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Semantics - ... These two words both refer to feeling less than normal, but to some these two words may have different connotations. By that I mean that some may see ill as being worse than sick or vice versa. This can create a misunderstanding between speakers or readers. Another example according to Parker and Riley is big and large. Referring to your sister as big or large can make a big difference in how people view her; they could see her as being older than you or as bigger in size (2010:30). Synonymy can also have differences based on formal and informal settings such as the words woman and lady....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - ... Verbal tense is a feature in English grammar and according to Whorf rationale the practice of life should make English speakers highly sensitive to the relative order of when something happens and when someone speaks about it. This way, criminals will not be lost when the automatic computation of the order of events is encapsulated in the language system, which leads the suspects to betray in their own words. For Moura & Cabrussi (2008: 45), the product highlighted by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is thought and it neither formulates nor organises without the suitable instrument: language....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
(15.3 pages)
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Russell on the Structure of Propositions - Russell on the Structure of Propositions ABSTRACT: The comparison of Russell's views on semantics before 1905 with the theory of Frege allows one to expose the common sources of their interest in semantical problems and the specific character of their examination. During the investigation of the principles of mathematics and elaboration and realization of the program of logicism, questions regarding the logical structure of mathematical and logical propositions as well as the relation of linguistic signs and logical forms arise for both authors....   [tags: Semantics Mathematics Russell Essays]
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3513 words
(10 pages)
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More than just Semantics - John D. Crossan parallels story to life. This essay will examine several aspects of story. First, I will examine the relationship between story and humans’ lives and how it is limited by language. Second, I will examine the differences between myths and parables and their polar opposition within the field of a story. Third, I will examine the Prodigal Son to illuminate the necessary elements of a parable. Stories serve to define humans’ reality and the use of specific types of stories evokes different reactions from their audience....   [tags: essays research papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
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Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Web Techniques - The emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) has brought exciting new possibilities in information access and electronic business. The WWW has grown to be the largest distributed repository of information ever created. Current estimates reveal that the Web currently contains about 3 billion static documents and being accessed by over 500 million users from around the world [6]. Web content consists largely of distributed hypertext and hypermedia, accessible via keyword-based search and link navigation....   [tags: Semantic Web]
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567 words
(1.6 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
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Structure of Semantic Memory - ... The primary issue with this model is that it is solely a model. Anderson continually researches, tweaks, and creates many different models until they eventually morph into new versions. He constantly adjusts and renames newer models which consequently, are not very different from that of the original. Ultimately, his model lacks consistency. In 1975, the network model was developed by Collins & Loftus. According to Dr. McNamara and Dr. Holbrook’s Handbook of Psychology Collins & Loftus network model discovered concepts that are represented as nodes, links that are connected to nodes, and spreading activation where activation spreads from node to node, while they also developed Sentence verification task which measures latency to respond to a sentence (an apple is a fruit)”....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1207 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Web Technologies - The design and implementation of the PHOTON prototype system has been presented in Chapter 7. The implementation in the different software settings such as implementing the ontology in a storage environment, implementing the ontology in an ontology environment and implementing the ontology in a reasoning environment were also presented. In order to evaluate the PHOTON prototype system in its different environment it is important to revisit some key research questions of this study; “How can knowledge about photovoltaic systems be made easily accessible to end-users?” In order to efficiently manipulate photovoltaic system knowledge; it is important that the PHOTON ontology is well structured both syntactically and semantically fit for use in a practical or real-world setting....   [tags: Information Technology] 1642 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - ... It comes into life, grows up and modifies itself. It also may adapt to everyday use and most time it falls into disuse. This "natural" process guide the word to its semantic maturity and, sometimes, to its more developed morphological form. Words can also be formed by the necessity of a semantic addition inside a basic lexicon meaning. Yet, words may be formed and also change their meanings through the necessity to assign names to things according to the way they are and how aesthetically they should be linguistically called....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Learning Content Development Using Semantic Web Technology - Abstract: Semantic web is based on the ontologies as its core which can support the learning content development in different ways. This paper survey issues introduced in the learning content development and associated activities using semantic web technology. This overview is based on investigation of the area of content's creation, metadata, annotation, adpativity and discovery through researches related to these issues from different viewpoints. I. Introduction: Semantic web is an important leading technology today that describes the information in a machine understandable way [1]....   [tags: Technology]
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3729 words
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
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1290 words
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Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say - Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say ABSTRACT: I argue that if we distinguish between ontological realism and semantic realism, then we no longer have to choose between platonism and formalism. If we take category theory as the language of mathematics, then a linguistic analysis of the content and structure of what we say in and about mathematical theories allows us to justify the inclusion of mathematical concepts and theories as legitimate objects of philosophical study. Insofar as this analysis relies on a distinction between ontological and semantic realism, it relies also on an implicit distinction between mathematics as a descriptive science and mathematics as a descriptive discourse....   [tags: Mathematics Mathematical Math Essays]
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Semantic Web - ... Some examples of these specifications are the Market Transformation Programme database that contains the different building household appliances in the UK houses arranged in a well-defined taxonomy (Market Transformation Programme 2010; Firth et al. 2008; Wood and Newborough 2007), the Green Guide to Specifications (Anderson et al. 2009), the Uniclass (Smith et al. 1997) and the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED 2010). The Green Guide aims to provide a simple green guide to the environmental impacts of building materials which is easy-to-use and soundly based on numerical data....   [tags: Technology, The Green Guide] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Semantic Web Services and Goals - In this section, we present the service discovery scenarios to evaluate and compare the current web services technology with our proposed framework for semantic web services using existing telecommunication industry data. The evaluated results are based on prototype implementation, using sample data of a leading telecommunication operator in Pakistan, which has its distributed computer centres in nine different cities of Pakistan (name is not cited for privacy conditions). We performed a typical process of interconnect settlement service discovery....   [tags: Information Technology] 905 words
(2.6 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
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A Successful Theory of Mental Representation - A Successful Theory of Mental Representation A successful theory of mental representation must answer two related questions: (1) How does representation work. (2) How is misrepresentation possible. These questions are related because answering (1) is a requisite for answering (2): in order to explain how it is is possible that cognitive systems produce erroneous representations (i.e. representations that do not correspond to their "proper" meanings), we must first explain how is it possible that cognitive systems produce representations at all....   [tags: Papers] 2355 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights - The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights ABSTRACT: Through a comparative analysis of the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped. By this case analysis, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the elucidation of the relation between language and philosophy in this regard. 1. Introduction Through a comparative case analysis regarding the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped....   [tags: China Chinese Language Essays] 5656 words
(16.2 pages)
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The Concept of Information - The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics....   [tags: Exploratory Research] 763 words
(2.2 pages)
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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Sphere - Michael Crichton uses three common devices with ease in his novel, Sphere. The devices being: rhetoric, semantics, and style. Crichton uses these devices to incorporate a sense of unity in the writing. It is not difficult to incorporate this unity into a novel when the devices are properly used. When doing so, they flow together to create a more visual experience for the reader. These devices of writing are what create the environment for an understandable, yet interesting storyline. Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively and persuasively....   [tags: Sphere] 430 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Last Samurai - The Last Samurai-Scene 11 - 17 The scene started off with a man by the name of Capt. Nathan Algren (Tom Cruise) laying on a floor wearing dirty garments and yelling out the name of a man that he had just killed before his capture. The Captain was captured during a fight between the Americans and the Japanese, but instead of killing the American, the Samurai leader Katsumoto (Ken Wantanobe) wanted him alive so that he could learn from his enemy’s ways. The Captain was staying in Katsumoto’s ex brother-in-law’s house with the now widowed young lady and her children....   [tags: essays research papers] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Phonology - ... Dewhurst, S. and Robinson, C. (2004) discuss some of the negative effects among children whose education focuses more on semantics than phonetics. The study was conducted on 5,8, and 11-year old children and "children from each age group falsely recalled nonpresented items related to the study lists" (782). Although the study varied depending on the age group, it was clear that the focus of semantics has caused children to have "memory illusions" as they read (782). Many scholars argue that phonetics is the most effective way to teach reading skills because it makes the individual a better reader in the long run....   [tags: Education]
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1187 words
(3.4 pages)
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Natural Language Processing - Natural Language Processing There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think. Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth, computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent but be intelligent....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly - A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly In chapter 11 (The Loving Resistance Fighter) of the book Technopoly, published in 1992, Neil Postman focuses on a solution to the problems created by Technopoly. A "Technopoly" (a word postman capitalizes throughout the book) is a society that no longer merely uses technology as a support system but instead is shaped by it. Postman proposes that we become "loving resistance fighter(s)" who retain "the narratives and symbols that once made the United States the hope of the world"(p.182)....   [tags: Papers] 1604 words
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What Are Universals and Do Universals Really Exist? - In this essay I will be discussing the thought-provoking theory of universals and be asking whether this idea of an invisible yet prominent realm of reality can claim to have a place in existence. I shall firstly examine Plato's dialogue of Parmendides and see if a partition can be drawn between the forms and universals. I shall then move on to the opposing argument which invariably denies such dimensions in reality before reaching my conclusion. The discussion between Socrates and Parmenides sets out to outline the differences of like and unlike things as a way of highlighting the stark conrast between the natuaral world in which factual truths are known and the transcendental world in which universal forms reside....   [tags: Psychology] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Deductive Databases - \subsection{Deductive Databases} In the field of deductive databases there has been extensive research on the optimization of queries for Datalog (and its variants). The major interest has been the optimization of recursive queries. Ceri et al~\cite{ceri-gottlob-tanca-1989} provide an excellent summary of the field. The evaluation or comparison of optimization strategies is typified by Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan~\cite{br1986,br1988} who develop analytical cost models for the optimization strategies when applied to four queries (related to the parent and ancestor relations) and then generate numerical data from the analytical models using synthetic data driven by three shapes -- tree, inverted tree, and cylinder -- for the ``family tree'....   [tags: Information Technology] 1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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F/CFAT : An Approach for Combined Safety and Security Analysis - ... This was possible due to the fact that the system design documents were supposed to be correct and consistent [4]. However, when FTA is applied for the safety analysis of software system a new challenge is faced. This is because for those systems it is more desirable to carry out safety analysis with fault tress before the system design stage [2]. Such an analysis provides very useful information and concrete safety requirements for subsequent system design and implementation [4]. However such an approach raises the question about the correctness of the generated informal fault trees, which are constructed by intuition using incomplete information at that stage....   [tags: Information Technology]
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Book Review of Jody Azzouni's Tracking Reason - Jody Azzouni, Tracking Reason In many ways, Tracking Reason resembles Jody Azzouni’s previous book, Deflating Existential Consequence. The subject matter of each lies at the interface of metaphysics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of language. The style is both entertaining and clear. The positions argued for are so controversial as to sound almost insane. And yet the arguments provided are illuminating, and manage to make the positions seem almost like common sense. Both books are worth reading both for specialists and those interested in a clarifying (if idiosyncratic) take on these issues....   [tags: Azzouni] 1629 words
(4.7 pages)
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Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar - Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance....   [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education] 6463 words
(18.5 pages)
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Business - Improving personal communications is very important to today in the fast moving world. The communication process is very important, it is estmated that 80 percent of messages get deport” For better results replace “You statements” with “I statements.” Say I’m concerned...That will bring the person off of the defensive approch. Also discuss things as they happen with out waitng. When you wait things can be losted or forgotten. If you work them out early it will be much easier for you and the other person....   [tags: essays research papers] 2079 words
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Schema Integration - In literature there exist several definitions of Schema: “Schema integration is the process of merging autonomously developed DB schema into a unified, global schema to provide transparency through a unified view” [73]. “Schema integration is the process of identifying the components of a database which are related to one another, selecting the best representation for the global conceptual schema, and finally, integrating the components of each intermediate schema” [74]. 12.2. Why is Schema Integration Required....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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Inquiry Project: Improving Performance Through Guided Reading - ... Fluency is modeled by the teacher reading the guided reading text aloud to generate discussions regarding comprehension and vocabulary guided by both teacher and students. When reading text ELLs with a higher L2 proficiency will vocalize softly. Observation and coaching by the teacher of correct strategies and word recognition prompts will be done to help problem solve. The word work focus will be on morphological and phonemic awareness or phonics connected to the text. Vocabulary journals and writing assignments that connecting the guided reading assignments will be used by the teacher....   [tags: Education]
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A Taxonomy of Moral Realism - A Taxonomy of Moral Realism ABSTRACT: The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of the theory while at the same time showing the interrelations between them....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 1621 words
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A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein   Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so....   [tags: Phylosophy]
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Language Acquisition - Language Acquisition missing works cited How do children acquire language. What are the processes of language acquisition. How do infants respond to speech. Language acquisition is the process of learning a native or a second language. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observations that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, (which helps them learn to pronounce words correctly), and grammar is seldom taught to them, but instead that they rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically....   [tags: essays research papers] 3235 words
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Structure of Management Information - Computer Network & Management Assignment Title: Structure of Management Information (SMI) Structure of Management Information (SMI): In the context of network management, for the Structure of Management Information (SMI): a) Name its three hierarchical layers. The Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard is responsible for defining the rules for how the Management Information Base (MIB) objects are structured, described and organized. SMI is a data definition language allows dissimilar devices to communicate by ensuring that they use a universal data representation for all management information....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Evaluation of a Website - Evaluation of a Website What has a hippo in common with a feather?” “What is the longest place name in the world?” “Can green ideas sleep furiously?” “Rim ember us poke in cent tense all mow stall ways con deigns word snot in then did.” These are just a few of the topics you will find under A Web of Linguistic Fun. Phantom Linguist, Bucknell University Professor Robert Beard, provides a unique collection of “fundamental subdisciplines of linguistics”(1). The website introduces linguistic terminology such as grammar, morphology, phonology, semantics, and syntax....   [tags: Evaluation Essays]
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help me - Visual Communication could be described as processes that rely primarily on rich visual content as the means of conveying information through words, photos, colors, shapes, and many other components. However, visual communication explores the use of graphical components in achieving communication goals. Visual communication has both critical and practical parts. According to the current book we use in the class “Visual Communication, Images with Messages”, the critical part of visual communication is known as visual rhetoric, which explores the way that designers use visual elements to influence audiences....   [tags: essays research papers] 565 words
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Language - Language is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints. There are various aspects which are true to every language....   [tags: essays research papers]
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‘Intelligence without analysis is only information’. Critically assess this claim. - Introduction Analysis is important. The statement assessed impresses that fact upon the reader. Without it, the speaker implies, Intelligence is inefficient. It is merely ‘information’. For the intelligence community, it seems that information alone is not enough to be presented as a finished product to a policy maker. Information alone is also not enough to represent the ‘reality’ of the world. Especially, in terms of finding possible threats to national security. The statement implies that each key word, when looked at individually, mean different things....   [tags: Intelligence]
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Language of Power in Advertising - Introduction I will be looking into the language of power in advertising. The reason I have opted to investigate this topic is because advertising is one of the most powerful and persuasive formulas used in sales industries and many organisations to promote products constantly grabbing our attention. I will be looking at how the language and graphology they use to persuade and encourage readers. It’s remarkable how the majority of the target audience (depending what advertisement it is ) do not realise how they are persuaded or how their attention is grabbed by just using linguistic devices such as puns, rhymes, pictures and so forth....   [tags: Advertising]
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Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication - ... Managers must ensure they are effectively deploying the message with the right information, through the right channels. But managers are not done then. Problems in communication can also develop when receivers receive the message. Misunderstandings can occur due to communication barriers. There are many barriers to interpersonal communication. CliffsNotes.com, Interpersonal Communication, discusses a few barriers that can lead to ineffective communication. One barrier is expectations of familiarity, when the employee “hears” the message they expected to hear versus the one really communicated....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Theory of Sign - ... Morris’s account that “something is a sign only because it is interpreted as a sign” (Morris, 20) suggests that a sign is already laden with particular reference, and continuity of particular reference depends upon the relational properties of sign. In the system of semiosis, sign works within this formula: "S is a sign of D for I to the degree that I takes account of D in virtue the presence of S" (Morris, 1975:19). S and D relationship is associative: sign is always associated with designatum: either with a kind of object (designatum) or a real object (denotatum) ....   [tags: Communication, Signs] 1287 words
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Communication Barriers - ... That generally imply that they speak foreign language; have you considered your technical lingo. Ever tried to carry on a conversation with a computer geek, old soldier, or a mechanic. That too is a second language that can be a barrier to effective communication. “The engineers of a large container corporation and Metra, Chicagoland’s commuter railroad participated in a technical writing program. These communication programs resolved the growing problem of helping these technical professionals improve their communications with other non-engineering staff” (Gordon, 2000, p....   [tags: Manager Leader Communication]
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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Biomechanical and Cognitive FOR - During a literature search to find an operational definition for the concept “frames of reference (FOR)” within occupational therapy (OT), the AOTA’s 2nd edition of the book “Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process” delivered no specific definition despite it’s stated purpose to “present a summary of interrelated constructs that define and guide occupational therapy practice” (AOTA, 2008). Further readings of older and current OT literature, offered conflicting views or definitions for FOR and it is often difficult to distinguish between the meanings of FOR and models, finding oneself in a “semantic minefield” (Hagedorn, 1994): “In summary, model building is composed of five phases which forms a sequence of interlocking systems… the frame of reference, assumptions and concepts are crucial to exploring, organizing and developing the model… [A frame of reference is] a mechanism which can be used to explain the relationship of theory to action… [it] is not the total model, but does form part of the model building process” (Reed, 1984)....   [tags: Occupational Science] 792 words
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'I' and the First Person Perspective - 'I' and the First Person Perspective ABSTRACT: Do the special features of 'I' have epistemological and metaphysical implications. Many philosophers have thought so. Here I investigate the relation between the first person singular pronoun 'I' and the first person perspective, construed as the perspective of consciousness. First, I discuss the semantics of 'I' as a lexeme of a natural language. The fact that semantic reference and speaker reference always coincide in the case of 'I' is shown to have important consequences: it explains the 'referential guarantees' and the impossibility of 'misidentification' which have seemed so mysterious....   [tags: Self I First Person Papers Philosophy]
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Relational Database Model - Comparing and Contrasting the Relational Database Model and OO Model The relational database model is based upon tables or relations. In this model, the physical implementation of the database is abstracted away from the user. Users query the database using a high-level query language, such as SQL. The relations are made up of columns, which have headings indicating the attribute represented by that column. Tables have key fields, which can be used to identify unique records. Keys relate tables to each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 931 words
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Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop - Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop A novel should be something that is easy to define. One would expect the novel to have a plot, a central theme, a central character and a consistent style. The truth is that all of these things are important but not specifically necessary. Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop cannot be easily classified as a novel in normal terms. It lacks a central plot that carries the work from beginning to some sort of an ending. It does, however, contain central characters, themes, and a clearly consistent style, but the story that is told consists of small vignettes....   [tags: Willa Cather Death Comes for the Archbishop]
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Output Query Format - The part of the standard specifying the structure of the result set as well as carrying messages like errors or announcements is called the Output Query Format. The outermost XML element Output can envelope the GlobalComment, SystemMessage and ResultItem child elements. To describe the result of the query one can use GlobalComment. To propagate information regarding the responder system, the SystemMessage element is utilized. This includes errors and exception - for example if a proper result set cannot be composed - as well as status messages....   [tags: Information Technolgy] 980 words
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The Ebonics Controversy - The Ebonics Controversey What is the controversy over Ebonics about. The Internet offers diverse views on the Ebonics topic. Ebonics entered the lime light in December of 1996. The television and news media have made the issue unclear and have left many people wondering what the recent controversey over Ebonics entails. Long after the "six o'clock news" has comfused and abandoned the public on the issue of Ebonics, the Internet is alive with commentary. Sampled together, the pages present a social mood, conscience, or lack thereof....   [tags: Education Language Speaking Essays]
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - ... From the Construction Grammarians’ point of view, Ohori (1995:216) argued that “suspended clauses have their own discourse functions that are not manifest in non-suspended version […]. Notice that the pragmatic effects of suspended clauses […] are only partially reducible to the properties of clause-linking devices themselves.” In the diagram below is shown a relationship among the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic features of the SCC. 2 Problems Ohori’s formulation nicely describes the distinct features of SCCs compared to the “non-suspended” subordinate clauses, i.e., suspended clauses which occur with their main clauses....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
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Study of Communication - ... It was a part of human identity and heritage, past and what we stood for; as a first language, it was all that the phrase “mother tongue” connoted in terms of a powerful personal and ethnic identity (Burgoon, 1994: 30). Consequently, a large and continuing number of studies deal with language as a symbolic marker of ethnicity. Using a language is a social condition of being a human, not only in the Whorfian sense of affecting how the world is perceived but also in the social sense of valid communicative membership in a community of other users....   [tags: Human Communication, Ethnography of Speaking] 2740 words
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The Big Question: What Happens When We Die? - The big question. No not that, the other one. The "what happens to us after life" question. It is something that has intrigued people everywhere. It has prompted the beliefs and semantics of different cultures all around the world. It started wars, divided people, and now dictates how we are all to act. "We should do this, we should do that. If we don't, we will be punished." I, for one, am tired of it. By all means, think what you will. But this is my writing, and you will have to open your mind to my thinking if you wish to continue....   [tags: Genocide, Theology] 645 words
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The Modernity of Aristotle’s Logical Investigations - The Modernity of Aristotle’s Logical Investigations ABSTRACT: Not until the early 1920’s was it possible to distinguish Aristotelian or traditional logic from Aristotle’s own ancient logic. We can now recognize many aspects of his logical investigations that are themselves modern, in the sense that modern logicians are making discoveries that Aristotle had already made or had anticipated. Here we gather five salient features of Aristotle’s logical investigations that reveal a striking philosophical modernity: 1) Aristotle took logic to be that part of epistemology used to establish knowledge of logical consequence; 2) Prior Analytics is a metalogical treatise on the syllogistic deduction system; 3) Aristotle recognized the epistemic efficacy of certain elemental argument patterns, and he explicitly formulated them as rules of natural deduction in corresponding sentences; 4) Prior Analytics is a proof-theoretic treatise in which Aristotle describes a natural deduction system and demonstrates certain of the logical relationships among syllogistic deduction rules (Aristotle modeled his syllogistic logic in a rudimentary way for this purpose and metasystematically established the independence of a set of deduction rules); and finally, 5) Aristotle worked with a notion of substitution sufficient for distinguishing logical syntax and semantics....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically? - Can Deaf Children Be Taught to Think Philosophically. ABSTRACT: Researchers have found that development of what is called the "mature theory of mind" normally occurs between the ages of 3 and 5. Astington, de Villiers, Peterson, and Siegel point to age 4 as the critical age for syntactic development involving embedding sentences associated with the use of mental verbs, such as "think", "know", and "feel". These verbs are necessary for the representation of mental states such as knowledge, belief, and pretense....   [tags: Neurological Philosophy Development Essays]
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On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus - On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus* ABSTRACT: Raymond Bradley has put forward an essentialist interpretation of the ontology of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-philosophicus and aims to develop the model dimension that is implicit therein. Among other theses, Bradley maintains that tractarian names can be interpreted as Kripkean rigid designators; this idea enables him to approach the Tractus from the perspective of possible worlds semantics. I reassess Bradley's thesis by examining the tractarian notion of name and the Kripkean concept of rigid designator in Naming and Necessity, and consider whether an interpretation of tractarian names as rigid designators is possible....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Chomsky and Knowledge of Language - The linguistic theory of Chomsky has changed the long, traditional way of studying language. The nature of knowledge, which is closely tied to human knowledge in general, makes it a logical step for Chomsky to generalize his theory to the study of the relation between language and the world-in particular, the study of truth and reference. But his theory has been controversial and his proposal of "innate ideas" has been resisted by some empiricists who characterize him as rationalist. In our view, these empiricists make a mistake....   [tags: Philosophy of Language]
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Stacks - Stacks Data Structures and Algorithms 3.3 Stacks Another way of storing data is in a stack. A stack is generally implemented with only two principle operations (apart from a constructor and destructor methods): push adds an item to a stack pop extracts the most recently pushed item from the stack Other methods such as top returns the item at the top without removing it [9] isempty determines whether the stack has anything in it are sometimes added. A common model of a stack is a plate or coin stacker....   [tags: Essays Papers] 637 words
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Borges and Bertolucci - Borges and Bertolucci There are a number of differences between Bernardo Bertolucci's movie "The Spider Stratagem" and the story on which it is based, Jorge Louis Borges' "The Theme of The Traitor and The Hero;" however, overall Bertolucci does a pretty accurate portrayal of the essence, at least, of Borges' story. Besides changing the "setting" of the plot, there is also much more information relayed in the movie. This is very much due to that the story is simply a suggestive piece, while the movie had to fill in all of the blanks....   [tags: essays papers] 787 words
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Improving Personal and Organizational Communication - Improving Personal and Organizational Communication Be it organizational or personal, here are the major two different kinds of communication; Impersonal: one-way communication mainly used for facts, policies, instructions, notes, etc. Interpersonal: Two-way communication i.e. discussions, arguments, open forum, etc. Before we can improve communication, we must first discuss communication filters. Communication filters are, but not limited to, semantics, emotions, attitudes, role expectations, gender bias, and non-verbal messages....   [tags: Papers Communication Business Essays] 829 words
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Writing To Entertain - Writing To Entertain The piece entitled ‘Let’s Talk About Sex…’ is a piece written to simply entertain its audience. The text is in no way formal or serious, as it is written for a men’s magazine and deals with modern issues in a modern way. The readers of this text are intended to be predominantly male between the ages of 16 and 35. The ideal reader of this text would be a stereotypical man who is looking for a light read during his lunch break at the office. The text itself is very euphoric, and arouses many emotions in the reader as he/she progresses through the article....   [tags: Papers] 777 words
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The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour - The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour Introduction Features of real speech such as hesitation, fillers, pauses and false starts are not common features in scripted material. The main reason for this is that, in real life, these features serve the purpose of giving the speaker time to think about what they are saying before they continue talking. In scripted material this is rarely necessary because characters are only expected to say things that are relevant to the story in some way....   [tags: Papers] 796 words
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Data Warehousing - Introduction Data Warehouses (DW) integrate data from multiple heterogeneous information sources and transform them into a multidimensional representation for decision support applications. Apart from a complex architecture, involving data sources, the data staging area, operational data stores, the global data warehouse, the client data marts, etc., a data warehouse is also characterized by a complex lifecycle. In a permanent design phase, the designer has to produce and maintain a conceptual model and a usually voluminous logical schema, accompanied by a detailed physical design for efficiency reasons....   [tags: Technology Data] 1282 words
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A system for solution-orientated reporting of errors associated with the extraction of routinely collected clinical data for research and quality impr - Abstract Background: We have used routinely collected clinical data in epidemiological and quality improvement research for over 10 years. We extract, pseudonymise and link data from heterogeneous distributed databases; inevitably encountering errors and problems. Objective: To develop a solution-orientated system of error reporting which enables appropriate corrective action. Method: Review of the 94 errors, which occurred in 2008/9. Previously we had described failures in terms of the data missing from our response files; however this provided little information about causation....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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language - What is the Language of Thought Hypothesis. LOTH is an empirical thesis about the nature of thought and thinking. According to LOTH, thought and thinking are done in a mental language, i.e. in a symbolic system physically realized in the brain of the relevant organisms. In formulating LOTH, philosophers have in mind primarily the variety of thoughts known as ‘propositional attitudes’. Propositional attitudes are the thoughts described by such sentence forms as ‘S believes that P’, ‘S hopes that P’, ‘S desires that P’, etc., where ‘S’ refers to the subject of the attitude, ‘P’ is any sentence, and ‘that P’ refers to the proposition that is the object of the attitude....   [tags: essays research papers] 8769 words
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Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis - Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis Barbiero, in his note on framing the innateness hypothesis, mentions that "to frame the innateness question is to attempt to distinguish among the different constraints and mechanisms that can be attributed to the human biological endowment for language". In this note, I follow up on Barbiero's proposal by discussing empiricist views, mainly Quinean views, on the innate learning mechanisms that enable children to acquire not only the semantics but also the syntax of their language....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition - A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's tradition. The Comparison of these is made on the grounds of the analysis of existence. Choosing "existence" as the object of the analysis is very essential. It is so because understanding of the category of existence is strongly connected with the whole system. Thus, while analyzing the category, one can make a reconstruction of the concept scheme (in both traditions); show their functioning; and compare them to each other....   [tags: Lvov-Warsaw School Frege Russell Tradition] 3709 words
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The Passive Voice - The Passive Voice The English language has two voices--the active and the passive. The active voice and the passive voice differ in that a passive verb phrase has an additional auxiliary BE followed by an EN participle. In a sense, the English passive is "inflexible" when compared to the passive formation of other languages. For example, some languages use word order, verb inflections, and impersonal constructions to form the passive voice. In their book, The Grammar Book: ESL/EFL Teacher's Course, Celce-Murcia and Larson-Freeman demonstrate how the Bantu passive voice differs from the English passive voice....   [tags: Research Paper Language Papers]
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The Fallacy of Nonsense - The Fallacy of Nonsense Lewis Carroll was a professor of logic, writing among his well known works of fiction, treatises on the subject of logic and even a textbook, Symbolic Logic. “It is the function of logic to classify and formulate fallacious forms of argument as well as valid ones.” (Burks 367) So is it some of the functions of Carroll’s tales of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Presenting different puzzles, riddles, or what appears to be on the surface nonsense, Carroll in these books present many questions of logic and indirectly their solutions, challenging the ability of the reader to believe what has been presented....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Uniform Knowledge Attributions - There is a philosophical tradition going back at least to Gilbert Ryle’s 1948 The Concept of Mind of distinguishing “knowledge how”from “knowledge that”, in which the latter is taken to be a kind of propositional attitude, while the former is taken to be a kind of ability or capacity. Paradigm examples are, respectively: Sally knows how to ride a bike. (1) Sally knows that she owns a bike. (2) More recently, this distinction has come under renewed scrutiny, notably with [Stanley and Williamson, 2001] arguing that there really is no such distinction, and that “knowledge how”is really a species of propositional knowledge, though the proposition is known under a different “mode of presentation” than the types of knowledge typically expressed by “knowledge that”attributions....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Language as Connectivity in a Group - Language is a crucial part of how people in a group show their solidarity to each other. Discuss Through the use of language, each member of a group is able to construct and reflect their identity. Through the language features present in slang and jargon, users are able to communicate their social identity and group belonging. They are also able to portray their cultural heritage and background through ethnolect varieties of English. Language plays a crucial part in enabling the speaker to communicate belonging to a specific social group, reinforcing solidarity....   [tags: Language] 1101 words
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The Environment and Socioeconomic Issues: A Common Thread - The physically of the environmental problems facing Nepal, Korea, and the Russian Fareast are overwhelmingly evident and unfortunately, impossible to ignore. They are factual burdens on these countries’ socioeconomic welfare. Nevertheless, a candid comparison to the Australian and the American experience insinuates a prevailing conflict in values towards the “political importance” of environment problems in lure of necessary social development. According to Elson Strahan’s (2000) article Comparative Environmental Policy: Australia and the U.S., he questions what set of values that will ultimately drive policymakers in these two countries, and thus “…environmental policies must be considered in the context of values and ethics-for this is the heart of political and social agendas” ( p.26)....   [tags: Environmental/Social] 1684 words
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The Great Health Care Debate - The health care debate currently roiling through our legislature and news media hits close to home for every American. We are all human and thus share basic health needs. I decided to interview my father to learn more about this debate as he has a rather unique perspective on the matter. My father is sixty two years old; an American citizen for the past twenty years and a legal resident for over thirty. He hails from Colombia and still has many family members there and visits two or more times per year....   [tags: Health Care] 1761 words
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