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Stomata Leaf Peel Count - Stomata Leaf Peel Count Aim: · To examine the stomata on the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf. · To investigate and find out which side has more and why. Prediction: I predict that there will be more stomata on the underside of the leaf (the lower epidermis) than on the upper epidermis because that way the maximum amount of sunlight can enter the leaf without many stomata blocking the way. Also, a lower number of stomata would increase the surface area and therefore increase the amount of area available for light to hit....   [tags: Papers] 330 words
(0.9 pages)
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Stomata Count Experiment - Stomata Count Experiment Aim To peel the epidermis layer from underneath of the plant leaf and count the average distance between the stomata. Background Info Guard cells open and close to let stomata take in Carbon Dioxide that is required for plants to make glucose in photosynthesis, the Carbon Dioxide comes in through stomata, which consist of guard cells which contract and relax (become turgid and flaccid) depending on the amount of water that inside them making them turgid....   [tags: Papers] 424 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Effect of Stomata Density on the Midrib and Margin of Woody Dicot Leaves - The Effect of Stomata Density on the Midrib and Margin of Woody Dicot Leaves INTRODUCTION Plants are relied heavily on their ability to exchange water and gases to keep life on Earth alive and well. Tiny, microscopic pores that are found on the surface of stems and leaves in plants are vital in order for this exchange to occur. These pores, or openings, are called stomata (Freeman, 2011). Stomata are mainly open when photosynthesis is occurring, which takes place during the day, and are closed at night....   [tags: photosynthesis, gas, research]
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827 words
(2.4 pages)
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Investigating the Amount of Stomata on a Variety of Different Sized Leaves - Investigating the Amount of Stomata on a Variety of Different Sized Leaves Introduction During this experiment I am going to investigate the stomata on a large leaf and a small leaf from the same plant to compare the amount of stomata per mm². The stomata are small openings found in the lower epidermis of leaves. Each stoma is surrounded by two bean-shaped guard cells containing chloroplasts. A stoma is a very efficient structure because it can control the rate of transpiration (water loss) and the exchange of gases....   [tags: Papers] 1321 words
(3.8 pages)
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Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types - Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types The aim of my particular experiment was to investigate into the possible existence of distribution of stomata within different leaf types. My investigation also requires me to research into the rate of transpiration into the different leaf types and if this has an effect of the distribution of stomata on the leaves surface. Prediction I predict that the environment of which I found my particular leaf type had an effect on the stomata distribution in my particular leaf type....   [tags: Papers] 3941 words
(11.3 pages)
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Investigating the Relationship Between the Transpiration Rate of a Shoot and the Degree of Opening of the Stomata of Its Leaves - Investigating the Relationship Between the Transpiration Rate of a Shoot and the Degree of Opening of the Stomata of Its Leaves I will be investigating the relationship between the transpiration rate of a shoot and the degree of opening of the stomata of its leaves. Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the surfaces of a plant. Solar energy turns the water in the plants into a vapour causing it to evaporate into the leafÂ’s internal air spaces before diffusing out of the stomata into the air....   [tags: Papers] 1201 words
(3.4 pages)
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How Light Affects the Stomatal Opening in a Leaf - How Light Affects the Stomatal Opening in a Leaf Abstract ======== My aim of this investigation was to check the affect of environmental factors affecting stomatal opening. My experiment was designed to check the stomata opening in light. Plants move in ways that may not seem obvious. The opening and closing of stomata is one example of this movement. There are a large amount of growth conditions that can affect a plant. One of the most important of these conditions concerns the type of availability of light present for photosynthesis....   [tags: Papers] 1639 words
(4.7 pages)
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How Light and Wind Affect the Rate of Plant Transpiration - Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to find out if the rate of transpiration in plants can be increased using light and wind. One of the biggest problems that land plants have to deal with is avoiding water loss or desiccation (Whiting, 2011). Transpiration is the loss of water vapor through the stomata (Xu et al. 1995). Transpiration occurs through stomata of leaves and also sometimes occurs in flowers (Vodopich and R. Moore, 2011). During transpiration, the water in the roots is being pulled up through the plant (Xu et al....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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2026 words
(5.8 pages)
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Effects of CO2 Concentration on the Rate of Photosynthesis - Effects of CO2 Concentration on the Rate of Photosynthesis Whenever there is an increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, plants respond by reducing stomatal conductances, hence, water loss is reduced. This result in greater soil moisture content in ecosystems rich with CO2, this increases plant growth In a review of studies conducted over the prior decade, Pospisilova and Catsky (1999) compiled over 150 individual plant water use responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. They found that elevated CO2 increased rates of net photosynthesis in about 85% of the reported studies, while reducing stomatal conductances and rates of transpiration in approximately 75% of the cases analyzed....   [tags: transpiration, environment, ecosystems]
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889 words
(2.5 pages)
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Loss in Mass Through Transpiration - Loss in Mass Through Transpiration Aim: · To investigate the loss of water and mass in the leaf · To find out if more water is lost sat the top/bottom of the leaf Prediction: I predict that the leaf without any Vaseline on it would lose the most mass and water because there is nothing blocking the stomata, therefore water will evaporate, but no water will be taken in. The next one that will lose the most water will be the one with Vaseline on the top only. This is because there are more stomata on the bottom and therefore more water will be lost than if there was Vaseline only on the bottom, which has a lower number or stomata....   [tags: Papers] 451 words
(1.3 pages)
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Taking a Closer Look at an Ozone Molecule - INTRODUCTION An ozone molecule contains three of oxygen atoms (O3) which included the molecular oxygen (O2) that is important in our life in order to survive. Ozone is also the form of UV rays (sun) from the upper parts of atmosphere which is called stratosphere. Another name for stratosphere is protective ozone layer because it can help to protect human from the harmful effect of the ultra-violet radiation (UV ray) by absorbing it. But the lower part of atmosphere which name troposphere, can easily causes harmful or damage to a lung tissues of human and also the leaves tissue of plants because of the strong oxidizing agent....   [tags: oxygen, stratosphere, effects on plants]
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969 words
(2.8 pages)
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Comparing Animal Cells to Plant Cells - ... Most of the chemical reactions of the cell take place in the cytoplasm. The “powerhouse” or the “energy generators” of both plant and animal cells are the mitochondria. These substances convert the sugar and other organic molecules in the cell to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – required as a source of energy for the chemical reactions of a cell. Furthermore, both cells have a cell membrane. The cell membrane is like the guard to a cell and controls what enters and leaves it. It is responsible for the absorption of important nutrients (e.g....   [tags: structures, cells, powerhouse] 605 words
(1.7 pages)
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Measuring Rate of Rater Uptake by a Leafy Shoot - Measuring Rate of Rater Uptake by a Leafy Shoot The water uptake can be measured easily and because very high proportion of the water taken up by a stem is lost in transpiration, it enables the rate of transpiration to be measured. Key Factors to be kept Constant: - ================================== v Temperature - room temperature (approximately 25ºC) v Wind speed - No artificial wind was produced to affect results v Light intensity - Extra light was not used v Humidity - it was not humid on the day experiments were conducted The water uptake for the control Experiment....   [tags: Papers] 1387 words
(4 pages)
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Investigating if the Number of Leaves Affect the Water Loss From the Previt and the Stem and Leaves - Investigating if the Number of Leaves Affect the Water Loss From the Previt and the Stem and Leaves Ideas. · The amount of water in leaves. · The thickness of the stem. · The number of leaves. · Size of the roots. · Temperature. · The amount of leaves that are left on the stem. · And finally the sizes of the leaves. AIM. Our Aim is to find out if the number of leaves affects the water loss from the Previt and the stem and leaves. I am going to keep everything the same except for the temperature and the water....   [tags: Lab Report] 457 words
(1.3 pages)
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The Impact of the Oil Spill on the Salth Marsh Habitats - A research published in the Elsevier Journal focused on the impact of the oil spill on the salt marsh habitats along the southeastern Louisiana coast. Satellite and ground data were used to assess two of the most important marsh biophysical characteristics, distribution of canopy chlorophyll content and above ground green biomass. Both were monitored during the salt marsh growing season (May–October) of 2009 (pre-spill) and 2010 (post-spill). This research provided scientists the ability to compare and isolate the spill impacted areas (Mishra et.al 2012)....   [tags: environmental issues/effects]
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924 words
(2.6 pages)
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Water in the Vine - Each year thousands of tourists visit vineyards all over the world to taste wines. Others come to see the manicured vineyards with their canopies trellised like green curtains and plump fruit ripening in dappled sunlight. Good wine is associated with the images of hillside and valley vineyards surrounding grand chateaus and wineries. The weather, soil and cultural practices are marketed as the Terroir (sense of place). What’s missing from the brochures and rarely talked about are the grapevines roots....   [tags: vineyards, tourists, grapevine]
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1105 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Greenhouse Effect, A Torrent of Information, and the Politics of Mass Uncertainty - The Greenhouse Effect, A Torrent of Information, and the Politics of Mass Uncertainty Introduction: Global warming, the ozone layer, and deforestation are becoming increasingly discussed topics both in the international community and society. Former Vice-President Albert Gore stated in his 1992 book Earth in the Balance, “The process of filling the atmosphere with CO2 and other pollutants…is a willful expansion of our dysfunctional civilization into vulnerable parts of the world” (Wittwer 21)....   [tags: Science Scientific Essays, climate change]
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1979 words
(5.7 pages)
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Investigation of Transpiration - Investigation of Transpiration Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant by evaporation. Water is essential for plants as it is required for photosynthesis to produce glucose; all organisms derive their energy from the oxidation of glucose, minerals and ions are dissolved in water and bring them from the roots to other plant tissue that require the minerals. Also, water keeps the plant cool. The plant undergoes several processes in order for it to lose the amount of water through the lower epidermis of a leaf....   [tags: Papers] 783 words
(2.2 pages)
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How the Ocean and Plants Affect the Removal of Carbon in Our Atmosphere - The Carbon cycle is the way that carbon moves around our planet. It is in everything we see and is always around us. It is used to help us grow, to make diamonds, and to make fossil fuels like coal, natural gas, peat and petrol. The carbon cycle shows us how carbon can be taken by plants and the ocean, and how it is added to the atmosphere by decomposition, humans, combustion (fires and burning), fossil fuels and from animals. The main points I am going to look at is how the ocean and plants affect the removal of carbon in our atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis, and how the carbon is added back to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels....   [tags: carbon cycle, photosynthesis, fossil fuels]
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1649 words
(4.7 pages)
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Effects of Enhanced Concentration of Carbon Dioxide on Plants - To what extent does higher concentrations of carbon dioxide affect plant growth. I am interested in the effects of the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide on plant growth due to global warming. The carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been increasing since the industrial revolution started in the late 18th century. Because of this, I want to know what would happen to plant growth if higher concentrations of carbon dioxide are exposed to plants than normal concentrations. The only two solutions to the research question is the plants will either absorb the higher amount of carbon dioxide and increase photosynthesis, or the plants won't be fully adapted to this exposure and wilt...   [tags: Botany, Environmentalism]
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1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Energy from Respiration is Essential for All Living Organisms - Respiration occurs in all living organisms, it is the process of mixing glucose from cells that has been stored inside the organism from various sources, with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy (however energy is not a substance) the specific word equation for cellular aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) is glucose and oxygen → carbon dioxide, water and energy. This energy produced can then be used for essential life processes and growth. For plants, plant roots, photosynthesizing algae and bacteria, the respiration process begins with photosynthesis....   [tags: photosynthesis, atmosphere, carbon] 2844 words
(8.1 pages)
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Green House Farming and the World Food Crisis - The food crisis is a conflict that approaches and affects the whole world. The world food crisis has been created by mainly large amounts of population; this is because there are so many people living in each country. The large amounts of people have an effect on how the farmers because it keeps getting harder to harvest enough food for the whole population. Therefore the price for many food product goes up and it becomes harder and harder for the average person to do their shopping. In America alone around 15 percent of the inhabitants are receiving food stamps from the government to purchase food with this is because they alone do not have the sufficient found to do this....   [tags: Consumer, Harvest, Farmers] 694 words
(2 pages)
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Affects of Smoking on Plants - Cigarettes contain more than 4,000 different chemicals, including arsenic, acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Some of these chemicals actually may benefit the plant. Smoke of all kinds, including cigarette smoke, increases the amount of carbon dioxide where it is present. Plants use carbon dioxide to make sugars during photosynthesis. Its increased abundance, therefore, makes it easier for the plant to obtain. Smoke also contains carbon monoxide which plants are able to convert into carbon dioxide.....   [tags: Smoking, informative, expository] 703 words
(2 pages)
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Carbon Dioxide Experiment in Photosynthesis - Without carbon dioxide plants cannot photosynthesize. Through reading various books and web pages it was made clear that carbon dioxide is definitely one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis, but I wanted to see whether this is actually true and if carbon dioxide is taken away completely will the plant photosynthesize at all. By taking a two plants of the exact same species, de-starching them both followed by putting plant one in conditions where carbon dioxide is taken away completely, and plant two will then be put in conditions where carbon dioxide is added, after a day or two in these conditions leaves from both plants will be tested for starch, if the leaf tests positive for...   [tags: plant, energy, oxygen] 1321 words
(3.8 pages)
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Soil Salinity in Bangladesh - Introduction There are many sever aboitic stresses threatening our environment and affecting humans in many ways. One of these major a biotic stresses that is a major problem in many areas of the world particularly in Bangladesh is the soil salinity. Also in Australia secondary soil salinity is a major problem. Soil salinity is defined as the content of soluble salt in the water or soil in arid areas. Such areas have insufficient rainfall or drainage to wash away the salt from the soil so that the plants don’t get affected....   [tags: abiotic stresses threatening our environment]
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1347 words
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Selective Breeding versus Transgenesis - ... The irish potato famine in the 1800s is a perfect example of this. The irish attempted to solve their problem of feeding a population by planting the “lumper” potatoes. However the farmers didn’t want to risk introducing new traits into the potato population and stuck with their trusty “lumper” potatoes. To achieve this they propagated the potatoes causing all of them to be clones of each other and therefore genetically identical. The genetically identical potatoes were all affected by the same disease Phytophthora infestans, which was a rot that caused all the non-resistant potatoes to turn to an inedible slime....   [tags: human manipulation, biological implications]
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2015 words
(5.8 pages)
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Ways Birds Are Harmed - ... Although, the total of carbon dioxide put into the air by burning fuels is much more than plants can change. The destruction of forests make the problem much worse. Few pollutants in the air damage plants and animals. (Gardiner). The ways that climate can effect can be viewed in the effect of Earth’s life forms.Plant growth in an area can be affected due to the amount of sunlight or rain it receives. This also affects what kind of animal can adapt to that area. The climate is in the process of changing due to both naturally and due to humans....   [tags: pollution, acid rain, oil spills]
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1114 words
(3.2 pages)
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Answers to Plant and Animal Questions - – Plant and Animal Essay Questions 1. In general, respiration refers to the process by which organisms undergo gas exchange. More specifically, in order for an organism to complete the process of respiration, a continuous source of oxygen is required, and as such many different organisms have undergone various structural and physiologic alterations for the taking in of oxygen. One specific living organism, which has endured such adaptations for oxygen intake, is a fish. On the notion of structural adaptations, fish have developed gills, which are in effect respiratory organs, that enable fish to extract the dissolved oxygen found in their surrounding aquatic environments....   [tags: Structure, Cells, System] 2403 words
(6.9 pages)
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Plant Physiology: The Shockwave Petunia Series - ... The xylem is found towards the inside of each vascular bundle (see the diagram below), and the phloem towards the outside. In between the xylem and the phloem vessels there is a layer of cambium (see appendix). (ASBiology101, 2013). In a leaf, however, the vascular bundles form the midrib and veins of the leaf. They form a network, which gradually gets smaller and thinner with distance from the midrib. Within each vein, the xylem can be seen on top of the phloem. (ASBiology101, 2013). Xylem tissue consists of the xylem vessels to transport water and dissolved minerals; fibres to help support the plant and cells....   [tags: flowers, transpiration, proliferation] 1112 words
(3.2 pages)
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Biology Answers to Quiz: Cells - 1. I believe that these polymers, Cellulose, starch and glycogen have different properties because they are used in different organisms. Cellulose and starch are mainly used in plants and glycogen is used in animals. Cellulose is used for strength in its stems and leaves and uses starch for help with storing things. Glycogen is used in animals to help store things as well. These polymers have different properties because they have different functions in different organisms. 2. Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration....   [tags: Cellulose, Difussion, ATP] 532 words
(1.5 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Light Intensity on the Size of a Plantain Leaf - Investigating the Effect of Light Intensity on the Size of a Plantain Leaf Title: To investigate the effect of light intensity on the size of a plantain leaf. Hypothesis: I predict that the size of the plantain leaves would increase as the light intensity decreases. Therefore, plantain leaves found in the shade will have larger surface areas than leaves found in an open area. Theory: Sunlight is an essential factor need to complete the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis consists of the following equation: Sun light Carbon dioxide + Water ========> Glucose + Oxygen Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a substance found in chloroplasts, found in the cells of...   [tags: Papers] 1322 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis - The Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis Aim The aim of my experiment is to determine whether intensity of light and temperature would affect the rate of photosynthesis in a plant. To do this, I will place a piece of pondweed in varying light intensities and temperatures, and observe the amount of oxygen being given off. I am using pondweed because of its unusual quality of giving off bubbles of gas from a cut end, when placed in water. Introduction Photosynthesis occurs only in the presence of light, and takes place in the chloroplasts of green plant cells....   [tags: Papers] 2128 words
(6.1 pages)
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The Effect of Light on the Size of Ivy Leaves - The Effect of Light on the Size of Ivy Leaves Aim --- Design an experiment to investigate if light affects the size of Ivy leaves Plan ---- In this experiment I will explore how light affects the size of Ivy leaves. I will use the common Ivy called Hedera helix. I will take two stems of Ivy, one from the part of the garden that is exposed to lots of light, and one which exposed to little light. The Ivy leaves that are facing the south of the garden will have been exposed to high light intensities, whereas the leaves facing the North of the garden will have been exposed to low light intensities....   [tags: Papers] 694 words
(2 pages)
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Determining the Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthesis - Determining the Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthesis Aim In this experiment, I intend to alter the light intensity and measure its effect on photosynthesis through the production of oxygen Introduction Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants provide a source of energy for respiration. The formula is as follows- Carbon dioxide + water Carbon dioxide and water are chemically combined to produce glucose (the energy source) and oxygen (a waste product)....   [tags: Papers] 1671 words
(4.8 pages)
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Investigating Transpiration in Plants - Investigating Transpiration in Plants Hypothesis I predict that the plant will loose more water through transpiration when the fan is closer to the plant. I think that the distance of the fan from the plant and the water loss are inversely proportional, that is the greater the distance between fan and plant, the smaller the percentage loss of mass. I predict also that at a certain distance, the fan will no longer have an effect, or minimal effect, on the transpiration of the plant and the water loss will be constant....   [tags: Papers] 1075 words
(3.1 pages)
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Rates of Reaction Investigation - Rates of Reaction Investigation Aim - We are trying to see what effect changing light intensity has on the volume of oxygen produced. Prediction - Photosynthesis is where a plant uses sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and glucose. The equation for this is: Carbon dioxide = water ====== glucose = oxygen I predict that as the lamp is placed further away from the plant the amount of oxygen produced will decrease. The factors that will affect the rate of photosynthesis are the amount of sunlight, the amount of carbon dioxide and water....   [tags: Papers] 1453 words
(4.2 pages)
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Devonian Period - The mass extinction of Marine-life in the Silurian Period opened up endless possibilities and potential for terrestrial life in the next Geologic time period, The Devonian Period. The Devonian Period served as an introduction to the expansion of the first amphibians, sharks, and some of the first plants with roots, leaves, and stomata. Despite such significant advances, the Devonian Period is best known for its diversity and abundance of underwater life. Not only did fish with cartilage begin to appear during this period, but also fish with bony skeletons and it are these primitive predecessors of fish that encompass a majority of modern fish....   [tags: Geology ]
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1683 words
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A Comparative Review of the Vascular System in Seed Plants and Humans - A comparative review of the vascular system in seed plants and humans In the evolutionary tree of life, all biotic organisms are believed to have derived from a common ancestor. The organisms falling under the eukaryotic kingdom of Plantae are known to have arisen in the same time period as those in the eukaryotic kingdom of Animalia—the Paleozoic era, about 500 million years ago (MYA) (Raven et al., 2008). Despite their chronological resemblance, their evolutionary diversity is especially great in their most advanced organisms—humans and seed plants....   [tags: Biology]
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1723 words
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Different wavelengths of light affect on photosynthesis rates in tomato plants - Background Information: The leaves of a plant are the main photosynthetic organs and are involved in gas exchange and water transportation throughout a plant (Evans et al, 17). A leaf typically consists of an upper and lower epidermis, the mesophyll cells, veins, guard cells and stomata. The mesophyll cells contains spongey cells which have large gaps between each cell to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide circulation. The mesophyll cells contain palisade cells, which are located beneath the upper epidermis....   [tags: Experiment Analysis]
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2609 words
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Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings - Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings Abstract: The objective of the experimental research was to assess how bioassays affect the plant growth, colouration and overall appearance of the plant. To set the experiment up thirty-nine plants were required. Plants were watered with different concentrations of potassium chloride, manganese chloride and copper chloride and compared to the results of the plants being watered with distilled water. Measurements of the plants were taken almost every day to ensure accuracy....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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2304 words
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Structural Support Systems, Respiratory Systems, Excretory Systems in Various Animal Species - ... All of the different structures share the same function of exchanging gases. After the oxygen reaches the bloodstream or the cells of the organism, some type of circulatory system is needed to move nutrients and other things throughout the body. Due to the large size of elephants, their organ structures need to be very large. Other than the difference in size, elephants have circulatory systems similar to all mammals with a four-chambered heart that is efficient in pumping blood through the blood vessels....   [tags: biology, fauna in various ecosystems]
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1073 words
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The Importance of Photosynthesis and What It Does for Life - The Importance of Photosynthesis and What it Does for Life Life according to scientists is “the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death, also the way of life of a human being or animal.”("Life,”) In order for one to have life, one must have the nine characteristics to be considered a living thing. These nine characteristics are; all living things are made up of cells, living things are able to reproduce, living thing use energy, maintain homeostasis, respond and adapt to the environment, grow and develop, have a life span, evolve over time, and are inter...   [tags: plants using light to process foods] 1557 words
(4.4 pages)
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The Effect of Recycled Water Irrigation on Young Olive Trees - The problem of water shortage is one of the major limiting factors in food production and agriculture development in the arid and semi arid regions. Reclaimed water is one of the most significant available water resources that shall be consumed in agriculture and urban landscape maintenance. In order to investigate the impact of water quality and its application method on olive trees this experiment was carried out during 2010-2012 in the semiarid central part of Iran on young olive trees. The trees were irrigated by a new subsurface-leaky irrigation (SLI) system and surface irrigation in line with irrigation with recycle and clean water for 24 months....   [tags: nutrition, photosynthesis, experiment] 1166 words
(3.3 pages)
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Lack of Genetic Diversity Amongst Bananas and Plantains - Introduction Cultivars of the genus Musa (bananas and plantains) have grown in East Asia and Polynesia for millions of years as herbaceous weeds, thriving as r-selected species in forest clearings1. Circa 10,000 years ago, in modern-day Malaysia, natives discovered and succeeded in cultivating the hybrid of two different species: Musa acuminata (whose fruit is constituted of unpalatable flesh) and Musa balbisiana (where ½ of each ‘finger’ is flesh and ½ is seeds [Fig. 1]). The hybrid produced is sterile (having triploid chromosomes, whilst the original fertile varieties were diploid) and must thus be propagated by taking offshoots of their corms2....   [tags: Genetic Engineering]
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1877 words
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Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub Field Investigation Make-up - ... Because many of the consumers are displaced during the fires these wild flowers, also called perennials, grow freely. This can go on for about a few years, until the previous plants begin to sprout and grow back. Chaparral plants are able to regrow very quickly and encroach over the area of the flowers. This is necessary for the stability of that environment and ensures future success. The flowers from the flowers are trapped in the soil and are released next time there is a fire. This entire process is called secondary succession....   [tags: plant communities]
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990 words
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Coffee Rust Fungus of the Coffea Genus - Introduction The coffee bean is one of the world’s most widely utilized commodities touching almost every continent. In the book Coffee Rust: Epidemiology, resistance, and management Ajjamada Kushalappa asserts, “After petroleum coffee is the most important product in international world trade” (Kushalappa, Eskes 1989) Given this fact, it can be safe to assume the growing of this crop plays a large role in many countries economic stability. Coffee rust is a disease of the Coffee tree which has proven it has the ability to decimate a farmer’s crop in a short period of time....   [tags: Agriculture]
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1631 words
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Analysis of Our Diverse Ecosystem - There are many similarities and differences between species within our diverse ecosystem. There are many different types of plants and animals, some more similar than others. Not surprisingly, these similarities also give light to a large amount of differences between kingdoms and even species. Analyzing these species and their differences and similarities helps to give understanding to our incredibly diverse ecosystem. Plants make up a large portion of life on Earth. There are four major groups of plants; bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms....   [tags: plants, animals, species, reproduction] 1264 words
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Diverrsity Of Plants - Diverrsity of Plants Plants evolved more than 430 million years ago from multicellular green algae. By 300 million years ago, trees had evolved and formed forests, within which the diversification of vertebrates, insects, and fungi occurred. Roughly 266,000 species of plants are now living. The two major groups of plants are the bryophytes and the vascular plants; the latter group consists of nine divisions that have living members. Bryophytes and ferns require free water so that sperm can swim between the male and female sex organs; most other plants do not....   [tags: essays research papers] 2874 words
(8.2 pages)
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Overview of Cork Cambium - Overtime, vascular plants have evolved in order to adapt to the new and changing environment, and one of those being the development of secondary growth. Secondary growth is defines as the increase in diameter of the stems, roots, or branches. This growth was most likely developed and evolved due to an increasing demand for sunlight in the lateral meristems of dicots and some gymnosperms. Cork cambium is one of the two lateral meristems which makes up the periderm along with cork and phelloderm in the stems....   [tags: Vascular Plants, Adaptation, Environment]
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1032 words
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The Effect of Light Intensity on the Rate of Photosynthesis - The Effect of Light Intensity on the Rate of Photosynthesis Plan: Aim: To investigate the affect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. Theory: Before I predict what will happen I must look at how photosynthesis occurs. Photosynthesis is the way plants create a source of food for themselves. Photosynthesis requires the following resources; Carbon Dioxide, Water and light. Inside the leaves of a plant there is a green substance, this substance is known as chlorophyll....   [tags: Papers] 531 words
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The Mojave Yucca - The Mojave yucca, scientifically known as Yucca schidigera, is a tree shrub located in several rocky and dry locations, such as Arizona, California, the Mojave Desert, Nevada, and parts of Mexico. The Mojave yucca is a member of the fleshy-fruited, Sarcocarpa, section of the Agavaceae family. This plant species, also known as the Spanish dagger, has an intricate life cycle filled with numerous stages, from beginning as a seed that becomes germinated, to being pollinated by the yucca moth enabling reproduction, and having the ability to regenerate through sending out yucca rhizomes or sprouts....   [tags: ancient plant species]
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Light and Photosynthesis - Introduction. Light is a very important factor in the rate of photosynthesis, in my project I am going to test that plants do need light in order to photosynthesise. It will be very interesting to see how light will influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants and what will happen if they do not get the required light in order to produce starch . The plant I have chosen to do is a Geranium which is a dicotyledonous plant found in the dry and hot regions of South Africa. Aim To see whether light effects the rate of Photosynthesis in plants or not....   [tags: plant, sun, greranium]
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Photosynthesis Practical - Photosynthesis Practical Introduction- Photosynthesis is the chemical process, which takes place in every green plant to produce food in the form of glucose. Plants use the suns energy to join together water and carbon molecules to make the glucose, which is sent around the plant to be used in respiration. 6CO + 6H O ® C H O + 12O (in the presence of light energy and chlorophyll) Aim- The aim of the experiment is to determine what effect light intensity has upon the rate of photosynthesis of Canadian Pondweed (Elodea)....   [tags: Papers] 1289 words
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Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Salt Solution On The Mass Of Potato Chips - Investigating The Effect Of Concentration Of Salt Solution On The Mass Of Potato Chips Aim: The aim of this investigation is to see whether the amount of salt solution affects the mass of the potato chip Hypothesis: In the solution below, water will diffuse from the dilute solution into the concentrated solution through the process of osmosis. Therefore the dilute solution level will fall and the concentrated level will rise Line Callout 2: Disapproved (is unable to go through the semi permeable membrane O Line Callout 2: Approved (is able to go through the semi permeable membrane P Salt solution Water [IMAGE] When a substance such as salt di...   [tags: Papers] 953 words
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The Benefits and Impications of Using Fertilisers for Improving Plant Productivity To the Environment - The Benefits and Impications of Using Fertilisers for Improving Plant Productivity To the Environment In my point of view I think that fertilizers are of use to the environment in some ways but can also be potentially damaging in others. The term fertilisers is stated as " A substance usually added to soil to increase its ability to support plant growth" by Encarta. This shows that fertilisers are needed to keep soil in good conditions to allow the maximum productivity for plant growth....   [tags: Papers] 883 words
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Investigate the Cell Sap Concentration of Solute in a Potato Chip using Osmosis - Investigate the Cell Sap Concentration of Solute in a Potato Chip using Osmosis Aim The aim of the experiment is to investigate the cell sap concentration of solute in a potato chip using osmosis and produce a figure informed by the investigation as to what this is. Background Information A factor that effects how much water moves into a cell is the solute concentration within it. Water moves in and out of cells by diffusion, this diffusion is called osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a place with a high water potential or high concentration of water to a low water potential or low concentration of water....   [tags: GCSE Biology Osmosis Coursework] 5480 words
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The Irish Potato Famine Fungus, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary - The Irish Potato Famine Fungus, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary The importance of the genus Phytophthora, both to humanity and to the development of the science of plant pathology, has been obvious ever since P. infestans devastated the potato crop in Western Europe in 1845. Its greatest impact was the potato blight epidemic in Ireland (Gregory 1983). In 1845 and again in 1848 a third of the potato crop was destroyed by blight, losses at the extremes of previous European experience. Even more disastrously, three-quarters of the crop failed in 1846....   [tags: Botany]
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The Effect of Different Solutions on Potato and Cucumber Strips - The Effect of Different Solutions on Potato and Cucumber Strips Plan ---- Introduction Plants in the soil have their roots in a dilute solution of various mineral ions. Sometimes, the soil they are planted in gets flooded with sea water (which has an average of 0.3 sodium chloride concentration). In these cases the roots are observed to wilt and become flaccid. In my experiment, I will simulate this situation using potato and cucumber strips, placing them in different solutions (sodium chloride, glucose and sucrose) at different molar concentrations....   [tags: Papers] 1782 words
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Investigating the Factors that Affect Osmosis in Living Tissue - Investigating the Factors that Affect Osmosis in Living Tissue Aim: To investigate the factors that effect osmosis in living tissue. Planning: Introduction Essentially, osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeably membrane. Osmosis is one of the ways by which substances enter and exit cells. Other ways include diffusion, the Donnan effect[1], solvent drag, filtration, endocytosis, exocytosis and active transport. All of these methods are necessary to provide cells with the conditions necessary for their survival....   [tags: Papers] 5450 words
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Cyperus papyrus: From the Nile to Modern Times - Cyperus papyrus: From the Nile to Modern Times Cyperus papyrus, commonly called papyrus or paper plant, is a member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae). It is a monocot that is native to riverbanks and other wet soil areas in Egypt, Ethiopia, the Jordan River Valley, and other parts of the Mediterranean basin (1). Few members of the sedge family hold economic importance as crop plants, but throughout the world these plants hold great regional importance in weaving mats, baskets, screens, and even sandals (3)....   [tags: Botany]
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Investigating the Growth of Pleurococcus on Tree Trunks - Investigating the Growth of Pleurococcus on Tree Trunks Factors to consider/have an effect « Type of tree « Height « Light intensity « Temperature Observations Preliminary method « On your tree, use a compass to find out which side of the tree is north. « Then place your grind against the tree trunk and count how many squares have growth on them. « Write your results down in a table and repeat for east, south and west. Preliminary results Tree number Site 1 North Site 1 East Site 1 South Site 1 West Site 2 North Site 2 East Site 2 South Site 2 West 1 25 24 4 25...   [tags: Papers] 921 words
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Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed - Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed Introduction ============ For healthy growth plants need several substances. Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. Nitrates are essential for making amino acids and for the 'synthesis' of proteins. Phosphates are essential as they have an important role in reactions involved in photosynthesis and respiration. Potassium is also important as it helps the enzymes involved in photosynthesis and respiration to work....   [tags: Papers] 1471 words
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The Importance of Plants on Planet Earth - The Importance of Plants on Planet Earth Plants As We See Them --------------------- Plants are all around us, renowned for their aesthetic appeal; their colours and structures lend themselves to decoration. Plants are used in celebrations and commiseration's and are often celebrated in their own right- the annual Michigan potato festival being a good example. Plants are associated with national identity. The Scottish thistle; Irish Shamrock; Welsh leeks and daffodils. Many national flags feature plants, the Cedar tree on the Lebanese flag, and the Maple leaf on the Canadian flag....   [tags: Papers] 820 words
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The Importance of Diffusion to Living Organisms - The Importance of Diffusion to Living Organisms Diffusion is basically the movement of chemical species (ions or molecules) under the influence of concentration difference. The species will move from the high concentration area to the low concentration area till the concentration is consistent in the whole system. Diffusion mostly occurs in gases and liquids as these can move freely. The main features of an efficient diffusion system would be that it has a large surface area, thin membrane and a continuous supply of substances....   [tags: Papers] 733 words
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Experiment to Investigate Osmosis in Potatoes - Experiment to Investigate Osmosis in Potatoes The aim of this experiment is to investigate the movement of water in and out of plant cells. The cells chosen for study will be taken from potato tubers. Firstly I will explain what osmosis is. Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration. This definition contains three important statements: a) It is the passage of water through a semi permeable membrane b) It is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration c) It is the passage of water to a region of low water concentration....   [tags: GCSE Biology Osmosis Coursework] 2882 words
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Feeding The Third World - Feeding The Third World Millions of people today, despite technological advances enabling fish and meat production and crop yields to soar, are still living in hunger. It is estimated that nearly 30% of the world's population suffer from some form of malnutrition, and the majority of these people live in Developing Countries. Intensive and Subsistence Farming both present possible solutions to dealing with world hunger and ending the suffering of the Third World. Intensive Agriculture, also known as Factory or Battery Farming, involves land being farmed in order to achieve the greatest yield possible with the use of inorganic fertilisers and pesticides because...   [tags: Papers] 2902 words
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Seed Germination - Seed Germination Seed germination is the process in which seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow after being dormant for a period of time. The length of dormancy varies depending environmental conditions in which the seed is surrounded by. The environmental conditions that determine when a seed will begin to germinate are the temperature, oxygen, the amount of light, and the supply of water (Germination, accessed 23 February 2010, http://www.answers. com/topic/germination). For a seed to begin germinating the temperature should be between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius....   [tags: Experiment Analysis]
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Acid Rain 10 - Acid rain is exactly what it suggests- rain that is acidic. The definition of "acid rain" is rain with a pH of below 5.6. Rain becomes acidic because of gases that dissolve in the rain. Approximately 70% of acid rain is a result of dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2) which forms Sulfuric Acid. The remaining 30% or so comes from various Nitrogen Oxides (mostly NO2 and NO3 which has collectedly adopted the mane Nox). There is also a small percentage of hydrochloric acid that makes up hydrochloric acid as well....   [tags: essays research papers] 1751 words
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Bouncing Ball Investigation - Bouncing Ball Investigation Aims: In This experiment, I'm going to discover how the surface affects the height that a of a tennis ball Introduction: All green plants are able to use light as a source of energy. Chlorophyll (green coloured pigment in leaves) absorbs light and changes it into chemical energy, which is used to power all the chemical reactions that go on in a plant cell. This is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of producing glucose from sunlight, which takes place in the leaves....   [tags: Papers] 680 words
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Personal Exercise Plan - Personal Exercise Plan I am going to organise my plan and then perform a personal exercise program, the overall aims of my personal training programme are to: - 1. Improve specific and current fitness levels required for my sporting activity football e.g. Cardio vascular endurance but mainly speed. 2. To improve fitness levels so I can concentrate more on my techniques and skills without having to worry about whether I can endure a full practice session. 3. To improve the level of the standard of my performance and become more successful with my chosen sport ‘football’....   [tags: Physical Exercise Fitness Health] 3314 words
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Plant hormones - Plant hormones are specialized chemical substances produced by plants. They are the main internal factors controlling growth and development. Hormones are produced in one part of a plant and transported to others, where they are effective in very small amounts. Depending on the target tissue, a given hormone may have different effects. Plant hormones play an integral role in controlling the growth and development of plants. A plant hormone is generally described as an organic compound synthesized in one part of the plant and translocated to another part, where in low concentrations elicits a physiological response....   [tags: essays research papers] 1573 words
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Investigating Plants - Investigating Plants MOST PLANTS are green because they contain the substance chlorophyll. They use it to trap light energy; this is used during photosynthesis to make food. Plants are usually anchored in a growing medium such as soil. Some, such as mosses and liverworts, are small and delicate. Others, such as the giant redwood trees, are huge. Many plants, such as marigolds and sunflowers, are annuals, which means that they live for just a year. Perennials can live for many years: some bristlecone pine trees, for example, are nearly 5,000 years old....   [tags: Papers] 2078 words
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Circadian Clocks - What is a circadian clock. A circadian clock is an internal biological clock that is found in almost all organisms, which regulates many metabolic processes. This biological clock allows organisms to adjust physiologically to changes in the environment. It is also influential in an organism’s behavior based on environmental differences. What do circadian clocks regulate. In plants, circadian clocks control flowering, response to seasons, and photosynthesis such as the opening and closing of the stomata....   [tags: Biology] 1243 words
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Investigating the Rate of Transpiration in a Mesophyte Plant - Investigating the Rate of Transpiration in a Mesophyte Plant Experiment to investigate the relationship between the number of stomatal pores on the upper and the lower surfacesof the leaves of a mesophyte plant and the rate of transpiration from those surfaces. The aim of the experiment The aim of the experiment is to investigate how the number of stomatal pores is related to the rate at which water is lost from the leaves....   [tags: Papers] 813 words
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Impact of Global Warming on Coastal Wetlands - Impact of Global Warming on Coastal Wetlands Professor’s comment: Jane wrote this research paper for my Advanced Composition course. The assignment asks the students to read and understand six to ten articles within a research area of their choice, then synthesize the information so that a reader can quickly understand the present state of research in that area. Jane chose to look at how increased flooding and salinity might affect coastal wetland soils and species, and she organized the material clearly and effectively....   [tags: Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases] 1606 words
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Infections of the American Chestnut Tree - ... The genome of CHV consists of two open reading frames, open reading frames A and B (ORF A and ORF B) (Cite). Management of the blight using CHV has been greatly effective in Europe, but much less so in North America13. CHV’s primary use in North America is for managing blight infections on individual trees, rather than controlling the blight on the population level as in Europe13. Though its efficacy is limited in North America, CHV provides plant pathologists with a useful tool to study factors that affect the virulence of C....   [tags: cryphonectria parasitica]
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The Importance of Potassium in Plants - ... The form of which Potassium is most commonly applied is potassium chloride also known as (0-60-0). 4. Can potassium be applied as a liquid, dry or both Potassium can be applied both as liquid and dry fertilizer. It can be applied as potassium nitrate 13-0-46 otherwise known as water soluble dry fertilizer, which are known as prills or granular form. The liquid is known as potassium sulfate 0-0-50, which is a very important product in a conventional agriculture based cropping system. This potassium sulfate provides 50 units of potassium, and at the same time 17 units of sulfur....   [tags: crops, fertilizing, harvest] 733 words
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Small-Scale Experiments and Large-Scale Predictions - Introduction: To understand the world’s climate, how it has changed and how it will change is quite a difficult task; a task that is extremely controversial. Scientists have been doing numerous small scale experiments and extrapolating the data to predict future trends in climate and emissions. This paper will show how extrapolating dating from small scale experiments is not always accurate and have a large margin of error. The paper will discuss the various methods that environmental scientists use in attempting to extrapolate data from small scale experiments....   [tags: Scientific Method Climate Change]
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Micropropagation: A Widely Used Technique - Micropropagation has become a widely used technique for the large-scale and rapid propagation plants. Over the last 30 years, great strides have been made to develop and optimize micropropagation methods and culture media for the large-scale multiplication of a large number of plant species. However, despite the improved propagation efficiency, the method is still plagued with many problems, which limit in certain cases the profitability of the technique. Indeed, in vitro plantlets present many aberrations like, stomatal malfunction, poor epicuticular wax deposition, somaclonal variation, poor rooting, and hyperhydricity....   [tags: large-scale and rapid propagation of plants] 735 words
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Tuber Cells - DETERMINATION OF THE WATER POTENTIAL OF POTATO TUBER CELLS. Method. Five sucrose solutions with varying molarity and one control containing distilled water were prepared and poured into test tubes. The potato discs were dried, weighed and added to the test tubes. The discs were then weighed again after a period of 24 hours. The percentage change in mass was then calculated. Apparatus.  Specimen tubes with stoppers x6  1cm3 diameter cork borer  razor blade  filter papers  balance  distilled water  sucrose solutions with varying concentrations  potato cut into small discs Results....   [tags: essays research papers] 1159 words
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