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Your search returned over 400 essays for "semantics"
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Semantics - Language is the primary source of communication for humans and is used to convey thoughts, feelings, intentions, and desires to others (Bonvillain 2008:1). Many rules are taken into account when forming a language. According to Bolton, language is arbitrary and is unrepresentative of the objects they represent (Bolton 1996: 63). The study of Semantics allows us to identify the meaning of words and phrases in their literal sense, and helps us to make meaning out of arbitrary sounds and phrases. It has been contributed to by both linguists and philosophers....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - There is no human language without socio-cultural context; meanwhile language resides inside each individual’s mind and as a result, linguistic interaction did not occur without the use of the language. Individuals do not create languages; they just use that one given to them by society. For Saeed (2009), language is the mirror of culture and it is determined by the categories available in speakers’ own language. Studies about relationship between language and culture and between language and thought have a long history and have placed a much conferred proposal to modern linguistic: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Web Techniques - The emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) has brought exciting new possibilities in information access and electronic business. The WWW has grown to be the largest distributed repository of information ever created. Current estimates reveal that the Web currently contains about 3 billion static documents and being accessed by over 500 million users from around the world [6]. Web content consists largely of distributed hypertext and hypermedia, accessible via keyword-based search and link navigation....   [tags: Semantic Web]
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567 words
(1.6 pages)
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More than just Semantics - John D. Crossan parallels story to life. This essay will examine several aspects of story. First, I will examine the relationship between story and humans’ lives and how it is limited by language. Second, I will examine the differences between myths and parables and their polar opposition within the field of a story. Third, I will examine the Prodigal Son to illuminate the necessary elements of a parable. Stories serve to define humans’ reality and the use of specific types of stories evokes different reactions from their audience....   [tags: essays research papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
(15.3 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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Structure of Semantic Memory - Structure of Semantic Memory Semantic memory is our knowledge about the world and language and how it can be seen as our internal dictionary and encyclopedia together as one entity. Throughout its origins, semantic memory has been compared to episodic memory. In contrast, episodic memory refers to knowledge that is temporary or spatial, which is identified in the terms of personal experiences. Within these two systems there are many different models. I am going to discuss Eleanor Rosch's prototype approach feature comparison model, Anderson’s ACT-R model, the Collins and Loftus’s network model, and the exemplar model....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1207 words
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Semantic Web: An Enhancement of the Current Web - ... Moreover, ontology provides a shared understanding of a domain of interest, and hence, it increases quality of knowledge, but also needs an agreement of a community on a domain. In the huge amount of Web data, one resource, for example, can be mentioned in different documents by different terminologies, if ontology is defined, shared, and reused among the Web documents, the problem will be solved. 2.3 Ontology Languages Ontology languages are used to construct and store Ontologies, a number of ontology languages were developed but there have been a trend of unifying the languages....   [tags: web of tomorrow, search engine, query]
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1040 words
(3 pages)
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Semantic Web Technologies - The design and implementation of the PHOTON prototype system has been presented in Chapter 7. The implementation in the different software settings such as implementing the ontology in a storage environment, implementing the ontology in an ontology environment and implementing the ontology in a reasoning environment were also presented. In order to evaluate the PHOTON prototype system in its different environment it is important to revisit some key research questions of this study; “How can knowledge about photovoltaic systems be made easily accessible to end-users?” In order to efficiently manipulate photovoltaic system knowledge; it is important that the PHOTON ontology is well structured...   [tags: Information Technology] 1642 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - Introduction Semantic Change leads with change on meaning of words, however this change does not occur overnight or all of a sudden. On the contrary, this is a slow process into language evolution and these differences are only realised as time goes by. There are many reasons to transformation and change over a word meaning. They can be adopted thanks to insertion of vocabulary from another language, by borrowing or even through popular usage of a word inside another context, resulting its differentiation to the whole country where English is spoken....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Learning Content Development Using Semantic Web Technology - Abstract: Semantic web is based on the ontologies as its core which can support the learning content development in different ways. This paper survey issues introduced in the learning content development and associated activities using semantic web technology. This overview is based on investigation of the area of content's creation, metadata, annotation, adpativity and discovery through researches related to these issues from different viewpoints. I. Introduction: Semantic web is an important leading technology today that describes the information in a machine understandable way [1]....   [tags: Technology]
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3729 words
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
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1290 words
(3.7 pages)
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Theories About The Capacity of Learning Human Languages - ... c) A semantic use. Also, language can be considered as a dictionary and a grammar as part of the study of linguistics and the proper use and organization of language . For example, when trying to communicate a message, the sender uses all forms of language including verbal, sign and system language to make the receiver understand the information. Then the receiver gives feedback to the sender so to improve this channel of information distribution. As illustrated by Shannon-Weaver’s model of communication the aforementioned strategy applies particularly in the study of Natural Sciences As a science student, I may be biased, but in my opinion language plays the most important role in the...   [tags: phonological, syntatict, semantic]
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1048 words
(3 pages)
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Semantic Web Services and Goals - In this section, we present the service discovery scenarios to evaluate and compare the current web services technology with our proposed framework for semantic web services using existing telecommunication industry data. The evaluated results are based on prototype implementation, using sample data of a leading telecommunication operator in Pakistan, which has its distributed computer centres in nine different cities of Pakistan (name is not cited for privacy conditions). We performed a typical process of interconnect settlement service discovery....   [tags: Information Technology] 905 words
(2.6 pages)
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Semantic Web - To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reachin...   [tags: Technology, The Green Guide] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
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The Levels of Processing in a Judgement and Recall Task - One hundred and forty two undergraduate students participated in a levels-of-processing experiment on the basis of Craik & Tulving’s (1975) famous model. Participants were presented with shallow, intermediate or semantic words within 60 judgment trials, followed by a recognition test of 120 trials containing half of the original words. The findings suggest that participants recognized the semantic words better compared to the shallow and intermediate words; this proposes that by the use of attention, semantic processing leads to a stronger memory trace....   [tags: Semantic Words, Autism]
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1542 words
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Database: How to Obtain Fast Query Response Time by Reshaping The Big Data - ... Google refine works with clustered data, it perform cleaning, transforming (one state to another), extending it with web service and linking it to other database [10] Data Wrangler is also related to it this is more analytical tool rather than formatting tool [11] Both tools performs the following functions • Exploring the data • Cleaning and transforming data • Reconcile and match data But both of them having disadvantage of multiple database integration • available for only structure and non structure data • for hierarchical data like xml ,JSON ,RDF does not work[4] • more time consume process • need of central repository • lack of integration of data • data wrangler is semi automat...   [tags: query analysis, semantic web]
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A Successful Theory of Mental Representation - A Successful Theory of Mental Representation A successful theory of mental representation must answer two related questions: (1) How does representation work. (2) How is misrepresentation possible. These questions are related because answering (1) is a requisite for answering (2): in order to explain how it is is possible that cognitive systems produce erroneous representations (i.e. representations that do not correspond to their "proper" meanings), we must first explain how is it possible that cognitive systems produce representations at all....   [tags: Papers] 2355 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights - The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights ABSTRACT: Through a comparative analysis of the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped. By this case analysis, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the elucidation of the relation between language and philosophy in this regard. 1. Introduction Through a comparative case analysis regarding the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and som...   [tags: China Chinese Language Essays] 5656 words
(16.2 pages)
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The Concept of Information - The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics....   [tags: Exploratory Research] 763 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Development of Language Acquisition - The development of language acquisition in children begins in their first few years of life. “Human beings are born to speak (Genishi, 1998), with babies, children and even adults, frequently imitating, observing and listening to the various dialects that they are exposed too. The interaction and communication within the environment also plays an essential role in the development of language acquisition. The repetitive use of stories, books and the continual guidance of the adults in their lives heightens children’s literacy and language development, which inevitable helps them succeed during their schools lives and beyond (Zero to Three, 2003)....   [tags: Communication, Teaching Strategies]
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2422 words
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The Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Phonology - For years, phonology has been incorporated into language education. Young children are introduced to phonics as educators take them through visual flash cards, teaching them the sounds of the alphabet. Children learn to connect sounds into words, using what they learned from the alphabet to apply a system of sounds into a word. Controversy regarding this reading education method has additionally been popular. Although researchers have found negative effects in learning to read phonologically, teachers can still strategically incorporate it into the classroom as long as they are aware of its potential negative effects....   [tags: Education]
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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F/CFAT : An Approach for Combined Safety and Security Analysis - I. INTRODUCTION System safety is a complex concept, which is represented by multiple attributes and which requires diverse sources of evidence to demonstrate its achievement. Safety-critical systems, which provide safety-critical services to their users, must be designed to be safe. This means that despite their complexities and despite variable environmental conditions, their operation should be demonstrably safety. A fundamental difficulty in measuring system safety arises due to the complexity of the notion – it is made up of multiple, potentially conflicting attributes, and difficult trade-offs may need to be made between these attributes....   [tags: Information Technology]
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What Are Universals and Do Universals Really Exist? - In this essay I will be discussing the thought-provoking theory of universals and be asking whether this idea of an invisible yet prominent realm of reality can claim to have a place in existence. I shall firstly examine Plato's dialogue of Parmendides and see if a partition can be drawn between the forms and universals. I shall then move on to the opposing argument which invariably denies such dimensions in reality before reaching my conclusion. The discussion between Socrates and Parmenides sets out to outline the differences of like and unlike things as a way of highlighting the stark conrast between the natuaral world in which factual truths are known and the transcendental world in whic...   [tags: Psychology] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Intelligence Without Analysis is Only Information - ‘Intelligence without analysis is only information’. Critically assess this claim. Introduction Part 1 – Understanding Semantics Part 2 - Part of the system Part 4 - Analysis as part of the Organisation, a member the community Conclusion Introduction Analysis is important. The statement assessed impresses that fact upon the reader. Without it, the speaker implies, Intelligence is inefficient. It is merely ‘information’. For the intelligence community, it seems that information alone is not enough to be presented as a finished product to a policy maker....   [tags: Intelligence Analysis]
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A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly - A Critique of Chapter 11 in Neil Postman's Technopoly In chapter 11 (The Loving Resistance Fighter) of the book Technopoly, published in 1992, Neil Postman focuses on a solution to the problems created by Technopoly. A "Technopoly" (a word postman capitalizes throughout the book) is a society that no longer merely uses technology as a support system but instead is shaped by it. Postman proposes that we become "loving resistance fighter(s)" who retain "the narratives and symbols that once made the United States the hope of the world"(p.182)....   [tags: Papers] 1604 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Last Samurai - The Last Samurai-Scene 11 - 17 The scene started off with a man by the name of Capt. Nathan Algren (Tom Cruise) laying on a floor wearing dirty garments and yelling out the name of a man that he had just killed before his capture. The Captain was captured during a fight between the Americans and the Japanese, but instead of killing the American, the Samurai leader Katsumoto (Ken Wantanobe) wanted him alive so that he could learn from his enemy’s ways. The Captain was staying in Katsumoto’s ex brother-in-law’s house with the now widowed young lady and her children....   [tags: essays research papers] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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Inquiry Project: Improving Performance Through Guided Reading - The question that I have chosen for my inquiry project is: How can you improve performance in a first grade classroom with Guided Reading. I am interested in this since I teach first grade. As a first grade teacher I am always looking for ways to improve my class’s performance. Guided reading offers support to the students as they are learning. Rogoff suggested that “adults support children’s learning by structuring the task’s difficulty level, jointly participating in problem solving, focusing the learner’s attention to the task, and motivating the learner.” (Frey & Fisher, 2010, 84)....   [tags: Education]
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1920 words
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Epilepsy in the Eyes of Linguistic Skills - Communication is the most important aspect in our life. Imagine yourself standing on the side of a river and you need to cross that river to reach your destiny, eventually you will realize that your goals relies on building a bridge. That bridge symbolizes communication and the level of importance to us. Almost every one uses different ways of communication; gestures, signs or words. Language was invented due to our necessity for communication. It is an extremely important component that we use; it symbolizes the instrument that allows us to express our needs, ideas and feelings....   [tags: communication, language, brain]
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Book Review of Jody Azzouni's Tracking Reason - Jody Azzouni, Tracking Reason In many ways, Tracking Reason resembles Jody Azzouni’s previous book, Deflating Existential Consequence. The subject matter of each lies at the interface of metaphysics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of language. The style is both entertaining and clear. The positions argued for are so controversial as to sound almost insane. And yet the arguments provided are illuminating, and manage to make the positions seem almost like common sense. Both books are worth reading both for specialists and those interested in a clarifying (if idiosyncratic) take on these issues....   [tags: Azzouni] 1629 words
(4.7 pages)
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Natural Language Processing - Natural Language Processing There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think. Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth, computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent but be intelligent....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
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Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar - Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance....   [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education] 6463 words
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Analysis of Database Management and Information Retrieval Systems - ... The components of DBMS perform these requested operations on the database and provide necessary data to the users. Diagram below shown the components of DBMS. • Hardware: Hardware refers to all of the system’s physical devices. For example, computer storage devices, printers and network devices. • Software: to make the database system work properly, three types of software are needed which is operating system, DMS software and application programs. o Operating system: it manages all hardware components and allows other software to run on the computers....   [tags: raw data, unstructured data]
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Language of Power in Advertising - Introduction I will be looking into the language of power in advertising. The reason I have opted to investigate this topic is because advertising is one of the most powerful and persuasive formulas used in sales industries and many organisations to promote products constantly grabbing our attention. I will be looking at how the language and graphology they use to persuade and encourage readers. It’s remarkable how the majority of the target audience (depending what advertisement it is ) do not realise how they are persuaded or how their attention is grabbed by just using linguistic devices such as puns, rhymes, pictures and so forth....   [tags: Advertising]
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Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication - Strategies for Effective Managerial Communication Ensuring effective managerial communication is a daunting challenge. Each manager has to find their own “path” to capably communicate with their employees, employers, suppliers, business associates and clients. How is effective employee communication achieved. Effective employee communication is achieved by understanding yourself, the differences within your workforce and your company operating environment. It is based on successfully utilizing the communication process, avoiding interpersonal communication barriers and advocating audience active listening and feedback....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Age and Second Language Acquisition - With the increasing popularity of dual immersion programs in schools and the widespread notion that language acquisition is something that needs to happen early on life, is there an ideal age to learn a second language (L2). Wilder Penfield and Lamar Roberts first introduced the idea that there is a “critical period” for learning language in 1959. This critical period is a biologically determined period referring to a period of time when learning/acquiring a language is relatively easy and typically meets with a high degree of success....   [tags: Second Language Acquisition]
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Using Semiotics for Branding - In today’s world an individual is bombarded with brands from companies all around the world. These companies start with an idea and most of those ideas develop into a brand. Brands rely on the use of semiotics, “the science of signs” (Ryan and Conover 25), to relate to consumers or interpreters. They also relay on the connotation and denotation of the signs as well as the colors being used. When it comes to the entire package of a marketing plan and branding a company or product, graphic designers need to look at how to create the brand from a visually and culturally pleasing aspect....   [tags: Companies, Brands, Semiotics]
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Biomechanical and Cognitive FOR - During a literature search to find an operational definition for the concept “frames of reference (FOR)” within occupational therapy (OT), the AOTA’s 2nd edition of the book “Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process” delivered no specific definition despite it’s stated purpose to “present a summary of interrelated constructs that define and guide occupational therapy practice” (AOTA, 2008). Further readings of older and current OT literature, offered conflicting views or definitions for FOR and it is often difficult to distinguish between the meanings of FOR and models, finding oneself in a “semantic minefield” (Hagedorn, 1994): “In summary, model building is composed of...   [tags: Occupational Science] 792 words
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A Taxonomy of Moral Realism - A Taxonomy of Moral Realism ABSTRACT: The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of the theory while at the same time showing the interrelations between them....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 1621 words
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A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein   Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so....   [tags: Phylosophy]
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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Structure of Management Information - Computer Network & Management Assignment Title: Structure of Management Information (SMI) Structure of Management Information (SMI): In the context of network management, for the Structure of Management Information (SMI): a) Name its three hierarchical layers. The Structure of Management Information (SMI) standard is responsible for defining the rules for how the Management Information Base (MIB) objects are structured, described and organized. SMI is a data definition language allows dissimilar devices to communicate by ensuring that they use a universal data representation for all management information....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - In spoken Japanese, subordinate clauses often occur without their main clauses. Ohori (1995; 1997) called them suspended clause constructions (SCCs) and formulated that a SCC occurs when “the intended message is either contextually inferable or conventionalized.” However, it is not very clear when and how the conversational participants know whether the intended message is contextually inferable (or conventionalized) or not, since a SCC and a “non-suspended version” of subordinate clause are not totally distinct category....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
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Deductive Databases - \subsection{Deductive Databases} In the field of deductive databases there has been extensive research on the optimization of queries for Datalog (and its variants). The major interest has been the optimization of recursive queries. Ceri et al~\cite{ceri-gottlob-tanca-1989} provide an excellent summary of the field. The evaluation or comparison of optimization strategies is typified by Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan~\cite{br1986,br1988} who develop analytical cost models for the optimization strategies when applied to four queries (related to the parent and ancestor relations) and then generate numerical data from the analytical models using synthetic data driven by three shapes -- tree, invert...   [tags: Information Technology] 1008 words
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Theory of Sign - To understand how sign functions, semiosis, Morris proposes four elements: Sign vehicle (S), Designatum (D), and Interpretant and interpreter (I). "The mediators are sign vehicles; the taking-account-of are interpretants; the agents of the process are interpreters; what is taken account of are designata" (Morris, 19). Those elements of semiosis become the foundation of branches of linguistics and basic elements of language. The branches of linguistics are semantics is the study of sign in its relation to designatum, pragmatics the study of sign in relation to interpreter, and syntactics the study of sign in relation to other signs....   [tags: Communication, Signs] 1287 words
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Theory of Sign - To understand how signs function, semiosis, Morris proposes four elements: Sign vehicle (S), Designatum (D), and Interpretant and interpreter (I). "The mediators are sign vehicles; the taking-account-of are interpretants; the agents of the process are interpreters; what is taken account of are designata" (Morris, 1972: 19). Those elements of semiosis become the foundation of branches of linguistics and basic elements of language. The branches of linguistics are semantics is the study of sign in its relation to designatum, pragmatics the study of sign in relation to interpreter, and syntactics the study of sign in relation to other signs....   [tags: Charles Morris, Semiosis]
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Evaluation of a Website - Evaluation of a Website What has a hippo in common with a feather?” “What is the longest place name in the world?” “Can green ideas sleep furiously?” “Rim ember us poke in cent tense all mow stall ways con deigns word snot in then did.” These are just a few of the topics you will find under A Web of Linguistic Fun. Phantom Linguist, Bucknell University Professor Robert Beard, provides a unique collection of “fundamental subdisciplines of linguistics”(1). The website introduces linguistic terminology such as grammar, morphology, phonology, semantics, and syntax....   [tags: Evaluation Essays]
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Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop - Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop A novel should be something that is easy to define. One would expect the novel to have a plot, a central theme, a central character and a consistent style. The truth is that all of these things are important but not specifically necessary. Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop cannot be easily classified as a novel in normal terms. It lacks a central plot that carries the work from beginning to some sort of an ending. It does, however, contain central characters, themes, and a clearly consistent style, but the story that is told consists of small vignettes....   [tags: Willa Cather Death Comes for the Archbishop]
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The Big Question: What Happens When We Die? - The big question. No not that, the other one. The "what happens to us after life" question. It is something that has intrigued people everywhere. It has prompted the beliefs and semantics of different cultures all around the world. It started wars, divided people, and now dictates how we are all to act. "We should do this, we should do that. If we don't, we will be punished." I, for one, am tired of it. By all means, think what you will. But this is my writing, and you will have to open your mind to my thinking if you wish to continue....   [tags: Genocide, Theology] 645 words
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A system for solution-orientated reporting of errors associated with the extraction of routinely collected clinical data for research and quality impr - Abstract Background: We have used routinely collected clinical data in epidemiological and quality improvement research for over 10 years. We extract, pseudonymise and link data from heterogeneous distributed databases; inevitably encountering errors and problems. Objective: To develop a solution-orientated system of error reporting which enables appropriate corrective action. Method: Review of the 94 errors, which occurred in 2008/9. Previously we had described failures in terms of the data missing from our response files; however this provided little information about causation....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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Output Query Format - The part of the standard specifying the structure of the result set as well as carrying messages like errors or announcements is called the Output Query Format. The outermost XML element Output can envelope the GlobalComment, SystemMessage and ResultItem child elements. To describe the result of the query one can use GlobalComment. To propagate information regarding the responder system, the SystemMessage element is utilized. This includes errors and exception - for example if a proper result set cannot be composed - as well as status messages....   [tags: Information Technolgy] 980 words
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Role of Language During Early Mental Development - Language is an important requirement for a child’s cognitive, social and emotional development. This is why our education system is designed in a manner that ensures that during formative years children are exposed to more direct teaching of pragmatic knowledge, phonetics, semantic and morphemic. However, there has been disagreement among scholars of human growth and development. Some believe that children’s natural development is stinted by the regimented rote memorization of phonics and manipulation of language while others believe a systematic approach like phonics instruction is the most effective way to increase language acquisition during primary years....   [tags: Reading vs. Definition]
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New Forms of Language: The Binary Code - ... It was Bohr who argued that words like position, momentum, spin, space and time refer to classical concepts which have no place within quantum theory. Einstein for his part argued that it should be possible to develop new concepts that are more suited to the quantum domain. However Bohr maintained that, since our language of its very nature is grounded in our day to day commerce with the large scale world, it will not be possible to modify or change it in any significant way. A traditional view of language in Science is that it plays a passive role, that it is simply the vehicle whereby meaning and information are conveyed from one person to another....   [tags: native tongues, words, rheomode]
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Schema Integration - In literature there exist several definitions of Schema: “Schema integration is the process of merging autonomously developed DB schema into a unified, global schema to provide transparency through a unified view” [73]. “Schema integration is the process of identifying the components of a database which are related to one another, selecting the best representation for the global conceptual schema, and finally, integrating the components of each intermediate schema” [74]. 12.2. Why is Schema Integration Required....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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Relational Database Model - Comparing and Contrasting the Relational Database Model and OO Model The relational database model is based upon tables or relations. In this model, the physical implementation of the database is abstracted away from the user. Users query the database using a high-level query language, such as SQL. The relations are made up of columns, which have headings indicating the attribute represented by that column. Tables have key fields, which can be used to identify unique records. Keys relate tables to each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 931 words
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The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour - The Use of Features of Real Speech to Create Humour Introduction Features of real speech such as hesitation, fillers, pauses and false starts are not common features in scripted material. The main reason for this is that, in real life, these features serve the purpose of giving the speaker time to think about what they are saying before they continue talking. In scripted material this is rarely necessary because characters are only expected to say things that are relevant to the story in some way....   [tags: Papers] 796 words
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Study of Communication - Studies on Human Communication The past century has been an enormously productive one in regard to the analysis and description of human communication. Building on the ideas of Ferdinand de Saussure, early structuralists delineated the phonological and morphological building blocks of speech by refining and applying the concepts of the phoneme and the morpheme. In addition to the rigorous description of hundreds of indigenous languages, anthropological linguists using this body of data worked on the problem of language histories and the division of current languages into families of related languages with the concomitant contribution to cultural history....   [tags: Human Communication, Ethnography of Speaking] 2740 words
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Chomsky and Knowledge of Language - The linguistic theory of Chomsky has changed the long, traditional way of studying language. The nature of knowledge, which is closely tied to human knowledge in general, makes it a logical step for Chomsky to generalize his theory to the study of the relation between language and the world-in particular, the study of truth and reference. But his theory has been controversial and his proposal of "innate ideas" has been resisted by some empiricists who characterize him as rationalist. In our view, these empiricists make a mistake....   [tags: Philosophy of Language]
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Improving Personal and Organizational Communication - Improving Personal and Organizational Communication Be it organizational or personal, here are the major two different kinds of communication; Impersonal: one-way communication mainly used for facts, policies, instructions, notes, etc. Interpersonal: Two-way communication i.e. discussions, arguments, open forum, etc. Before we can improve communication, we must first discuss communication filters. Communication filters are, but not limited to, semantics, emotions, attitudes, role expectations, gender bias, and non-verbal messages....   [tags: Papers Communication Business Essays] 829 words
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The Ebonics Controversy - The Ebonics Controversey What is the controversy over Ebonics about. The Internet offers diverse views on the Ebonics topic. Ebonics entered the lime light in December of 1996. The television and news media have made the issue unclear and have left many people wondering what the recent controversey over Ebonics entails. Long after the "six o'clock news" has comfused and abandoned the public on the issue of Ebonics, the Internet is alive with commentary. Sampled together, the pages present a social mood, conscience, or lack thereof....   [tags: Education Language Speaking Essays]
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Communication Barriers - A truly successful leader not only has to master the necessary business skills, the technology that makes a business efficient, but the greatest tool for success is the art of communication, so you can share your ideas and they are understood and carried out using every communication tool available. A common denominator among managers that fail in business and life is as a result of failing to overcome barriers to communication, these are often as a result of a lack of proper communication skills, prejudice, lack of information, a loss of touch, cultural and language differences....   [tags: Manager Leader Communication]
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A Review of The Thesis Entitled The Role of Bahasa Indonesia in The English As A Foreign Language Classrooms (A Descriptive Study at LB LIA Buah Batu - Reviewing the thesis entitled The Role of Bahasa Indonesia in The English As A Foreign Language Classrooms (A Descriptive Study at LB LIA Buah Batu Bandung) presents an insightful opportunity to comprehend the interaction between Bahasa Indonesia (L1) and English (L2) in teaching and learning processes. The review is focused on two chapters, mainly chapter 1 (the introduction) and chapter 3 (research methodology), as the two chapters encapsulate the crucial blueprint of the research. By means of the two chapters’ analysis, the rigor of the study is sought through the agreement of both chapters....   [tags: Indonesian Education, Learning Techniques] 1714 words
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Teaching with Dialects: The Presence of AAVE in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God - Hurston’s novel is full of these conventions, as well as other dominant features of African American culture. Omission or absence of the copula in conversations, consonant clusters reduced at the ends of words, r and l deletion, signifying, playing the dozens, braggadocio (Smitherman), and free indirect discourse, or quasi-direct discourse (Pateman). A favorite passage exploring the entertainment of verbal play, or signifying, occurs in Chapter Seven when Janie finally stands up to Jody, her second husband, after all the times he had put her down in front of others: “Stop mixin’ up mah doings wid mah looks, Jody....   [tags: Literature Analysis] 1040 words
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A Model-Driven Architecture Approach to the Efficient Identigication of Services on Service-orientated Enterprise Architecture - Abstract—Service-Oriented Enterprise Architecture requires the efficient development of loosely-coupled and interoperable sets of services. Existing design approaches do not always take full advantage of the value and importance of the engineering invested in existing legacy systems. This paper proposes an approach to define the key services from such legacy systems effectively. The approach focuses on defining these services based on a Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) approach supported by guidelines over a wide range of possible service types....   [tags: Business Analysis] 1492 words
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Bilingual Education Policy in Australia Concerning Indigenous Language and Associated Varieties - From the time the British first settled the continent to the present, the Aboriginal people of Australia and the English-speaking Australian government have had a rocky relationship. For many years, aboriginal Australians experienced much discrimination and racism. Like Native Americans in the United States, the Aborigines were displaced from their tribal lands and forced into designated settlements. This was all part of an attempt on the part of the government and the European settlers to eradicate Aboriginal culture....   [tags: Aborigines, discrimination, racist policies]
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Colonialism and Post Colonial Ethnic Conflict in East African Countries - From the end of the nineteenth century until the attainment of independence in the early 1960s, the countries of East Africa were under the colonial administration of European empires. After decades of foreign rule which saw unparalleled transformations within society, the post-colonial states that emerged have been blighted by ethnic conflict. It has been argued that the beliefs of British, Belgian and German administrators led them to completely reorganise the societies they governed based on a fictitious ‘tribal’ model, and in the process they invented ethnicity....   [tags: Post Colonial Conflict in East Africa] 1915 words
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The Incomprehensibility of God and the Image of God Male - When the fictional character Loonquawl was told that the answer to “Life, the Universe and Everything” was a very simple “forty-two,” he was, to put it mildly, upset, especially seeing as the computer, Deep Thought, had taken seven and a half million years to compute it. When asked if forty-two was definitely the answer, Deep Thought replies, “I checked it very thoroughly, and that quite definitely is the answer. I think the problem, to be quite honest with you, is that you’ve never actually known what the question is” (Adams 1997, 162)....   [tags: Feminist Critiques]
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The Environment and Socioeconomic Issues: A Common Thread - The physically of the environmental problems facing Nepal, Korea, and the Russian Fareast are overwhelmingly evident and unfortunately, impossible to ignore. They are factual burdens on these countries’ socioeconomic welfare. Nevertheless, a candid comparison to the Australian and the American experience insinuates a prevailing conflict in values towards the “political importance” of environment problems in lure of necessary social development. According to Elson Strahan’s (2000) article Comparative Environmental Policy: Australia and the U.S., he questions what set of values that will ultimately drive policymakers in these two countries, and thus “…environmental policies must be considere...   [tags: Environmental/Social] 1684 words
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A Survey on Transformation of BPMN to BPEL - III. LITERATURE SURVEY Many researchers have studied the transformation between BPMN and BPEL. Most of the research conducted in this field is analytical in nature. Only few insights exist into the practical use of BPMN. Most notably is the work of Ouyang et al. [10, 11] and [12], who propose that BPMN to BPEL transformation be accomplished by multiple phase matching of pattern and graph transformation. An algorithm for generating readable BPEL code from BPMN model is presented in [10] which generates BPEL code from BPMN model by discovering structural patterns in the BPMN models which in turn are mapped into BPEL structured activities....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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The Harlem Renaissance: Creation of a New Nation - The Harlem Renaissance created a new racial identity for African-Americans living in the United States, after the First World War. This new racial identity caused the African-Americans to become a nation within the United States. A nation is defined as a group of people that share common language, ethnicity, history, and culture. A nation of people may or may not have sovereignty. Harlem, a neighbourhood in Manhattan, New York City, emerged as the “race capital”1 for African-Americans living in the Northern states....   [tags: American Culture]
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The Cognitive Revolution and Scientific Study of Psychology - The cognitive revolution in psychology was a period during the 1950’s and 1960’s which involved radical changes to two major concepts in psychology which are consciousness and causality. It was also a period that saw to the abolishment of traditional science values of dichotomy and the worship of atomisation in science, replacing reductive micro deterministic views of personhood with holistic top-down view (Overskeid, 2008) The aim of this essay is to give an account of what constitutes the cognitive revolution, and also assess the contributions that the cognitive revolution has made to the scientific study of psychology....   [tags: Psychology]
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The Value of Finding Peace Within One Self - Developing an after-school program that has, as a component of its program, a feature that allows for the exploration of a child’s physical self is problematic in that stereotypes surrounding body image, physical ability, and cognitive limitations are learned even by the very young. However, apart from any tests of strength and agility, opportunities exist to teach children the importance of physical, mental, and emotional health, and the fundamentals of social and moral reasoning. Additionally, the curriculum could include important lessons in social and cultural understanding and acceptance....   [tags: Jonathan's Vision Quest] 1020 words
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Comparing Theories of Language Acquisition and Language Development - The aim of this essay is to explore language acquisition and compare and contrast different theories of language acquisition and language development. Language in its most basic form is used to communicate our needs and wants. It encompasses a range of modes of delivery including signing, spoken and written words, posture, eye contact, facial expressions and gestures. So how do we learn ‘language’. Are we born with the skills for communication, or is it something that we have to learn or have taught to us....   [tags: Language Acquisition, Language Development]
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