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Semantics - Language is the primary source of communication for humans and is used to convey thoughts, feelings, intentions, and desires to others (Bonvillain 2008:1). Many rules are taken into account when forming a language. According to Bolton, language is arbitrary and is unrepresentative of the objects they represent (Bolton 1996: 63). The study of Semantics allows us to identify the meaning of words and phrases in their literal sense, and helps us to make meaning out of arbitrary sounds and phrases. It has been contributed to by both linguists and philosophers....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - There is no human language without socio-cultural context; meanwhile language resides inside each individual’s mind and as a result, linguistic interaction did not occur without the use of the language. Individuals do not create languages; they just use that one given to them by society. For Saeed (2009), language is the mirror of culture and it is determined by the categories available in speakers’ own language. Studies about relationship between language and culture and between language and thought have a long history and have placed a much conferred proposal to modern linguistic: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
(15.3 pages)
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More than just Semantics - John D. Crossan parallels story to life. This essay will examine several aspects of story. First, I will examine the relationship between story and humans’ lives and how it is limited by language. Second, I will examine the differences between myths and parables and their polar opposition within the field of a story. Third, I will examine the Prodigal Son to illuminate the necessary elements of a parable. Stories serve to define humans’ reality and the use of specific types of stories evokes different reactions from their audience....   [tags: essays research papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
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Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Web Techniques - The emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) has brought exciting new possibilities in information access and electronic business. The WWW has grown to be the largest distributed repository of information ever created. Current estimates reveal that the Web currently contains about 3 billion static documents and being accessed by over 500 million users from around the world [6]. Web content consists largely of distributed hypertext and hypermedia, accessible via keyword-based search and link navigation....   [tags: Semantic Web]
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567 words
(1.6 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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Structure of Semantic Memory - Structure of Semantic Memory Semantic memory is our knowledge about the world and language and how it can be seen as our internal dictionary and encyclopedia together as one entity. Throughout its origins, semantic memory has been compared to episodic memory. In contrast, episodic memory refers to knowledge that is temporary or spatial, which is identified in the terms of personal experiences. Within these two systems there are many different models. I am going to discuss Eleanor Rosch's prototype approach feature comparison model, Anderson’s ACT-R model, the Collins and Loftus’s network model, and the exemplar model....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1207 words
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Semantic Web Technologies - The design and implementation of the PHOTON prototype system has been presented in Chapter 7. The implementation in the different software settings such as implementing the ontology in a storage environment, implementing the ontology in an ontology environment and implementing the ontology in a reasoning environment were also presented. In order to evaluate the PHOTON prototype system in its different environment it is important to revisit some key research questions of this study; “How can knowledge about photovoltaic systems be made easily accessible to end-users?” In order to efficiently manipulate photovoltaic system knowledge; it is important that the PHOTON ontology is well structured both syntactically and semantically fit for use in a practical or real-world setting....   [tags: Information Technology] 1642 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - Introduction Semantic Change leads with change on meaning of words, however this change does not occur overnight or all of a sudden. On the contrary, this is a slow process into language evolution and these differences are only realised as time goes by. There are many reasons to transformation and change over a word meaning. They can be adopted thanks to insertion of vocabulary from another language, by borrowing or even through popular usage of a word inside another context, resulting its differentiation to the whole country where English is spoken....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Learning Content Development Using Semantic Web Technology - Abstract: Semantic web is based on the ontologies as its core which can support the learning content development in different ways. This paper survey issues introduced in the learning content development and associated activities using semantic web technology. This overview is based on investigation of the area of content's creation, metadata, annotation, adpativity and discovery through researches related to these issues from different viewpoints. I. Introduction: Semantic web is an important leading technology today that describes the information in a machine understandable way [1]....   [tags: Technology]
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3729 words
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
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1290 words
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Semantic Web - To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reaching a decision or judgment....   [tags: Technology, The Green Guide] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Semantic Web Services and Goals - In this section, we present the service discovery scenarios to evaluate and compare the current web services technology with our proposed framework for semantic web services using existing telecommunication industry data. The evaluated results are based on prototype implementation, using sample data of a leading telecommunication operator in Pakistan, which has its distributed computer centres in nine different cities of Pakistan (name is not cited for privacy conditions). We performed a typical process of interconnect settlement service discovery....   [tags: Information Technology] 905 words
(2.6 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
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A Successful Theory of Mental Representation - A Successful Theory of Mental Representation A successful theory of mental representation must answer two related questions: (1) How does representation work. (2) How is misrepresentation possible. These questions are related because answering (1) is a requisite for answering (2): in order to explain how it is is possible that cognitive systems produce erroneous representations (i.e. representations that do not correspond to their "proper" meanings), we must first explain how is it possible that cognitive systems produce representations at all....   [tags: Papers] 2355 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights - The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights ABSTRACT: Through a comparative analysis of the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped. By this case analysis, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the elucidation of the relation between language and philosophy in this regard. 1. Introduction Through a comparative case analysis regarding the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped....   [tags: China Chinese Language Essays] 5656 words
(16.2 pages)
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The Concept of Information - The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics....   [tags: Exploratory Research] 763 words
(2.2 pages)
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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Sphere - Michael Crichton uses three common devices with ease in his novel, Sphere. The devices being: rhetoric, semantics, and style. Crichton uses these devices to incorporate a sense of unity in the writing. It is not difficult to incorporate this unity into a novel when the devices are properly used. When doing so, they flow together to create a more visual experience for the reader. These devices of writing are what create the environment for an understandable, yet interesting storyline. Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively and persuasively....   [tags: Sphere] 430 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Last Samurai - The Last Samurai-Scene 11 - 17 The scene started off with a man by the name of Capt. Nathan Algren (Tom Cruise) laying on a floor wearing dirty garments and yelling out the name of a man that he had just killed before his capture. The Captain was captured during a fight between the Americans and the Japanese, but instead of killing the American, the Samurai leader Katsumoto (Ken Wantanobe) wanted him alive so that he could learn from his enemy’s ways. The Captain was staying in Katsumoto’s ex brother-in-law’s house with the now widowed young lady and her children....   [tags: essays research papers] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Phonology - For years, phonology has been incorporated into language education. Young children are introduced to phonics as educators take them through visual flash cards, teaching them the sounds of the alphabet. Children learn to connect sounds into words, using what they learned from the alphabet to apply a system of sounds into a word. Controversy regarding this reading education method has additionally been popular. Although researchers have found negative effects in learning to read phonologically, teachers can still strategically incorporate it into the classroom as long as they are aware of its potential negative effects....   [tags: Education]
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1187 words
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Natural Language Processing - Natural Language Processing There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think. Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth, computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent but be intelligent....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly - A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly In chapter 11 (The Loving Resistance Fighter) of the book Technopoly, published in 1992, Neil Postman focuses on a solution to the problems created by Technopoly. A "Technopoly" (a word postman capitalizes throughout the book) is a society that no longer merely uses technology as a support system but instead is shaped by it. Postman proposes that we become "loving resistance fighter(s)" who retain "the narratives and symbols that once made the United States the hope of the world"(p.182)....   [tags: Papers] 1604 words
(4.6 pages)
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What Are Universals and Do Universals Really Exist? - In this essay I will be discussing the thought-provoking theory of universals and be asking whether this idea of an invisible yet prominent realm of reality can claim to have a place in existence. I shall firstly examine Plato's dialogue of Parmendides and see if a partition can be drawn between the forms and universals. I shall then move on to the opposing argument which invariably denies such dimensions in reality before reaching my conclusion. The discussion between Socrates and Parmenides sets out to outline the differences of like and unlike things as a way of highlighting the stark conrast between the natuaral world in which factual truths are known and the transcendental world in which universal forms reside....   [tags: Psychology] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Intelligence Without Analysis is Only Information - ‘Intelligence without analysis is only information’. Critically assess this claim. Introduction Part 1 – Understanding Semantics Part 2 - Part of the system Part 4 - Analysis as part of the Organisation, a member the community Conclusion Introduction Analysis is important. The statement assessed impresses that fact upon the reader. Without it, the speaker implies, Intelligence is inefficient. It is merely ‘information’. For the intelligence community, it seems that information alone is not enough to be presented as a finished product to a policy maker....   [tags: Intelligence Analysis]
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Deductive Databases - \subsection{Deductive Databases} In the field of deductive databases there has been extensive research on the optimization of queries for Datalog (and its variants). The major interest has been the optimization of recursive queries. Ceri et al~\cite{ceri-gottlob-tanca-1989} provide an excellent summary of the field. The evaluation or comparison of optimization strategies is typified by Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan~\cite{br1986,br1988} who develop analytical cost models for the optimization strategies when applied to four queries (related to the parent and ancestor relations) and then generate numerical data from the analytical models using synthetic data driven by three shapes -- tree, inverted tree, and cylinder -- for the ``family tree'....   [tags: Information Technology] 1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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F/CFAT : An Approach for Combined Safety and Security Analysis - I. INTRODUCTION System safety is a complex concept, which is represented by multiple attributes and which requires diverse sources of evidence to demonstrate its achievement. Safety-critical systems, which provide safety-critical services to their users, must be designed to be safe. This means that despite their complexities and despite variable environmental conditions, their operation should be demonstrably safety. A fundamental difficulty in measuring system safety arises due to the complexity of the notion – it is made up of multiple, potentially conflicting attributes, and difficult trade-offs may need to be made between these attributes....   [tags: Information Technology]
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Book Review of Jody Azzouni's Tracking Reason - Jody Azzouni, Tracking Reason In many ways, Tracking Reason resembles Jody Azzouni’s previous book, Deflating Existential Consequence. The subject matter of each lies at the interface of metaphysics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of language. The style is both entertaining and clear. The positions argued for are so controversial as to sound almost insane. And yet the arguments provided are illuminating, and manage to make the positions seem almost like common sense. Both books are worth reading both for specialists and those interested in a clarifying (if idiosyncratic) take on these issues....   [tags: Azzouni] 1629 words
(4.7 pages)
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Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar - Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance....   [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education] 6463 words
(18.5 pages)
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Business - Improving personal communications is very important to today in the fast moving world. The communication process is very important, it is estmated that 80 percent of messages get deport” For better results replace “You statements” with “I statements.” Say I’m concerned...That will bring the person off of the defensive approch. Also discuss things as they happen with out waitng. When you wait things can be losted or forgotten. If you work them out early it will be much easier for you and the other person....   [tags: essays research papers] 2079 words
(5.9 pages)
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Schema Integration - In literature there exist several definitions of Schema: “Schema integration is the process of merging autonomously developed DB schema into a unified, global schema to provide transparency through a unified view” [73]. “Schema integration is the process of identifying the components of a database which are related to one another, selecting the best representation for the global conceptual schema, and finally, integrating the components of each intermediate schema” [74]. 12.2. Why is Schema Integration Required....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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Inquiry Project: Improving Performance Through Guided Reading - The question that I have chosen for my inquiry project is: How can you improve performance in a first grade classroom with Guided Reading. I am interested in this since I teach first grade. As a first grade teacher I am always looking for ways to improve my class’s performance. Guided reading offers support to the students as they are learning. Rogoff suggested that “adults support children’s learning by structuring the task’s difficulty level, jointly participating in problem solving, focusing the learner’s attention to the task, and motivating the learner.” (Frey & Fisher, 2010, 84)....   [tags: Education]
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A Taxonomy of Moral Realism - A Taxonomy of Moral Realism ABSTRACT: The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of the theory while at the same time showing the interrelations between them....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 1621 words
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A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein   Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so....   [tags: Phylosophy]
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Language Acquisition - Language Acquisition missing works cited How do children acquire language. What are the processes of language acquisition. How do infants respond to speech. Language acquisition is the process of learning a native or a second language. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observations that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, (which helps them learn to pronounce words correctly), and grammar is seldom taught to them, but instead that they rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically....   [tags: essays research papers] 3235 words
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Structure of Management Information - Computer Network & Management Assignment Title: Structure of Management Information (SMI) Structure of Management Information (SMI): In the context of network management, for the Structure of Management Information (SMI): a) Name its three hierarchical layers. The Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard is responsible for defining the rules for how the Management Information Base (MIB) objects are structured, described and organized. SMI is a data definition language allows dissimilar devices to communicate by ensuring that they use a universal data representation for all management information....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Language of Power in Advertising - Introduction I will be looking into the language of power in advertising. The reason I have opted to investigate this topic is because advertising is one of the most powerful and persuasive formulas used in sales industries and many organisations to promote products constantly grabbing our attention. I will be looking at how the language and graphology they use to persuade and encourage readers. It’s remarkable how the majority of the target audience (depending what advertisement it is ) do not realise how they are persuaded or how their attention is grabbed by just using linguistic devices such as puns, rhymes, pictures and so forth....   [tags: Advertising]
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Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication - Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication Ensuring effective managerial communication is a daunting challenge. Each manager has to find their own “path” to capably communicate with their employees, employers, suppliers, business associates and clients. How is effective employee communication achieved. Effective employee communication is achieved by understanding yourself, the differences within your workforce and your company operating environment. It is based on successfully utilizing the communication process, avoiding interpersonal communication barriers and advocating audience active listening and feedback....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Theory of Sign - To understand how sign functions, semiosis, Morris proposes four elements: Sign vehicle (S), Designatum (D), and Interpretant and interpreter (I). "The mediators are sign vehicles; the taking-account-of are interpretants; the agents of the process are interpreters; what is taken account of are designata" (Morris, 19). Those elements of semiosis become the foundation of branches of linguistics and basic elements of language. The branches of linguistics are semantics is the study of sign in its relation to designatum, pragmatics the study of sign in relation to interpreter, and syntactics the study of sign in relation to other signs....   [tags: Communication, Signs] 1287 words
(3.7 pages)
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Communication Barriers - A truly successful leader not only has to master the necessary business skills, the technology that makes a business efficient, but the greatest tool for success is the art of communication, so you can share your ideas and they are understood and carried out using every communication tool available. A common denominator among managers that fail in business and life is as a result of failing to overcome barriers to communication, these are often as a result of a lack of proper communication skills, prejudice, lack of information, a loss of touch, cultural and language differences....   [tags: Manager Leader Communication]
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Theory of Sign - ... S and D relationship is associative: sign is always associated with designatum: either with a kind of object (designatum) or a real object (denotatum) . Sign associated with the designatum leads to a response that this response opens up for another sign. Some problems emerge here as Hanks (1996) and Ducasse (1942) demonstrate is located in Morri’s concept of designatum which may contain denotatum and that Morris in some of arguments does not differentiate interpretent from interpreter and conventional behavior from particular response of interpreters....   [tags: Charles Morris, Semiosis]
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Evaluation of a Website - Evaluation of a Website What has a hippo in common with a feather?” “What is the longest place name in the world?” “Can green ideas sleep furiously?” “Rim ember us poke in cent tense all mow stall ways con deigns word snot in then did.” These are just a few of the topics you will find under A Web of Linguistic Fun. Phantom Linguist, Bucknell University Professor Robert Beard, provides a unique collection of “fundamental subdisciplines of linguistics”(1). The website introduces linguistic terminology such as grammar, morphology, phonology, semantics, and syntax....   [tags: Evaluation Essays]
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help me - Visual Communication could be described as processes that rely primarily on rich visual content as the means of conveying information through words, photos, colors, shapes, and many other components. However, visual communication explores the use of graphical components in achieving communication goals. Visual communication has both critical and practical parts. According to the current book we use in the class “Visual Communication, Images with Messages”, the critical part of visual communication is known as visual rhetoric, which explores the way that designers use visual elements to influence audiences....   [tags: essays research papers] 565 words
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Language - Language is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints. There are various aspects which are true to every language....   [tags: essays research papers]
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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Biomechanical and Cognitive FOR - During a literature search to find an operational definition for the concept “frames of reference (FOR)” within occupational therapy (OT), the AOTA’s 2nd edition of the book “Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process” delivered no specific definition despite it’s stated purpose to “present a summary of interrelated constructs that define and guide occupational therapy practice” (AOTA, 2008). Further readings of older and current OT literature, offered conflicting views or definitions for FOR and it is often difficult to distinguish between the meanings of FOR and models, finding oneself in a “semantic minefield” (Hagedorn, 1994): “In summary, model building is composed of five phases which forms a sequence of interlocking systems… the frame of reference, assumptions and concepts are crucial to exploring, organizing and developing the model… [A frame of reference is] a mechanism which can be used to explain the relationship of theory to action… [it] is not the total model, but does form part of the model building process” (Reed, 1984)....   [tags: Occupational Science] 792 words
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Relational Database Model - Comparing and Contrasting the Relational Database Model and OO Model The relational database model is based upon tables or relations. In this model, the physical implementation of the database is abstracted away from the user. Users query the database using a high-level query language, such as SQL. The relations are made up of columns, which have headings indicating the attribute represented by that column. Tables have key fields, which can be used to identify unique records. Keys relate tables to each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 931 words
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Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop - Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop A novel should be something that is easy to define. One would expect the novel to have a plot, a central theme, a central character and a consistent style. The truth is that all of these things are important but not specifically necessary. Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop cannot be easily classified as a novel in normal terms. It lacks a central plot that carries the work from beginning to some sort of an ending. It does, however, contain central characters, themes, and a clearly consistent style, but the story that is told consists of small vignettes....   [tags: Willa Cather Death Comes for the Archbishop]
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Output Query Format - The part of the standard specifying the structure of the result set as well as carrying messages like errors or announcements is called the Output Query Format. The outermost XML element Output can envelope the GlobalComment, SystemMessage and ResultItem child elements. To describe the result of the query one can use GlobalComment. To propagate information regarding the responder system, the SystemMessage element is utilized. This includes errors and exception - for example if a proper result set cannot be composed - as well as status messages....   [tags: Information Technolgy] 980 words
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The Ebonics Controversy - The Ebonics Controversey What is the controversy over Ebonics about. The Internet offers diverse views on the Ebonics topic. Ebonics entered the lime light in December of 1996. The television and news media have made the issue unclear and have left many people wondering what the recent controversey over Ebonics entails. Long after the "six o'clock news" has comfused and abandoned the public on the issue of Ebonics, the Internet is alive with commentary. Sampled together, the pages present a social mood, conscience, or lack thereof....   [tags: Education Language Speaking Essays]
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - In spoken Japanese, subordinate clauses often occur without their main clauses. Ohori (1995; 1997) called them suspended clause constructions (SCCs) and formulated that a SCC occurs when “the intended message is either contextually inferable or conventionalized.” However, it is not very clear when and how the conversational participants know whether the intended message is contextually inferable (or conventionalized) or not, since a SCC and a “non-suspended version” of subordinate clause are not totally distinct category....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
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Study of Communication - Studies on Human Communication The past century has been an enormously productive one in regard to the analysis and description of human communication. Building on the ideas of Ferdinand de Saussure, early structuralists delineated the phonological and morphological building blocks of speech by refining and applying the concepts of the phoneme and the morpheme. In addition to the rigorous description of hundreds of indigenous languages, anthropological linguists using this body of data worked on the problem of language histories and the division of current languages into families of related languages with the concomitant contribution to cultural history....   [tags: Human Communication, Ethnography of Speaking] 2740 words
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The Big Question: What Happens When We Die? - The big question. No not that, the other one. The "what happens to us after life" question. It is something that has intrigued people everywhere. It has prompted the beliefs and semantics of different cultures all around the world. It started wars, divided people, and now dictates how we are all to act. "We should do this, we should do that. If we don't, we will be punished." I, for one, am tired of it. By all means, think what you will. But this is my writing, and you will have to open your mind to my thinking if you wish to continue....   [tags: Genocide, Theology] 645 words
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Chomsky and Knowledge of Language - The linguistic theory of Chomsky has changed the long, traditional way of studying language. The nature of knowledge, which is closely tied to human knowledge in general, makes it a logical step for Chomsky to generalize his theory to the study of the relation between language and the world-in particular, the study of truth and reference. But his theory has been controversial and his proposal of "innate ideas" has been resisted by some empiricists who characterize him as rationalist. In our view, these empiricists make a mistake....   [tags: Philosophy of Language]
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Stacks - Stacks Data Structures and Algorithms 3.3 Stacks Another way of storing data is in a stack. A stack is generally implemented with only two principle operations (apart from a constructor and destructor methods): push adds an item to a stack pop extracts the most recently pushed item from the stack Other methods such as top returns the item at the top without removing it [9] isempty determines whether the stack has anything in it are sometimes added. A common model of a stack is a plate or coin stacker....   [tags: Essays Papers] 637 words
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Borges and Bertolucci - Borges and Bertolucci There are a number of differences between Bernardo Bertolucci's movie "The Spider Stratagem" and the story on which it is based, Jorge Louis Borges' "The Theme of The Traitor and The Hero;" however, overall Bertolucci does a pretty accurate portrayal of the essence, at least, of Borges' story. Besides changing the "setting" of the plot, there is also much more information relayed in the movie. This is very much due to that the story is simply a suggestive piece, while the movie had to fill in all of the blanks....   [tags: essays papers] 787 words
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Improving Personal and Organizational Communication - Improving Personal and Organizational Communication Be it organizational or personal, here are the major two different kinds of communication; Impersonal: one-way communication mainly used for facts, policies, instructions, notes, etc. Interpersonal: Two-way communication i.e. discussions, arguments, open forum, etc. Before we can improve communication, we must first discuss communication filters. Communication filters are, but not limited to, semantics, emotions, attitudes, role expectations, gender bias, and non-verbal messages....   [tags: Papers Communication Business Essays] 829 words
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Writing To Entertain - Writing To Entertain The piece entitled ‘Let’s Talk About Sex…’ is a piece written to simply entertain its audience. The text is in no way formal or serious, as it is written for a men’s magazine and deals with modern issues in a modern way. The readers of this text are intended to be predominantly male between the ages of 16 and 35. The ideal reader of this text would be a stereotypical man who is looking for a light read during his lunch break at the office. The text itself is very euphoric, and arouses many emotions in the reader as he/she progresses through the article....   [tags: Papers] 777 words
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The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour - The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour Introduction Features of real speech such as hesitation, fillers, pauses and false starts are not common features in scripted material. The main reason for this is that, in real life, these features serve the purpose of giving the speaker time to think about what they are saying before they continue talking. In scripted material this is rarely necessary because characters are only expected to say things that are relevant to the story in some way....   [tags: Papers] 796 words
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Data Warehousing - Introduction Data Warehouses (DW) integrate data from multiple heterogeneous information sources and transform them into a multidimensional representation for decision support applications. Apart from a complex architecture, involving data sources, the data staging area, operational data stores, the global data warehouse, the client data marts, etc., a data warehouse is also characterized by a complex lifecycle. In a permanent design phase, the designer has to produce and maintain a conceptual model and a usually voluminous logical schema, accompanied by a detailed physical design for efficiency reasons....   [tags: Technology Data] 1282 words
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A system for solution-orientated reporting of errors associated with the extraction of routinely collected clinical data for research and quality impr - Abstract Background: We have used routinely collected clinical data in epidemiological and quality improvement research for over 10 years. We extract, pseudonymise and link data from heterogeneous distributed databases; inevitably encountering errors and problems. Objective: To develop a solution-orientated system of error reporting which enables appropriate corrective action. Method: Review of the 94 errors, which occurred in 2008/9. Previously we had described failures in terms of the data missing from our response files; however this provided little information about causation....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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Understanding Aphasia - ... There are many types of Aphasia, the two simplest types are fluent (receptive or Wernicke’s) and non-fluent (expressive or Broca’s) aphasia. Damage to the temporal lobe (the side portion) of the brain may cause fluent aphasia. A person that has this disorder usually has very noticeable comprehension problems. The ability to understand the meaning of spoken words is mainly impaired, while the ease of producing connected speech is not affected much. Therefore Wernicke's aphasia is referred to as a 'fluent aphasia.' Nevertheless, speech is far from normal....   [tags: language communication disorder, language]
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Role of Language During Early Mental Development - ... In the US these two opposing points of view have been enthusiastically discussed as phonics instruction in opposition to whole language (Hempenstall 2009). Even though on the surface the debate appears to be about teaching methods, the deeper level of departure revolves around what children have to learn so as to develop his or her language and be able to read (Riley 2003). Central concerns of the current phonics controversy revolves around fundamental questions such as which feature of language plays the most significant role in a child’s endeavors in learning how to read....   [tags: Reading vs. Definition]
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language - What is the Language of Thought Hypothesis. LOTH is an empirical thesis about the nature of thought and thinking. According to LOTH, thought and thinking are done in a mental language, i.e. in a symbolic system physically realized in the brain of the relevant organisms. In formulating LOTH, philosophers have in mind primarily the variety of thoughts known as ‘propositional attitudes’. Propositional attitudes are the thoughts described by such sentence forms as ‘S believes that P’, ‘S hopes that P’, ‘S desires that P’, etc., where ‘S’ refers to the subject of the attitude, ‘P’ is any sentence, and ‘that P’ refers to the proposition that is the object of the attitude....   [tags: essays research papers] 8769 words
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Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis - Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis Barbiero, in his note on framing the innateness hypothesis, mentions that "to frame the innateness question is to attempt to distinguish among the different constraints and mechanisms that can be attributed to the human biological endowment for language". In this note, I follow up on Barbiero's proposal by discussing empiricist views, mainly Quinean views, on the innate learning mechanisms that enable children to acquire not only the semantics but also the syntax of their language....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition - A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's tradition. The Comparison of these is made on the grounds of the analysis of existence. Choosing "existence" as the object of the analysis is very essential. It is so because understanding of the category of existence is strongly connected with the whole system. Thus, while analyzing the category, one can make a reconstruction of the concept scheme (in both traditions); show their functioning; and compare them to each other....   [tags: Lvov-Warsaw School Frege Russell Tradition] 3709 words
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The Passive Voice - The Passive Voice The English language has two voices--the active and the passive. The active voice and the passive voice differ in that a passive verb phrase has an additional auxiliary BE followed by an EN participle. In a sense, the English passive is "inflexible" when compared to the passive formation of other languages. For example, some languages use word order, verb inflections, and impersonal constructions to form the passive voice. In their book, The Grammar Book: ESL/EFL Teacher's Course, Celce-Murcia and Larson-Freeman demonstrate how the Bantu passive voice differs from the English passive voice....   [tags: Research Paper Language Papers]
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The Fallacy of Nonsense - The Fallacy of Nonsense Lewis Carroll was a professor of logic, writing among his well known works of fiction, treatises on the subject of logic and even a textbook, Symbolic Logic. “It is the function of logic to classify and formulate fallacious forms of argument as well as valid ones.” (Burks 367) So is it some of the functions of Carroll’s tales of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Presenting different puzzles, riddles, or what appears to be on the surface nonsense, Carroll in these books present many questions of logic and indirectly their solutions, challenging the ability of the reader to believe what has been presented....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Uniform Knowledge Attributions - There is a philosophical tradition going back at least to Gilbert Ryle’s 1948 The Concept of Mind of distinguishing “knowledge how”from “knowledge that”, in which the latter is taken to be a kind of propositional attitude, while the former is taken to be a kind of ability or capacity. Paradigm examples are, respectively: Sally knows how to ride a bike. (1) Sally knows that she owns a bike. (2) More recently, this distinction has come under renewed scrutiny, notably with [Stanley and Williamson, 2001] arguing that there really is no such distinction, and that “knowledge how”is really a species of propositional knowledge, though the proposition is known under a different “mode of presentation” than the types of knowledge typically expressed by “knowledge that”attributions....   [tags: Philosophy]
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The Role of Nature vs Nurture - The Role of Nature vs Nurture "We used to think our fate was in our stars. Now, we know, in large part, that our fate is in our genes." ---James Watson While social research has been steady and ongoing, our biological knowledge has advanced disproportionately in recent times. As we discover more about the role of genes in pre-determining who we are, the nature versus nurture debate seems headed for a tilt of the biological over the environmental. Nature, or our biological aspect, does matter a lot....   [tags: Biology Genetics Essays] 629 words
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The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver - The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver For my research report, I read The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. This book is an in-depth description of their theory. While I will focus mostly on Weaver's translation and application of information, I will also touch on the theory's core ideas as explained by Shannon. The information theory is the extentsion of Nyquist's and Hartley's origingal ideas on the subject. However, Claude Shannon includes new factors such as "the effect of noise in the channel, and savings possible due to statistical structure of the original message and due to the nature of the final destination of information." Shannon's ideas were based on the fundamental problem in communication, which he described as the "difficulty of reproducing at one point the message selected at another point." The most significant aspect is that the actual message sent is one "selected from a set" of possible messages....   [tags: Information Theory Research Report]
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Analysis of Blinking Hell, a Sight Savers International Campaign - The article 'Blinking Hell' is written for the purpose of informing a number of audiences about an eye disorder existing in economically developing countries. The title of this extract, 'Blinking Hell' carries a double meaning. The Statement 'blinking hell' traditionally serves as an exclamatory comment. For the intention of this article, the author has changed the exclamation to a verb and a noun and the semantics of it become literal. The graphology of the text is like that of a newspaper article, set out in columns with an emboldened title and graphic image....   [tags: Article Analysis] 762 words
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Language as Connectivity in a Group - Language is a crucial part of how people in a group show their solidarity to each other. Discuss Through the use of language, each member of a group is able to construct and reflect their identity. Through the language features present in slang and jargon, users are able to communicate their social identity and group belonging. They are also able to portray their cultural heritage and background through ethnolect varieties of English. Language plays a crucial part in enabling the speaker to communicate belonging to a specific social group, reinforcing solidarity....   [tags: Language] 1101 words
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The Environment and Socioeconomic Issues: A Common Thread - The physically of the environmental problems facing Nepal, Korea, and the Russian Fareast are overwhelmingly evident and unfortunately, impossible to ignore. They are factual burdens on these countries’ socioeconomic welfare. Nevertheless, a candid comparison to the Australian and the American experience insinuates a prevailing conflict in values towards the “political importance” of environment problems in lure of necessary social development. According to Elson Strahan’s (2000) article Comparative Environmental Policy: Australia and the U.S., he questions what set of values that will ultimately drive policymakers in these two countries, and thus “…environmental policies must be considered in the context of values and ethics-for this is the heart of political and social agendas” ( p.26)....   [tags: Environmental/Social] 1684 words
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The Great Health Care Debate - The health care debate currently roiling through our legislature and news media hits close to home for every American. We are all human and thus share basic health needs. I decided to interview my father to learn more about this debate as he has a rather unique perspective on the matter. My father is sixty two years old; an American citizen for the past twenty years and a legal resident for over thirty. He hails from Colombia and still has many family members there and visits two or more times per year....   [tags: Health Care] 1761 words
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