the easy one. The Christian God, also known as Jehovah,Yahweh, The Lord of Lords, etc has many defining characteristics and attributes....   [tags: Religion] 679 words
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Anna Freud: A True Child Advocate - ... In 1920, members of the Freud family developed influenza according to Peters, (1985). Also suffering from complications due to that same illness, Anna relinquished her teaching position. (Peters, 1985) Anna returned to Vienna, beginning analysis with her father and devoting efforts to volunteer service at the Baumgarten Home that cared for Jewish children who were orphaned by the war. (Peters, 1985) In 1938, Anna and her family were forced to flee Austria, after family members were interrogated by the Gestapo....   [tags: Social Studies]
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Protein Folding Theory - ... Once the conditions return to normal, the protein will restore its structure and function. This condition holds true for nearly all known proteins (Rose, 2006). Scientists have yet to agree upon an explanation for how protein folding is executed. Protein folding has long been described by two model theories: the diffusion-collision model and the nucleation-condensation model. These models are characterized by the kinetics and thermodynamics associated with how the protein folds. The diffusion-collision model is a theory that views the protein in several parts....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Ecosystem Literature Review - ... Another component of proper ecosystem function is nutrient cycling. Nutrient cycling is important to an aquatic ecosystem because certain recourses in an ecosystem cannot reenter the ecosystem, like energy, from an outside source. In order to maintain their presence within an ecosystem, certain resources can be recycled indefinitely. This "cycling" of nutrients occurs through different compartments within an ecosystem, including the atmosphere, biota, water, and soil (DeAngelis 1980). One source of nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem can be seen when "nutrient cycling by animals can support a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers." Furthermore, the cycling of resources to primary producers can affect the biodiversity within this group (Vanni 2002)....   [tags: Environment]
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Vegetarianism - Vegetarianism Vegetarianism is the limitation of ones diet to only vegetables. Vegetarianism has been around for centuries, but recently we have seen the eruption of a more militant vegetarianism that is inspired by the animal "rights" movement. Today, vegetarian activists are throwing pies at Ronald McDonald and the Pork Queen, scrawling "meat is murder" in prominent locations, committing terrorist acts of arson, and waging media campaigns equating meat consumption with cannibalism. Vegetarians are, on the average, far healthier than those who consume the typical Western diet, and enjoy a lower incidence of many chronic diseases....   [tags: social issues] 637 words
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Evolution - Evolution Evolution is a complex process by which the characteristics of living organisms change over many generations as traits are passed from one generation to the next. Many scientists agree on that concept. They have been trying to develop this theory over hundreds of years to make it reasonable and beliveable to people. But is evolution the reason that humans are on earth. People that are not quite religious and have little faith in God believe in evolution. Those who strongly stand by their beliefs supporting evolution, in my opinion, think they know enough about science and biology and all the complexities of the cell and the human being that they forgot who actually created all this....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive] 592 words
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Scienve V Religion - Creation v Evolution “Where do I come from?” This is a common question that all children ask their parents at some time in their lives. Usually they are given a simplistic answer. However, as one gets older the answers get more complicated. One must decide whether to believe in science or religion. Religion is based on faith and the supernatural. Science is knowledge obtained and tested through the scientific method. Many people believe the science or religion explanation to know from where they come....   [tags: essays research papers] 624 words
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KonTiki - KonTiki 1. The author's purpose of the book was to tell about his voyage across the Pacific ocean on a raft to prove a now theory that he thought of. 2. I read about sixty pages before I really became interested in the story. 3. The book has many moods in it. For the most part, it is an informative book. The book is also a little bit humerous. Most of the time the author will give information about his story, but he will throw some humor in with it. The author was talking about how fishes would land onboard the raft and one time they found a Gempylus (eel looking fish) in Torsteins's sleeping bag....   [tags: Papers] 440 words
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Example of the Scientific Method - Example of the Scientific Method Observation: In one of the major regions of deforestation, the province of Rhondonia, Brazil, the rainfall has been severely and or completely stopped. Theory: As the tropical rainforest of Rhondonia, Brazil is leveled for farmland, rainfall is significantly and directly reduced. Rainfall is reduced because there are fewer trees to return water vapor to the air through tree transpiration, or water evaporation through trees. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the amount of vapor needed to make the air saturated at the air's current temperature....   [tags: Papers] 546 words
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Determination of the Valency of Magnesium - Determination of the Valency of Magnesium Objectives: In this experiment, we can know about the quantitative relations between amounts of reactants and products of a reaction so that the stoichiometry reaction can be determined by a known mass of magnesium and a measured collection of hydrogen gas. Introduction: In chemistry, stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry refers to the relative number of atoms of various elements found in a chemical substance and is often useful in characterizing a chemical reaction....   [tags: Papers] 520 words
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Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow - Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow Thomas Ruggles Pynchon was born in 1937 in Glen's Cove, New York. He is the author of V., The Crying of Lot 49, Gravity's Rainbow, Slow Learner, Vineland, and Mason & Dixon. Nothing else is known of this author (not exactly true, but close enough to the truth to make that last blanket statement passable). He has attempted to veil himself in total obscurity and anonymity. For the most part, he has succeeded in this, save for a rare interview or two. In 1974 he received the National Book Award for Gravity's Rainbow....   [tags: Pynchon Gravity's Rainbow Essays] 761 words
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Disorder and Misunderstanding in Thos Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 - Disorder and Misunderstanding The Crying of Lot 49   When reading Pynchon's "The Crying of Lot 49" one is flooded with a deluge of historical references (dates, places, events) and, unless a historical genius, probably feels confused as to the historical accuracy of such references. As critics have shown, Pynchon blends factual history with fiction and manages, as David Seed writes in "The Fictional Labyrinths of Thomas Pynchon," to "juxtapose(s) historical references with reminders of the novel's status as artefact so that the reader's sense of history and of fiction are brought into maximum confrontation" (128)....   [tags: Crying Lot 49 Essays]
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The Sound and the Fury and The Crying of Lot 49 - The Sound and the Fury and The Crying of Lot 49 It is fitting to discuss the recollection of the past in an age advancing to an unknown futurity and whose memories are increasingly banished to the realm of the nostalgic or, even worse, obsolete. Thomas Pynchon and William Faulkner, in wildly contrasting ways, explore the means by which we, as individuals and communities, remember, recycle, and renovate the past. Retrospection is an inevitability in their works, for the past is inescapable and defines, if not dominates, the present....   [tags: comparison Compare Contrast essays] 2400 words
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Integration between the Christian Creation Story and the Scientific Big Bang Theory - Integration between the Christian Creation Story and the Scientific Big Bang Theory In our modern age of scientific revolution there seems to be a growing tension between the scientific and religious understanding of this world. This tension is not surprising as the two worldviews exist on different realms in many ways. The Christian faith, grounded in the revelation of God through Christ for humanity’s salvation, clashes with science on many levels especially concerning human nature, as well Divine authority, as compared to the scientific rational and mechanistic understanding of matter....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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A Glimpse of Culture From the Eyes of an Engineer - A Glimpse of Culture From the Eyes of an Engineer The 8:50 a.m. bell rings. Thirty faces look up at the board. "The Refrigeration cycle begins with refrigerant R-134a proceeding to ..." Most pencils are hard at work, taking diligent notes. Some students stare into the board, attempting to imprint the entire schematic of the Refrigeration cycle into their memories. Others take a shot of Mountain Dew to clear the mental passages, or wake up from the previous evening. Concentration levels run high, as we all endeavor to excel at what we have been doing for the last several years -- pursuing an engineering degree....   [tags: Personal Narrative Cultural Essays] 2522 words
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Science and Realism - Science and Realism In the course of this semester, we have read a number of stories that have one common element: science. In most of the stories, the science was hypothetical, but accurate, for the time and usually played an important part in the story. Today we know that most of these ideas range from simply being wrong to flat out impossible. When I say science I am referring to the sciences that are of a physical nature such as biology, chemistry, and physics. Psychology is also a science, but one of a mental nature....   [tags: Reading Books Essays] 928 words
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Evolution of the Internet: A Rhizomatic Application of Darwin - Evolution of the Internet Evolution is the process Charles Darwin described – the story he told – to explain the diversity of the planet. Evolution exists in nature as the interplay between linear natural selection and random events. This randomness necessitates a nonlinear model for exploring evolution as a whole, and as randomness is increasingly recognized as the dominant evolutionary force, "evolutionary schemas may be forced to abandon the old model of the tree and descent" (Deleuze 33). If we take a rhizome as an evolutionary model instead of a tree, this "connects any point to any other point" (Deleuze 35) and allows for nonlinear progression....   [tags: Internet Web Cyberspace Essays]
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Evolution: More Than One Level - Evolution: More Than One Level The evolution of art mimics biological evolution. For this reason art history and biology are comparable in many ways. Works of art are stories. Each work of art relates to and influences other stories, or pieces of art. Ernst Mayr uses the phrase "descent with variance" throughout his book to describe biological evolution. Art behaves similarly. In addition, like biological evolution there are serious ramifications for the production of art. Because it is possible to view art from an evolutionary perspective it is also possible to look at evolution from an artistic perspective....   [tags: Science Art Biology Essays]
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Expansion and the Evolutionary Lottery - Expansion and the Evolutionary Lottery For a young scholar learning the basic concepts of science and biology, evolution was this grand theory of past life becoming more like present life over time via the utilization of such complicated and foreboding means as "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest." I came to understand that there was endless diversity of life, and variation was a result of the interactions of organisms with their environments. Natural selection placed pressure on the organisms forcing adaptations to be made, hence new species to arise over time....   [tags: Evolution Essays]
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Evolutionism and Creationism in Schools Today - Evolutionism and Creationism in Schools Today One of the biggest controversies in schools today is the debate between Evolutionism and Creationism and which should be taught in the United State's science classes. Many Christians believe that Creationism should be given equal time in schools, but others feel that teaching Creationism is teaching religion. Those fighting for equal time say that Creationism can be taught without all the religious jargon. Also many argue that Evolutionism is just as much a belief system as Creationism (Creation vs....   [tags: Religion Science Research Papers]
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Schellingianism & Postmodernity: Towards a Materialist Naturphilosophie - Schellingianism & Postmodernity: Towards a Materialist Naturphilosophie ABSTRACT: Andrew Bowie's recent Schelling and Modern European Philosophy claims that Schelling idealism is a critique of 'reflective reason' that can be brought to bear on the avatars of French postmodernism. Bower is careful not to intricate Schelling's Naturphilosophie and Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom, in which both nature and freedom are fused into a single, unconscious series of natural drives or 'vortex of forces.' To take Schelling at word would turn the Naturphilosophie and Inquiries into a materialist physics of mental states, the basis of which are inaccessible to reflective consciousness....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical papers]
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Mathematical Models of Spacetime in Contemporary Physics and Essential Issues of the Ontology of Spacetime - Mathematical Models of Spacetime in Contemporary Physics and Essential Issues of the Ontology of Spacetime ABSTRACT: The general theory of relativity and field theory of matter generate an interesting ontology of space-time and, generally, of nature. It is a monistic, anti-atomistic and geometrized ontology — in which the substance is the metric field — to which all physical events are reducible. Such ontology refers to the Cartesian definition of corporeality and to Plato's ontology of nature presented in the Timaeus....   [tags: Physics Papers] 3252 words
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The Search for Scientific Truth Leads to God - The Search for Scientific Truth Leads to God At the dawn of the twenty-first century, many now realize that the opposition of science and religion has been exhausted. Today, unification of the two is imperative. The first step in this direction is recognizing that science is not the only source of knowledge; experience, spiritual discernment and spiritual experience constitute the unified process of cognizing the world. I. About the Unified Language in which the Laws of Nature are Written It began in Moscow more than forty years ago....   [tags: Science Religion Papers]
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Cosmic Teleology and the Crisis of the Sciences - Cosmic Teleology and the Crisis of the Sciences ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes recent work from within the physical sciences which argue for the emergence of a new paradigm capable of unifying the sciences and demonstrating the ultimate meaningfulness of the universe. I argue that while there is powerful evidence for cosmic teleology, the works in question do not represent a new paradigm and neither unify science nor adequately accommodate the evidence in question, but rather attempt to "put new wine in old skins." As Aristotle demonstrated, only teleological argumentation offers a complete scientific explanation, and authentic teleology is effectively ruled out by the hegemonic scientific paradigm which gives first place to mathematical formalism-something which makes possible rigorous description but not authentic explanation....   [tags: Philosophy Theology Metaphysics]
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Topology - Topology The two main figures of Topology, the spheroid and the torus. Shown together like this, they create the symbol for the sun in ancient times (2, 1). The field of mathematics encompasses many different sub-fields which have been studied and researched for a very long time. One of the most intriguing divisions of mathematics is topology. Topology, the mathematical study of the properties of objects which are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings (4, 1), is rooted far back in time; so far back that it outdates all recorded history (2, 1)....   [tags: Math Mathmatics] 1392 words
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