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Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Web Techniques - The emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) has brought exciting new possibilities in information access and electronic business. The WWW has grown to be the largest distributed repository of information ever created. Current estimates reveal that the Web currently contains about 3 billion static documents and being accessed by over 500 million users from around the world [6]. Web content consists largely of distributed hypertext and hypermedia, accessible via keyword-based search and link navigation....   [tags: Semantic Web]
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567 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Semantic Web - ... RDF repositories are instrumental in furthering the vision of SW, so these obstacles must be overcome. To address these obstacles, several works have been published that deal with RDF data issues, and suggest that, based on the type of data, partitioning RDF triples or modifying the number of . The proposed methods of triple data storage are generally grouped into three categories based on the execution of their structural design. The first category includes Native stores which are identified by the practice of creating a database engine from scratch, and offering new methods of storing and accessing RDF data closer to the RDF data model, which eliminates the need to do any mapping to DB...   [tags: recent development, essential tecnology] 1264 words
(3.6 pages)
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Semantic Web Services and Goals - In this section, we present the service discovery scenarios to evaluate and compare the current web services technology with our proposed framework for semantic web services using existing telecommunication industry data. The evaluated results are based on prototype implementation, using sample data of a leading telecommunication operator in Pakistan, which has its distributed computer centres in nine different cities of Pakistan (name is not cited for privacy conditions). We performed a typical process of interconnect settlement service discovery....   [tags: Information Technology] 905 words
(2.6 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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Structure of Semantic Memory - Structure of Semantic Memory Semantic memory is our knowledge about the world and language and how it can be seen as our internal dictionary and encyclopedia together as one entity. Throughout its origins, semantic memory has been compared to episodic memory. In contrast, episodic memory refers to knowledge that is temporary or spatial, which is identified in the terms of personal experiences. Within these two systems there are many different models. I am going to discuss Eleanor Rosch's prototype approach feature comparison model, Anderson’s ACT-R model, the Collins and Loftus’s network model, and the exemplar model....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1207 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Web - To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reachin...   [tags: Technology, The Green Guide] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Semantic Web: An Enhancement of the Current Web - The vast content of the World-Wide Web is used by millions. Many users employs a search engine to begin their Web activity. The query is usually a list of keywords, and the result returned is also a list of Web pages that may or may not be relevant, typically pages that contain the keywords [4]. The web of today lacks metadata which can be read by other computers. Metadata is data about data, such that, it would be possible to distinguish between 1984 (a number), 1984 (a date), 1984 (a film starring John Hurt) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (a novel by George Orwell)....   [tags: web of tomorrow, search engine, query]
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1040 words
(3 pages)
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Semantic Web Technologies - The design and implementation of the PHOTON prototype system has been presented in Chapter 7. The implementation in the different software settings such as implementing the ontology in a storage environment, implementing the ontology in an ontology environment and implementing the ontology in a reasoning environment were also presented. In order to evaluate the PHOTON prototype system in its different environment it is important to revisit some key research questions of this study; “How can knowledge about photovoltaic systems be made easily accessible to end-users?” In order to efficiently manipulate photovoltaic system knowledge; it is important that the PHOTON ontology is well structured...   [tags: Information Technology] 1642 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - Introduction Semantic Change leads with change on meaning of words, however this change does not occur overnight or all of a sudden. On the contrary, this is a slow process into language evolution and these differences are only realised as time goes by. There are many reasons to transformation and change over a word meaning. They can be adopted thanks to insertion of vocabulary from another language, by borrowing or even through popular usage of a word inside another context, resulting its differentiation to the whole country where English is spoken....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Semantic Choices a Writer Makes in the Construction of Meaning - Introduction This paper aims to discuss the semantic choices that a writer makes in the construction of meaning to make sense of the text at morphology level, lexical level, sentence level as well as discourse level. Meanwhile, it would demonstrate how to share information between readers and writer at discourse level in the act of communication which implicated the teaching method in English classes. To fulfill this purpose, this paper is consisted in the following sections: morphology level analysis, lexical level analysis, semantic level analysis, discourse level analysis, implications for teaching and conclusion....   [tags: morphology, lexical and sentence levels]
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1623 words
(4.6 pages)
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Learning Content Development Using Semantic Web Technology - Abstract: Semantic web is based on the ontologies as its core which can support the learning content development in different ways. This paper survey issues introduced in the learning content development and associated activities using semantic web technology. This overview is based on investigation of the area of content's creation, metadata, annotation, adpativity and discovery through researches related to these issues from different viewpoints. I. Introduction: Semantic web is an important leading technology today that describes the information in a machine understandable way [1]....   [tags: Technology]
:: 25 Works Cited
3729 words
(10.7 pages)
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Semantic Change: How Gay Became Homosexual - ... I wanted to see if at the beginning of ‘gay’ starting to change semantically, it took on a negative connotation since many opposed homosexuality especially in schools and whether or not this had an effect on the semantic change, almost trying to understand that if being gay was never seen as being bad would the word gay had even changed semantically at all. In conclusion into this secondary research I found that many people in the 15-18 year old category were honest and admitted that at the start the semantic change could have been put down to the fact it carried a derogatory meaning....   [tags: evolution of meaning, linguistics] 1168 words
(3.3 pages)
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Semantic Differential Scale to Assess the Public Image of Police - 1. Introduction It is well known that human society cannot evolve or exist in the absence of a general and a coherent structure. In this context, Police plays a central role, operating as a rule of law institution. Thus, as the basic element of the criminal justice system, Police is responsible for enforcing the law by democratic methods, primarily involving close cooperation with the public, respect for individual rights and constitutional guarantees, and the resort to force in as little. Therefore, in a society which has become increasingly more complex, the role of the police tends to be versatile, so that the outcomes, or in other words, its effectiveness, ultimately depend on a wide ra...   [tags: Police Community Relations]
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1858 words
(5.3 pages)
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Semantic-Driven Visualized Model for Ecological Datasets - Semantic-Driven Visualized Model for Ecological Datasets Large volume of datasets in ecological science requires an understanding of metadata standards and assessment techniques in ecological research findings among diverse research groups. It requires a sharing medium of technical assistance and comprehensive definition of interpretations about the modeling concepts. It can lead to adhoc solutions subjected to growth and change in course of new ecological improvements and methodologies. It urges the need of self-learning initiative to understand the terms with their semantic relationships....   [tags: ontology, technology, management] 2428 words
(6.9 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
:: 13 Works Cited
1290 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Best Way to Learn Semantic Chinese Radicals For Adult Second Language Learners - The children and adults learn the languages differently. Children learn implicitly or automatically acquire complex grammatical structures of their first language based on experience, but adults already need more additional resources of the rules (explicit) learning (Ellis, 2005). However, the teaching Chinese semantic radicals might be taught implicitly or explicitly. Nearly every person experienced the second language learning. The great amount of research in second language acquisition was done after World War II....   [tags: education, international culture]
:: 15 Works Cited
1458 words
(4.2 pages)
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The Levels of Processing in a Judgement and Recall Task - One hundred and forty two undergraduate students participated in a levels-of-processing experiment on the basis of Craik & Tulving’s (1975) famous model. Participants were presented with shallow, intermediate or semantic words within 60 judgment trials, followed by a recognition test of 120 trials containing half of the original words. The findings suggest that participants recognized the semantic words better compared to the shallow and intermediate words; this proposes that by the use of attention, semantic processing leads to a stronger memory trace....   [tags: Semantic Words, Autism]
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1542 words
(4.4 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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Database: How to Obtain Fast Query Response Time by Reshaping The Big Data - Recent researches on big data are showing the challenges of the semantic web: how to link data on the webpage and connecting the available data on web so that is created at high speed in large volume in different variability or variety that ensure the quality and correctness of that data so that it is able to understand for humans and machines. People are spending a lot of time to extract, transform and integrating the data for their analytical purpose but their expert tools wants data into a specific format and reshaped data so that they can retrieved better result It will enable the new development of the semantic web as linking, processing, and analyzing all that data becomes better and...   [tags: query analysis, semantic web]
:: 15 Works Cited
982 words
(2.8 pages)
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A Probe into Translation Strategies - Introduction Challenged by the rapidly changing social contexts of contemporary globalization, translation becomes a prime vehicle to intercultural communication. Different translation strategies are used in different applicable areas. This paper is geared towards scrutinizing the features and practices of various translation strategies, encompassing literal translation, semantic translation, communicative translation, complication and rewrite. Literal Translation Literal translation converts the source text (ST) into target text (TT) via word-to-word translation....   [tags: literal, semantic, communicative, rewrite] 661 words
(1.9 pages)
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Theories About The Capacity of Learning Human Languages - Question: Does language play roles of equal importance in areas of knowledge. The question as to if language play roles of equal importance in all areas of knowledge is a difficult one to answer. However, I will try to answer it as well as I can. An important thing we must do first is to define what language is and how we learn it. Language is the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other . There were two main contrasting theories suggested in the twentieth century; the ones of B.F....   [tags: phonological, syntatict, semantic]
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1048 words
(3 pages)
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SAT-Level Sentence-Completion Questions - ... 2) Moreover, the labelled dependency language model performs better than the unlabelled dependency language model. In the research paper {\bf ``Sentence Completion Task using Web-scale Data"}, the authors Kyusong Lee and Gary Geunbae Lee employ assorted N-gram probability information for each candidate word to answer sentence completion questions. They propose a method using n-gram language model which considers both forward and backward n-gram probabilities and has much reduced data sparseness....   [tags: language, semantic, techniques] 1149 words
(3.3 pages)
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Analysis of Semantic Priming in Multiple Sclerosis - Briefly describe the function of myelin and discuss the neuropsychological impact one disorder which causes demyelination Neurons are individual cells that are part of the nervous system. They receive, incorporate and transmit impulses. Signals are obtained from dendrites which “passes through the soma” via the axon. The signal then is transferred to other dendrites of other cells meeting at synapses. For all this to happen a special tool is required, which is known as Myelin. Myelin is an imperative component of neurons that enable it to send out efficient signals....   [tags: myelin, demyelination, neurons]
:: 9 Works Cited
1189 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Concept and Formation of the Term 'Hispanic' - ... The term ‘criollo’ refers to the ‘whites’ that were born in in latinoamerica. Whereas, the term ‘mestizos’ refers to those who had a mix of European and indigenous blood. However, the social cultural status became stricter for those that fit under the ‘mulatos’ description, those who had a white and African blood mix (Fox, 2010). These terms were often used to discriminate against the general population and keep control over said population by setting regulation on activities that they were allowed to participate in and those that they were not....   [tags: sociological, historic and semantic analysis]
:: 4 Works Cited
1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - There is no human language without socio-cultural context; meanwhile language resides inside each individual’s mind and as a result, linguistic interaction did not occur without the use of the language. Individuals do not create languages; they just use that one given to them by society. For Saeed (2009), language is the mirror of culture and it is determined by the categories available in speakers’ own language. Studies about relationship between language and culture and between language and thought have a long history and have placed a much conferred proposal to modern linguistic: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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Hinderances to the Automatization of Textual Data - The generation and availability of large amount of textual data in almost all the aspects of our everyday lives demanded automatizing of processes like searching, extracting and maintaining information. One of the difficulties that prevent the complete automatization of such activities is the contents of textual data presented mainly in natural languages, where ambiguities are hard to be processed by machines (Zouaq, 2011). Therefore, no doubt that NLP technology tremendously contributes for analyzing textual resources and for developing intelligent applications....   [tags: natural language, semantics, ontology] 1706 words
(4.9 pages)
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Semantics - Language is the primary source of communication for humans and is used to convey thoughts, feelings, intentions, and desires to others (Bonvillain 2008:1). Many rules are taken into account when forming a language. According to Bolton, language is arbitrary and is unrepresentative of the objects they represent (Bolton 1996: 63). The study of Semantics allows us to identify the meaning of words and phrases in their literal sense, and helps us to make meaning out of arbitrary sounds and phrases. It has been contributed to by both linguists and philosophers....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Phonetic Indicators in Writing Systems - ... In Chinese, which uses a logographic writing system to represent mostly semantic information, each character represents a single syllable. However, because many syllables have multiple meanings, multiple characters may represent the same syllable, which can lead to confusion. Chinese writing also provides very little phonetic information. In fact, only 23 percent of Chinese characters are fully regular, meaning they communicate all three types of Chinese phonetic information—onset, or the initial sound; rime, or the vowel sound; and tone, or the inflection of the vowel (Chen et al., 2003)....   [tags: semantics, logographic, language] 656 words
(1.9 pages)
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Syntax of Negation in Russian Language - Syntax of negation in Russian Different languages express negations in different ways. In this paper we will try to see how negation system of the Russian language can be interpreted within the boundaries of syntax. In modern Russian language negation is primarily expressed by the negative marker ne, which normally precedes the verb. However there are some exceptions when an adverb can be inserted between ne and a verb: Mi ne vsegda hodim v trenazherniy zal. We NEG always go to gym....   [tags: ne, verb, negative marker, semantics]
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1656 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
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The Five Main Components of Language - ... Another component of language is morphology, which deals with the inner organization of words (Owens, 2012). Words are comprised of morphemes and morphemes are the tiniest grammatical units of meaning. Examples of morphemes include base words, such as “dog”, “toy”, “love”, and “cat”. When you break either of these words down, they do not mean anything or the meaning of the divided letters means something entirely different than when combined. This can be seen when you break down the word “dog”....   [tags: phonology, semantics, pragmatics] 751 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Meaning Phenomenon: Literature Review - How people understand meaning can be defined in several ways. Linguistic meaning is a special subset of the more general human ability to understand signs or symbols (Saeed, 2003). The process of creating and interpreting symbols, sometimes called signification, is far wider than language. De Saussure, (1974) has argued that the study of linguistic meaning is a part of this general study called semiotics that studies the use of sign systems. Semioticians investigate the types of relationship that may hold between a sign and the object it represents, Or, in de Saussure's terminology, between a signifier and it’s signified....   [tags: language, concepts, semantics] 3144 words
(9 pages)
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Database Systems and Data Management - ... Then the search results will be displayed with short description about different stories, author name, published date, program name etc.. We store these search details in our database. By clicking on the respective story, it gives the complete story description, respective image (if any) and other details. We display all of these by retrieving from the database. User has the option to comment on a story which will be displayed at the end of the page under comments section. These comments are also stored in our database....   [tags: data mining, language and semantics] 2777 words
(7.9 pages)
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Learning English Made Easy - Learning English for some is necessity, for some it is passion and for some it is like no other option. English is lingua franca and needed in national and international fields especially in Asian countries where people prefer this language than other regional language. For adult and aged beginners, it needs persistent hard work. In writing, grammar plays a vital role. Market is flooded with grammar books filled with rules and repeated examples. I remember the example of VYBGYOR from my childhood....   [tags: semantics, conditional, lingua franca]
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1476 words
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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Traits Differentiating Scholars from Normal Students - ... In my opinion this trait is what led many scholars to succeed, as they would always be humble of their actions, which in result they would be well respected and looked upon. Thus humility is a trait that must be present in a good scholar. In relation to the trait ‘humility’, another noticeable trait of a scholar is integrity. This trait is defined as the attachment to moral and virtuous principles, such as honestly. As a result, this trait would be present in everyone, however, not everyone practices this....   [tags: semantics and definitions] 534 words
(1.5 pages)
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El Concepto y Formación del Término 'Hispano' - ... El término " criollo " se refiere a los "blancos" que nacieron en Latinoamérica. Considerando que, el término ' mestizos ' se refiere a aquellos que tenían una mezcla de sangre europea e indígena. Sin embargo, la situación socio-cultural se hizo más estricta para aquellos que encajan en la descripción de los ' mulatos ', los que tenían una mezcla de sangre blanca y africana (Fox, 2010). Estos términos se utilizan a menudo para discriminar a la población en general y mantener el control sobre dicha población mediante el establecimiento de la regulación de las actividades que se les permitió participar y los que no lo eran....   [tags: analisis sociologico, historico y semantico]
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1099 words
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Toward Effective Emotional Intelligence Simulation - The ability to understand the emotions of others is critical for successful interactions among humans (Dias & Paiva, 2009; Kazemifard, Ghasem-Aghaee, & Ören, 2010). The psychological theory of emotional intelligence (EI) proposes four categories of relevant abilities (Mayer & Salovey, 1997): (1) identifying emotions, (2) understanding emotions, (3) using emotions in thought processes, and (4) managing emotions. This research focuses on emotion understanding, the cognitive activity of making inferences using emotional knowledge about why an agent is in an emotional state (e.g., unfair treatment makes an individual angry) and which actions are associated with the emotional state (e.g., an angr...   [tags: Psychology, Emotions] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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A Psycholinguistic Approach to Mental Lexicon - Introduction The study of the mental lexicon deals with how words are acquired, comprehended, organized, stored, retrieved, and produces. The term “mental lexicon” is used interchangeably with what some scholars refer to as “internal lexicon” (Bonin, 2004). It involves the different processes and activations done in the brain in order to store the words and form an internal memory which functions as a mental dictionary. Psychologist and linguists who are concerned with this study believe that words are stored in relation to their phonological, semantic, syntactic and even orthographical features....   [tags: Linguistics]
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2047 words
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The Stroop Effect Comparing Color Word Labels and Color Patch Labels - The Stroop Effect Comparing Color Word Labels and Color Patch Labels Abstract The current study examined four components of the Stroop effect using a manual word response and a manual color response. The major focus being the three semantic components – semantic relatedness, semantic relevance and response set membership, that contributes to the Stroop interference. The results indicated that there was a response set membership effect in both the manual word response and manual color response, suggesting that interference occurs in the lexicon system when a manual word response is used and interference was located at a late selection stage, for manual color re...   [tags: Papers] 1809 words
(5.2 pages)
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How Language Continues to Change - Language, like anything else, is in a state of continuous change. Language change takes place when a generation of speakers produces linguistic expressions that differ from previous generations of speakers. With every generation, words are borrowed from other languages, new words are invented, meanings of words change, and pronunciation of some words is altered. The process of language change might be slow or fast. However, as changes accumulate over time, the old and new language will extremely vary....   [tags: language, change, generation, typologies] 713 words
(2 pages)
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Using Graphic Organizers in Basic and Special Education - ... Semantic maps place the main idea in the center around which relevant notions or sub-concepts are linked (Manoli & Papdopoulou, 2012). Students with learning disabilities who utilized semantic mapping demonstrated significantly higher scores on researcher developed comprehension measures than students in comparative groups (Kim et al., 2004). Although there are similarities to the semantic mapping graphic organizer, in a semantic feature analysis graphic organizer, the student and teacher can explore unrelated concepts to relevant information....   [tags: reader, learning disabilities, writing process] 1501 words
(4.3 pages)
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Tip of the Tongue Essay - ... Metacognitive theorists believe TOT is the knowledge of yet temporary inaccessibility of target words. They view TOTs as an alarm which alerts the speaker that the item being retrieved is known however the cognitive processes they need more time to retrieve an item (Schwartz, 2008). I believe the uneasy feeling of TOT is explained though this theory; it reveals that the feeling of knowing the target word is knowing the target information is stored however inaccessible . This theory also appears to be linked with the idea of blockers....   [tags: speech process, retrieving words from lexicon]
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1335 words
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Compare and Contrast the Ways in Which Two Films Use Horror Genre Conventions - This essay critically analyses and discusses the semantic and syntactic areas of what defines a horror genre in films. Followed by a case study of an animated film which supports and demonstrates theses horror film conventions. Then another case study which challenges and questions its position in the chosen genre. To decide whether it does hold elements of the horror conventions in both semantic and syntactic point of view, or possibly sway towards a different category of film. Before discussing the forms and functions of what defines a horror film....   [tags: Horror Genre Films]
:: 7 Works Cited
2887 words
(8.2 pages)
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Defining a Rigid Designator - Let's call something a rigid designator if in every possible world it designates the same object, (Kripke 1980, 48) It is to say that the referent of rigid designator, speaking of a possible world or a counterfactual situation, is as same as its referent in the actual world. For example the term “President of the United States” is not a rigid term designating Omaba, because there is possible world in which the president of the United States is not Obama and hence the term doesn’t designate him (doesn’t refer to Omaba) in that world....   [tags: epistemology, essentialism, Kripke] 3209 words
(9.2 pages)
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Framework to Explain Memory - Introduction In 1972 Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart developed a framework to explain memory. That framework suggested that memory is not a conscious action, but is the way information is processed which is why we remember information we do not intend to ( Craik & Lockhart, 2008). Craik and Lockhart proposed that there are two levels are processing which include: shallow and deep processing. Shallow processing requires little attention to meaning, while deep processing requires close attention (Goldstein, 2008)....   [tags: Fergus Clark, Robert Lockhart]
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1121 words
(3.2 pages)
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Web Based Systems - ... • It is fails to exploit the full potential of semantic web service descriptions. • To changes the set of web services available tend to invalidate the BPEL processes. • To determining the semantic resemblance of different condition and effect expressions is challenging. DISADVANTAGE • To avoid this problem the proposed system uses WEB ONTOLOGY. • This system ignores the failure process and takes successful process to the higher level within the fixed time period. CHAPTER 4 PROPOSED SYSTEM 4.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM OVERVIEW The proposed system of service descriptions allow the automatic composition of web services to achieve main goals....   [tags: industrial automation system] 526 words
(1.5 pages)
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Jane Eyre Through Bronte's Eyes - Jane Eyre Analyse the methods Charlotte Brontë uses to make the reader empathise with Jane Eyre in the opening chapters. Reflect on how the novel portrays Victorian ideology and relate your analysis to the novel’s literary content. Jane Eyre, written by Charlotte Brontë, was published in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Company, in London. This year is exactly ten years into Queen Victoria’s sixty-four year reign of the British Empire. The Victorian Era was renowned for its patriarchal Society and definition by class....   [tags: Critical Analysis, Literary Analysis] 3631 words
(10.4 pages)
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The structure of memory - Introduction Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM) (in Passer et al., 2009). Although to some, the multi store model provided an adequate explanation of memory processes, it was regarded as being too simplistic since short-term and long- term memories were far more complicated than originally thought (in...   [tags: Technology, Multi-store Model] 1616 words
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Gender Bias in the English Language - Several studies have been investigating the differences between men and women's use of the English language. The problem with studies of this kind, according to Romaine (1999), is that the differences are taken for truths and no further investigations are made as to why these differences exist. The differences could be a reflection on gender issues in society, or even the cause of them. There is seemingly little argument against the fact that English is male-biased as a construction. When investigating male bias in the English language, a few factors should be taken into consideration: words that are in themselves discriminating, that women are not as visible in the language as men, the conn...   [tags: Language and Gender ]
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The Use of Language and Its Role in Labeling Different Social Groups - The Use of Language and Its Role in Labeling Different Social Groups Language being used to represent a person’s social class is an important issue because it is not a reliable way to people, even though labelling people is wrong in the first place. People can use language even if they come from a different group. For instance within the youth of today take the divides of the “Townies and Chavs” which are traditionally formed of “popular people” to the “Goth’s grungers, skaters and other alternatives” If you were to be heard saying something like “mush” or “init” (a form of isn’t it) or “banging” you would be called a Chav or a townie, however you might have just...   [tags: Papers] 378 words
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Memory in Occupational Therapy Processes - Memory refers to the formations and processes that are used to store and retain information; there are three key processes involved, encoding, storage and retrieval. The first process; encoding, involves focusing awareness and consciously applying selective attention on a limited range of stimuli or events. Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that incoming information could be processed at different levels through three different ways of encoding; structural, phonemic and semantic. Structural encoding refers to the appearance of the information whilst phonemic encoding refers to how the information sounds....   [tags: cognitive training in rehabilitation]
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The Future of the Internet - ... Presently, we can already get the glimpse into how we will experience the Internet in the future: Semantic Web. We can get the taste of application of structured data and semantic technologies in the area of web search. Google's Knowledge Graph is the most notable example. It is already changing the way how searchers (Google search engine users) are getting information. As a matter of fact, if we Google "semantic web", we can see Knowledge Graph and semantic search in action now. Global Connectivity....   [tags: computer, google, world wide web]
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Cluster Analysis in Market Segmentation - ... Using a seven point scale, the customers rate the importance by giving “not important” note representing the lowest score, up to a “very important” note representing the highest score. This should result in variations that can be used to cluster the surveyed customers (unless everyone give identical scores, obviously). A cluster will then include customers similar to each other while different to the customers belonging to different clusters. This means that actions taken on one group of customers would lead to responses different to those of different groups....   [tags: market research techniques] 1625 words
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Towards Conversation Entailment : An Empirical Investigation" by Chen Zhang and Joyce Y - In the research paper \Towards Conversation Entailment : An Empirical Investigation", the authors Chen Zhang and Joyce Y. Chai investigate the problem of conversation entailment [which is the process of inferring hypotheses from conversational scripts]. For this they examine two levels of semantic representations - basic representation based on the syntactic parsing from conversation utterances and augmented representation which takes into consideration conversation structures. The authors further explored two techniques to capture long distance relations between language constituents - implicit modeling based on the length of distance and explicit modeling based on actual patterns of relati...   [tags: paper critique, long distance relations] 562 words
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Etymology and Loanwords in the English Language - Introduction First of all I want to explain why I have chosen this topic to present. When I was learning English language at school I was always curious why this or that word was pronounced differently and somehow strange. My teacher was trying to do her best and explain but anyway I was always dissatisfied. Now as I am a student and I am learning English language thoroughly I have a great chance to discover for me many things and to give answers to those questions that were disturbing me so much....   [tags: word origins, lexicology]
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
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Analysing the Generation Effect - ... As stated by Slamecka and Graf (1978), generated items required more cognitive effort in trying to recall and recognize, whereas read items lacked this form of effort to strengthen memory. Another argument of the generation effect phenomenon was proposed by Greenwald (1980), in relating to the egocentricity. Perhaps the participants are more active in the process of studying and recognizing the items in the generate condition since they are actively trying to say the correct items. In addition, the information perceive better are relating more to self....   [tags: experimental psychology]
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Discovering User Goals to Improving Search Engine Applicability - The users are commonly using the internet for several information needs. Still, the abstruse word\topic submitted to search engine does not satisfy user information needs, because different users may have different information on dissimilar facets upon the submission of same query to search engine. So discovering different user search goals becomes complicated. The estimation and representation of user search goals can be very useful in improving search engine applicability and user knowledge. This paper proposes an approach for concluding user search goals by analyzing user query logs from several search engines....   [tags: feedback, clicked, analysis] 696 words
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The Levels Of Processing Model - The Levels Of Processing Model The Levels OF Processing (LOP) Model is an alternative to the Multi Store (MS) Model. It does appreciate the idea that both STM and LTM do exist however it does focus on the inter- related processes needed for memory. It looks at the way information is coded and how likely it is to be remembered depending on the type of coding. * The LOP model was based on a study by Craik & Tulving (1875) who tested participants on remembering 4 different types of information....   [tags: Papers] 606 words
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Levels of Processing Theory - Levels of Processing Theory Depth of Analysis Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing theory. * The depth of processing of a stimulus has a substantial effect on its memorability, i.e. how well it is remembered. * Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting and stronger memory traces than do shallow levels of analysis. Craik (1973) defined depth as "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it"....   [tags: Papers] 2362 words
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Componenets of an E-Learning System - II. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES 2.1 Background concepts The central theme of e-learning is to leverage effective transfer of knowledge, not just from the experts to learners but also from learners to learners, including both tacit (informal knowledge) and explicit knowledge (formal knowledge), through various means facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICT) [Volery and Lord, 2000]. It is essential to identify the critical factors within each of the components of e-learning ecosystem to facilitate effective transfer of knowledge....   [tags: Education, technology, internet] 2131 words
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Teaching Collocations in the Classroom - ... On the other hand, Lee (2007) argues that it is not the influence of the L1 that affect the semantic processing but it is the development of proficiency that affect the process. In a study done by Jiang (2000, 2002, 2004) he suggested “ a semantic transfer hypothesis” in which transfer from L1 to L2 happens on three stages, however Lee (2007) argue against this hypothesis. Lee pointed out that L2 proficiency is the keyword in explaining semantic overgeneralization, in his study he compared three ESL advance level groups form different L1 background and the results came to support that there is no crossliguistics influence....   [tags: incremental learning for vocabulary acquisition] 863 words
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Models amd Stages of Memory - ... Their model of memory known as the levels of processing model explains that contrasting the multi store model this model carries a non-structured approach. This idea was shaped due to an effect of the criticism levelled at the multi store model. Craik and Lockhart (1972) model idea basically is that memory is the happening and result of one’s information process. As a substitute of focusing on the stores or structures like the LTM and STM, concentration in this theory is given more to the processes involved in memory....   [tags: encoding, processing, recall] 755 words
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The Process of Memory Reconsolidation - ... This is referred to as the hippocampus dependent stage during which the cortex gains increasing information from the hippocampus so that when the information is recalled, the cortico-cortical connection is strengthened and thereby becomes hippocampus independent (Squire & Alvarez, 1995). Following this process, the memory is transferred to the neocortex and stored permanently(Dudai, 2004). This model suggests that as hippocampal synapses change quickly, memories are stored provisionally in the hippocampus where as synapses in the neocortex change over a period of time (Squire & Alvarez, 1995)....   [tags: memory formation retrieval and storage] 1574 words
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Psi and Ontology - Psi can be loosely defined as the ability of an organism to interact with its environment, or other entities within the environment, beyond what is known about the defined boundaries of that organism. The inability to empirically observe how these interactions happen, outside of the initially observed effect, has resulted in modeling various theories about psi within the context of it being an information system of sorts. That being said, para psychologically typically approaches psi from the perspective that it is a function which allows for an exchange of information between the organism and its environment; however, information is extrinsic to the thing that it is encoded upon, thus, it...   [tags: Psychology] 2215 words
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Effects of False Memories - ... The present study aimed to determine whether distractors would elicit false memories. These memories will occur even if participants are aware of false memory effects. It was hypothesised that false memory effects would occur and participants would recall the special distractors as using semantic memory to group items will elicit the memory those words were in the list. Normal distractors will not be recalled due to them not being related to original words. It was also hypothesised that people older in age would produce greater false memory effects....   [tags: Fuzzy-Trace theory]
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Memory and Human Survival - CASE SCENARIO ESSAY: TOPIC 1 After a motor vehicle accident Tom was left with an acquired brain injury with damage to the frontal lobe and the left temporal lobe. As a result Tom has been experiencing many difficulties, in particular with his memory. Memory refers to the mental capacity to retain information and convert it into a form that can be stored and retrieved at a later time. Storing and retrieving memories involves passing information from one stage to the next and then retrieving that information from long-term memory....   [tags: Mental Capacity, Retain Information, Brain]
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Analysis of Persuasive Symbols in Ronald Reagan's The Space Shuttle "Challenger" Tragedy Address - Introduction Politicians frequently receive negative publicity at the hand of their own use of language. Their uses of words as they relate to persuasion typically fall within one of the three dimensions of language functions, semantic or thematic. Often their persuasive language can be found to closely resemble any of these three categories simultaneously. There are many tools for analyzing persuasive symbols, many of which should be utilized when analyzing great communicators such as President Ronald Reagan....   [tags: using the three dimmensions of language]
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Joyce Wieland’s O Canada: An Intersection of Pop Culture, Art, and Identity - The twentieth century has witnessed many transformations in the ways we produce and respond to works of art. It has seen the rise of altogether new media, approaches, and a wealth of new interpretative frameworks. The emergence of manufactured goods, modernism, and a ubiquitous mass culture contribute to the upheaval, in the 1960’s and 70’s, of established art practices and approaches. Pop Art emerges as an important response to, extension of, or parody of what Clement Greenberg called “Ersatz culture” and “kitsch”, which, to paraphrase Greenberg, represent the omnipresent abominations of commercial and replicated art (Greenberg 9)....   [tags: O Canada Essays]
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The Garden-Path Model as a Method of Sentence Processing - Fraizer and Rayner (1982) put forward the garden-path model as a method of sentence processing, used when encountering ambiguous sentences. The model states that when a reader or listener comes across an ambiguous sentence only one syntactical structure is primarily considered. When reaching a key point in the sentence, if the meaning attributed does not work, we must backtrack and rebuild the structure of the sentence. After reparsing the sentence we can then arrive at the right explanation of the sentence (Harley, 2008)....   [tags: Language ]
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The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory - The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory The purpose of this study is to do a memory-for-words that will explore the influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory. The study examines the influence of sleep on false memory. This study is looking at two things: (1) how does sleep improve recognition of words. And if so, it would support the claim that sleep facilitates encoding into LTM. (2) How does sleep enhance a false memory of a word. According to Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996) false memories are often created by combining actual memories with suggestions received from others, it can include words that we learn and having them associated with semantic information....   [tags: Health, False Memory] 1279 words
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Tools for Analyzing Dimensions of Language and Persuasive Symbols - ... Richard Weaver developed grammatical categories which analyze sentence and word type as a directive in analyzing the persuader’s world view. On the other hand the Semantic Dimension of language serves to give meaning to the persuasive use of language. Many words share the same meaning but not the same idea. Analyzing the choice of words in persuasion can be very difficult; identifying the intentional use of ambiguity can help with the realization of the true meaning rather than a misinterpretation due to open ended statements....   [tags: ronald reagan, tone, words] 1305 words
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The Need for More Medications for Dementia - ... The results with Ayurveda drugs were comparable to Rivastigmine and Piracetam. The plant drugs further needs to be evaluated for their actions on Acetylcholine, GABA and prevention of neurodegeneration to investigate the exact mechanisms of effects on Learning and memory. The fixed dose Ayurvedic drug formulations offered no benefit over single agents even when used in doses prescribed in Ayurveda. Considering the fact that the Ayurveda drugs showed comparable effects to the modern medicinal agent, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further....   [tags: memory, learning, cognition] 951 words
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Collection and Documentation of Health History - Collection and Documentation of Health History Purpose of Health record Health history or health record is a systematically created document which stores the complete history of the diseases and physical conditions of the patient. This document gives a chance to the physicians to understand the complete background of patient’s physical health and helps them to plan their further strategy for the treatment of the patient. This document also provides an opportunity to educate medical students and to provide data for medical research (Makoul, 2003)....   [tags: Health Care] 1561 words
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The Productivity and Effectiveness of Memory - Memory can be an extremely broad spectrum to discuss. Matlin (2005) defines memory as the process of maintaining information over time (McLeod, S. A., 2007). This essay will focus specifically on encoding. The productivity and effectiveness of memory primarily depends on the processes of attaining, storing and retrieving information. This essay will further investigate the ability of students to encode information through various encoding strategies, and how effective these methods are in storing and retrieving the information....   [tags: encoding, storage, retrieval]
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