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Your search returned over 400 essays for "surrogate"
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Surrogate Motherhood: Comparing Two Articles - “Time to Ban Surrogate Motherhood,” written by Lynda Hurst and “Surrogate Motherhood: Why it Should Be Permitted,” written by Allan C. Hutchinson, are persuasive texts where the authors’ attempts to influence the audience to agree with their side of the argument on surrogate motherhood. According to The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, surrogate motherhood is defined as, “a woman who bears a child for another person, often for pay, either through artificial insemination or by carrying until birth another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg.” Since the persuasive works are published in different newspapers, one being The Toronto Star and the other being The Glob...   [tags: Surrogate Motherhood, ] 1324 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Cause and Effects of Surrogate Mother - ... The main problem that poverty can cause without a doubt is hunger. It can also lead to sickness like AIDS and diarrhea. Poverty can cause diarrhea because of the unclean water that is being consumed by the poor people and also because of hygiene. (Poverty, n.d.) Citizens that live in poverty could not afford to get clean water for themselves or for their loved ones so they are forced to use whatever water they can find to use. Because of these reasons, people that live in poverty have been deprived of their very own basic human needs so they may result to doing irregular jobs in order to obtain money to support their families....   [tags: surrogacy, poverty, hunger, pregnancy]
:: 3 Works Cited
1688 words
(4.8 pages)
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The Negatives of Surrogate Mothering - “In the U.S. surrogacy is less regulated than used car sales” (Humphreys). Surrogate mothering has been around for many years, and is becoming even more publically common in today’s society. The most technical way to describe a “full” surrogate transaction would be as follows, “the implanting of an embryo created using either the eggs and sperm or both of the intended parents…” (Arnold). This in turn would mean that the carrying mother would have no genetic connection with the child. This also allows the parents of the child being carried have full genetic connection to the child, making the whole family unit that much stronger....   [tags: Family and Genetics]
:: 9 Works Cited
1906 words
(5.4 pages)
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Surrogate Motherhood - Surrogate Motherhood is something that not many people actually support, even though it “is one of the many reproductive techniques that have enabled infertile couples to have children” (qtd. in Freedman). There are two types of surrogacy, traditional and gestational. The traditional type of surrogacy involves the surrogate mother being (AI) artificially inseminated with the sperm of the intended father or sperm from a donor when the sperm count is low. In either case the surrogate’s own egg will be used....   [tags: Women's Health]
:: 5 Works Cited
907 words
(2.6 pages)
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Over-Doing Surrogate Mother - ... It is not just the cost of the procedure but the cost of bring the surrogate mother to the full pregnancy term and paying the surrogate mother. Depending on the income the parents are most likely not going to able to pay for it unless they would have financial help. (HealthResearch N.p.). There are many thing the parents of the unborn child has to pay for. Not including the price of the unborn baby itself. The expense of the agency they depending on which company you go through but is mostly the same....   [tags: babies, relationship, birth]
:: 4 Works Cited
1165 words
(3.3 pages)
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Should Surrogate Motherhood be Allowed? - Surrogate Motherhood is when one women carries to term the fertilized egg of another woman. This procedure is chosen by married couples who can not conceive a child in the “natural way”. In some occasions the mother may be able to produce an egg, but has no womb or some other physical problem which prevents her from carrying a child. Whether or not the husband can produce a large amount of sperm is not a problem. Once the egg and sperm are combined in a petri dish fertilization is very likely to occur....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 1 Works Cited :: 1 Sources Cited
997 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Surrogate Mother - Womb For Rent - The Surrogate Mother - Womb For Rent        In 2000 the United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) defined reproductive rights as "the basic rights of couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children; to have the information and means to do so; and to have the right to make decisions concerning reproduction, free of discrimination, coercion or violence."[1] Traditionally society defines reproductive rights in the context of one's being able to make decisions about his or her own reproduction; other individuals, unrelated to that person, were not considered as being involved in the decision....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
:: 13 Works Cited :: 13 Sources Cited
1489 words
(4.3 pages)
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Surrogate Motherhood and Technology - Surrogate Motherhood and Technology Surrogacy: The Technology Reproductive technologies have a lot to do with the theology of the family. One aspect of reproductive technology deals with the issue of pregnancy for profit. This concept is known as surrogacy, and it is used for procreation. Ten to fifteen percent of married couples are unable to have children of their own.1 A surrogate mother is a woman who carries the child, usually for an infertile couple. Surrogacy has been around for a long time; it dates back to biblical times....   [tags: Pregnancy Reproduction Essays]
:: 7 Works Cited :: 3 Sources Cited
3204 words
(9.2 pages)
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Surrogate Mothers in Jane Austen - Surrogate Mothers in Jane Austen Jane Austen created families of varying levels of dysfunction so effectively, that even young readers of today can relate to the story. In some, the mother was either deceased, not present, or just not the right person for the daughter to rely on. For example, Fanny, Emma, Elizabeth and Elinor all struggle because the very people who are supposed to be looking out for them prove to be completely unhelpful. These heroines may not be able to rely on their actual Mother (or Father) but there often are parental figures that they can turn to....   [tags: Mother Mothers Jane Austen Essays] 2118 words
(6.1 pages)
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surrogate mothers - A Surrogate Mother is defined as “an adult woman who enters into an agreement to bear a child conceived through assisted conception for intended parents.” The couple is usually referred to as intended parents who enter into an agreement providing that they will be the parents of a child born to a surrogate through assisted conception, using an egg or sperm of at least one parent. 1 RIGHT - Surrogate motherhood is a right entitled to those who are ready and able to take on the responsibility of parenthood....   [tags: essays research papers] 1132 words
(3.2 pages)
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Surrogate Motherhood - Surrogate motherhood refers to that condition of a fertile (footnote) woman who has been contracted to become impregnated via reproductive technologies such as donor or artificial insemination. It is that condition wherein that fertile woman also has agreed to transfer her rights on the child to the biological parents after giving birth. This is bounded by a contract that was signed by the contracting parents and the surrogate. The reasons for this generally fall into two categories. Either the contracting couple is unable to produce a child or they would prefer to eliminate or enhance certain genetic traits....   [tags: essays research papers] 2526 words
(7.2 pages)
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Surrogate Mothers - Surrogate Mothers The practice of bearing a child on behalf of another woman. This is surrogate motherhood. Is it considered immoral. By some, yes. In some countries it is banned—and in others it is promoted or up for consideration. In recent days, the issue of "right and wrong" has surfaced in the midst of this argument, sharing different meanings to the opposing sides. To some, it is right only for the woman who brings forth life to raise the child; for it is deemed that she is the only one fit to be the child's mother....   [tags: essays research papers] 755 words
(2.2 pages)
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Surrogate Mothers Must Not be Allowed to Profit - Surrogate Mothers Must Not be Allowed to Profit       Infertility affects an estimated 6.1 million people in the United States, or 10% of the reproductive age population (1). For many couples, infertility carries a stigma with serious personal and social ramifications. Infertile couples face social rejection by friends and family with children and must also come to terms with the loss of lifelong dreams of rearing children. The psychological trauma associated with infertility has created a great demand for a solution, and the medical industry has responded with eagerness....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited :: 4 Sources Cited
1453 words
(4.2 pages)
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Issues Related to Surrogacy - Issues Related to Surrogacy The general notions with regards to the possibility of surrogacy seem to have old origins.(LT) The history of Surrogacy goes way back to the beginning of time; in the Holy Bible and in Roman history. Surrogacy has been a controversial medical process that has faced authorized issues since its arrival. Because surrogacy is used to help an infertile couple have a child, many people are overlooking the fact that there are risks and difficult choices to go along with this issue....   [tags: Surrogate, Child Bearing] 1217 words
(3.5 pages)
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Opportunity Awaits - The practice of using a surrogate mother to carry a couple’s potential child is a common choice for hopeful couples today. There are a few parallels between both the monetary exchange for a baby, and the monetary exchange for non-replensishable organs, in that both exchanges involve many ethical dilemmas. The contrast between the two is a very bold definition of what is essential to living, versus what is a desirable component of one’s life. On the legal end, courts are likely to weigh in favor of the maternal parents when there is a detailed contractual obligation distinguished prior to the surrogate process taking place....   [tags: Health Care, Ethics, Surrogate Mother]
:: 1 Works Cited
1413 words
(4 pages)
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Surrogates - The year is 2017 and a new technology has changed the way humans live their lives. Most people now spend their lives at home, going about their business as usual, using remote-controlled robotic bodies called surrogates. Commonly designed to resemble idealized versions of their operators, these surrogates have superhuman strength and agility and allow their operators freedom from pain and damage while they remain safely at home in their operator's chairs. The leading manufacturer of surrogates is a company called VSI or Virtual Self Industries....   [tags: Film Review] 1235 words
(3.5 pages)
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It Takes Three: Gestational Surrogacy - It Takes Three: Gestational Surrogacy Gestational surrogacy is when a woman, referred to as a surrogate, is pregnant with and gives birth to a baby that is not genetically related to her. A gestational surrogacy usually takes place when a couple is unable to get pregnant and or carry a baby. In most cases it is because a woman has an unhealthy or nonexistent uterus. Gestational surrogacy is also some times used by gay couples who want to start a family. The pregnancy is created with a medical procedure called in vitro fertilization where fertilized eggs are transferred into the surrogate’s uterus using a needle....   [tags: Family Issues]
:: 5 Works Cited
1653 words
(4.7 pages)
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Ethical Discussion About Surrogacy - ... It shows the respect for autonomy and rights. Third, surrogacy can be applied as a cure for couples with reproductive issues or even infertility. For those couples that have reproductive problems, have babies of their own is hard in natural ways. Through surrogacy, it is possible to use the egg or the sperm or both from the couple to create the zygote artificially. The babies they get from surrogacy are not just any babies (like adopted children) because they are actually biologically related to the babies....   [tags: medical treatment, natural insemination]
:: 12 Works Cited
3559 words
(10.2 pages)
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Bid Cost Minimization - Abstract—Most Independent System Operators (ISOs) adopt the Bid Cost Minimization (BCM) to select offers and their respective generation levels while minimizing the total bid cost. It was shown that the customer payment costs that result from selected offers can differ significantly from the customer payments resulting from the Payment Cost Minimization (PCM), under which payment costs are minimized directly. In order to solve the PCM in the dual space, the Lagrangian relaxation and surrogate optimization approach is frequently used....   [tags: Business, Costs] 1104 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Principle of Substituted Judgment - The Principle of Substituted Judgment Traditionally, the physician was expected to use all of their talents and training in an effort to save the life of their patient, no matter the odds. More recently, the physician’s role has been redefined to preserve the autonomy of the patient. Now physicians must give life saving care only in so far and to the degree desirous of the competent patient. Until this century, it was rare that brain-dead patients could be kept alive for long periods of time....   [tags: Medical Ethics Physician Assisted Suicide Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited :: 1 Sources Cited
1463 words
(4.2 pages)
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Under What Circumstances Should Surrogacy Contracts Be Enforceable - ... If they want the legality of surrogacy contracts management control, then it should start from the legitimacy of the body. Susan (2007) believes that as prescribed progesterone party must seek to have children only through this way. Surrogacy side must be married women. ②Particularity subject of surrogacy contracts- Surrogacy is matter, behavior, intellectual law civil law prescribed. But surrogacy provides physical benefits and migration of parental rights to the child. ③surrogacy contract is a contract involving him in the surrogacy contract, when the third party contract unborn baby....   [tags: legalization, artificial insemination]
:: 7 Works Cited
1904 words
(5.4 pages)
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The Process of Surrogacy and Its Different Types - ... There are some states that straight out ban all forms of surrogacy. There are a few states like California that are open for all forms of surrogacy. There is another group of states like Washington and Oregon that only allow altruistic surrogacy. Some states are grey in the legality of surrogacy in that state. If you are curious I would suggest searching their legislative documents in search of any laws passed. I would also do a search into the states and previous legal rulings on surrogacy in the state....   [tags: surogracy laws, adoption, surograte]
:: 9 Works Cited
888 words
(2.5 pages)
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Harry Harlow’s Research on Maternal Comfort and Rhesus Monkeys - Harry Harlow’s thorough research on the connection between maternal comfort and rhesus monkeys provides information and knowledge to the reader as an insight into our social and emotional development. In this article, Harlow uses experimental observation of mental and emotional associations of the affectionate ties between the child and the mother. As Harlow says, this is “an instinct incapable of analysis”. Many debates are still circulating concerning research among psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists....   [tags: Harry Harlow, maternal comfort, psychology, ] 909 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Case of Commercial Surrogacy - ... They are “bought” so that the natural mother would have no more rights to the child. Parental rights are then understood in this case as a property right, which is having “the rights of use and disposal over the things owned.” The surrogate or natural mother intentionally bears an offspring with an objective of surrendering it together with her parental rights for material benefits. Her abandonment of parental duties is not done for the baby’s well-being but for her own. The commodification of a child and disposal of parental rights and duties are both evident in a surrogacy case in 1982....   [tags: Women, Pregnancy, Fertility Issues]
:: 10 Works Cited
1527 words
(4.4 pages)
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Israel and US Foreign Policy - Proceeding from a simplistic perception of regional stability, Washington utilized the surrogate strategy to control the outcomes of regional interactions in the Middle East and chose Israel to play the role of regional surrogate. But Israel, in many cases, instead of maintaining regional stability on behalf of the US, served its own interests which were not always consistent with US interest in regional stability. The Israeli violations, however, were either condoned or even approved by the US administrations....   [tags: Foreign Relations] 1247 words
(3.6 pages)
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Ethical Concerns of Assisted Reproduction - ... One of the more controversial forms of reproductive assistance is that of surrogacy, or sometimes referred to as “contract motherhood”. With all the new developments and technologies this may be one of the least used forms assisted reproduction but none the less raises many ethical questions. Women who use surrogate mothering may can include those who are able to produce their own eggs but may be unable to carry a fetus to terms due to medical reasons or an unwillingness to interrupt a budding career....   [tags: medical practices, fertility drug]
:: 1 Works Cited
1022 words
(2.9 pages)
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Medical Futility: An Increasing Legal, Ethical, and Moral Dilemma - ... Having established the patient as an integral component of medical decision-making, the questionable or unethical use of futility becomes more commonplace. The following cases demonstrate what is clearly futile care and what is more of a judgment call, which is often subjective and open to interpretation. Case 1 An elderly man who lives in a nursing home is admitted to the medical ward with pneumonia. He is awake but severely demented. He can only mumble, but interacts and acknowledges family members....   [tags: Futility of Care, Medical World]
:: 11 Works Cited
1919 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Cadaver Who Joined the Army, by Mary Roach - The demand for human cadaver research continues to exist. Countless notions have been voiced to augment the supply of human cadavers. Science writer Mary Roach believes that our bodies are of significant importance above ground instead of below. In “The Cadaver Who Joined the Army” Mary Roach primarily focuses on the benefits of human cadaver research and how cadaver donation can be rewarding. Mary Roach bypasses the super-replicator beliefs of human cadaver research and highlights the joy one will receive after donating their body to research....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
:: 2 Works Cited
1338 words
(3.8 pages)
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Ethical and Professional Implications - Ethical and Professional Implications The autonomy of a competent patient is an issue not often debated in medical ethics. Refusal of unwanted treatment is a basic right, likened to the common law of battery, available to all people capable of a competent choice. These fundamental rules of medical ethics entered a completely new forum as medical technology developed highly effective life-sustaining care during the 20th century. Several watershed cases elucidated these emerging issues in the 1960’s and 70’s, none more effectively than that of Karen Ann Quinlan....   [tags: Physician Assisted Suicide Medical Ethics Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1249 words
(3.6 pages)
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Positives, Negatives, and Side Effects of Cloning - ... Then, the nucleus from the somatic cell is transferred to the egg cell. Now the egg cell will act like a fertilized egg. It will develop into an embryo which will then be placed into a surrogate mother. Dolly was made through SCNT. Other successful SNCT clones consist of mice, cows, chickens, cats, oxen, and horses. SCNT and artificial embryo twinning are processes that scientists use for experimentation. Gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning are the three most common types of cloning....   [tags: artificial embryo, clone, nuclear transfer]
:: 1 Works Cited
1251 words
(3.6 pages)
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IVF Surrogacy - IVF Surrogacy Section 3, of the Surrogate Parenthood Act QLD (1988) states that all forms of surrogacy, altruistic or commercial, are illegal in Queensland as is advertising for both the need of a surrogate and wanting to become one. (http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au) This report will take the view that IVF surrogacy should be legalised in Queensland or made negotiable for couples in certain situations. IVF surrogacy is when, the embryo created using the sperm and ovum of a couple is implanted in the uterus of the surrogate mother, this method is relatively new and is technically possible through the in virto fertilisation program and in this case the baby is...   [tags: Papers] 1713 words
(4.9 pages)
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Comparing In Our World and the World of The Giver - Parallels In Our World and the World of The Giver     The story in The Giver by Lois Lowry takes place in a community that is not normal. People cannot see color, it is an offense for somebody to touch others, and the community assigns people jobs and children. This unnamed community shown through Jonas’ eye, the main character in this novel, is a perfect society. There is no war, crime, and hunger. Most readers might take it for granted that the community in The Giver differs from the real society....   [tags: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays] 800 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Case of Nancy Cruzan - The Case of Nancy Cruzan Importance The case of Nancy Cruzan has become one of the landmark cases for withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration because of important ethical issues the case brings to light. At the time of the case, the United States Supreme Court had already established the right of an individual to refuse medical treatment. This issue therefore is not novel to the Cruzan case. Furthermore, there was not any controversy over who was the appropriate decision maker for Nancy Cruzan....   [tags: Ethics Medical Medicine Essays] 1129 words
(3.2 pages)
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Alzheimer's Disease and Research: Ethical Concerns - Can patients with Alzheimer’s disease participate in clinical research. Theoretically, two radically opposite views regarding this issue can be posited. The first one, which is rather “conservative” could, in principle, argue that because of pervasive cognitive impairments AD patients are vulnerable and not capable of giving informed consent with a similar degree of responsibility as that of healthy individuals. When a surrogate’s decision is required for participation in research, this decision can never be equivalent with the actual patient’s decision, since no one can know exactly what the patient desires....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays] 1891 words
(5.4 pages)
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Code of Ethics - A code of ethics is a set of written principles regarding conduct and behavior created by the organization to serve as a guide. The purpose of ethical codes is to give its employees, management, and any interested party a reference point that adheres to company policy, standards, and ethical beliefs. The code is made visible to the public to ensure professional integrity, quality, and to prevent misguided conduct. Regardless of the organization or governing body a code serves as a go-to guide because ethical issues can stem from anywhere at any given time....   [tags: Ethics] 1715 words
(4.9 pages)
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Improving Relationships Between Fathers and Their Children - Our future is our children. Coaches, teachers, pastor, uncles, cousins are all considered mentors when they spend quality time around young children. I have always heard of the surrogate mother, but never the surrogate father. We need to take a look at how we can improve the relationships between fathers and their involvement in the education institutions of America. Some of the mentors mentioned above should be able to pass on knowledge of being a young man in today’s society. Well there is a reason for this pecking order and this important figure not being mentioned....   [tags: Child Development] 1083 words
(3.1 pages)
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Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning: Dolly The Sheep - New research techniques have made it possible to engineer and explore differences in the sets of chromosomes in organisms. This has been a technological revolution during the last decade. Allowing scientists to be able to explore DNA to a new extent. During the process of this research it has come apparent that foreign DNA inserted into self-replicating genetic elements such as bacteria plasmids can replicate. This breakthrough has also shown that the plasmids that have been used can also be used to change the genetic constitution of other organisms (1)....   [tags: science, cloning]
:: 13 Works Cited
1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Sense and Domain for Father - Saeed defines sense as “the semantic links between elements within the vocabulary system is an aspect of their sense, or meaning.” In dictionary, father is defined as “a male parent in relation to his natural child or children.” This meaning is derived from the (nuclear) family view of parent and children relation. Then, what is a family. According to dictionary, family means “a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household.” In this sense, father is a important participant in the parents and the family domain....   [tags: Language] 829 words
(2.4 pages)
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Mother-Daughter Relationship and Mother Figure - Edna O'Brien was born in County Clare in the 1930. As a young girl O'Brien would of been accustom to the rules of de Valera's 1937 constitution ‘which enshrined the family as the foundation of the nation and depended centrally on submissive domestic femininity.’ (Obert, Pg.284) women where not to work outside of there role as homemaker as they would then not be contributing to society in the way the constitution demanded. The mother daughter relationship is of significance in Edna O'Briens writting perhaps because of her own experiences of how the state repressed women (as mentioned above) but also religios factors and mythological....   [tags: sexuality, Ireland, feminity, women]
:: 1 Works Cited
1564 words
(4.5 pages)
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Euthanasia and Doctor-Assisted Suicide - The Will to Live - Euthanasia and the Will to Live   The denial of food and fluids to Terri Schindler-Schiavo, the 36 year old Florida woman in a vegetative state since a heart attack, has caused Americans to ponder the fact that any one of them could be in this woman's place for a variety of reasons, like an auto accident, fall, mishap, etc. And most Americans don't want to be treated by their family as Terri is being treated by her husband - being denied food and fluids in order to hasten death.   It is appropriate to be appalled, but no one should be shocked....   [tags: Euthanasia Physician Assisted Suicide] 596 words
(1.7 pages)
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Nursing Code of Ethics - The nursing code of ethics has a very standard definition. It is the base on how nurses should guide themselves in conduct by making the right decision regarding ethical issues. According to the National Student Nurses Association “students of nursing have a responsibility to society in learning the academic theory and clinical skills needed to provide nursing care” (2003). In the clinical setting nurses have a lot of responsibilities while caring for an ill patient, they have the obligation to practice their profession with compassion, love, and respect the uniqueness of each patient, as nurses we are not supposed to deny care to a patient because of their economic status, their skin color,...   [tags: Medical Ethics ]
:: 4 Works Cited
1354 words
(3.9 pages)
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Surrogacy is Morally Wrong - In this paper, I argue that if the debate about the morality of surrogacy is couched in terms of respect due to other human beings and the paramount importance of their intimate relationships with one another, then it may be shown that most ordinary instances of surrogacy are morally wrong. Human flourishing cannot be separated from one’s relationships with others and any circumstance which is destructive of such relationships must be considered immoral. The surrogate, unless she is treated as an object or merely as a means to an end, is intimately involved in the relationships between the child and its putative parents and important relationships become ambiguous and so harmed....   [tags: Surrogacy Is Immoral]
:: 6 Works Cited
4193 words
(12 pages)
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Surrogacy - Surrogacy In today's society, couples with breeding problems and homosexual couples have been increasing. There are a lot of reason which causes them not to be able to breed any child. There can by body problems, or other problems. Those couples will feel lonely and isolated, it will make them envy other parents who have a group of children. There are many alternatives that would allow these couples to have a child. There is Adoption, Fostering, etc. But the main particular method this essay is chosen to discuss is Surrogacy....   [tags: social issues] 559 words
(1.6 pages)
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Death in UK ICU's - Aims of the research. Negotiating natural death in intensive care The aim of this study sought to determine how death and dying were understood and managed in two intensive care units in the UK. This was easily located for the reader as was stated in both the abstract and introduction. However, the reader only found out the narrower aim - concerning the resolutions that occurred following the problematic definitions between euthanasia, treatment withdrawal, and natural death – played a more integrated part of the study at the end of the introduction....   [tags: Analysis, Intensive Care Units]
:: 8 Works Cited
2873 words
(8.2 pages)
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Ian Wilmut and the Cloning of Dolly - Ian Wilmut and the Cloning of Dolly Definitions of creativity vary based on different people’s interpretations, yet most people agree that creative individuals produce new ideas that can completely change or invent a domain. According to Howard Gardner, creativity is not limited to a single domain, but is unique for all seven domains. Creativity is based on three core elements: the relationship between the child and the master, the relationship between an individual and the work in which he/she is engaged, and the relationship between the individual and others, such as family and friends (Gardner, 9)....   [tags: Science Genetics Papers]
:: 17 Works Cited :: 7 Sources Cited
4071 words
(11.6 pages)
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What makes anyone a legal parent? - What makes anyone a legal parent. How easy is it for the courts to decide who should be the legal parent of a child. With the advances in assisted reproduction technology (ART), such as surrogacy and in vitro fertilization (IVF), more people both inside and outside the traditional relationships of a biological mother and father have a chance to have a child. These families consist of single parents and also same sex couples. With same sex relationships, a third party has to be involved, which could be either a surrogate mother or a male donor....   [tags: Essays Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited :: 6 Sources Cited
1755 words
(5 pages)
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Self-Efficacy in Nursing - Concept analysis and concept development are the terms used to refer to the process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concepts used in nursing science. They are generally applied to the process of inquiry that examines concepts for their level of development as seen in their internal structure, use, representativeness, and relationship to other concepts, in the quest to promote better understanding. Much of the conceptual basis of nursing theory has been derived from already established concepts from other disciplines, and a re-examination of these concepts for relevance and fit to nursing, is important for determining its appropriateness of application (McEwen, 2007)....   [tags: Nursing Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
2063 words
(5.9 pages)
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Cloning Endangered Species - Fierce, magnificent, and free. On June 20, 1782 the bald eagle was unofficially declared as the representative of the United States of America. Instead of protecting the national emblem, “on July 4, 1976, the US Fish and Wildlife Service officially listed the bald eagle as a national endangered species” (History of…). The representation of the country’s freedom, strength, and beauty lies heavily on this bird; if it were to become an extinct species, what would that say for the United States. There is a very realistic and near-future solution: cloning....   [tags: extinction, extinct species, technology]
:: 10 Works Cited
1180 words
(3.4 pages)
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Are Animals Worth It? - Are Animals Worth It. Thirty years ago, congress passed a law to protect animals that are at risk of becoming extinct. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 outlined the responsibilities of the government and citizens concerning these animals. It requires that every five years, species are evaluated, and it is decided whether they are okay, endangered, whose population is so low that it is in danger of becoming extinct, or threatened, who are not in as much danger, but whose population is small enough for concern....   [tags: Essays Papers]
:: 9 Works Cited :: 9 Sources Cited
2032 words
(5.8 pages)
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Quantitative Research Article Critique - Quantitative Research Article Critique This paper is an academic critique of an article written by Lautrette, et al. (2007) titled: “A Communication Strategy and Brochure for Relatives of Patients Dying in the ICU” and accurately reflected the content of the article and the research study itself. The abstract explained the article in more detail, while remaining concise. The type of research study, sample size, variables, intervention, measurement method, findings, and conclusion were all mentioned in the abstract....   [tags: Healthcare]
:: 4 Works Cited
1647 words
(4.7 pages)
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Abortion is Legal Murder - Every day, over 4,000 unborn babies are killed in the United States because of abortion. It has also been scientifically proven that a fetus had a heartbeat earlier than 22 days of conception. And yet people say that the baby in not living, simply because it is unborn. How can something with a heartbeat not be alive. Some people might say that it depends on the situation. What possible situation would make it ok of someone to simply kill her baby. The baby had never done anything wrong, and yet it is still legal to erase its existence....   [tags: The Right to Life, Pro-Life Essays] 487 words
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Assisted Reproductive Technology - Assisted Reproductive Technology The act of reproduction is vital in sustaining the existence of any living creature. In fact, anthropologist Dr. Helen Fisher cites in her book Anatomy of Love that "the most essential thing the human animal does is reproduce" (Rutter, 1996). It is survival of the species: reproduce or die out. In the human race, it is not a problem of extinction, but of conforming to social expectations. Fisher notes that men feel the pressure to "plant the seed" and women feel that motherhood is the sole factor of "femaleness", while others feel that it is just an issue of humanity's need to control nature (Rutter, 1996)....   [tags: Infertility Medicine Papers]
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Compare and Contrast the Work of Harry Harlow and Mary Ainsworth on Understanding Attachment. - This essay will compare and contrast the work of psychologists Harry Harlow and Mary Ainsworth. To compare and contrast will be to emphasise the similarities and differences of both Harlow and Ainsworth’s work on understanding attachment, to which they have both made great contribution. Attachment refers to the mutually affectionate developing bond between a mother and any other caregiver (Custance 2010). It is a bond in which the infant sees the caregiver as a protective and security figure. Failing to form any type of attachment during the earliest years of childhood is thought to lead to social and emotional developmental issues that can carry on well into adult life (Custance 2010)....   [tags: Psychology ]
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Through the Looking Glass: The Case for Human Reproductive Cloning - In the summer of 1996, an animal unlike any other was born unto the world. Roughly three feet high and covered in an insulating material, there were countless others that looked nearly identical freely roaming the countryside. But this animal was special; it was precisely identical to one of its brethren. Dolly the sheep was the first ever manmade clone, an exact copy of its genetic donor. In the fifteen years since the birth of Dolly cloning technology has been improving at a steady pace, and now humanity as a whole is at an impasse: human clones....   [tags: Ethics ]
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The Maudsley Model of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa - The Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa The Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa was first developed in London in the mid-1980s. In this model, parents are given the a primary role in treatment, working together as a team in the home setting to reefed their child and confront anorexic behavior. Parents are also encouraged to separate anorexia from the child while performing this task, blaming the anorexia rather than the child and therefore minimizing the escalation of expressed emotion (Rhodes, Gosbee, Madden, & Brown, 2005)....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Eating Disorders] 1404 words
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Orientalist Perception of India in Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children - ... The novel begins with the birth of Saleem Sinai but soon switches over 32 years backward in 1915 when Saleem's grandfather young doctor Adam Aziz returns from Heidelberg (Germany) to his native place Srinagar and sees the place through his western eyes and in this way we find the derogatory representation of India in the western world at the beginning of the novel. As it is given in the novel: Now, returning, he saw through travelled eyes. Instead of the beauty of the tiny valley circled by giant teeth, he noticed the narrowness, the proximity of the horizon; and felt sad, to be at home and feel so utterly enclosed....   [tags: Eurocentric, universalism, orientalism]
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The Need For an Educational Background on Cloning - ... The cells come together and create an egg, which then becomes an embryo” (Bailey, Cloning Techniques). The Roslin Technique was used to create Dolly the sheep. “Dolly, the world renowned Scottish sheep, was the first clone produced from non-reproductive adult cells”(L.R. Sanchez-Sweatman, 2000, page.29). Now since the growth and stages of development are covered, there are many who believe cloning can be useful in today’s society. Cloning could be very beneficial to modern medicine. The process of cloning can be used for research on human diseases (cancer, Parkinson’s, diabetes, sickle cell anemia), and the development of human organs....   [tags: nuclear transfer, genetically identical, dna]
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Daycare and Separation Anxiety: A Brief Overview - Numerous advances led to Sigmund Freud’s inspirational Stages of Psychosexual Development, and it was Freud that introduced a clear theory explaining the process by which infants develop into adults. The transition from the Oral, Anal and Phallic stages begins to help us understand some of the processes that might lead to understanding attachment issues. Freud argued that humans are born “polymorphously perverse,” the idea that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. While relief from stress observed in a child might be interpreted as simply the absence of emotional pain, on a deeper level, re-attachment and physical closeness to a caregiver after prolonged separation should res...   [tags: Child Care, Psychosexual Development] 2117 words
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Cloning: The Era of Laboratory Cloning - ... Carriers range from bacteria, yeast and plasmids. Plasmids are small DNA circles that bacteria carry. After the gene is inserted, the vector is calibrated so it causes it to multiply many times. The main purpose of gene-DNA cloning is so that researchers can use the gene as many times as they need so they can study it. In reproductive cloning, scientists use this technique to produce copies of animals. Researchers start off by removing a matured somatic cell, such as a skin cell; from whatever ever animal they want to copy....   [tags: dolly the sheep, dna, vector, identical]
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The Comedy of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead - Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, a play in three acts by Tom Stoppard, is a behind the scenes look at what happens in Shakespeare's Hamlet and how the events in the play may have seemed to other fringe characters. These characters are of very little relevance and even if they are removed from the scene of action, with the grotesque act of hanging by death, the impact on the actual play is minimal The play defies easy definition and various critics have labeled it variously as absurdist, existentialist, comical, burlesque, metaphorical or grim....   [tags: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Tom Stoppar]
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The Failed Case against Cloning - Humans have used cloning techniques for thousands of years. We have taken plant stems or part of its root and developed those parts into separate but genetically identical plants. These methods of cloning are not seen as strange because its simple and widespread usage. In fact, many vegetables and fruits are grown using these cloning methods to produce an offspring identical to an exceptional plant. However, cloning, which started as a farming method, has now become a major source of debate due to breakthroughs in genetics....   [tags: Genetic Defects, Reproduction]
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Total Error in Marketing Research - Total error in marketing research is the deviation between the true value and the observed value in the project. Numerous errors can affect the quality and credibility of the research findings. Two main types of errors have been identified: Random sampling errors and Non-random sampling errors. The first derives from how well the sample selected represent the population being studied while the latter represents all types of error that may occur from sources other than sampling. Since non-sampling error is very broad it has been divided into response errors and non-response errors....   [tags: marketing research, Malhotra, Briks & Wills]
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What Makes An American Family? - ... The mothers have been entering the work field and in some families are even becoming the breadwinner of the family. In some situations the roles may even be reversed and the father may be the one that stays at home and the mother is the one in the work field. The family sizes have been changing also, some families may have anywhere between no children to maybe five or six children or possibly even more. The changes in the normal family do not only a human being, there are also changes with the family pets....   [tags: nuclear family, same-sex family]
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The Controversies Around Human Cloning - ... Ilya Prigogine says that, “What we do today depends on our image of the future rather than the future depending on what we do today.” The topic of human cloning can be quite intense, there is a substantial demand for details regarding unsettled and complicated science which can have social and ethical issues. Bioethicist Pence (philosophy, Univ. of Alabama) challenges the subject by arguing for human cloning as a reproductive option, this includes his strengths on hyped issue of genetic determinism, useful analogies to in-vitro fertilization, and coherent reasons for preferring regulation over legislative bans....   [tags: Scientific Advancement, Ethics]
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Euthanasia – Not Only at Patient's Request - Euthanasia – Not Only at Patient's Request      No indeed, euthanasia and assisted suicide would not only be at a patient's request. This false presumption has been disproven time and again by the practical working-out of euthanasia and assisted suicide in locales where it has been legalized. And yes, there are complications, which are not given great media exposure, but which appear in journals devoted to this debate. It is the intention of this essay to correct these false notions - with copious professional documentation....   [tags: Euthanasia Physician Assisted Suicide]
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Ethics and Human Nature in Human Cloning - “We, the undersigned, welcome announcements of major advances in the cloning of higher animals. Throughout this century, the physical, biological, and behavioral sciences have placed important new capabilities within human reach. On balance, these advances have contributed to enormous improvements in human welfare. Where novel technologies have raised legitimate ethical questions, the human community has in general demonstrated its willingness to confront those questions openly and to seek answers that enhance the general welfare.” (Declaration) This is an excerpt taken from the Declaration in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research....   [tags: Papers] 1211 words
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Assisted Reproductive Technology - Assisted Reproductive Technology In the United States in the year 2001, 40687 babies were born as a result of 107587 assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures (Wright, et.al, 2004). It has been estimated that one in six couples in the United States experiences some difficulty conceiving a child, and that 8.5% of married couples (2.3 million couples) in the U.S. are, in fact, infertile (Kilner, et.al, 2000; Wekesser, et.al, 1996). Assisted reproductive technology is becoming more widely available and efficient....   [tags: Science Reproduction Pregnancy Papers]
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Blood Transfusions and Disease - “Blood Safety in the Age of AIDS” reflects upon the history of blood transfusions, the advancement in performing clean (disease-free) transfusions, and, specifically, the appearance of and efforts to prevent the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus in blood donations. The AIDS epidemic hitting the blood banks is not only examined as an urgent problem in its own right, but also as a warning to both doctors and patients who regularly or spontaneously require blood transfusions. This warning indicates that the idea of new diseases and epidemics are still a possibility despite medical and conditional advances through history and that additional measures should be researched in the eff...   [tags: Blood Transfusions, Disease, AIDS, ] 1503 words
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Death with Dignity (Euthanasia) - What is the value of life exactly. Who decides whether or not someone’s life is valuable. These and many other questions are asked when the controversial topic of euthanasia is discussed. Certain groups and different politicians disapprove of the legalization of euthanasia, arguing that it is immoral and unethical. Doctors use modern medicine and expanding technology to “extend” one’s life. However, court mandates and/or politicians should not decide our rights. Especially when it involves our own bodies....   [tags: Euthanasia Essays]
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White Resistance to Somewhere in the Darkness - White Resistance to Somewhere in the Darkness    I feel compelled to revisit the one novel we have read that created the most resistance in me and would quite possibly do so in a significant population of white readers: Walter Dean Myers' Somewhere in the Darkness.  That the book is well written or valuable to readers is irrelevant here -- I enthusiastically grant both.  Of greater concern in this discussion is the notion of resistance to the book that could easily be encountered with a particular population of suburban, white readers, namely those who would seem to have the most in common with Jimmy and who, paradoxically, would most likely resist the book....   [tags: Somewhere in the Darkness Essays]
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The Handmaid's Tale and Family Values - The Handmaid's Tale and Family Values In the olden days, religion and politics went hand in hand. The church either ran the land or had a strangle hold on the people. If the church thought there was one way to do something, one had to do as the church requested or suffer great penalty. To go against the church was to go against God, and that meant death. The king was supposed to be chosen by God to rule the people in the way he commanded. The king was the closest thing to God on earth....   [tags: Handmaid's Tale Essays] 1273 words
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Identifying the Enemy in a War Against Terrorism - Identifying the Enemy in a War Against Terrorism Abstract: In the good old days, it seemed like such an easy task to identify and give a face to who were your friends and foes at time of war, even at the risk of racial and cultural stereotyping. We are finding that it is very difficult to be at war with a concept like "international terrorism" because we also must give it a face. During World War II an article was published in the December 22, 1941 issue of Life magazine titled "A Handbook for Americans." A section of the handbook detailed ways that Americans could "tell a Jap from a Chinese." I found these stereotypes to be quite ridiculous – but the article underscores that there...   [tags: September 11 Terrorism Essays] 1177 words
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The Problems of Cloning - The Problems of Cloning Since March 1997, the birth of a cloned sheep, named Dolly, has caused a great sensation around the world. Though it was not the first time that the experiment using cloning succeeded, the reason why Dolly shocked the world was that she was the first clone from a cell of an adult mammal, something previously thought to be impossible. This meant that the possibility of cloning human beings was increased. For fear of realizing human cloning, a lot of countries have taken necessary measures to regulate the study of it....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics] 1386 words
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Human Cloning Goes Global - Human Cloning Goes Global        The specter of human cloning raises "Brave New World" questions regarding the legal status of the cloned person who has no parents, guardians or advocates. Does a cloned human being have equal rights to the protections listed in various United Nations documents, beginning with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Can biotechnology firms claim genetically modified (GM) human embryos as intellectual property rights. Corporations already own patents on GM foods and seeds....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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The Baby Fae Case - The Baby Fae Case The issues surrounding the Baby Fae case raised some important questions concerning medical ethics. Questions were raised regarding human experimentation (especially experimentation in children), risk/benefit ratio, the quality of informed consent, and surrogate decision-making. Primarily, this case showed that new guidelines were needed to regulate radical procedures that offer little hope and high notoriety and recognition of the physician performing them. Dr. Bailey had been doing extensive research for years on xenografts, or cross-species transplantations, yet none of his animal recipients had survived over 6 months.16 His research was neither governmentally fu...   [tags: Health Medical Ethics Essays] 1401 words
(4 pages)
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History of Cloning - Cloning is defined as the different processes for duplicating biological materials such as tissues and new life forms (“Cloning Fact Sheet” 2009). The cloning of human tissue should be allowed because the fields of medicine benefit from it; however, the full cloning of humans is a mockery of life because it creates a population of people who will not evolve or adapt to changes in the environment. Therefore, the government should financially support the research of therapeutic cloning while condemning the act of reproductive human cloning....   [tags: Cloning]
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Discrimination Against Homosexuality - ... Forcing a homosexual to change their sexual orientation can cause severe depression. An example of this case is Bobby Griffith. Griffith was a young gay man, who committed a suicide on 27 August 1983. Griffith was struggling with his sexuality because he was born in a Christian household where being gay is considered a sin. His mother, Mary Griffith, persuade him to cure himself with the help of God and blamed his son that he is lacking faith when he failed to cure himself (Mannino, n.d.). Forcing a person to change his or her sexual orientation, something that they are born with, can cause a serious psychological damage and is therefore, should be banned....   [tags: same gender, gays, lesbians]
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Ian Wilmut and Cloning - Ian Wilmut and Cloning Before Dolly the cloned sheep made news headlines, the same researchers had only the year before raised seven other sheep from oocytes whose nuclei had been replaced with nuclei from either fetal or embryonic tissue.1 This created a minor stir as this is the "first report to [their] knowledge, of live mammalian offspring following nuclear transfer from an established cell line."1 The implications of this is that they have provided techniques to analyze and modify gene functions in sheep (By providing clones of the same sheep).1 The key to their success is the "serum starvation" that the donor cell undergoes, to force the donor cell into a 'quiescent' state, so that i...   [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]
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Religious Attitudes Toward Fertility - Religious Attitudes Toward Fertility Religious attitudes towards fertility treatments can determine whether a couple can have children. Different faiths have different attitudes towards these treatments. Within the Christian faith, there are two very different views on this matter. Roman Catholics believe that there are none of these treatments that should be used because they think that life is a gift from god, and we must not tamper with life. They think that no one has the right to have children, and children are not ‘merchandise’....   [tags: Papers] 511 words
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The Impact of Inventory Stored at Different Stages of the Supply Chain - The impact of inventory stored at different stages of the supply chain is significant. Determining the minimum and maximum levels of inventory and the amount of order to be placed are major challenges for decision makers. An (s, S) ordering policy specifies these decision variables by placing an order when the level of inventory is below s units, and by specifying the amount of the order by the difference between maximum inventory level (S) and the current inventory position. Provided that determining optimal values of (s, S) is computationally expensive, simulation-based optimisation is a potential tool for analysing alternatives and finding these optimal values....   [tags: Business Management]
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