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Effect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity - Background An enzyme is a biological catalyst which speeds up biochemical reactions, such as digestion and respiration, but they remained unchanged at the end of the process (Walpole, Merson-Davies, and Dann 53). Problem Question What is the effect of the substrate concentration on enzyme activity. Hypothesis As the concentration of the substrate increases, the rate of reaction also increases until it reaches its maximum point where all enzyme molecules are already active due to the solution becomes saturated with the hydrogen peroxide....   [tags: reaction, experiment, plateau ] 1204 words
(3.4 pages)
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Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase - Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme Catalase. Background Information Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reaction within the cell. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver....   [tags: Papers] 1026 words
(2.9 pages)
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An Investigation of Chemical Vapour Deposition of Graphene on a Copper Substrate - ... Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov and A. K. Geim, Rev. Mod. Phys., 2009, 81, 109 J. –H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami and M.S. Fuhrer, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2008, 3, 206 X. Du, I. Skatchko, A. Barker and E. Y. Andrei, Nat. Nanotechnol, 2008, 3, 491 R.R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grogorenko, K. Noveselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres and A. K. Geim, Science, 2008, 320, 1308. K. S. Novoselov, A.K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonoa, I. V. Grigorieva and A....   [tags: chemical analysis]
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969 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase - The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase A Level Biology Project Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. Introduction This is a real A-level school project and as such is intended for educational or research purposes only. Extracts of this project must not be included in any projects that you submit for marking. Doing this could lead to being disqualified from all the subjects that you are taking....   [tags: biology experiment, chemistry experiment] 2003 words
(5.7 pages)
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Investigating Enzyme Substrate Reactions - Investigating Enzyme Substrate Reactions Aim: To devise an experiment which will give greater understanding about enzyme catalysed reactions. Background Information Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful oxidant; it readily breaks down into water and oxygen. The breakdown can be speeded up by introducing the enzyme, oxidoreductase (commonly known as catalase). [IMAGE] I will investigate the effect of varying hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the rate of reaction. Prediction I believe that the rate of reaction will increase as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used increases, I do however think that the rate of reaction will reach a maximum where the a...   [tags: Papers] 1676 words
(4.8 pages)
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Graphene Channel Fabrication - In graphene channel FETs (referred to as GFETs), Si is used as substrate. Several layers of graphene held together by vander-waal's forces constitute Graphite. A stack of graphene layers of 1-5 nm thick called exfoilated graphene, is used as channel material [9,11]. These layers are extracted from graphite using an adhesive tape that sticks to the graphite material, and is then peeled off. This process is done repetitively until single or multiple layers of graphene remain on the tape....   [tags: substrate, semiconductor] 797 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme - The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids. Enzymes catalyze thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Enzymes are highly specific so each one speeds up only one particular chemical reaction. Many kinds of enzymes are found in each cell but because they are used over and over there may be only a small amount of each enzyme present....   [tags: Papers] 691 words
(2 pages)
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Quantity of Enzymes and the Rate of Reaction with the Substrate - Is there a relationship between the quantity of enzymes and the rate of reaction with the substrate. Hypothesis Using my scientific knowledge my hypothesis is that as the quantity of enzymes increases so will the rate of reaction. Reasons for this hypothesis I am basing my hypothesis on a hypothesis known as the ‘lock and key hypothesis.’ It explains that when an enzyme substrate complex forms by means of a spontaneous reaction the substrate fits into the active site like a key fits a lock. It is known as a spontaneous reaction not because it happens spontaneously but because it requires initial energy in order for the reaction to take place and the products have less energy than the reac...   [tags: essays research papers] 2466 words
(7 pages)
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Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions - Introduction In todays laboratory exercise, one of the factors that affect the enzyme activity will be examined. All enzymes are proteins. The function of enzymes are to accelerate defined chemical reactions by alternating the rate of the reaction. They will not trigger a reaction to take place that would not occur naturally. Having a particular enzyme to catalyze each of the chemical reactions that take place in a living cell, total control of metabolism can be sustained by an organism. Catalase is an enzyme found in cellular organelles called peroxisomes....   [tags: temperature, substrate, proteins] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Reaction - Investigating the Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Reaction Planning -Aim: The aim of the experiment is to examine how the concentration of the substrate (Hydrogen Peroxide, H2O2) affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme (Catalase). -Background information: Enzyme Enzymes are protein molecules that act as the biological catalysts. A catalyst is a molecule which can speed up chemical reaction but remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. Enzymes catalyze most of the metabolic reactions which take place within a living organism....   [tags: Papers] 4867 words
(13.9 pages)
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The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase - The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions without undergoing any physical change. They are neither used up in the reaction nor do they appear as reaction products. All enzyme catalysed reactions are reversible. Enzymes effectively lower the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to start. Some enzymes weaken covalent bonds within the substrate molecule, whereas in other cases this lowering of the activation energy seems to take place because the enzyme holds the substrate molecules in a particular p...   [tags: Papers] 3145 words
(9 pages)
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The Effect of Different Substrate Concentrations on the Rate of Reaction - The Effect of Different Substrate Concentrations on the Rate of Reaction My aim is to investigate what happens when concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide is changed and how it affects the rate of reaction when it is broken down by the enzyme catalase (H2O2 à 2H2O + O2) Scientific knowledge. Enzymes are biological catalysts, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions take place without the enzyme being altered in the process. Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the substrate molecules of the reaction they catalyse....   [tags: Papers] 2376 words
(6.8 pages)
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Investigation Into The Effect Of Changing The Substrate Concentration On The Enzyme Catalyse - Investigation Into The Effect Of Changing The Substrate Concentration On The Enzyme Catalyse Introduction ============ I am experimenting the effect of substrate concentration on the action of the enzyme catalyse. I will investigate this by experimenting to see how long it takes to fill a test tube full of the gas from the reaction, which is oxygen. I will use different amounts of catalyse in the form of yeast to test how long it takes to fill the test tube with oxygen, which is one of the products from the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 1019 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Concentration of Substrate's Effect on the Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction - The Concentration of Substrate's Effect on the Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction Plan ==== In this investigation I aim to find out whether the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affects the rate at which catalyse breaks it down. The rate of reaction will be measured by how much oxygen is collected. Hydrogen Peroxide -------------------Water + Oxygen --------------------------------------------------- 2H O------------------- 2H O+ O Experiment List =============== * Potato * Potato Borer * Knife * Ruler * Hydrogen Peroxide * Plastic Tub * Water * Conical Flask * Rubber Bung * Measuring Cylinder...   [tags: Papers] 602 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Between Yeast Catalase and Hydrogen Peroxide - The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Between Yeast Catalase and Hydrogen Peroxide Useful info The Enzyme Catalase is a protein molecule which is found in living cells. It is used to speed up reactions in the cells. It is a very specific enzyme and just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in cells in potatoes and liver and is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Hydrogen Peroxide is the poison produced during metabolism....   [tags: Papers] 1242 words
(3.5 pages)
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Affect of the Rate of Reaction of Amylase on Starch and How Its Affected by the Concentration of the Substrate - Affect of the Rate of Reaction of Amylase on Starch and How Its Affected by the Concentration of the Substrate Equipment list Ø Test tubes Ø Measuring cylinder Ø Thermometer Ø 3 pipettes Ø Starch solution Ø Amylase Ø Iodine solution Ø Water Ø Water bath Ø Spotting tile Ø A stop watch Ø Goggles Ø Beakers Health and safety ================= Remove all hazardous jewellery such as dangling earrings, bracelets, and chains. Make sure items of clothing cannot distract you such as ties and scarves, also Make sure all long hair is tied back....   [tags: Papers] 993 words
(2.8 pages)
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How the Concentration of the Substrate Affects the Reaction in the Catalase Inside Potato Cells - How the Concentration of the Substrate Affects the Reaction in the Catalase Inside Potato Cells Introduction Enzymes are made of proteins and they speed up reactions, this means that they act as catalysts. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of our cell's activities and is very toxic. The enzymes in our bodies break down the hydrogen peroxide at certain temperatures they work best at body temperature, which is approximately 37 degrees. At high temperatures, the cells begin to denature....   [tags: Papers] 1162 words
(3.3 pages)
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Enzymes and Substrates - Discussion/Analysis 1. If gas bubbles form then fermentation occurred. Glucose. Carbon dioxide. The enzyme didn’t recognize the structure of glactose, because of the orientation of the H and OH on the carbon 4 is different than glucose. The enzyme only identifies very specific substances. 2. In order to determine how fast a reaction is occurring there must be a basis for measurement. There must also be an indicator substances to determine the change that took place. Then there must be a tool to measure the change....   [tags: essays research papers] 395 words
(1.1 pages)
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Lab: Which PH Breaks Down Albumin, a Substrase of the Enzyme Pepsin - Task 1 Extended Experimental investigation Factors Affecting Enzyme Action Focus Question: This lab will be driven by the research question, which pH level has the most successful effect on the activity of the enzyme Pepsin (protease) in the breakdown of the substrate, albumin. Introduction: Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma describes enzymes as “protein molecules which act as catalysts for reactions. As catalysts, the real function of enzymes is to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze” (Ward, Tosto, McGonegal, & Damon, 2007)....   [tags: Biology, Protein] 739 words
(2.1 pages)
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Enzymes: Biological Catalysts - Introduction Enzymes are known as biological catalysts. (Ahmed) These enzymes bind to substrates. They have specific substrates that they have to bind to. The are where enzymes bind are called an active site. The job that a catalyst holds is to speed up the reaction. All this is only possible through chemical reaction. The input of energy given to chemical reactions is called activation energy. This is the process is what pushes the reaction to happen. Enzymes acts like a catalyst that speeds up without being consumed by the reaction....   [tags: chemical reactions, substrates, binding] 604 words
(1.7 pages)
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Population Growth Of Yeast And Effects Of Various Substrates On This Population Growth - Population Growth Of Yeast And Effects Of Various Substrates On This Population Growth Plan: 1. Introduction; Yeast is a unicellular fungus which reproduces asexually by budding or division, as in the case of the genus Saccharomyces, which is important in fermentation in food (walker, 1998). Yeasts are widely distributed in nature. Like bacteria and moulds, they can have beneficial and non-beneficial properties in food production. The most well known examples of yeast fermentation are in the production of alcoholic drinks and the leavening of bread....   [tags: Papers] 1245 words
(3.6 pages)
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The Rate of Hydrolysis of Sucrose - The Rate of Hydrolysis of Sucrose Hypothesis - The digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose is carried out by the presence of the enzyme Sucrase. The activity of the enzyme will be greatest at its optimum temperature since at this temperature the enzyme's tertiary structure will be correct to allow the formation of the substrate-enzyme complex quickly and efficiently. This should be at 37°C (body temperature), which is the temperature of the ileum where Sucrase is secreted and naturally functions....   [tags: Biology Science Experiments Essays] 2531 words
(7.2 pages)
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Experimenting With Enzymatic Reactions - Experiment : Enzymatic Reactions Introduction Enzymes can be defined as proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, while enzyme ligands are known as substrates (Lodish et al, 2012). The active site is the region of the enzyme where catalysis occurs and energy is needed for substrates to bind to it. Enzymatic activity assays are based on detection of the loss of a substrate or the formation of a product. The presence of enzymes allows the increase of chemical reaction rates by lowering the free energy barrier that separates the reactants and products (Voet et al, 2012)....   [tags: Michaelis-Menten equation, alkaline ]
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1037 words
(3 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Sucrose Concentration on the Conversion into Glucose and Fructose by Invertase - Investigating the Effect of Sucrose Concentration on the Conversion into Glucose and Fructose by Invertase Prediction ========== I would expect to find that an increase of sucrose concentration would lower the time taken for the clinistix to turn blue from red, or said in other words, the rate of reaction would increase with an increase of substrate concentration until a certain point where maximum rate of reaction will be reached. Higher concentration of sucrose has more molecules inside it therefore it is more likely that a collision will take place, molecules must collide in order to react....   [tags: Papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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Steps in Mushroom Cultivation - Mushrooms is unique creature in the living world cannot be classified neither plant nor animal. It has become one of human food sources. There has been recent finding of interest in mushroom not only as a health vegetable which rich in protein but it also important as sources of biologically active compound of medical value. Based on Ooi & Liu (2000) schizophyllan from S. commune and lentinan, an interferon-stimulating polysaccharide produced by L. edodes are products that have been isolated from mushroom to make anti-cancer drugs....   [tags: grain spawn, nutrition, oyster musrooms]
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1119 words
(3.2 pages)
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Determining Vmax and Km of Alkaline Phosphatase - ... When pH is altered the rate of enzyme reaction reduce considerably and the balance between positively and negatively charged amino acids are shifted. Acidic amino acids contain a carboxyl functional group in their side chains whereas basic amino acids contain an amine functional group in their side chains. When ionization state of amino acids are altered the ionic bonds which determine the three dimensional structure of proteins are also altered. This is because hydrogens in the amino acid side chains will be attracted to the electronegative regions of the enzyme....   [tags: kinetic parameters]
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2427 words
(6.9 pages)
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The Importance of Enzymes in Our Body - ... Enzymes are characterized by certain properties. Certain enzymatic processes are reversible; depending on the conditions same enzymes may accelerate the process of decomposition and the process of synthesis of substance. Enzymes are very sensitive to temperature change. Enzymes show the highest activity at 40-50° C. Therefore, to prevent damage to products they are stored in freezing environment or in room temperature. (Campbell biology, pg. 152-56) The hypothesis that I make on a temperature for the experiment will be, as the temperature increases, the enzymes reaction will also increase....   [tags: protien, reactions, organisms, lactase] 598 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Behavior of PTCDA Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) - We have recently reported results of preliminary studies on the behavior of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) at very low coverage (approximately 0.05ML) [A. Tekiel, S. Godlewski, J. Budzioch, M. Szymonski, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 495304]. There we have focused on the self-assembly process leading to formation of one-dimensional chains oriented along the crystallographic direction (Fig. 8a). These chains can include up to 20 molecules, which are uniformly oriented with their longer axis parallel to the substrate oxygen rows (orientation I – see Fig....   [tags: Chemistry] 844 words
(2.4 pages)
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Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts - Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts Abstract: Enzymes are catalysts therefore we can state that they work to start a reaction or speed it up. The chemical transformed due to the enzyme (catalase) is known as the substrate. In this lab the chemical used was hydrogen peroxide because it can be broken down by catalase. The substrate in this lab would be hydrogen peroxide and the enzymes used will be catalase which is found in both potatoes and liver. This substrate will fill the active sites on the enzyme and the reaction will vary based on the concentration of both and the different factors in the experiment....   [tags: Scripture Analysis ]
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870 words
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Metabolic Pathways in the Body - Metabolic pathways consist of a series of chemical reactions found within a cell and allow for the production of many different chemicals through the modification of a primary chemicals. These reactions must occur at an extremely fast rate for cells to maintain homeostasis and this is achieved through the introduction of enzymes in these metabolic reactions. Many different metabolic pathways can be found within plant and animal cells, each extremely elaborate, with the presence and variation of many different chemicals....   [tags: human chemical reactions] 1186 words
(3.4 pages)
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How Hydrogen Peroxide Affects the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Catalase - How Hydrogen Peroxide Affects the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Catalase Introduction: Catalase, like all enzymes, is made up of protein molecules. It can be found in the cytoplasm of living tissue. It speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide, a metabolic waste product, into water and oxygen that can safely be removed from the cell. The type of reaction involved is known as a catabolic reaction (i.e. substrate broken down.)This is simply because the substrate enters the active site and is broken down, and leaves as 2 separate products, in this case water and oxygen: 2H2O2> 2H20 + O2 [IMAGE] Like all enzymes, the rate at which the enzyme works is af...   [tags: Papers] 3805 words
(10.9 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase - Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase Aim: Investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. Using amylase and starch as my example. Introduction: I am investigating the effect of the concentration of the enzyme, amylase on the time taken for the enzyme to fully breakdown the substrate, starch to a sugar solution. The varied variable will be the concentration and all other variables are going to be fixed....   [tags: Papers] 4181 words
(11.9 pages)
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Investigating How Changing the Concentration of Sucrose Affects Its Reaction Time - Investigating How Changing the Concentration of Sucrose Affects Its Reaction Time Aim: To find out how varying concentrations of the substrate (sucrose) affects the rate of reaction with the enzyme sucrase. Hypothesis My hypothesis is that as the sucrose concentration increases, the rate of reaction will also increase. Scientific Knowledge: [IMAGE] Enzymes are biological catalysts which increase the rate of a chemical reaction without directly taking part in the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 1688 words
(4.8 pages)
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Investigation of Enzymes - Investigation of Enzymes The majority of the reactions that occur in living organisms are enzyme-controlled. Without them, the rate of the reactions would be so slow as to cause serious, if not fatal, damage. Without enzymes toxins would soon build up and the supply of respiratory substrate would decrease. Enzymes are proteins and thus have a specific shape. They are therefore specific in the reactions that they catalyse - one enzyme will react with molecules of one substrate....   [tags: Papers] 885 words
(2.5 pages)
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Activity of the Enzyme Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide - Activity of the Enzyme Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide Background Information: An enzyme (Catalase) is a biological catalyst. It can modify the rate of reaction without being changed itself. Enzymes are also globular proteins that have a three-dimensional specific shape; among with a pocket known as the active site, this has a precise shape to link with the exact substrate. Every enzyme are capable of converting one kind of substrate molecule into one kind of product molecule, which forms the enzyme-substrate complex....   [tags: Papers] 2153 words
(6.2 pages)
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Enzyme Factors and Conditions - Enzymes are catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy required for said reaction to occur spontaneously. The majority of enzymes are proteins, though enzymes can also be small RNA molecules, or ribozymes (Topic 3.1-Enzymes are True Catalysts). Enzymes are highly specific and are generally composed of 1 or more polypeptides that are folded into the most stable conformation, the native state. Also, enzymes require precise conditions in order to catalyze different types of reactions (Topic 3.2-Specificity, Tymoczko, J....   [tags: Catalysts, Activation Energy, Environment]
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The Working of a Biological Catalyst: Catalase - ... Enzyme activity was not affected as the pH of water, which is 7, is similar to the pH the liver maintains. In tube 5 a boiled cube of liver was placed into hydrogen peroxide. Boiling liver made irreversible changes to the structure of catalase and it could no longer function properly, it become denatured. Boiling liver damaged the catalase enzyme and clearly decreased the amount of bubbles when it was exposed to hydrogen peroxide; no foam was created. In tube 2 manganese dioxide and a cube of liver was added to hydrogen peroxide....   [tags: enzyme, pH, broiling liver] 859 words
(2.5 pages)
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Investigating the Best Temperatures betweem Calf Trypsin and Fugal Trypsin - Investigating the Best Temperatures betweem Calf Trypsin and Fugal Trypsin PROBLEM BEING INVESTIGATED BACKGROUND Trypsin is an enzyme so to be able to conduct a suitable plan, this idea will help me to predict the best temperature that can be achieved on its activities in different conditions. “Collins Advanced Science Biology defines an enzyme as biological catalysts, speeding up reactions that would otherwise happen too slowly to be any use to the organism, that is it has catalytic properties, in other words they alter the rate of reaction without themselves undergoing a permanent change....   [tags: Papers] 1011 words
(2.9 pages)
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Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease - Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease Aim: To investigate closely the factors that can affect the activity of urease. The effect of concentration and temperature can be studied over a period of time leading to the order and activation enthalpy of the reaction. Introduction: UREASE (NH 2 ) 2 CO + 3H 2 O ----------> 2NH 3 (aq) + CO 2 (g) Urease is an enzyme found in microorganisms, invertebrates, and higher plants. It catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 5274 words
(15.1 pages)
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Enzymes as Methods of Treatment for Human Conditions - Practically all biological reactions are orchestrated by enzymes. Although there are a few nucleic acids as enzymes, typically they are globular proteins. The function of any enzyme is to act as a catalyst, lowering the energy of activation and increasing the rate of a reaction. Enzymes increase reaction rates by magnitudes of as much as trillions. Such extreme control over reaction rates gives enzymes the ability to decide which reactions will or will not occur. Because of this fact many drugs used for therapeutic purposes act by inhibiting enzyme activities; thus, some enzymes are actually drug targets, and can be seen as methods of treatment for conditions such as hypertension, inflamm...   [tags: hypertension, HIV, inflammation] 1867 words
(5.3 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity - Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity Aim The aim of my experiment is to observe the affect on amylase when adding copper sulphate to a starch solution. Introduction Enzymes are that act as catalysts, in other words they increase the rate of chemical reactions. Consider the following general reaction between two substances, A and B, which react together to form a product, substance C: A + B = C In biological systems, this reaction might occur very slowly, or not at all, in the absence of an enzyme....   [tags: Papers] 3341 words
(9.5 pages)
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The Importance of Enzymes in Human Metabolism - ... The substrate is then broken down into smaller molecules which our body can then absorb. The name ‘amylase’ is the name typically given to enzymes that break down starch. When rice is eaten by humans, our salivary glands secrete an enzyme called amylase. Amylase, however, can only digest starch which is abundant in cooked white rice. The digestion process only begins again once the stomach content is passed into the first section of the first intestine where more amylase is made available due to the pancreas that secretes it once the contents has passed through the stomach....   [tags: enzymatic functions inside our body]
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The Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Rate of an Enzymic Controlled Reaction - The Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Rate of an Enzymic Controlled Reaction Enzymes are protein molecules, which can be defined as Biological catalysts, which alter the rate of a reaction without the enzymes undergoing change themselves. Enzymes are usually specific to one singular reaction. Enzymes are globular proteins with the helix coiled into a precise three-dimensional tertiary structure, with Hydrophilic R groups held by four different types of bonds: 1. Hydrogen 2....   [tags: Lab Report] 650 words
(1.9 pages)
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A Description of Catalytic Converters - Introduction: General Description A catalytic converter is an exhaust component used in modern automobiles to decrease the emission of toxic gasses. The average catalytic converter is capable of converting around 98% of these harmful emissions into relatively benign byproducts (UC Davis). It does this through the use of a catalyzing agent, that when combined with heat and oxygen produces a chemical reaction that is capable of converting various gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydra carbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) into less harmful carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O) (Wiki)....   [tags: Descriptive Essays, Informative Essay]
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Enzyme Activity in the Catalase - The purpose of this experiment was to see if there would be enzyme activity that is in catalase, which is found in potatoes. How my partner and me did the experiment was very simple, we put the filter paper filled with catalase concentration in to five sets of hydrogen peroxide. We found that the more concentration of hydrogen peroxide there was the faster it would take for the filter paper to reach the top, and the lower to no concentration level of hydrogen peroxide was the slower it would go to reach the top....   [tags: catalyst, potatoes, experiment] 1803 words
(5.2 pages)
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Wireless System: Anntena Disign - Performance Analysis of an Aperture Coupled Microstrip Stacked Patch Antenna For WLAN Applications Abstarct- In this paper microstrip stacked patch antenna with 10mm air gap using aperture coupling technique at frequency of 5.8 GHz has been discussed. Microstrip antennas suffer from a biggest drawback of narrow bandwidth and this can be improved by a technique called aperture coupling and further by stacking of antennas without increase in surface area of antenna. Without stacking bandwidth comes out to be 310 MHz and with stacking the bandwidth increases to 440 MHz....   [tags: microstrip antennas, pbc technology]
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1404 words
(4 pages)
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Investigating The Effect of Temperature on the Structure of an Enzyme - Investigating The Effect of Temperature on the Structure of an Enzyme Introduction: For my GCSE Biology assessment I will be investigating the enzyme amylase with the substrate starch. This reaction, which I am going to investigate, is called the protein test for starch. Aim: My intention for this observation is to examine how the enzyme catalyses are affected by changes in temperature. Safety Precautions: In this investigation I am going to make sure that everything is as safe as possible and prevent any accidents from occurring....   [tags: Papers] 1316 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice - The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice As the enzyme concentration increases so too does the volume of juice. This is because as the concentration of enzyme molecules increase there is more chance of a collision with an apple substrate molecule. If the chance of a collision is increased then the number of collisions will increase resulting in a higher rate of reaction. The enzyme combines with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex. Enzyme + Substrate ¬¬¬> Enzyme-Substrate Complex The enzyme-substrate complex then breaks down to give the product and releases the enzyme in an unchanged form: Enzyme-Substrate Complex ¬¬¬> Product + Enzyme So I c...   [tags: Papers] 729 words
(2.1 pages)
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Biology: The structure of Luciferase - Proteins play a fundamental role in the existence of living organisms. They are major contributors of cell structure and mobility, hormonal interaction, information exchange, and, most importantly, regulation of essential reactions. Enzymes are proteins that activate or inhibit the conversion of a substrate to a product. Often, enzymes catalyze reactions that are crucial for biological processes, but a few regulate other aspects of life, such as communication between a species. The enzyme luciferase catalyzes the reaction that allows fireflies to communicate with each other via emission of a yellow-green to yellow-orange colored light (Nakatsu, T....   [tags: living organisms, fireflies, light]
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Investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction - To investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction PREDICTION: An enzyme is a biological catalyst. They speed up the rate of a reaction however they do not affected themselves whilst doing this, which is why they are catalysts. Enzymes are made to be specific, this means that they can have only one substrate that they will work on. Each enzyme has an active site that is where their own specific substrate’s molecule will fit into. The enzymes catalyze chemical reactions beginning with the binding of the substrate to the active site on the enzyme....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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2404 words
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Investigating a Factor that Affects Enzyme Activity - Investigating a Factor that Affects Enzyme Activity Planning -------- Aim --- To investigate a factor which will affect the activity of catalase, whilst keeping all variables constant. Possible Independent Variables ------------------------------ Here are a number of possible independent variables that could be changed in the experiment: Independent variable Continuous/Discontinuous Easy to measure. Volume of substrate used Continuous Yes Type of enzyme Discontinuous Yes Overall mass of piece of meat Continuous No Type of substrate used Discontinuous Yes Temperature of substrate Continuous...   [tags: Papers] 1409 words
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Overview of Metabolism - Metabolism The essential task of proteins is to act as enzymes-catalysts that increase the rate of practically all chemical reactions within cells. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical process without being consumed in the process. When a catalyzed reaction occurs, the reactants are converted into the products faster than they would be without the catalyst. In the absence of enzymatic catalysis, most biochemical outcomes are so slow that they would not occur under the weak conditions of temperature and pressure that are consistent with life....   [tags: Anatomy, proteins, enzymes-catalists]
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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ - Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule] 2578 words
(7.4 pages)
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The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Enzyme Activity - ... The first way is by helping the substrates to bind together. It is easier for substrates to react if they are closer together, thus bringing on the transition state. The second way is by repositioning them. Substrates do not travel in a particular direction and so if they are repositioned so that they collide, they will react. Another way to cause reactions is using an induced-fit model. This means that the enzyme changes its shape to better fit the substrate and make for a stronger bond. Finally stopping water molecules from getting through and disrupting the reactions will help binding occur....   [tags: biochemical analysis] 565 words
(1.6 pages)
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Examination of Alkyl-Halide Formation as a Result of Substitution Reactions of Alcohol-Containing Organic Compounds - .This experiment was performed to determine the structure of alkyl-halides formed as a result of substitution reactions, and whether the reaction used an SN1 or SN2 mechanism. The structure of the starting alcohol determined the mechanistic pathway of the substitution reaction. Reaction 1 involved the substitution of a primary alcohol which produced one primary alkyl-halide via SN2 reaction. Reactions 2 and 3 began with a secondary alcohol, forming two products as the result of direct substitution and/or a hydride shift, via SN1 reaction....   [tags: Gravity Filtration, Racemic Mixture]
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2910 words
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Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube - Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Arc usage is introduced into CNT synthesis for the reason that it provides a simple and traditional tool for generating a high temperature, which is necessary for the vaporization of carbon atoms into a plasma. The traditional arc discharging experimental equipment of fabrication of carbon nanotubes as shown in the figure. Once the arc is in operation, a carbon deposit forms on the negative electrode. The key parameters that control the growth kinetics including the hydrocarbon carrier gas, the growth time and temperature, and the catalyst composition....   [tags: hydrocarbons, synthesis, catalyst] 810 words
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Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid - Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid AIM: To obtain pure samples of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) from fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae). BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The use of yeast in food production is the oldest and most extensive contribution made by any group of microorganisms. A most common substrate that yeast can work with is GLUCOSE. Glucose is a monosaccharide, which are sweet crystalline sugars that dissolve easily in water to form sweet solutions....   [tags: Papers] 4639 words
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The effect of catalase concentration on the breakdown rate of h2o2 - The effect of catalase concentration on the breakdown rate of h2o2 The effect of catalase concentrations on the rate of Break down of hydrogen peroxide Scientific knowledge and understanding: A rate is a measure of change that occurs in a given time whilst a reaction is the interaction of substances undergoing chemical change. The velocity at which any mix of substances are transformed into a product/s in a given unit of time is the rate of reaction. The speed at which this modification occurs relies on two main factors; the amount of collisions between reacting particles and what portion of these collisions are successful in producing a change within the substances present....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3970 words
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Fluorescence-Based Detection Methods for Drug Discovery - FLOURESCENCE-BASED DETECTION ASSAY METHODS FOR DRUG DISCOVERY PROCESSES Introduction: Cancer, neural disorder, inflammatory diseases and metabolic problems are some of the Pathological conditions in which protein kinases are involved in. Therefore this makes protein kinases such as IRAK-4 one of the most promising groups of drug targets. Irak-4 stands for (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4). IRAK-4 is involved in the signaling innate responses from Toll-like receptors. IRAK4 is part of the phosphoryl transferases family that transfer the γ -phosphate of ATP to the serine, threonine, or tyrosine conserved residues on specific substrate proteins....   [tags: cancer, neural disorder, resonance] 1295 words
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Water Treatment Systems: Activated Sludge - ... (Grady et al. 1999). It is well known that SRT affects sludge settling properties (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003) and the types of bacteria present in the activated sludge (Gerardi, 2006). Furthermore SRT is the key for controlling biomass production in a WWTP, elevating SRT to one of the most critical design and operational parameter in AS process. In this study and due to the nature of AS treatment and the slaughterhouses’ influent composition, a large amount of excess sludge was generated daily....   [tags: biodegradabilit, organic pollutant, engineering] 848 words
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Chemical Kinetics: Enzymes - Chemical Kinetics is the branch of chemistry that studies the speed at which a chemical reaction occur and the factor that influence this speed. What is meant by the speed of a reaction is the rate at which the concentrations of reactants and products change within a time period. Some reactions occur almost instantaneously, while others take days or years. Chemical kinetics understanding I used in the process of designing drugs, controlling pollution and the processing of food. Most of the time chemical kinetics is used to speed or to increase the rate of a reaction rather than to maximize the amount of product....   [tags: Chemical Kinetics: Enzymes]
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Following the Progress of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction - Following the Progress of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction Plan ---- Enzymes are a widely used source of biological catalyst; they are used in widely in industry as in the biological aspects. Enzymes are biological catalyst; this means that they will speed up a reaction with out becoming used up. The enzymes for this by not actually interfering with the reaction its self but basically align the two substrates on the active site of the enzyme. Amylases are widely spread enzymes that hydrolyse starch to maltose....   [tags: Papers] 3587 words
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Synthesis and Gas Sensing Porperties of SnO2 Nanostructures - INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, the study on metal oxide nanostructure materials have attracted much attention because metal oxides are considered to be the most fascinating functional materials and have been widely utilized in various technological applications. For examples they are used as gas sensors, bio-sensors, nanoelectronics, nanogenerators, electrochromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, supercapacitors and photo-detector. Nanomaterials have mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties different from those of their bulk counterparts due to the enhanced surface-volume ratio and possible quantum confinement effects(Dulce N....   [tags: carbon monoxide, gases, ethanol, metal oxide]
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1798 words
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WHat are Enzymes? - ... The hypothesis for this experiment was If we put test tube two and three together than the colors will change and the temperature will eventually decrease or stay the same. In this experiment the group was testing turnip extract, water, guaiacol, and H2O2. The group was looking at the temperature and the absorbance of the baseline. The second experiment was Temperature and the group used the same testing but they were checking the absorbance level with the temperature as the factor in that time....   [tags: macromolecules, catalysts, chemical agent]
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How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase - How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase Hypothesis: The optimum pH for the reaction of starch with amylase is pH 7. PH values lower or higher than this value will result in a slower rate of reaction. Amylase works in the range pH 3 to pH 11. Biological Knowledge ==================== PH changes affect the structure of an enzyme molecule and therefore affect its ability to bind with its substrate molecules. Changes in pH affect the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds that hold the enzyme together, which naturally affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme with the substrate....   [tags: Papers] 1076 words
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Investigation the Factors that Affect Enzyme Controlled Reactions - Investigation the Factors that Affect Enzyme Controlled Reactions Planning In this experiment I am going to try and find out the factors that affect enzyme controlled reactions by using the Catalase in potato. Enzymes are non-living and act as biological catalysts, which speed up reactions. They can change shape if the temperature changes. Enzymes are made up of active sites (the lock) and only certain shaped substrates can fit into them to cause a chemical reaction. To work out this experiment, I am going to use a formula of: 2H2O2-using catalase to become 2H2O+O2 I will use a set of five pH's to get my readings from the collected oxygen....   [tags: Papers] 435 words
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Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique that is part of a broader range of techniques that are commonly referred to as scanning probe microscopy. It has a wide array of applications in chemistry, biology, and even the material sciences. SECM uses a ultramicroelectrode to measure the local electrochemical behavior of a substrate in a solution. When introduced, the ultramicroelectrode acts as the electron conductor in the substrate and the added electrolyte acts as the ionic conductor in the solution....   [tags: chemistry, biology, instrument]
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Multi-frequency and Multi-function Wearable Antenna - 1.Introduction Antennas are key components of any wireless system. An antenna is a conductor that can transmit, send and receive Electromagnetic (microwave, radio or satellite) signals... Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relative narrow frequency band. There are different types of antennas. The dipole antenna is the first type of antenna to be ever used and the simplest one to study and understand, it is a strait wire fed from the center. Directional antenna is used for antennas which radiates power in focused and specific direction....   [tags: components of wireless systems]
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Temperature's Effect on the Production of Oxygen From Yeast and Hydrogen Peroxide - Temperature's Effect on the Production of Oxygen From Yeast and Hydrogen Peroxide Planning Aim --- My aim is to discover how temperature effects the production of oxygen from yeast and hydrogen peroxide. I will mix yeast with hydrogen peroxide and use an upturned measuring cylinder to measure how much oxygen is produced. To find out how much hydrogen peroxide and yeast I will use, I will carry out pre-tests....   [tags: Papers] 2104 words
(6 pages)
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Use of White-Rot Fungi - ... The molecular weight of fungal laccases ranges from 50-70 kDa with isoelectric points at pH 3-5 (Hofrichter, 2002; Baldarian, 2005; Kullikova et al., 2011). 2.3.3.1 Laccase mediated reaction The active site of laccase contain one T1 Copper (Cu) bound as a mononuclear centre, one T2, and two T3 Cu atoms. These 3 T2 and T3 Cu atoms form a trinuclear centre. In the resting enzymes all four Cu atoms are likely to exist in the Cu+2 state (Morozova et al., 2007; Aehle, 2007). The typical reaction of laccase is oxidation of a phenolic compound and a concomittant reduction of molecular oxygen to water....   [tags: Bioremediation, Biodegration, Decolorization] 2417 words
(6.9 pages)
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Investigating the Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Respiration of Blowfly Larvae - Investigating the Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Respiration of Blowfly Larvae This experiment was setup to investigate the effects of temperature on the rate of respiration of blowfly larvae. Background Knowledge The maggots involved in this investigation were blowflies at the larval stage of development, and they breathe through spiracles in the anterior and posterior segments. The respiratory tracts are not as developed at this stage, as the organism is not capable of flight, and so it respires less oxygen than an adult blowfly....   [tags: Papers] 1385 words
(4 pages)
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Finding out How the Concentration of the Starch Affects the Activity of Amylase - Finding out How the Concentration of the Starch Affects the Activity of Amylase Prediction I predict that as I increase the substrate concentration the activity of the enzymes will increase until a point where the rate of reaction will stay constant. My predicted graph will look like this The enzyme, busily going about its catalytic work, will simply hang around until a substrate molecule collides with it appropriately. In the same way that increasing the temperature increases the chances of a favourable collision, so increasing the substrate concentration increases the chances - because there are simply more substrate molecules kicking about....   [tags: Papers] 1920 words
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Effect of different size beads on the activity of immobilised catalyse - Effect of different size beads on the activity of immobilised catalyse Aim: To find out how varying the size of beads containing yeast varies the rate of activity of catalase in a fermentation reaction of hydrogen peroxide with immobilised enzymes. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being used up in the process however it maybe affected physically i.e. degradation of the surface of the catalyst. Catalysts work by reducing the activation energy needed for a particular reaction by offering a different path for the reaction to take place....   [tags: Papers] 2468 words
(7.1 pages)
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Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase - Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase Amylases are enzymes, which hydrolyse starch into Maltose. There are two types of amylase: Alpha amylase that degrades starch, which is a polysaccharide, into fragments 10 glucose residues long. Beta Amylase breaks these down into maltose, which is a disaccharide of two glucose molecules joined together. Both enzymes work by hydrolysis of the glycosidic link in carbohydrates. Enzyme amylase are produced from different sources but in my experiment I will be concerned with Bacterial and fungal amylase....   [tags: Papers] 1560 words
(4.5 pages)
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Investigating Oxygen Produced From a Reaction - Investigating Oxygen Produced From a Reaction The objective of this coursework is to investigate how the surface area of the potato affects the amount of oxygen produced from the reaction: Hydrogen peroxide [IMAGE] water + oxygen Potato (Catalyst) Catalase Introduction: Enzymes are found in every living organism. An enzyme is a biological catalyst which speeds up a chemical reaction in an organism. Catalase is found in the liver but it is also found in potatoes....   [tags: Papers] 2314 words
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Diamond Coated Machine Tooling - Diamond Coated Machine Tooling Diamond is the hardest material known to man, in this day and age. Typically, diamonds have been known to demonstrate hardness values up to 12000 HV (Vickers Hardness) or approximately 100HRC. Diamond-coated Tungsten Carbide tools have demonstrated improved machining characteristics over coated tool steels commonly used today. With the increased use of composites, ceramics, and other ultra-hard / lightweight materials in numerous industries, diamond-coated machine tools are becoming more common since their performance improvements generally out weigh their increased cost....   [tags: Research Paper Diamond Coated Tool] 1916 words
(5.5 pages)
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Effect of pH and Acid Phosphatase - The practical was carried out to investigate the effect of pH on the reaction of the enzyme acid phosphatase. Of the many functions of proteins, catalysis is by far the most vital. When catalysis is not present, most reactions in the biological systems take place very slowly to produce at an adequate pace for metabolising organism. The catalysts that take this role are called enzymes. Enzymes are the most efficient catalysts; they can enhance rate of reaction by up to 1020 over uncatalysed reactions....   [tags: Protein, Catalysis,Reaction, Enzyme]
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Investigate the effect of temperature change on the rate of hydrolysis - Investigate the effect of temperature change on the rate of hydrolysis of starch using the enzyme amylase. Amylase investigation --------------------- AIM: To investigate the effect of temperature change on the rate of hydrolysis of starch using the enzyme amylase. These are variables that may affect the rate of the reaction: * concentration of amylase * concentration of iodine * temperature conditions of reaction * pH conditions of reaction I intend to investigate the effect of temperature change on the rate of the hydrolysis of starch, using the enzyme amylase....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 528 words
(1.5 pages)
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Effect of Temperature on an Enzyme in Hydgrogen Peroxide - Effect of Temperature on an Enzyme in Hydgrogen Peroxide Introduction. The aim of this investigation is to find out how temperature affects the speed at which the enzyme,Catalase,works best in Hydrogen Peroxide.I hope to achieve reliable results that will confirm my predictions. I predict that:- · By increasing the temperature of the Hydrogen Peroxide,the Catalase will react faster. This is because the particles have more energy so they will move and react at a faster rate....   [tags: Papers] 1424 words
(4.1 pages)
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Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction - Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction The enzyme amylase digests starch to form sugar.Amylase is released in the mouth and carries out the reaction at body temperature 37 degrees centigrade.I will investigate the effects of temperatures higher and lower than room temperature on the rate of this reaction. Prediction I think that the reaction will be fastest at 50 degrees centigrade ,because at body temperature reactions are carried out quickly but at a higher temperaturem the enzyme and sugar particles will move faster due to a larger amount...   [tags: Papers] 622 words
(1.8 pages)
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