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Your search returned 263 essays for "thermodynamics":
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Thermodynamics - The word thermodynamics is derived from the Greek words therme, meaning heat and dunamis, meaning power. Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on systems at the macroscopic scale by studying the motion of their particles. A system is the subject of study. Heat means energy in transit and dynamics relates to movement of particles; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement....   [tags: physics thermodynamics] 1559 words
(4.5 pages)
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Understanding of Thermodynamics - Understanding Thermodynamics Through the Concepts of Absolute Zero and the Distribution of Molecular Speeds Thermodynamics is the study of work, heat, and the energy of a system (NASA, 2010). To help explain in more detail the properties of thermodynamics are the laws of thermodynamics. The first law explains that a system’s internal energy can be increased by adding energy to the system or by doing work on the system (Serway & Vuille, 2012). An internal energy system is the sum of both its kinetic and potential energies....   [tags: conceptr of absolute zero, molecular distribution]
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981 words
(2.8 pages)
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The First Law of Thermodynamics - ... Refrigerators - The second main application of 1st Law in which the objective of a refrigerator is to lower the internal energy of a body at low temperature and transfer that energy to the higher temperature surroundings [3]. It requires work to do this. The medium for the energy exchange is a working fluid that circulates in a loop through a number of devices. These devices exploit to increase and eliminate energy from the working fluid. As the refrigerant circulates around the loop, its internal energy is alternately raised and lowered by a series of device....   [tags: heat engine, converstion, energy] 650 words
(1.9 pages)
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics is basically concerned with heat transfer, energy transfer and conversion between heat and work and is also applied to describe phase change of a substance, such as condensation and evaporation. 1.1 Determination of steam quality Saturated water is water in the condition in which any amount of energy put into the water or absorbed by the water can result in water-steam, two phase mixture, formed. In this case, latent heat, enthalpy of evaporation, is referred to as the energy required to change water into steam....   [tags: Energy] 1011 words
(2.9 pages)
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Biology: The Thermodynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions - There are various methods that have been developed over these years to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs). PPI plays a big role in the cell-signalling cascade; for instance, dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase by protein phosphatase-1 results in glycogen synthesis. To know whether a specific protein binds to its partner, for example, whether TFIIH interacts with TFIIE or TFIIF to complete the pre-initiation complex in transcription, different methods such as co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull down assays, yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectros...   [tags: cell, cytoplam, chemistry, antibody]
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1308 words
(3.7 pages)
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to any form of energy. In thermodynamics, both the thermodynamic system and its environment are considered. A thermodynamic system, in general, is defined by its volume, pressure, temperature, and chemical make-up. In general, the environment will contain heat sources with unlimited heat capacity allowing it to give and receive heat without changing its temperature. Whenever the conditions change, the thermodynamic system will respond by changing its state; the temperature, volume, pressure, or chemical make-up will adjust accordingly in order to reach its original state of equilibrium....   [tags: essays research papers] 948 words
(2.7 pages)
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Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although every body has a feeling of what energy is, it is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamics (power), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter....   [tags: physics science] 1241 words
(3.5 pages)
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Second Law of Thermodynamics - The second law of thermodynamics involves the concept of entropy, an idea that explains disorder in our world. The concept of entropy associates useful matter and waste with low entropy and high entropy, respectively. In order to look at entropy, we must first define the system of interest. For the remainder of this paper, the system will be Earth. Many people believe that everything we use up can be recycled and reused if we can develop the appropriate technology. However, the Second Law makes it essentially impossible to achieve complete recycling....   [tags: Chemistry] 431 words
(1.2 pages)
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First Law of Thermodynamics - First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is shared with most of science; it is one of the fundamental principals that have shaped our understanding of the working world. TOTAL ENERGY OF THE SYSTEM AND IT'S SURROUNDINGS IS CONSTANT or ENERGY IS CONSERVED, Brings back that long established idea that nothing can be created or destroyed. How do we know this. This is an empirical law, which means that we know that energy is conserved because of many repeated experiments by scientists....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
(2.8 pages)
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What is Electrolycis? Chapter 1 of Research - ... So, disposition of every Cu atom on the cathode there would be - 2.e charge transfers from cathode to cation. If t is time and total n numbers of copper atoms to be deposited on the cathode so total charge transferred, would be - 2.n.e Coulombs. Number of atoms deposited will decide Mass m of the deposited copper. In other words, mass of the deposited copper is directly proportional to the quantity of electrical charge passes through the electrolyte (m ∝ Q). Thus, the chemical deposition due to flow of current through an electrolyte is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (coulombs) passed through it while Z has constant proportionality and also known as electrochemical e...   [tags: Thermodynamics, Current, Energy] 2728 words
(7.8 pages)
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Developing an Engine that Repurposes Waste Energy - ... The second law is that it is impossible to create an engine that all of the heat can be converted to work because there must be some expelled heat for the engine to function. There is also the idea of the carnot efficiency that also must be discussed. Carnot efficiency is the efficiency that is the maximum of an engine. That doesn’t necessarily mean 100%. The Carnot efficiency of an average car is 58.5%, which sounds pretty low and the actual efficiency of 30-45% is even worse. There are many places where things could be fixed, including but not even close to limiting the friction, the energy required to ignite the engine, the driver’s habits, weight, aerodynamics, and the fuel itself....   [tags: heat, efficiency, thermodynamics] 701 words
(2 pages)
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How does Heat Transfer Works - I chose the topic of heat transfer because I find it really intriguing to learn about. I wanted to look further into how heat from two substances reacts with one another through another material that was placed between them. I will be looking at how to calculate the rate of heat transfer in a one dimensional space. This means that I will only be focusing on two temperatures, one hot and one cold, and a medium of which the heat will pass through. External factors such as other temperatures and time will not be used as they are for three dimensional spaces....   [tags: temperatures, thermodynamics, heat]
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1141 words
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The Road of Evolution - ... Professors all over America teach their students that humans and monkeys have 99% DNA in common however this is in no way correct. The idea that humans and chimps have 99% DNA in common comes from a paper written in 1975 by A.C Wilson and Mary Claire King that readers did not interpret correctly. In this paper these scientists compared a massive amount of chimp proteins with human proteins. Proteins are molecules made of amino acids linked together. The main arrangement of a protein is the sequence in which the amino acids combined....   [tags: natual selection, thermodynamics, DNA] 2319 words
(6.6 pages)
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Energy Demand - 1. Introduction Due to the economic growth, the energy demand of the world increase every year. In the energy conversion process in power plants and small engines, energy efficiency is a key factor. The equipments with higher efficiency, the more work output. Therefore, a number of researches studied on thermodynamics of efficiency, irreversibility and exergy in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines were found during the last century. The thermal efficiency and the energy loss in the system are normally calculated from the 1st law of thermodynamics, while the maximum work output or exergy is characterized by the 2nd law of thermodynamics....   [tags: Environment, Thermodynamics] 587 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Physics of Cooling Techniques - There are many reasons for wanting to cool things, but whatever the reason, the Second Law of Thermodynamics dictates that cooling something will take effort (sorry, no spontaneously cool sodas). Different techniques have been developed to address this issue, each having its own limitations and ideal uses. The most commonly used method of cooling is with vapor-compression cycles, because it is fairly easy to construct a cooling device employing this method and the cost is low. In fact, conventional refrigerators use this method of cooling to keep your leftovers and drinks chilled....   [tags: thermodynamics physics refrigerator] 2370 words
(6.8 pages)
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Tom Stoppard's Arcadia - Tom Stoppard parallels the Second Law of Thermodynamics with the human experience in his play Arcadia. The parallelism suggests truths about the evolution of science and human society, love and sexual relationships, and the physical world. The Second Law drives the formation of more complex molecular structures in our universe, the diffusion of energy, such as heat, and is inhibited by the initial energy required to unlock potential energies of compounds. Stoppard takes these concepts and explores human genius and the sexual interactions of people, with an eye towards universal human truth....   [tags: Second Law of Thermodynamics]
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2133 words
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Where's Reality Going? - Where's Reality Going. In Layman's terms the first and second laws of Thermodynamics state that there is a finite amount of energy in the universe and as this energy is always reorganizing itself a certain amount always becomes less organized. Therefore, the rate of disorganization is always greater than the rate of organization. The universe is constantly becoming less and less organized. At this rate the dissipation, the disorganization of all energy is inevitable. Though these laws ensure our bodily death the eternity of our energy is also guaranteed....   [tags: Thermodynamics Humanity Essays] 1049 words
(3 pages)
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Experimental Study of Force Convective Heat Transfer of CuO/water Nanofluid in a Microchannel Heat Sink - ... To overcome the problems such as: abrasion, particles sedimentation, clogging, and finally additional pressure drop along the channel that occurs due to the large size of particles, the novel concept of nanofluid was first introduced by Choi and Eastman [11].Several experiments have been carried out to suspend various metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in several different base fluids by Choi and Eastman [7, 12-15]. Considering the importance of MCHS in the cooling processes, numerical and experimental studies of fluid behavior in the MCHS are increasing....   [tags: thermodynamics and technology] 661 words
(1.9 pages)
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Ways of Transmitting Heat: Conduction, Convection and Radiation - ... Due to their random motion, these electrons interact with the neighboring molecules and transfer its energy to the other molecule. Similarly, the other free electrons collide with the other molecules imparting their energies to the other molecules. As a result, the temperature of the other molecule is also increased and in this way the heat is transferred from part of the body to the other part of the body through the process of the conduction. Moreover, as the conduction occurs only in the solids and the molecules of the solids possess the vibratory motion, so when they vibrate, they collide with the nearby atom thus transferring energy to them....   [tags: physics, thermodynamics]
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1201 words
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Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Over an Isothermal Moving Plate - Boundary layers are thin regions next to the wall in the flow where viscous forces are important. The above-mentioned wall can be in various geometrical shapes. Blasius [1] studied the simplest boundary layer over a flat plate. He employed a similarity transformation which reduces the partial differential boundary layer equations to a nonlinear third-order ordinary differential one before solving it analytically. The boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a viscous fluid has been considered by Klemp and Acrivos [2], Hussaini et al....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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937 words
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Sadi Carnot - Sadi Carnot was a French engineer (one of the few engineers that history remembers) who contributed greatly to the development of the field of thermodynamics. Although he only published one paper, which went largely unrecognized during his life, a testament to the influence of his ideas is the fact that his ideal heat engine is well known to modern day students of thermodynamics. Sadi Carnot was born in France in 1796. His life took place during turbulent times; France endured thirty-five years of war, revolution, and unending political turmoil....   [tags: physics biography bio thermodynamics] 1231 words
(3.5 pages)
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Thermodynamic Elements of Engines - The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases The question now is wherein the mistake consists and how it can be removed. Max Planck, Philosophy of Physics, 1936. While it is true that the field of thermodynamics can be complex,1-8 the basic ideas behind the study of heat (or energy) transfer remain simple. Let us begin this study with an ideal solid, S1, in an empty universe. S1 contains atoms arranged in a regular array called a "lattice" (see Figure 1). Bonding electrons may be present....   [tags: Engineering] 1770 words
(5.1 pages)
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Laminar Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of Water-Alumina Nanofluid Inside Horizontal Annuli with a Streamwise Moving Inner Cylinder - ... In contrast, in case B, movement of the inner cylinder enhance the heat transfer rate and anomalous heat transfer enhancement take place when the thermophoretic force is dominant (larger nanoparticles). Nanoparticles volume fraction distribution developed under the mutual effects of thermophoretic and Brownian motion forces. The direction of Brownian motion is towards reducing the concentration gradients while that of thermophoretic is towards increasing them, balancing each other. Once the nanoparticles concentration gradient is developed by the thermophoretic force, Brownian force tends to counterbalance the former effect....   [tags: thermodynamics, fluid analysis] 597 words
(1.7 pages)
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Electrolysis: Chapter 1 Alternative Energy - ... In other words, when the global crude oil prices increase, our government has to pay higher subsidies to keep gasoline and other petroleum products at the constant affordable price. In consequences, the government will face higher deficit due to the increasing petrol cost. . A device of this type is called a “booster” as it boosts the fuel burn, extracting a greater percentage of the fuel's available energy. An important side effect of this improvement in the burn quality of the fuel is the fact that unburnt fuel no longer gets pushed out of the exhaust as harmful emissions....   [tags: Introduction, Circuit, Thermodynamics] 921 words
(2.6 pages)
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Thermodynamic Properties of Solid Solutions in the System Ag2S Ag2Se - ... and Ponce studied this system using optical microscopy, electron- probe microanalysis and X – ray diffraction and they found that there are two solid solutions at ambient conditions. One series is monoclinic which is from Ag2S to Ag2S0.4Se0.6 and the other series is orthorhombic which is from Ag2S0.3Se0.7 to Ag2Se. 3. Model Description: The models used for the evaluation of standard thermodynamic properties of Ag2S – Ag2Se system are regular and subregular for solid solutions. At the high temperature the system is described by phase diagrams with a common minimum point on solidus and liquidus curves....   [tags: solution model, analysis] 1236 words
(3.5 pages)
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Pinch Analysis: Entropy and Future Retrofit - ... This point is called the process pinch. The enthalpy overlaps is the maximum amount of heat recovery between the hot and cold streams at ∆Tmin. On the other hand, the remaining duties of the two curves must be the minimum operation energy and must be supplied by utilities. A lower value of ∆Tmin will reduce utility consumption, but will need more heat exchange area. The hot and cold streams are separated by the pinch point into two distinct thermal domains: (a) a net heat sink above the pinch temperature, to which hot utility must be supplied, and (b) a net heat source below the pinch temperature, to which cooling must be provided....   [tags: law, thermodynamic, study, energy, steam] 1297 words
(3.7 pages)
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Thermodynamic Optimization of Flow Over an Isothermal Moving Plate - The system of equations 7 and 12 with their boundary conditions has been solved numerically with Shooting method where the results were in best agreement with previous studies [3]. Moreover, for the first time, an equation for generated entropy is presented and minimized inside the boundary layer over a moving flat plate. Having considered the concept of λ, the problem is studied for λ<0, λ<1 and λ>1. It is worth mentioning that we have assumed that in Eq.20,〖 θ〗_∞=2, Re=1000, Pr=1, Ec=0.01. Fig.1 shows velocity profile for a moving plate in opposite direction to free stream velocity, i.e....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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The Transfer and Flow of Energy in the Ecosystme and Its Benefit to Humans - ... (Mader and Windelspecht et al., 2010, p.105) None of energy in the plant is destroyed, some of storing in carbohydrates is converted to chemical energy or kinetically energy; some of transforms to thermal energy and dissipates into the environment. (Mader and Windelspecht et al., 2010, p.106) Energy flows from the sun through plants and other members of the food chain as one population feeds on another, until with death and decomposition. (Mader and Windelspecht et al., 2010, p.9) Energy is not recycled during decomposition, but rather is released, mostly as heat and return to physical environment....   [tags: thermodynamic analysis] 846 words
(2.4 pages)
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Mimicking a Double Skin Roof Experiment - ... The heat flux is recorded. The temperature of the exiting air is recorded. Exiting air velocity is recorded for every 0.5cm height. 15min time interval is required for each adjustment. 3.3 Problems in Experiment There were some problems which encountered in the experimental period as follows:- There were some disturbance of airflow in natural convection due to the closing & opening doors in laboratory and movement of people near to the equipment which could be caused the temperature has about 2º difference....   [tags: thermodynamic analysis]
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2437 words
(7 pages)
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A Technical Definition of Entropy - Introduction One of the most important concepts in thermodynamics is entropy. In thermodynamics, a system is any region of space that is to be studied. Entropy is a thermodynamic property of a system just like the temperature, pressure, and composition. Specifically, entropy is a measure of the randomness of a system and has units of joules per kelvin. A joule is a measurement of energy and a kelvin is a measurement of temperature. A system whose members are highly randomized is said to be highly disordered and therefore has higher entropy....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1104 words
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Maxwell's Demon - Not a Perpetual Motion Machine - Maxwell's Demon - Not a Perpetual Motion Machine Entropy is not a difficult concept to just take at face value, but it is a difficult topic to gain a good understanding of. To do this some background must be given such as the first and second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics states that any event that occurs spontaneously must result in an increase in the randomness of lhe syslem. This means that as an ice cube melts the water molecules that it is composed of will progress toward a less ordered arrangement....   [tags: Physics Essays] 725 words
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Lord Kelvin, or William Thomson - Lord Kelvin, or William Thomson, was destined for greatness at birth. He was born June 26, 1824 in Belfast, Ireland. His father was a prestigious mathematics professor at Glasgow University and his brother later became a professor of engineering (Webster 2). Both William Thomson and his older brother, James, were homeschooled by their father, also named James Thomson, in their early years. Their father encouraged them to discover and pursue all academic possibilities. While living on campus at Glasgow University, the family often visited the Netherlands and Germany....   [tags: Biography, Contributions to Science]
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1076 words
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Sociology of Crime -   1. Walker’s Proposition 14 states “Fear-based deterrence programs do not reduce crime”. Fully discuss the theory of deterrence, the problems from theory to practice, and the failure of these programs. The basic definition of deterrence is an act of preventing from crime, by having something, such as punishment, as a threat. A deterrence theory underlies in criminal laws and justice system to restrain from crimes. Corresponding to the definition, a deterrence theory itself simply means more strict and definite punishments will decrease the rate of crimes, including violent crimes, robbery, burglary, and even drunk driving and possessing drugs....   [tags: Walker's Proposition, Wedding Cake Model]
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1905 words
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Overview: Gravity’s Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon - Postmodern novel as a genre is mainly intertextual because it often goes beyond the paradigm of literature and borrows its material from different fields of study like science, geography, history, astronomy and so on to make a collage of different theories and citations for shaping a literary text in a new dimension. Thomas Pynchon was a student of Engineering Physics at Cornell University. It is therefore not surprising that he uses science as a background for the interpretation of literature. His main aim is to interpret the postmodern condition where life has taken a new dimension in the midst of enormous influence of science and technology....   [tags: postmodernism, science, philosophy]
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Pynchon’s Vision of America in The Crying of Lot 49 - ... As Oedipa delves deeper into the investigation she begins to question her own sanity. The mounting evidence affirming the Tristero’s existence, like the prevalent sightings of its emblem, a muted version of a post horn, is inextricably tied to Pierce’s estate holdings. Thus, Oedipa has to confront her growing sense paranoia that suggests the whole investigation is either a figment of her imagination, or (far worse) a manipulative ruse being imposed upon her by some unknown external entity (Pierce....   [tags: entropy, conspiracy, system, society] 724 words
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Solar Cell Electricity - In order to competently compare photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cell's production of electricity i.e. solar cell electricity, they both must be defined. Photosynthesis is defined as, (Biology Online, 2010) “The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, and light energy (from sunlight) captured by light-absorbing pigments, such as chlorophyll and other accessory pigments.” According to Thomas gale, ( Thomas gale, 2006), solar cells create electrical energy by converting sun light into electricity by using photovoltaic effect....   [tags: Energy]
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A Model-Based Methodology for Spray Drying Process Development - A Model- Based Methodology for Spray Drying Process Development Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation September 2009 Volume 4 Issue 3 This paper describes a novel methodology based on fundamental engineering models as well as process characterization techniques to ensure that the spray drying process is efficient and requires minimal time and API. Spray drying methods use rapid drying kinetics to produce solid amorphous dispersions, excipients, and encapsulation. Spray drying dispersions are used to increase bioavailability of poorly soluble APIs....   [tags: engineering models, process techniques]
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Personal Student Letter Regarding Academic Performance - ... Spring semester was a complete disaster, from the classes I was taking to my health. Starting with my classes, I was taking Physiology, Thermodynamics, Calculus, Fetal Medicine, and Mande Contemporary Dance. I was also working at BUDS seven hours on Saturdays and four hours on Sundays. At first everything was going very well, I was going to class, studying/doing problems everyday, and working; though it was a packed schedule, I was handling it. A month into the semester, Michelle, the dance instructor for Mande, announced that we would be having a festival, which required that we attend eight to nine hours of dance each day for a weekend; the weekend before all my difficult midterms....   [tags: Anemia, Illness, Fatigue] 801 words
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Apllication for Mechanical Engineering - ... This actually gave me a deeper insight into the subject and a better understanding. It was then that I decided to do a project work based on the application of fluid mechanics. During my course from first to sixth semesters, I undertook a few projects which helped me immerse into the related concepts. During the second year of Bachelor’s program, I was a part of Team Pace, supported by General Motors and Siemens. Our team of five was a part of PACE PAMD (Portable Assisted Mobility Devices) project design and analysis phase....   [tags: machines, science, dream, school] 972 words
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The Necessity of Positive and Normative Economics - The Necessity of Positive and Normative Economics Keynes once wrote: “The object of a positive science is the establishment of uniformities, of a normative science the determination of ideals.” (Blaug, 122) This is the dichotomy that economists recognize when approaching their field of study. The social scientist must recognize both positive and normative distinctions, means and ends, as important factors of fruitful research. Secondly, they must clearly express the conditions and assumption which theories holds in order for economics to be useful for society....   [tags: essays papers] 1127 words
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Saving the Environment: Future Model of Transportation - From the beginning automobiles have run from various different fuel systems, from steam to the current fossil fuel. As we begin to move towards a more environmentally friendly society, you begin to wonder what will the future hold for the future of transportation. In order to get from point A to point B, typically you need to drive a automobile, “60% if the US transportation emission come from cars and light trucks,”(Union of Concerned Scientist, 2014). Fossil fuel is used to produce the gasoline which powers automobiles in the United States; it is leading form of power supply for transportation....   [tags: fossil fuel, electricity, supply]
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1518 words
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Should Evolution be Taught in Schools? - Evolution has been taught in all public schools for as long as many can recall. Though the process of evolution is not the only theory, schools have been teaching it as if it is the complete truth, ignoring other aspects and only focusing and targeting on Darwin's theory of Evolution. However, there are still many other ideas that the students should be informed of as well because all are theories, all are hypothetic. Teaching of the evolution theory have yet to be proven reliable and confirmed by all scientists, thus it should not be taught in schools and should be left for students to wonder and discover by themselves....   [tags: Evolution, public schools, ] 753 words
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I Want to Pursue My Master's Degree at Texas A&M University - ... The faculty at ICT, each of whom is engrossed in research, helped me to create a strong foundation for research. My first research experience was during my summer training program, summer 2012, when I worked on synthesis of ceramic membranes, under the University Grants Commission fellowship at ICT. Dr. A.W. Patwardhan, my research guide, encouraged me to think out of the box, his inputs were instrumental and helped me conceptualize new things. My task was to synthesize ceramic membranes, which are coated with ultra-thin zeolite membranes and used for RO desalination of water....   [tags: statement of purpose] 980 words
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The Scientific Debate of Creation - One of the biggest issues facing Christianity in terms of apologetics is the scientific debate of Creationism. This is a very interesting debate because rather than trying to prove a different points such as the “Big Bang Theory” or evolutionary theory, they instead accept all other hypothesis as scientific fact and start with the assumption that Biblical science can never be accurate. Here are some of the argued points regarding Creationism, summarize from the Not So Deep Thoughts website (Pettit): I. The Problem of Creationism Stated as a logical dilemma A. Source of Evidence 1. Creation Science is based solely on the Bible 2. The Bible is full of inaccurate facts (even shows differing Cre...   [tags: evidence, logical dilemma, bible]
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A Research on Inventory Management - ... Facing pressures from governments, customers and other stakeholders, business firms have realized that there is a need to adopt better strategies and tools to minimize the negative environmental and social effects that their operations produce, while seeking economic profitability. Boney and Jaber (2011) developed an analytical inventory model, a variation of the EOQ, and concluded that items should be ordered in larger quantities less frequently than the classical EOQ model recommends in order to reduce the transportation cost and, consequently, CO2 emissions....   [tags: production, thermal systems] 1943 words
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Time's Arrow by Martin Amis - Time's Arrow by Martin Amis The human being is an analytical creature. From scientists to philosophers to star-crossed teenaged lovers, the human is internally motivated to understand the world around him. That world provides countless puzzles for the human to solve, whether these puzzles lie in the forests of the heart, the laws of mathematics or the annals of history. However, some of the most unfathomable aspects of this world have been entirely created by humans. The Holocaust is one of the most unfathomable events in human history....   [tags: Time's Arrow Martin Amis Essays]
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2401 words
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Arrow of Time: Towards a New Epistemology of Science - Arrow of Time: Towards a New Epistemology of Science ABSTRACT: Humanity has tried to comprehend two fundamental events since time immemorial: the birth of the universe and the emergence of life. Recently, it is claimed that these events can be understood comprehensively by means of a metaphor: the 'arrow of time.' The purpose of the present paper is twofold: (1) to build an epistemological structure that underlies the principle of time's arrow; and (2) to pursue the unity of science in a novel fashion....   [tags: Scientific Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3401 words
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A Brief Introduction to the Pinch Analysis - ... The optimum value of the Minimum Approach Temperature (∆Tmin) is first determined based on the economic tradeoff between cost savings from heat recovery and capital cost of the heat exchangers. The T-H curves are then moved horizontally until the closest vertical approach between the hot and the cold curves is equal to the ∆Tmin. This point is called the process pinch. The enthalpy overlap represents the optimum amount of heat recovery between the hot composite curve and cold composite curve....   [tags: energy saving in processes] 938 words
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James Prescott Joule - James Prescott Joule was born December 24, in 1818. James Joule was born into the wealthy brewing family of Benjamin and Alice Joule. In 1847 James Joule married Amelia Grimes, a daughter of the Liverpool Comptroller of Customs. James Joule and Amelia had three children: Benjamin Arthur (born 1849), Alice Amelia (born 1852) and a son who died in 1854 along with his wife during child birth. In 1843 James Joule read his paper to the British Association, entitled "On the Calorific Effects of Magneto-Electricity and on the Mechanical Value of Heat." This paper described the physical constant that showed that heat was a form of energy....   [tags: biographies biography bio] 1284 words
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Creationism and the Classroom - Creationism and the Classroom The American classroom is suffering from a major deficiency. The science curriculum supports one theory of evolution and no other theory as to how the existence of the universe has come to be. This narrow-minded approach has kept many young minds from seeing a very broad picture of this world. Scientific creationism should be included in our public school curriculum because it is paramount to the progress of modern science. Duane Gish, who has a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Berkeley, says, “…neither creation nor evolution may be referred to as scientific theory since neither can offer eyewitness evidence of what happened in the past.” Gish further states, “B...   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Statment of Intents for MS Program in Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering - ... This is where I grew to finally understand that mere fascination is not enough. Rather than fascinate me, I must say that my time as a trainee there had humbled me. Computational methods, for the lack of perfect analytical solutions, were the key to designing any engineering product, for which safety and cost effectiveness are critically important. I had become involved, along with other students hailing from different parts of the country, in a mini project that aimed at designing a supersonic nozzle using the method of characteristics....   [tags: goal, education, extra-curriculars ] 1448 words
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The History of Chemistry Up to the XIX Century - ... Early civilizations, such as the Egyptians and Babylonians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didn't develop a systematic theory.A basic chemical hypothesis first emerged in Classical Greece with the theory of four elements as propounded definitively by Aristotle stating that that fire, air, earth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a combination. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, arising in works by philosophers such as Democritis and Epicurus....   [tags: chymistry, a scientific art] 915 words
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Development of Refrigeration and its Affect on Society - ... He invented a cooling machine based off a vapor compression cycle: the first refrigerator. The machine he created worked in a four step process using a refrigerant gas that started in a compressor controlled by electricity. It then traveled to condenser as a high temperature vapor. From there the coils of the condenser cooled down the vapor at a high pressure, turning it into a liquid. It then flowed through the expansion valve into the low-pressure evaporator. The change in pressure caused the liquid to promptly boil and evaporate, drawing heat from outside of the evaporator coil and thus caused the temperature to drop in the surroundings of the coil (the refrigerator)....   [tags: refrigeration, advances, technology]
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What is The Big Bang Theory? - What is The Big Bang Theory. The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. It states that the earth was created as a result of an explosion of a fireball. Here are some of the weaknesses of the Big Bang Theory below:- Weaknesses of the Big Bang Theory The main disadvantage of the Big Bang theory probably lies in its inability to explain where the original "ball" of energy came from that did the expanding (the "Bang") to form the universe and the space-time that it occupies....   [tags: beginnings, creation, theory, Earth]
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How the Universe was Created - Scientists have had many arguments on how the Earth is really shaped. Some say that the Earth was round rather than a flat plate. It came to mind on how the Earth was really shaped when there were eclipses on the moon. If the Earth were a flat disk, the shape of the moon would be stretched and arched. Also, Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, thought that the Earth was stationary. He believed that the sun, the stars, and the moon orbited around the Earth. A Greek philosopher named Ptolemy made a model predicting the alignment of the galaxy, and the Christian church adopted his model....   [tags: science] 1105 words
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Proving the Existence of God - ... The only Being who would be able to take responsibility of such beauties would be a great Being, an all-powerful being, a God. In his article, The Existence of God—Logically Proven!, David C. Pack, the editor-in-chief and publisher of the magazine The Real Truth, states examples derived from science that provide proof: The FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS is stated as follows: Matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. There are no natural processes that can alter either matter or energy in this way....   [tags: eath, physical, moral, intelligence, evidence] 2430 words
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Flow Assurance of Hydrocarbon Streams in Subsea Systems - Introduction Flow assurance of hydrocarbon streams in subsea systems, such as pipelines, is a very important subject in the oil and gas industry. It is diverse and encompasses many branches of engineering disciplines. Flow assurance involves handling many solids deposits from hydrocarbon fluid streams that can form in subsea flow lines. Some of the flow assurance risks in subsea pipelines include gas hydrates, slugging, corrosion, reservoir souring, wax, scales etc. Among these flow assurance risks, hydrate formation is of major concern in the oil and gas industry....   [tags: oil and gas indystry]
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Discipline Literacy of Material Engineering - Material science, which is also known as material engineering, is considered an interdisciplinary field and it mainly applies the properties of matters on the earth to a variety of areas concerning science and engineering. In the more advanced stage, the discipline will reach a new scientific field to explore the connection between the structure of materials at the atomic or molecular level and their macroscopic attributes. Moreover, it also includes factors of applied physics and chemistry in which Nano science and nanotechnology have been put the most attention....   [tags: material science, matter, atomic level]
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Evolutionists and Creationist Theories - Although having different perspectives on the origin of life, evolutionists and creationists can concur that the universe appears to be a fascinating and astonishing place to live. Arguments have been made pertaining to the question that many humans ask themselves, "Where did I come from?" The two ideas that arise from this type of question comes from evolution and creation. Biblical creation is the side that evolutionists are arguing against. In Genesis 1:1, the verse says, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." This verse discusses that Biblical creation is the belief that God created and designed the earth....   [tags: god, faith, genesis]
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James Prescott Joule - - James Prescott Joule - - Born: 1818 Died 1889 - Joule's career in the sciences began quite early in his life. As early as 16, Prescott was under the tutelage of James Dalton. His experiments soon followed in a laboratory he built in his family's basement. By this time, many scientists had begun hypothesizing on the interrelationships between heat, electricity, and magnetism - and by the 1840's Joule had formulated not only the well known "Joule's Law" but also a principle for conservation of energy....   [tags: biographies bio] 461 words
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Creationism vs. Evolution: How did it really happen? - Creationism vs. Evolution: How did it really happen. Ever since 1859 and the publication of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin1, his first publication of his observations, much debate has come about concerning the issue of how life on earth came to be. Both the Creationists and Evolutionists believe in the "Big Bang" theory of creation of life; however, the mechanism for the development of new life provides the conflict. Evolutionists believe the cause of life on earth to be accidental, random atomic collisions (non-living matter), known as abiogenesis2....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Vedic Views on Evolution - In this article I shall try to dissuade the reader of the popular scientific theory of evolution, through use of scientifically sound facts and some philosophical arguments using the Vedas. The Vedas are a large body of philosophical and religious texts originating from ancient India, writ in Sanskrit verse they are some of the oldest texts ever written. Darwin’s theory of evolution states that all life originated from one spontaneously created, self replicating, asexual, single celled, organism, which mutated over the course of millions of years to form the first vertebrate, that vertebrate mutated and changed in to every single organism alive today....   [tags: Darwin's Theory, God, Creation] 1379 words
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Evolution: Fact or Fiction? - Evolution: Fact or Fiction. One of the greatest questions of all time is: "Where the heck did we come from?" One of the most popular answers to this question is creationism, the idea that everything was created by a higher being. Another idea is evolution, the idea that all living organisms descended from a less complex organism. Up and coming in the last century, evolution possesses a new way of thinking that is being greatly accepted by the scientific community. Despite this fact many people argue that evolution has no facts to support it and there are several reasons why evolution can't happen....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 1434 words
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Max Planck - Max Planck On April 23, 1858 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was born in Kiel, Germany. He was the sixth child of a law professor at the University of Kiel. At the age of nine his interest in physics and mathematics was developed by his teacher Hermann Muller. When he graduated at the age of seventeen he decided to choose physics over music for his career. Although he is know for physics he was an exceptional pianist who had acquired the gift of being able to hear absolute pitch. His favorite works of music were known to be Schubert and Brahms....   [tags: essays research papers] 896 words
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Understanding Evolutionary Misunderstanding - The debate among creationists and evolutionists as to the origin of modern life on Earth has pushed increasingly into the limelight over the last several years. Unfortunately, such mainstream coverage has caused many of the related issues to become skewed and misinterpreted. In the article “Five Major Misconceptions about Evolution,” Mark Isaak attempts to make clear the true nature of evolutionary theory so that, if it must be challenged, such arguments can be made on a purely factual basis rather than, as Isaak says, “against a set of misunderstandings that people are right to consider ludicrous” (“Misconceptions” Para....   [tags: Evolution Theory]
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Le Chatelier's Principle - ... At this time, Le Chatelier also worked as a chemistry lecturer at École Polytechnique, and in 1887, Écoles des Mines offered Le Chatelier the position of professor in industrial chemistry and metallurgy, and remained at Écoles des Mines until his retirement in 1897. In 1907, Le Chatelier was elected to the French Academy of Sciences. During World War I, Le Chatelier assisted in the reorganization of shell products and explosives of military equipment (Lette, 2007). Henry-Louis Le Chatelier died on September 17, 1936....   [tags: the equilibrium law, physical chemistry]
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Statement of Purpose - ... Furthermore, my intrinsic strengths have always been creative abilities and the power of imagination; which prompted me to take up a discipline that would allow me to hone my abilities in the best possible way. Therefore, Mechanical engineering was a direct upshot of my convictions. During my undergraduate course study, I was introduced to a plenitude of diverse subjects in Mathematics, Pure Sciences, Engineering and Computer alongside with the lab works in corresponding subjects. During my freshman year a series of course in physics ,chemistry and mathematics reintroduced me into these subjects, but now with an Engineering ridden courses like Mechanics of materials, fluid mechanics flu...   [tags: education, engineering, mechanics] 862 words
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Understanding Black Holes - Understanding Black Holes Our solar system consists of ten planets revolving around the Sun. The Sun serves as a magnet that uses its gravitational pull to hold the solar system together. If the Sun were to disappear, what would hold the planets together. The answer might be a black hole. A black hole is a theorized body whose gravity is so strong that even light can’t escape from within it (Shipman 64). If light can’t escape from a black hole, then it must be invisible - therefore how can we know that the black holes exist....   [tags: Papers] 1150 words
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Aerodynamics Q&A - Aerodynamics Question 1 The continuity equation deals with the law of conservation of mass. The law of conservation of mass is illustrated by the continuity equation based on two aspects. Firstly, the air flow may either be steady or unsteady. For the unsteady flow, The second aspect of the equation deals with a steady flow and it’s illustrated as Applying this is an aircraft’s engine an aircraft requires the correct amount of airflow in order to increase its thrust in flight. Since at cruise speed an engine thrust accounts for only 17 %, there is need for the aircraft to take in more air in order to increase the thrust....   [tags: Aviation ]
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History Of Monte Carlo Method - It could be argued that current physics research could be divided into three areas - theoretical, experimental and computational. Numerical approach, in which systems are mimicked as accurately as possible using a computer or in which computer models are set up to provide well - behaved experimental systems are increasingly providing a bridge between theory and experiment, for instance; the Monte Carlo method (MC) and the molecular-dynamics method (MD). In Monte Carlo method the exact dynamical behavior of a system is replaced by a stochastic process, whereas the MD methods are based on a simpler principle and consists of solving a system of Newton's equations for an N-body system....   [tags: essays research papers] 365 words
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Statement of Purpose on Master of Science in Chemical Engineering - ... The auxiliary motivators have been my interest for mathematics and my analytical ability. This is the goal that I set out with, and I believe that one of the toughest challenges in life is to make timely, well thought-out decisions that would aid in constant progression towards a goal. One such timely decision was the selection of Chemical engineering as my undergraduate stream of study which could present a strong platform in advancing towards my goal. Undertaking the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (in which I ranked in the top 1% across the country) I gained admission into the National Institute of Technology (formerly known as Regional Engineering College), in Tiruchirappa...   [tags: processes, techniques, academic] 528 words
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The Story of the Water - Water vapor is the most important gaseous source of infrared opacity in the atmosphere, it accounts for about 60% of the natural greenhouse effect for the clear skies [1], and provides the largest positive feedback in model projections of climate change [2]. Therefore, water vapor variability is an important issue in the discussion of global climate change [3] and in particular the variability of stratospheric water vapor has important radiative and chemical consequences that impact the global surface climate change [4]....   [tags: Water Vapor] 610 words
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College Application Essay on Chemistry - ... I have decided to choose this type of science degree because I love the mathematical challenges working out physical chemistry calculations such as equilibrium and lattice enthalpies. Furthermore, I know that chemists have to be familiar with the valence bond theory to understand how atoms bond together to form molecules, this is a topic that even PHD students need to know. I have always liked chemistry because I like working with numbers, deducing information and applying it to unknown problems....   [tags: Math, Challenge] 556 words
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Physiology of Exercise - Physiology of Exercise Class Assignment #3 Chapter 3 1. Define the terms aerobic and anaerobic. A: Aerobic – Oxidative formation of ATP by the use of O2. Anaerobic – Formation of ATP via the PC pathway and glycolysis that doesn’t involve the use of O2. (Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance by Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley pg 29) 2. Discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics. What role does NAD play in glycolysis. A: Glycolysis is an anaerobic pathway used to transfer bond energy from glucose to rejoin Pi to ADP....   [tags: essays research papers] 1355 words
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Roller Coaster Physics - Undoubtedly roller coasters are the kings of amusements parks. Whether you enjoy a older, rickety wooden roller coaster with its thrill of positive and negative G's and a fairly wobbly feeling. Or, you prepher something newer, a tube steel roller coaster. A coaster that is faster, one that includes death defying speeds, hairpin turns, and of course the cr�me de la cr�me, loop de loops. However, regardless of you personal tastes and preferences, through exploring this page you will find that all roller coasters are indeed bound by the same fundamental laws....   [tags: physics amusement theme park] 1485 words
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The Selfish Gene - Creationism is a Bible&#8211;based view of human origin that states humans were created in their current form and have not changed, or evolved, throughout the years. However the belief that our species has changed over time to suit our environment is considered evolution. As both sides possess strong evidence for their conclusions, the debate that stemmed many years ago, even before the famous Scopes trial, has no end in sight. Recently state education boards in Kansas, Alabama and Kentucky have given school districts the opportunity to decide for themselves whether creationism will be taught, along with evolution, in their classrooms....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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William Thomson's Biography - William Thomson's Biography Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) was a Scottish physicist who was one of the founders of modern physics, and quite probably the greatest applied scientist of the Victorian era. William Thomson is famous for the creation of the Kelvin scale and conversion factors for the scale, which led to the second law of thermodynamics. William Thomson was born on June 26, 1824. He grew up in Belfast, Ireland as the fourth child in a family of seven....   [tags: Papers] 485 words
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The Development of Nanotechnology - ... Recognizing atoms of a supply, the manufacturing process of the supply will be significantly shortened; For instance, coal can modify into diamond. Drexler assumed that atoms are like marbles, therefore, molecules are a collection of marbles tight together. If these molecules take apart, they will become standard scale tools like motors that will work the same way as the previous cluster. Eventually, Drexler proposed that these are nanobots that would be utilized as assemblers in order to arrange atoms into any shape4....   [tags: molecules, manufacturing, atoms] 579 words
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The Physics of a Diesel Engine - The Physics of a Diesel Engine The world we live in is surrounded by diesel engines. They are on the freeways, railways, airways, and are one of the leading electricity producers in the world. They are also becoming more popular in automobiles. These engines are efficient and reliable and they are getting very sophisticated. However, the physics behind these engines has not changed. By way of definition, courtesy of Diesel Engine Engineering: [a] diesel engine is an internal combustion engine in which the chemical energy of fuel is transformed into thermal energy of the cylinder charge, in consequence of the self-ignition and combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder after compression...   [tags: Energy Automobiles Essays]
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Is Death Responsible for Diversity? - Is Death Responsible for Diversity. Some of the hardest questions we struggle to answer in life surround the phenomenon of death. What happens when we die. Is there something beyond death. Is one way to go better than another. Is it possible to escape death. Why do we die, anyway. Why couldn't we just live forever. One explanation for death may come from the story of evolution. To explore this question, let us imagine a hypothetical situation, a world in which nothing dies. (We will imagine also, for now, that organisms would continue to evolve along the same trajectory as they do at present.) Every organism that has ever existed in the past would exist now, along with every organism present...   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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