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Semantics - ... These two words both refer to feeling less than normal, but to some these two words may have different connotations. By that I mean that some may see ill as being worse than sick or vice versa. This can create a misunderstanding between speakers or readers. Another example according to Parker and Riley is big and large. Referring to your sister as big or large can make a big difference in how people view her; they could see her as being older than you or as bigger in size (2010:30). Synonymy can also have differences based on formal and informal settings such as the words woman and lady....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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More than just Semantics - John D. Crossan parallels story to life. This essay will examine several aspects of story. First, I will examine the relationship between story and humans’ lives and how it is limited by language. Second, I will examine the differences between myths and parables and their polar opposition within the field of a story. Third, I will examine the Prodigal Son to illuminate the necessary elements of a parable. Stories serve to define humans’ reality and the use of specific types of stories evokes different reactions from their audience....   [tags: essays research papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - ... Verbal tense is a feature in English grammar and according to Whorf rationale the practice of life should make English speakers highly sensitive to the relative order of when something happens and when someone speaks about it. This way, criminals will not be lost when the automatic computation of the order of events is encapsulated in the language system, which leads the suspects to betray in their own words. For Moura & Cabrussi (2008: 45), the product highlighted by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is thought and it neither formulates nor organises without the suitable instrument: language....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
(15.3 pages)
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Russell on the Structure of Propositions - Russell on the Structure of Propositions ABSTRACT: The comparison of Russell's views on semantics before 1905 with the theory of Frege allows one to expose the common sources of their interest in semantical problems and the specific character of their examination. During the investigation of the principles of mathematics and elaboration and realization of the program of logicism, questions regarding the logical structure of mathematical and logical propositions as well as the relation of linguistic signs and logical forms arise for both authors....   [tags: Semantics Mathematics Russell Essays]
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3513 words
(10 pages)
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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A Successful Theory of Mental Representation - A Successful Theory of Mental Representation A successful theory of mental representation must answer two related questions: (1) How does representation work. (2) How is misrepresentation possible. These questions are related because answering (1) is a requisite for answering (2): in order to explain how it is is possible that cognitive systems produce erroneous representations (i.e. representations that do not correspond to their "proper" meanings), we must first explain how is it possible that cognitive systems produce representations at all....   [tags: Papers] 2355 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights - The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights ABSTRACT: Through a comparative analysis of the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped. By this case analysis, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the elucidation of the relation between language and philosophy in this regard. 1. Introduction Through a comparative case analysis regarding the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped....   [tags: China Chinese Language Essays] 5656 words
(16.2 pages)
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The Concept of Information - The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics....   [tags: Exploratory Research] 763 words
(2.2 pages)
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Sphere - Michael Crichton uses three common devices with ease in his novel, Sphere. The devices being: rhetoric, semantics, and style. Crichton uses these devices to incorporate a sense of unity in the writing. It is not difficult to incorporate this unity into a novel when the devices are properly used. When doing so, they flow together to create a more visual experience for the reader. These devices of writing are what create the environment for an understandable, yet interesting storyline. Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively and persuasively....   [tags: Sphere] 430 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Last Samurai - The Last Samurai-Scene 11 - 17 The scene started off with a man by the name of Capt. Nathan Algren (Tom Cruise) laying on a floor wearing dirty garments and yelling out the name of a man that he had just killed before his capture. The Captain was captured during a fight between the Americans and the Japanese, but instead of killing the American, the Samurai leader Katsumoto (Ken Wantanobe) wanted him alive so that he could learn from his enemy’s ways. The Captain was staying in Katsumoto’s ex brother-in-law’s house with the now widowed young lady and her children....   [tags: essays research papers] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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Natural Language Processing - Natural Language Processing There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think. Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth, computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent but be intelligent....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly - A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly In chapter 11 (The Loving Resistance Fighter) of the book Technopoly, published in 1992, Neil Postman focuses on a solution to the problems created by Technopoly. A "Technopoly" (a word postman capitalizes throughout the book) is a society that no longer merely uses technology as a support system but instead is shaped by it. Postman proposes that we become "loving resistance fighter(s)" who retain "the narratives and symbols that once made the United States the hope of the world"(p.182)....   [tags: Papers] 1604 words
(4.6 pages)
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Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say - Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say ABSTRACT: I argue that if we distinguish between ontological realism and semantic realism, then we no longer have to choose between platonism and formalism. If we take category theory as the language of mathematics, then a linguistic analysis of the content and structure of what we say in and about mathematical theories allows us to justify the inclusion of mathematical concepts and theories as legitimate objects of philosophical study. Insofar as this analysis relies on a distinction between ontological and semantic realism, it relies also on an implicit distinction between mathematics as a descriptive science and mathematics as a descriptive discourse....   [tags: Mathematics Mathematical Math Essays]
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3689 words
(10.5 pages)
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Book Review of Jody Azzouni's Tracking Reason - Jody Azzouni, Tracking Reason In many ways, Tracking Reason resembles Jody Azzouni’s previous book, Deflating Existential Consequence. The subject matter of each lies at the interface of metaphysics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of language. The style is both entertaining and clear. The positions argued for are so controversial as to sound almost insane. And yet the arguments provided are illuminating, and manage to make the positions seem almost like common sense. Both books are worth reading both for specialists and those interested in a clarifying (if idiosyncratic) take on these issues....   [tags: Azzouni] 1629 words
(4.7 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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A Taxonomy of Moral Realism - A Taxonomy of Moral Realism ABSTRACT: The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of the theory while at the same time showing the interrelations between them....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 1621 words
(4.6 pages)
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A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein   Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so....   [tags: Phylosophy]
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3566 words
(10.2 pages)
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Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar - Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance....   [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education] 6463 words
(18.5 pages)
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Business - Improving personal communications is very important to today in the fast moving world. The communication process is very important, it is estmated that 80 percent of messages get deport” For better results replace “You statements” with “I statements.” Say I’m concerned...That will bring the person off of the defensive approch. Also discuss things as they happen with out waitng. When you wait things can be losted or forgotten. If you work them out early it will be much easier for you and the other person....   [tags: essays research papers] 2079 words
(5.9 pages)
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Language Acquisition - Language Acquisition missing works cited How do children acquire language. What are the processes of language acquisition. How do infants respond to speech. Language acquisition is the process of learning a native or a second language. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observations that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, (which helps them learn to pronounce words correctly), and grammar is seldom taught to them, but instead that they rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically....   [tags: essays research papers] 3235 words
(9.2 pages)
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Structure of Management Information - Computer Network & Management Assignment Title: Structure of Management Information (SMI) Structure of Management Information (SMI): In the context of network management, for the Structure of Management Information (SMI): a) Name its three hierarchical layers. The Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard is responsible for defining the rules for how the Management Information Base (MIB) objects are structured, described and organized. SMI is a data definition language allows dissimilar devices to communicate by ensuring that they use a universal data representation for all management information....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1431 words
(4.1 pages)
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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What Are Universals and Do Universals Really Exist? - In this essay I will be discussing the thought-provoking theory of universals and be asking whether this idea of an invisible yet prominent realm of reality can claim to have a place in existence. I shall firstly examine Plato's dialogue of Parmendides and see if a partition can be drawn between the forms and universals. I shall then move on to the opposing argument which invariably denies such dimensions in reality before reaching my conclusion. The discussion between Socrates and Parmenides sets out to outline the differences of like and unlike things as a way of highlighting the stark conrast between the natuaral world in which factual truths are known and the transcendental world in which universal forms reside....   [tags: Psychology] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Deductive Databases - \subsection{Deductive Databases} In the field of deductive databases there has been extensive research on the optimization of queries for Datalog (and its variants). The major interest has been the optimization of recursive queries. Ceri et al~\cite{ceri-gottlob-tanca-1989} provide an excellent summary of the field. The evaluation or comparison of optimization strategies is typified by Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan~\cite{br1986,br1988} who develop analytical cost models for the optimization strategies when applied to four queries (related to the parent and ancestor relations) and then generate numerical data from the analytical models using synthetic data driven by three shapes -- tree, inverted tree, and cylinder -- for the ``family tree'....   [tags: Information Technology] 1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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The Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Phonology - ... Dewhurst, S. and Robinson, C. (2004) discuss some of the negative effects among children whose education focuses more on semantics than phonetics. The study was conducted on 5,8, and 11-year old children and "children from each age group falsely recalled nonpresented items related to the study lists" (782). Although the study varied depending on the age group, it was clear that the focus of semantics has caused children to have "memory illusions" as they read (782). Many scholars argue that phonetics is the most effective way to teach reading skills because it makes the individual a better reader in the long run....   [tags: Education]
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1187 words
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Structure of Semantic Memory - ... The primary issue with this model is that it is solely a model. Anderson continually researches, tweaks, and creates many different models until they eventually morph into new versions. He constantly adjusts and renames newer models which consequently, are not very different from that of the original. Ultimately, his model lacks consistency. In 1975, the network model was developed by Collins & Loftus. According to Dr. McNamara and Dr. Holbrook’s Handbook of Psychology Collins & Loftus network model discovered concepts that are represented as nodes, links that are connected to nodes, and spreading activation where activation spreads from node to node, while they also developed Sentence verification task which measures latency to respond to a sentence (an apple is a fruit)”....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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F/CFAT : An Approach for Combined Safety and Security Analysis - ... This was possible due to the fact that the system design documents were supposed to be correct and consistent [4]. However, when FTA is applied for the safety analysis of software system a new challenge is faced. This is because for those systems it is more desirable to carry out safety analysis with fault tress before the system design stage [2]. Such an analysis provides very useful information and concrete safety requirements for subsequent system design and implementation [4]. However such an approach raises the question about the correctness of the generated informal fault trees, which are constructed by intuition using incomplete information at that stage....   [tags: Information Technology]
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Evaluation of a Website - Evaluation of a Website What has a hippo in common with a feather?” “What is the longest place name in the world?” “Can green ideas sleep furiously?” “Rim ember us poke in cent tense all mow stall ways con deigns word snot in then did.” These are just a few of the topics you will find under A Web of Linguistic Fun. Phantom Linguist, Bucknell University Professor Robert Beard, provides a unique collection of “fundamental subdisciplines of linguistics”(1). The website introduces linguistic terminology such as grammar, morphology, phonology, semantics, and syntax....   [tags: Evaluation Essays]
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help me - Visual Communication could be described as processes that rely primarily on rich visual content as the means of conveying information through words, photos, colors, shapes, and many other components. However, visual communication explores the use of graphical components in achieving communication goals. Visual communication has both critical and practical parts. According to the current book we use in the class “Visual Communication, Images with Messages”, the critical part of visual communication is known as visual rhetoric, which explores the way that designers use visual elements to influence audiences....   [tags: essays research papers] 565 words
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Language - Language is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints. There are various aspects which are true to every language....   [tags: essays research papers]
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Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop - Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop A novel should be something that is easy to define. One would expect the novel to have a plot, a central theme, a central character and a consistent style. The truth is that all of these things are important but not specifically necessary. Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop cannot be easily classified as a novel in normal terms. It lacks a central plot that carries the work from beginning to some sort of an ending. It does, however, contain central characters, themes, and a clearly consistent style, but the story that is told consists of small vignettes....   [tags: Willa Cather Death Comes for the Archbishop]
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The Modernity of Aristotle’s Logical Investigations - The Modernity of Aristotle’s Logical Investigations ABSTRACT: Not until the early 1920’s was it possible to distinguish Aristotelian or traditional logic from Aristotle’s own ancient logic. We can now recognize many aspects of his logical investigations that are themselves modern, in the sense that modern logicians are making discoveries that Aristotle had already made or had anticipated. Here we gather five salient features of Aristotle’s logical investigations that reveal a striking philosophical modernity: 1) Aristotle took logic to be that part of epistemology used to establish knowledge of logical consequence; 2) Prior Analytics is a metalogical treatise on the syllogistic deduction system; 3) Aristotle recognized the epistemic efficacy of certain elemental argument patterns, and he explicitly formulated them as rules of natural deduction in corresponding sentences; 4) Prior Analytics is a proof-theoretic treatise in which Aristotle describes a natural deduction system and demonstrates certain of the logical relationships among syllogistic deduction rules (Aristotle modeled his syllogistic logic in a rudimentary way for this purpose and metasystematically established the independence of a set of deduction rules); and finally, 5) Aristotle worked with a notion of substitution sufficient for distinguishing logical syntax and semantics....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus - On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus* ABSTRACT: Raymond Bradley has put forward an essentialist interpretation of the ontology of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-philosophicus and aims to develop the model dimension that is implicit therein. Among other theses, Bradley maintains that tractarian names can be interpreted as Kripkean rigid designators; this idea enables him to approach the Tractus from the perspective of possible worlds semantics. I reassess Bradley's thesis by examining the tractarian notion of name and the Kripkean concept of rigid designator in Naming and Necessity, and consider whether an interpretation of tractarian names as rigid designators is possible....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Chomsky and Knowledge of Language - Chomsky and Knowledge of Language The linguistic theory of Chomsky has changed the long, traditional way of studying language. The nature of knowledge, which is closely tied to human knowledge in general, makes it a logical step for Chomsky to generalize his theory to the study of the relation between language and the world-in particular, the study of truth and reference. But his theory has been controversial and his proposal of "innate ideas" has been resisted by some empiricists who characterize him as rationalist....   [tags: Speech Philosophy Papers]
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'I' and the First Person Perspective - 'I' and the First Person Perspective ABSTRACT: Do the special features of 'I' have epistemological and metaphysical implications. Many philosophers have thought so. Here I investigate the relation between the first person singular pronoun 'I' and the first person perspective, construed as the perspective of consciousness. First, I discuss the semantics of 'I' as a lexeme of a natural language. The fact that semantic reference and speaker reference always coincide in the case of 'I' is shown to have important consequences: it explains the 'referential guarantees' and the impossibility of 'misidentification' which have seemed so mysterious....   [tags: Self I First Person Papers Philosophy]
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically? - Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically. ABSTRACT: Researchers have found that development of what is called the "mature theory of mind" normally occurs between the ages of 3 and 5. Astington, de Villiers, Peterson, and Siegel point to age 4 as the critical age for syntactic development involving embedding sentences associated with the use of mental verbs, such as "think", "know", and "feel". These verbs are necessary for the representation of mental states such as knowledge, belief, and pretense....   [tags: Neurological Philosophy Development Essays]
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The Ebonics Controversy - The Ebonics Controversey What is the controversy over Ebonics about. The Internet offers diverse views on the Ebonics topic. Ebonics entered the lime light in December of 1996. The television and news media have made the issue unclear and have left many people wondering what the recent controversey over Ebonics entails. Long after the "six o'clock news" has comfused and abandoned the public on the issue of Ebonics, the Internet is alive with commentary. Sampled together, the pages present a social mood, conscience, or lack thereof....   [tags: Education Language Speaking Essays]
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Stacks - Stacks Data Structures and Algorithms 3.3 Stacks Another way of storing data is in a stack. A stack is generally implemented with only two principle operations (apart from a constructor and destructor methods): push adds an item to a stack pop extracts the most recently pushed item from the stack Other methods such as top returns the item at the top without removing it [9] isempty determines whether the stack has anything in it are sometimes added. A common model of a stack is a plate or coin stacker....   [tags: Essays Papers] 637 words
(1.8 pages)
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Relational Database Model - Comparing and Contrasting the Relational Database Model and OO Model The relational database model is based upon tables or relations. In this model, the physical implementation of the database is abstracted away from the user. Users query the database using a high-level query language, such as SQL. The relations are made up of columns, which have headings indicating the attribute represented by that column. Tables have key fields, which can be used to identify unique records. Keys relate tables to each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 931 words
(2.7 pages)
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Borges and Bertolucci - Borges and Bertolucci There are a number of differences between Bernardo Bertolucci's movie "The Spider Stratagem" and the story on which it is based, Jorge Louis Borges' "The Theme of The Traitor and The Hero;" however, overall Bertolucci does a pretty accurate portrayal of the essence, at least, of Borges' story. Besides changing the "setting" of the plot, there is also much more information relayed in the movie. This is very much due to that the story is simply a suggestive piece, while the movie had to fill in all of the blanks....   [tags: essays papers] 787 words
(2.2 pages)
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Improving Personal and Organizational Communication - Improving Personal and Organizational Communication Be it organizational or personal, here are the major two different kinds of communication; Impersonal: one-way communication mainly used for facts, policies, instructions, notes, etc. Interpersonal: Two-way communication i.e. discussions, arguments, open forum, etc. Before we can improve communication, we must first discuss communication filters. Communication filters are, but not limited to, semantics, emotions, attitudes, role expectations, gender bias, and non-verbal messages....   [tags: Papers Communication Business Essays] 829 words
(2.4 pages)
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Writing To Entertain - Writing To Entertain The piece entitled ‘Let’s Talk About Sex…’ is a piece written to simply entertain its audience. The text is in no way formal or serious, as it is written for a men’s magazine and deals with modern issues in a modern way. The readers of this text are intended to be predominantly male between the ages of 16 and 35. The ideal reader of this text would be a stereotypical man who is looking for a light read during his lunch break at the office. The text itself is very euphoric, and arouses many emotions in the reader as he/she progresses through the article....   [tags: Papers] 777 words
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Investigating the Linguistic Patterns Used in Names for Fast Food Shops and Takeaways - Investigating the Linguistic Patterns Used in Names for Fast Food Shops and Takeaways Data: Wok This Way – Chinese Takeaway Pizza the Action – Pizza Restaurant The Frying Scotsman – Fish & Chip Shop Battersea Cods Home – Fish & Chip Shop Cake it Away – Cake Store Wokpool – Chinese Restaurant Pizza Hut – Pizza Restaurant Pizza Parlour – Pizza Takeaway The Codfather – Fish & Chip shop Thyme to Eat – Restaurant China China – Chinese Takeaway Sugar & Spice – Takeaway Abra-kebab-ra - kebab shop The Hard Wok Café – Chinese Takeaway Sam'n'ella's – Café Mr India – Indian Takeaway A Salt and Battered – Fish & Chip Shop Master Chef – Restaurant The Saucy Plaice – Fish & Chip Shop The Chippie – Fish & Chip Shop Bombay Balti – Indian Restaurant Taste of India – Indian Takeaway Fishcoteque – Fish & Chip Shop Beau Thai – Thai Restaurant A Taste of China – Chinese Takeaway Curry in a Hurry – Curry Takeaway Bitz 'n' Pizza – Pizza Restaurant The Taj Mahal Tandoori Restaurant – Takeaway Tasty Chick Inn – Chicken Takeaway Burger Off – Fast-Food Restaurant Fill Me Up Scotty – Snack Shop Get Stuffed – All-You-Can-Eat Restaurant Thai-Chi Takeaway – Thai Takeaway Methodology: I collected this data randomly through an Internet search engine....   [tags: Papers] 751 words
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The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour - The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour Introduction Features of real speech such as hesitation, fillers, pauses and false starts are not common features in scripted material. The main reason for this is that, in real life, these features serve the purpose of giving the speaker time to think about what they are saying before they continue talking. In scripted material this is rarely necessary because characters are only expected to say things that are relevant to the story in some way....   [tags: Papers] 796 words
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
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Data Warehousing - Introduction Data Warehouses (DW) integrate data from multiple heterogeneous information sources and transform them into a multidimensional representation for decision support applications. Apart from a complex architecture, involving data sources, the data staging area, operational data stores, the global data warehouse, the client data marts, etc., a data warehouse is also characterized by a complex lifecycle. In a permanent design phase, the designer has to produce and maintain a conceptual model and a usually voluminous logical schema, accompanied by a detailed physical design for efficiency reasons....   [tags: Technology Data] 1282 words
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‘Intelligence without analysis is only information’. Critically assess this claim. - Introduction Analysis is important. The statement assessed impresses that fact upon the reader. Without it, the speaker implies, Intelligence is inefficient. It is merely ‘information’. For the intelligence community, it seems that information alone is not enough to be presented as a finished product to a policy maker. Information alone is also not enough to represent the ‘reality’ of the world. Especially, in terms of finding possible threats to national security. The statement implies that each key word, when looked at individually, mean different things....   [tags: Intelligence]
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Language of Power in Advertising - Introduction I will be looking into the language of power in advertising. The reason I have opted to investigate this topic is because advertising is one of the most powerful and persuasive formulas used in sales industries and many organisations to promote products constantly grabbing our attention. I will be looking at how the language and graphology they use to persuade and encourage readers. It’s remarkable how the majority of the target audience (depending what advertisement it is ) do not realise how they are persuaded or how their attention is grabbed by just using linguistic devices such as puns, rhymes, pictures and so forth....   [tags: Advertising]
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Schema Integration - In literature there exist several definitions of Schema: “Schema integration is the process of merging autonomously developed DB schema into a unified, global schema to provide transparency through a unified view” [73]. “Schema integration is the process of identifying the components of a database which are related to one another, selecting the best representation for the global conceptual schema, and finally, integrating the components of each intermediate schema” [74]. 12.2. Why is Schema Integration Required....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication - ... Managers must ensure they are effectively deploying the message with the right information, through the right channels. But managers are not done then. Problems in communication can also develop when receivers receive the message. Misunderstandings can occur due to communication barriers. There are many barriers to interpersonal communication. CliffsNotes.com, Interpersonal Communication, discusses a few barriers that can lead to ineffective communication. One barrier is expectations of familiarity, when the employee “hears” the message they expected to hear versus the one really communicated....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Inquiry Project: Improving Performance Through Guided Reading - ... Fluency is modeled by the teacher reading the guided reading text aloud to generate discussions regarding comprehension and vocabulary guided by both teacher and students. When reading text ELLs with a higher L2 proficiency will vocalize softly. Observation and coaching by the teacher of correct strategies and word recognition prompts will be done to help problem solve. The word work focus will be on morphological and phonemic awareness or phonics connected to the text. Vocabulary journals and writing assignments that connecting the guided reading assignments will be used by the teacher....   [tags: Education]
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Theory of Sign - ... Morris’s account that “something is a sign only because it is interpreted as a sign” (Morris, 20) suggests that a sign is already laden with particular reference, and continuity of particular reference depends upon the relational properties of sign. In the system of semiosis, sign works within this formula: "S is a sign of D for I to the degree that I takes account of D in virtue the presence of S" (Morris, 1975:19). S and D relationship is associative: sign is always associated with designatum: either with a kind of object (designatum) or a real object (denotatum) ....   [tags: Communication, Signs] 1287 words
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - ... It comes into life, grows up and modifies itself. It also may adapt to everyday use and most time it falls into disuse. This "natural" process guide the word to its semantic maturity and, sometimes, to its more developed morphological form. Words can also be formed by the necessity of a semantic addition inside a basic lexicon meaning. Yet, words may be formed and also change their meanings through the necessity to assign names to things according to the way they are and how aesthetically they should be linguistically called....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
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Communication Barriers - ... That generally imply that they speak foreign language; have you considered your technical lingo. Ever tried to carry on a conversation with a computer geek, old soldier, or a mechanic. That too is a second language that can be a barrier to effective communication. “The engineers of a large container corporation and Metra, Chicagoland’s commuter railroad participated in a technical writing program. These communication programs resolved the growing problem of helping these technical professionals improve their communications with other non-engineering staff” (Gordon, 2000, p....   [tags: Manager Leader Communication]
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The Role of Nature vs Nurture - The Role of Nature vs Nurture "We used to think our fate was in our stars. Now, we know, in large part, that our fate is in our genes." ---James Watson While social research has been steady and ongoing, our biological knowledge has advanced disproportionately in recent times. As we discover more about the role of genes in pre-determining who we are, the nature versus nurture debate seems headed for a tilt of the biological over the environmental. Nature, or our biological aspect, does matter a lot....   [tags: Biology Genetics Essays] 629 words
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The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver - The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver For my research report, I read The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. This book is an in-depth description of their theory. While I will focus mostly on Weaver's translation and application of information, I will also touch on the theory's core ideas as explained by Shannon. The information theory is the extentsion of Nyquist's and Hartley's origingal ideas on the subject. However, Claude Shannon includes new factors such as "the effect of noise in the channel, and savings possible due to statistical structure of the original message and due to the nature of the final destination of information." Shannon's ideas were based on the fundamental problem in communication, which he described as the "difficulty of reproducing at one point the message selected at another point." The most significant aspect is that the actual message sent is one "selected from a set" of possible messages....   [tags: Information Theory Research Report]
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Analysis of Blinking Hell, a Sight Savers International Campaign. - Analysis of Blinking Hell, a Sight Savers International Campaign. The article 'Blinking Hell' is written for the purpose of informing a number of audiences about an eye disorder existing in economically developing countries. The title of this extract, 'Blinking Hell' carries a double meaning. The Statement 'blinking hell' traditionally serves as an exclamatory comment. For the intention of this article, the author has changed the exclamation to a verb and a noun and the semantics of it become literal....   [tags: Papers] 605 words
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The Big Question: What Happens When We Die? - The big question. No not that, the other one. The "what happens to us after life" question. It is something that has intrigued people everywhere. It has prompted the beliefs and semantics of different cultures all around the world. It started wars, divided people, and now dictates how we are all to act. "We should do this, we should do that. If we don't, we will be punished." I, for one, am tired of it. By all means, think what you will. But this is my writing, and you will have to open your mind to my thinking if you wish to continue....   [tags: Genocide, Theology] 645 words
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Biomechanical and Cognitive FOR - During a literature search to find an operational definition for the concept “frames of reference (FOR)” within occupational therapy (OT), the AOTA’s 2nd edition of the book “Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process” delivered no specific definition despite it’s stated purpose to “present a summary of interrelated constructs that define and guide occupational therapy practice” (AOTA, 2008). Further readings of older and current OT literature, offered conflicting views or definitions for FOR and it is often difficult to distinguish between the meanings of FOR and models, finding oneself in a “semantic minefield” (Hagedorn, 1994): “In summary, model building is composed of five phases which forms a sequence of interlocking systems… the frame of reference, assumptions and concepts are crucial to exploring, organizing and developing the model… [A frame of reference is] a mechanism which can be used to explain the relationship of theory to action… [it] is not the total model, but does form part of the model building process” (Reed, 1984)....   [tags: Occupational Science] 792 words
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What Happened Next in Rip Van Winkle ? - What Happened Next in Rip Van Winkle . Rip Van Winkle acquired a belief the day he fell asleep---July 3, 1766, say---a belief that that day was a fine day. He held this belief under the character ``Today [the day of this thought] is nice.' Then he slept for twenty years and two days, until July 5, 1786, and walked back to town. What happened next. The possibility that struck Kaplan and Evans is that Rip merely updated his belief. On July 3rd he never forms any explicit belief other than ``Today [the day of this thought] is a nice day'....   [tags: Rip Van Winkle Essays] 922 words
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Jane Eyre and Control Dramas - Jane Eyre and Control Dramas       There are particular powers that drive lives in their respective directions.  Some are internal, but the majority are external.  The external propellers are forces caused by the environment of an individual.  Environmental influences include but are not limited to  geographical and climatic forces.  In addition, there are societal forces such as the "control drama." Control dramas have been introduced by the best selling author James Redfield as a way to evaluate situations through behavioral classifications.  Jane Eyre is an excellent example of how control dramas affect the individual.  In order to fully understand why Jane acts as she does, it is paramount to analyze the control dramas that influence her choices and decisions (Redfield 142-43)....   [tags: Jane Eyre Essays]
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Media Advertising - Absolut Advertising Campaign - The Absolut Advertising Campaign Texts are political. Political in the sense that they produce messages that carry specific ideas and beliefs targeted toward a certain thinking body of people. A familiar phrase in America is, “art imitates life.” It defines life as essential to art, but can we say the reverse. Could life imitate art. The semantics of the phrase seem too ambiguous for such a statement. What is the definition of art, of life. The phrase suggests that art reinforces cultural and social beliefs by using the verb imitate....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Culture's Influence on Technology - Culture's Influence on Technology Culture and technology are in a constantly expanding positive feedback loop. The greatest changes in human culture are almost always the result of a technological innovation. However, a technology capable of a cultural shift can only have come from the culture itself. Without the culture's choice to refine the technology, the practical applications would have been left as only fleeting ideas; technology will only be developed if the culture has some immediate and apparent use for it....   [tags: Environment Environmental Pollution Preservation]
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I Don’t Have a Topic for My Research Paper, So I’m Writing about Nothing - I Don’t Have a Topic for My Research Paper, So I’m Writing about Nothing What is nothing. Though at first, the response may seem like little more than a play on words, the simple answer is this: Nothing is not. No word such as anything or everything can be added at the end of the statement to further clarify the crucial concept, which is non-existence: the dictionary definition of nothing. In actuality, though, although the denotation of "nothing" insists on absolute absence and void, in today’s society "nothing" is actually quite present, masquerading as something indeed....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Eulogy for Son - Eulogy for Son During the last months, weeks and days of the life of Hays Johnson, during that hard time of his illness, he was not dying. He was living. This may seem to be a matter of semantics or playing with words, but I learned from him during that period a lesson which I had previously only perceived in a fragmentary fashion. When a newborn utters its first loud wail, a sound which touches the hearts of the bystanders, it is perhaps an expression of regret that its stay in this beautiful world is temporary....   [tags: Eulogies Eulogy] 926 words
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The Phonological Model of Dyslexia - The Phonological Model of Dyslexia Doctor Morgan of Sussex, England, published the first case of what is now known as dyslexia in 1896. Dr. Morgan wrote about Percy F, a 14-year-old boy who was intelligent, bright, quick with learning games, and the intellectual equal of his peers. He fell behind, however, in his inability to learn how to read. Today, as in 1896, most people associate intelligence with the ability to read, but Percy F and the experience of millions of people with dyslexia breaks down the relationship between reading and intelligence (1)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Dyslexia - Dyslexia Choosing a topic for my research project was quite easy. Dyslexia naturally presented itself, probably because I have a mild case myself. I thought of it as a good omen when typing the word “dyslexia” into an internet search engine, I spelled it “dsylexia”. Of course I was troubled when the computer reported zero matches, but I caught my mistake, and tried again, this time more successfully. My dyslexia is really very minor, and has not presented too much difficulty for me. I often reverse numbers, which is annoying when dealing with phone numbers, and I am a terrible speller, which may well be related to my dyslexia....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Tolstoy's War and Peace - Tolstoy's War and Peace Summary War and Peace tells the story of the Rostovs, an upper-class family in Russia, and several people associated with them. It follows the characters through fifteen years during the Napoleonic Wars, from 1805 to 1820. It gives a fictional description of the events in the life of the Rostov family as well as some of the historical events of the time. Analysis Tolstoy is regarded by some as the greatest writer about war (Bayley 16). He includes details in the military scenes of War and Peace....   [tags: Tolstoy War Peace Essays]
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Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis - Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis Barbiero, in his note on framing the innateness hypothesis, mentions that "to frame the innateness question is to attempt to distinguish among the different constraints and mechanisms that can be attributed to the human biological endowment for language". In this note, I follow up on Barbiero's proposal by discussing empiricist views, mainly Quinean views, on the innate learning mechanisms that enable children to acquire not only the semantics but also the syntax of their language....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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The Art of Speaking and the Science of Imitation - The Art of Speaking and the Science of Imitation The underlying thesis examined here maintains that meaning is simply subjective value which has been presented (i.e., enlarged or made explicit) in words or in some other plastic or static medium. This presentation of meaning consists in the extending of what is felt by the creator-subject to the other subjects. Although this extension of the primary agent may be the very thing which ultimately creates the space from where reflection might occur, the act of expression itself is not explicitly reflective....   [tags: Language Expressions Papers] 4347 words
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Cognitive Science and Its Link to Artificial Intelligence - Cognitive Science and Its Link to Artificial Intelligence In recent years, researchers in the field of psychology have turned their collective attention to the developing field of cognition. The term comes from the Latin word cognoscere, meaning “to come to know”, and today is defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “the act or process of knowing, including both awareness and judgment”. Cognitive psychology seeks to identify and examine the elements composing human intelligence. This includes the study of human learning or intellectual development, problem solving, memory, the human language, and the processing and comprehension of information....   [tags: Psychology Science Essays]
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Haack On Fuzzy Logic - Haack On Fuzzy Logic ABSTRACT: Much of the progress in modern logic beyond Aristotle is due to the invention of a precise and powerful formalism, and this is why Haack is reluctant to weaken it. What motivates her to regard deviant and fuzzy logic as extensions rather than rivals of classical logic is its demonstrated capacity for refinement and progress. Thus she sharply distinguishes between a logic dealing with fuzzy concepts (she accepts), and one which is itself fuzzy, i.e., where "true" and "false" cease to be precise concepts (she rejects)....   [tags: Haack Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2791 words
(8 pages)
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A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition - A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's tradition. The Comparison of these is made on the grounds of the analysis of existence. Choosing "existence" as the object of the analysis is very essential. It is so because understanding of the category of existence is strongly connected with the whole system. Thus, while analyzing the category, one can make a reconstruction of the concept scheme (in both traditions); show their functioning; and compare them to each other....   [tags: Lvov-Warsaw School Frege Russell Tradition] 3709 words
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A Neo-Formalist Approach to Mathematical Truth - A Neo-Formalist Approach to Mathematical Truth ABSTRACT: I outline a variant on the formalist approach to mathematics which rejects textbook formalism's highly counterintuitive denial that mathematical theorems express truths while still avoiding ontological commitment to a realm of abstract objects. The key idea is to distinguish the sense of a sentence from its explanatory truth conditions. I then look at various problems with the neo-formalist approach, in particular at the status of the notion of proof in a formal calculus and at problems which Gödelian results seem to pose for the tight link assumed between truth and proof....   [tags: Math Mathematical Mathematics Papers] 3769 words
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