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Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Web Techniques - The emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) has brought exciting new possibilities in information access and electronic business. The WWW has grown to be the largest distributed repository of information ever created. Current estimates reveal that the Web currently contains about 3 billion static documents and being accessed by over 500 million users from around the world [6]. Web content consists largely of distributed hypertext and hypermedia, accessible via keyword-based search and link navigation....   [tags: Semantic Web]
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567 words
(1.6 pages)
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Semantic Web - To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reaching a decision or judgment....   [tags: Technology, The Green Guide] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Semantic Web Services and Goals - In this section, we present the service discovery scenarios to evaluate and compare the current web services technology with our proposed framework for semantic web services using existing telecommunication industry data. The evaluated results are based on prototype implementation, using sample data of a leading telecommunication operator in Pakistan, which has its distributed computer centres in nine different cities of Pakistan (name is not cited for privacy conditions). We performed a typical process of interconnect settlement service discovery....   [tags: Information Technology] 905 words
(2.6 pages)
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Structure of Semantic Memory - Structure of Semantic Memory Semantic memory is our knowledge about the world and language and how it can be seen as our internal dictionary and encyclopedia together as one entity. Throughout its origins, semantic memory has been compared to episodic memory. In contrast, episodic memory refers to knowledge that is temporary or spatial, which is identified in the terms of personal experiences. Within these two systems there are many different models. I am going to discuss Eleanor Rosch's prototype approach feature comparison model, Anderson’s ACT-R model, the Collins and Loftus’s network model, and the exemplar model....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1207 words
(3.4 pages)
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Switter: A Semantic Microblogging proposal - Alvaro Graves Department of Cognitive Sciences Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA gravea3@rpi.edu Abstract One aspect of the Semantic Web that has not been fully explored is the idea of good interfaces for interacting with small portions of semantic information, in particular with a few set of triples. Even though more and more data has been published in RDF, usually this came from already existing databases. On the other hand, microblogging sites such as Twitter have gained big popularity in the media and have become an important player in the so-called social networks....   [tags: Internet]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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Semantic Web Technologies - The design and implementation of the PHOTON prototype system has been presented in Chapter 7. The implementation in the different software settings such as implementing the ontology in a storage environment, implementing the ontology in an ontology environment and implementing the ontology in a reasoning environment were also presented. In order to evaluate the PHOTON prototype system in its different environment it is important to revisit some key research questions of this study; “How can knowledge about photovoltaic systems be made easily accessible to end-users?” In order to efficiently manipulate photovoltaic system knowledge; it is important that the PHOTON ontology is well structured both syntactically and semantically fit for use in a practical or real-world setting....   [tags: Information Technology] 1642 words
(4.7 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
(11.2 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - Introduction Semantic Change leads with change on meaning of words, however this change does not occur overnight or all of a sudden. On the contrary, this is a slow process into language evolution and these differences are only realised as time goes by. There are many reasons to transformation and change over a word meaning. They can be adopted thanks to insertion of vocabulary from another language, by borrowing or even through popular usage of a word inside another context, resulting its differentiation to the whole country where English is spoken....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Learning Content Development Using Semantic Web Technology - Abstract: Semantic web is based on the ontologies as its core which can support the learning content development in different ways. This paper survey issues introduced in the learning content development and associated activities using semantic web technology. This overview is based on investigation of the area of content's creation, metadata, annotation, adpativity and discovery through researches related to these issues from different viewpoints. I. Introduction: Semantic web is an important leading technology today that describes the information in a machine understandable way [1]....   [tags: Technology]
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3729 words
(10.7 pages)
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Implementation Semantic Web On E-Learning - The current WWW is a powerful tool for research and education, but its utility is hampered by the inability of the user to navigate easily the nefarious sources for the information he requires. The Semantic Web is a vision to solve this problem. It is proposed that a new WWW architecture will support not only Web content, but also associated formal semantics [4]. The idea is that the Web content and accompanying semantics (or metadata) will be accessed by Web agents, allowing these agents to reason about the content and produce intelligent answers to users' queries....   [tags: Internet Query Improvement Informational Paper] 1173 words
(3.4 pages)
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Semantic Phenomena versus Pragmatic Phenomena - SEMANTICS–PRAGMATICS INTERACTION It seems unlikely that there will ever be consensus about the extent to which we can reliably distinguish semantic phenomena from pragmatic phenomena. But there is now broad agreement that a sentence's meaning can be given in full only when it is studied in its natural habitat: as part of an utterance by an agent who intends it to communicate a message. Here, we document some of the interactions that such study has uncovered. In every case, to achieve even a basic description, it is necessary to pool semantic information, contextual information, speaker intentions, and general pragmatic pressures....   [tags: essays papers]
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1290 words
(3.7 pages)
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From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields - From Lullus to Cognitive Semantics: The Evolution of a Theory of Semantic Fields ABSTRACT: The domain of cognitive semantics-insofar as it deals with semantic neighborhood and semantic fields-is discussed from a historical perspective. I choose four distinct stages in the evolution in philosophy of language: Raymundus Lullus and his Ars Magna (14th century); Giodano Bruno and his artificial memory system (16th century); Charles Sanders Peirce and his diagrammatic logic (19th century); and, Kurt Lewin and his topological psychology (20th century)....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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2889 words
(8.3 pages)
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Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say - Semantic Realism: Why Mathematicians Mean What They Say ABSTRACT: I argue that if we distinguish between ontological realism and semantic realism, then we no longer have to choose between platonism and formalism. If we take category theory as the language of mathematics, then a linguistic analysis of the content and structure of what we say in and about mathematical theories allows us to justify the inclusion of mathematical concepts and theories as legitimate objects of philosophical study. Insofar as this analysis relies on a distinction between ontological and semantic realism, it relies also on an implicit distinction between mathematics as a descriptive science and mathematics as a descriptive discourse....   [tags: Mathematics Mathematical Math Essays]
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3689 words
(10.5 pages)
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Semantics - Language is the primary source of communication for humans and is used to convey thoughts, feelings, intentions, and desires to others (Bonvillain 2008:1). Many rules are taken into account when forming a language. According to Bolton, language is arbitrary and is unrepresentative of the objects they represent (Bolton 1996: 63). The study of Semantics allows us to identify the meaning of words and phrases in their literal sense, and helps us to make meaning out of arbitrary sounds and phrases. It has been contributed to by both linguists and philosophers....   [tags: Communication, Language] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis - Fodorian Naturalistic Semantics and Double Disjunctivitis ABSTRACT: Direct Informational Semantics, according to which [X]s represent (express/mean) X if ‘Xs cause [X]s’ is a law, and Fodorian naturalistic semantics both suffer from double disjunctivitis. I argue that robustness, properly construed, characterizes both represented properties and representing symbols: two or more properties normally regarded as non-disjunctive may each be nomologically connected to a non-disjunctive symbol, and two or more non-disjunctive symbols may each be nomologically connected to a property....   [tags: Philosophy]
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3846 words
(11 pages)
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - There is no human language without socio-cultural context; meanwhile language resides inside each individual’s mind and as a result, linguistic interaction did not occur without the use of the language. Individuals do not create languages; they just use that one given to them by society. For Saeed (2009), language is the mirror of culture and it is determined by the categories available in speakers’ own language. Studies about relationship between language and culture and between language and thought have a long history and have placed a much conferred proposal to modern linguistic: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
(6.3 pages)
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Russell on the Structure of Propositions - Russell on the Structure of Propositions ABSTRACT: The comparison of Russell's views on semantics before 1905 with the theory of Frege allows one to expose the common sources of their interest in semantical problems and the specific character of their examination. During the investigation of the principles of mathematics and elaboration and realization of the program of logicism, questions regarding the logical structure of mathematical and logical propositions as well as the relation of linguistic signs and logical forms arise for both authors....   [tags: Semantics Mathematics Russell Essays]
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3513 words
(10 pages)
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The Universes - The Universes I can't tell you what I was just thinking. As in Augustine's view of intuition, the associations I registered were too free of any repeatable limitations for me to verbalize the experience. Perhaps these associations were of diverging thoughts that have not departed my mind. The most handy example of something similar is the simultaneity of sense perception. Each sense perception is specialized and in that respect removed from the whole and yet also registered in the same moment....   [tags: Semantics Language Essays]
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5352 words
(15.3 pages)
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The Advantage of Sarcasm - The Advantage of Sarcasm “Sarcasm is a form of humor that uses sharp, cutting remarks or language intended to mock, wound, or subject contempt or ridicule, generally saying the opposite of what the statement really is” (Oxford). Brian Dickerson, a free press columnist, does just that to bring the readers over to his side. He utilizes a very convincing combination of sarcasm and emotional appeal in his column called “Promises to Keep. Not in the Government”, that ultimately seduces the reader to believe exactly the point he tries to get across....   [tags: Semantics] 857 words
(2.4 pages)
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More than just Semantics - John D. Crossan parallels story to life. This essay will examine several aspects of story. First, I will examine the relationship between story and humans’ lives and how it is limited by language. Second, I will examine the differences between myths and parables and their polar opposition within the field of a story. Third, I will examine the Prodigal Son to illuminate the necessary elements of a parable. Stories serve to define humans’ reality and the use of specific types of stories evokes different reactions from their audience....   [tags: essays research papers] 866 words
(2.5 pages)
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Toward Effective Emotional Intelligence Simulation - The ability to understand the emotions of others is critical for successful interactions among humans (Dias & Paiva, 2009; Kazemifard, Ghasem-Aghaee, & Ören, 2010). The psychological theory of emotional intelligence (EI) proposes four categories of relevant abilities (Mayer & Salovey, 1997): (1) identifying emotions, (2) understanding emotions, (3) using emotions in thought processes, and (4) managing emotions. This research focuses on emotion understanding, the cognitive activity of making inferences using emotional knowledge about why an agent is in an emotional state (e.g., unfair treatment makes an individual angry) and which actions are associated with the emotional state (e.g., an angry individual attacks others)....   [tags: Psychology, Emotions] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Stroop Effect Comparing Color Word Labels and Color Patch Labels - The Stroop Effect Comparing Color Word Labels and Color Patch Labels Abstract The current study examined four components of the Stroop effect using a manual word response and a manual color response. The major focus being the three semantic components – semantic relatedness, semantic relevance and response set membership, that contributes to the Stroop interference. The results indicated that there was a response set membership effect in both the manual word response and manual color response, suggesting that interference occurs in the lexicon system when a manual word response is used and interference was located at a late selection stage, for manual color response....   [tags: Papers] 1809 words
(5.2 pages)
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Construction Education - In the construction domain, the semantic web has been used in the field of construction education, supply chain, project and construction management, material storage, project design, architecture and graphic designs, etc. In the field of construction education, repositories have been developed in managing objects as well as metadata using ontologies that offers a set of services such as storing, retrieving and searching of learning objects using semantic web technologies(Ahmed et al. 2007; Pathmeswaran and Ahmed 2009; Argüello et al....   [tags: Construction] 672 words
(1.9 pages)
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Jane Eyre Through Bronte's Eyes - Jane Eyre Analyse the methods Charlotte Brontë uses to make the reader empathise with Jane Eyre in the opening chapters. Reflect on how the novel portrays Victorian ideology and relate your analysis to the novel’s literary content. Jane Eyre, written by Charlotte Brontë, was published in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Company, in London. This year is exactly ten years into Queen Victoria’s sixty-four year reign of the British Empire. The Victorian Era was renowned for its patriarchal Society and definition by class....   [tags: Critical Analysis, Literary Analysis] 3631 words
(10.4 pages)
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The structure of memory - Introduction Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM) (in Passer et al., 2009). Although to some, the multi store model provided an adequate explanation of memory processes, it was regarded as being too simplistic since short-term and long- term memories were far more complicated than originally thought (in Craik & Lockhart, 1972)....   [tags: Technology, Multi-store Model] 1616 words
(4.6 pages)
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Text Classification Systems - Currently, there are many classification systems. Broadly speaking, these systems fall into two main categories. These are binary and multiclass systems. Binary classification systems are only concerned with classifying documents into two main categories or groups. Classification systems of this kind are used to distinguish between just two classes of objects. As Maranis and Bebenko (2009) explain, these systems provide Yes/No answer to the question: Does this document belong to class X. In this, such systems can be useful in classifying emails where they are classified whether spam or not, or commercial transactions where they are determined to be fraudulent or not....   [tags: Text Analysis] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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The Use of Language and Its Role in Labeling Different Social Groups - The Use of Language and Its Role in Labeling Different Social Groups Language being used to represent a person’s social class is an important issue because it is not a reliable way to people, even though labelling people is wrong in the first place. People can use language even if they come from a different group. For instance within the youth of today take the divides of the “Townies and Chavs” which are traditionally formed of “popular people” to the “Goth’s grungers, skaters and other alternatives” If you were to be heard saying something like “mush” or “init” (a form of isn’t it) or “banging” you would be called a Chav or a townie, however you might have just been bought up within a rougher area of the country....   [tags: Papers] 378 words
(1.1 pages)
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Levels of Processing Theory - Levels of Processing Theory Depth of Analysis Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing theory. * The depth of processing of a stimulus has a substantial effect on its memorability, i.e. how well it is remembered. * Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting and stronger memory traces than do shallow levels of analysis. Craik (1973) defined depth as "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it"....   [tags: Papers] 2362 words
(6.7 pages)
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Psi and Ontology - Psi can be loosely defined as the ability of an organism to interact with its environment, or other entities within the environment, beyond what is known about the defined boundaries of that organism. The inability to empirically observe how these interactions happen, outside of the initially observed effect, has resulted in modeling various theories about psi within the context of it being an information system of sorts. That being said, para psychologically typically approaches psi from the perspective that it is a function which allows for an exchange of information between the organism and its environment; however, information is extrinsic to the thing that it is encoded upon, thus, it can not exist separately from the thing that it is encoded upon....   [tags: Psychology] 2215 words
(6.3 pages)
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The Levels Of Processing Model - The Levels Of Processing Model The Levels OF Processing (LOP) Model is an alternative to the Multi Store (MS) Model. It does appreciate the idea that both STM and LTM do exist however it does focus on the inter- related processes needed for memory. It looks at the way information is coded and how likely it is to be remembered depending on the type of coding. * The LOP model was based on a study by Craik & Tulving (1875) who tested participants on remembering 4 different types of information....   [tags: Papers] 606 words
(1.7 pages)
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Ling - a) The underlined group of words is a noun phrase I know it is a noun phrase because a cat is a thing and fits the description of a noun. The grammatical function of the underlined group of words is subject. I applied a tag question to determine this was the subject. In absence of an operator I used the base do. So the sentence now reads The cat did fall out of the tree. Because the operator is the first word of the verb phrase it takes the tense. To get a question I move the operator to the front of the sentence so it now reads Did the cat fall out of the tree....   [tags: essays research papers] 1371 words
(3.9 pages)
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Componenets of an E-Learning System - II. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES 2.1 Background concepts The central theme of e-learning is to leverage effective transfer of knowledge, not just from the experts to learners but also from learners to learners, including both tacit (informal knowledge) and explicit knowledge (formal knowledge), through various means facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICT) [Volery and Lord, 2000]. It is essential to identify the critical factors within each of the components of e-learning ecosystem to facilitate effective transfer of knowledge....   [tags: Education, technology, internet] 2131 words
(6.1 pages)
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Postmortem Intrusion Analysis - 1 Introduction Today, postmortem intrusion analysis is an all too familiar problem. Our devices are repeatedly compro- mised while performing seemingly benign activities like browsing the Web [33], interacting on social- networking websites, or by malicious actors that use botnets as platforms for various nefarious activities [12]. Sometimes, the threats can also arise from the inside (e.g., corporate espionage) and often leading to sub- stantial financial losses1. Underscoring each of these security breaches is the need to reconstruct past events to know what happened and to better understand how a particular compromise may have occurred....   [tags: Computer Science] 1629 words
(4.7 pages)
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Rules of Communication - Communication Communication is a process of imparting or transferring thoughts from one entity to another either through language or writing or some other signs (Wrench, McCroskey & Richmond, 2008). Language and other methods of communication, which are appropriate in one semantic environment, are usually not utilized in another semantic environment. For example in playgrounds and sports, children use the expressions like “game plan” or “Captain of the ship” which cannot be used in a different semantic environment for example workplace....   [tags: Communication] 973 words
(2.8 pages)
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Prior Knowledge - INTRODUCTION Prior knowledge plays a pivotal role in every aspect of human life. Knowledge can be stored in various formats like images, features, statistical patterns, all these formats help in making sense of the environment. Using prior knowledge humans can perform various activities including, but not limited to: focusing attention, organizing information in to groups, categorizing objects around, hypothesizing, understanding language, and generating inferences(Smith & Kosslyn, 2007). Processing of information is influenced by prior knowledge during the top down processing....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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Output Query Format - The part of the standard specifying the structure of the result set as well as carrying messages like errors or announcements is called the Output Query Format. The outermost XML element Output can envelope the GlobalComment, SystemMessage and ResultItem child elements. To describe the result of the query one can use GlobalComment. To propagate information regarding the responder system, the SystemMessage element is utilized. This includes errors and exception - for example if a proper result set cannot be composed - as well as status messages....   [tags: Information Technolgy] 980 words
(2.8 pages)
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language - What is the Language of Thought Hypothesis. LOTH is an empirical thesis about the nature of thought and thinking. According to LOTH, thought and thinking are done in a mental language, i.e. in a symbolic system physically realized in the brain of the relevant organisms. In formulating LOTH, philosophers have in mind primarily the variety of thoughts known as ‘propositional attitudes’. Propositional attitudes are the thoughts described by such sentence forms as ‘S believes that P’, ‘S hopes that P’, ‘S desires that P’, etc., where ‘S’ refers to the subject of the attitude, ‘P’ is any sentence, and ‘that P’ refers to the proposition that is the object of the attitude....   [tags: essays research papers] 8769 words
(25.1 pages)
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Proper Meaning Superstition - "Proper Meaning Superstition" Ivor Armstrong Richards, co-author of The Meaning of Meaning, a great communication theorist and rhetorician, could not effectively communicate. Richards never completely understood and he was never completely understood by others. I. A. Richards believed that there was a "proper meaning superstition," or a false belief that there was one, precise meaning for each word (Craig, 1998, internet). He argued that meaning did not exist in words, but in people as a result of their past experiences....   [tags: ] 3053 words
(8.7 pages)
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Autobiographical Memory - Autobiographical Memory `Memory` is a label for a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which humans and perhaps other animals retain information and reconstruct past experiences, usually for present purposes. Autobiographical memory is a complex and multiply determined skill, consisting of neurological, social, cognitive, and linguistic components. At most beasic level, autobiographical memories refer to personally experienced past events. Over the past decade the research into autobiographical memory has led to an account of human memory in which personal goals play a major role in the formationk, access and contruction of specific memories Episodic memory is reconceived as a memory system that retains highly detailed sensory perceptual knowledge of recent experience over retention intervals measured in minutes and hours....   [tags: Neurology Biology Neurological Essays]
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Lab - 1 Abstract The experiment conducted regarding Memory Processes tested individuals on their ability to store and retrieve words. The levels on which words were stored were structural, the lowest level, phonetic, the next highest level, and semantic, the highest level of processing. The experiment is based on the recall and reorganization of the words from group they show during the experiment. The experiment conducted supported hypotheses regarding a subject’s performance on retrieving words at different levels....   [tags: essays research papers] 1925 words
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A Successful Theory of Mental Representation - A Successful Theory of Mental Representation A successful theory of mental representation must answer two related questions: (1) How does representation work. (2) How is misrepresentation possible. These questions are related because answering (1) is a requisite for answering (2): in order to explain how it is is possible that cognitive systems produce erroneous representations (i.e. representations that do not correspond to their "proper" meanings), we must first explain how is it possible that cognitive systems produce representations at all....   [tags: Papers] 2355 words
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Levels of Processing in Cognitive Approach - Levels of Processing in Cognitive Approach When given a list of words to learn, we can do one of three things to allow us to recall them on a later occasion. We can simply try to learn the words usual a visual method of just looking at the words. We can also think of words that rhyme with the word that has to be learnt, this is the auditory method. Finally we can associate the words with other words e.g. car and drive, this is a semantic way to remember things. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Craik and Lockhart carried out the following study to investigate which form of memory gives the best recall....   [tags: Papers] 578 words
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Joyce Wieland’s “O Canada (Animation)”: An Intersection of Pop Culture, Art, and Identity - The twentieth century has witnessed many transformations in the ways we produce and respond to works of art. It has seen the rise of altogether new media, approaches, and a wealth of new interpretative frameworks. The emergence of manufactured goods, modernism, and a ubiquitous mass culture contribute to the upheaval, in the 1960’s and 70’s, of established art practices and approaches. Pop Art emerges as an important response to, extension of, or parody of what Clement Greenberg called “Ersatz culture” and “kitsch”, which, to paraphrase Greenberg, represent the omnipresent abominations of commercial and replicated art (Greenberg 9)....   [tags: Art & Culture]
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Collection and Documentation of Health History - Collection and Documentation of Health History Purpose of Health record Health history or health record is a systematically created document which stores the complete history of the diseases and physical conditions of the patient. This document gives a chance to the physicians to understand the complete background of patient’s physical health and helps them to plan their further strategy for the treatment of the patient. This document also provides an opportunity to educate medical students and to provide data for medical research (Makoul, 2003)....   [tags: Health Care] 1561 words
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The Garden-Path Model as a Method of Sentence Processing - Fraizer and Rayner (1982) put forward the garden-path model as a method of sentence processing, used when encountering ambiguous sentences. The model states that when a reader or listener comes across an ambiguous sentence only one syntactical structure is primarily considered. When reaching a key point in the sentence, if the meaning attributed does not work, we must backtrack and rebuild the structure of the sentence. After reparsing the sentence we can then arrive at the right explanation of the sentence (Harley, 2008)....   [tags: Language ]
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Diversity: The Ethical Choice - The United States is one of the most diverse nations on the earth, originally conceived so, and often described as a great melting pot, as “all nations are melted into a new race of man, whose labours and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world” (St. John de Crèvecoeur, 1782). Yet, despite the country’s diverse population, the workplace remains a place of inequality as women and minorities continue to earn less than their white male counterparts (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011; U.S....   [tags: Diversity ]
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The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory - The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory The purpose of this study is to do a memory-for-words that will explore the influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory. The study examines the influence of sleep on false memory. This study is looking at two things: (1) how does sleep improve recognition of words. And if so, it would support the claim that sleep facilitates encoding into LTM. (2) How does sleep enhance a false memory of a word. According to Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996) false memories are often created by combining actual memories with suggestions received from others, it can include words that we learn and having them associated with semantic information....   [tags: Health, False Memory] 1279 words
(3.7 pages)
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - In spoken Japanese, subordinate clauses often occur without their main clauses. Ohori (1995; 1997) called them suspended clause constructions (SCCs) and formulated that a SCC occurs when “the intended message is either contextually inferable or conventionalized.” However, it is not very clear when and how the conversational participants know whether the intended message is contextually inferable (or conventionalized) or not, since a SCC and a “non-suspended version” of subordinate clause are not totally distinct category....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
(3.4 pages)
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Modes of Modern English Vocabulary Development - Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. There is a variety of means to produce words. The most productive are affixation, composition and conversion. Let's focus on one of them: composition. According to the research, words produced through composition constitute 28% to 30% of all the new words. It is also called compounding which is a way to join two words to make a new special meaning....   [tags: Linguistics] 821 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Memory Process - The process of using memory is as natural as breathing yet there is a great deal of processing that occurs to keep us functioning properly. The journey information takes as it is processed into memories is complex and has many stages. This paper will look at concepts for short-term and long-term memory. The two concepts generally agreed upon as existing are short-term memory and long-term memory. As the names suggest, these stores will contain memories for a short period either of time, or on more of a long-term basis....   [tags: Memory]
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The Effects of LOP on Implicit and Explicit Memory - The Effects of LOP on Implicit and Explicit Memory The importance of memory is very high in comparison to the content of the memory. We use memory to recall information such as where you park your car upon arrival at the mall, the time and channel a particular news special is to be aired, or the types of drugs to which your child may be allergic. The former two are processed very shallowly. The information may be needed today but two weeks later, it is not important and most likely not remembered due to the weak memory trace....   [tags: Medical Research] 2110 words
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The Use of Punctuation in the Writing of Libyan Students - Punctuation in English Parkes (1992), in his invaluable study of the history of punctuation, states: "Punctuation was developed by stages which coincided with changing patterns of literacy, whereby new generations of readers in different historical situations imposed new demands on the written medium itself' (p. 2). Punctuation is not a static model and even if we confine the discussion to early modern and modern English, it has changed quite considerably across time (Numberg, 1999). The uses of punctuation are conventional; they change over time and vary from language to language....   [tags: Education, English Grammar] 1944 words
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Communication Principles - Effective Communication is essential to the success of all businesses however, due to the ever-changing nature of workplaces today effective communication is becoming increasingly difficult and hinged by many barriers, which cause the senders intended meaning to be misconstrued by the receiver. Although Communication within Organisations will never be completely barrier free, many facile solutions can be implemented to facilitate the effects these barriers have. With Respect to this particular case study two key communication principles were evident, the chosen Communications Channel and Noise....   [tags: Communication]
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Sympathy for the Character in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre - In Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Jane Eyre’, Jane instantly manages to make the reader empathise with her character. The way in which Brontë evokes this sympathy is by using a number of different methods: characterisation, the way in which the hierarchy of the characters is displayed, both physically and metaphorically; intricate choice of language, for example romanticising certain parts of the book to show intimacy between the characters and the reader; setting is also used to create sympathy for example the use of pathetic fallacy, is manipulated in conjunction with Jane’s mood or significance; narrative voices and the use of first person views throughout the entire book, create a negative semantic field, making the reader empathise with Jane....   [tags: Jane Eyre Essays] 2271 words
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Creating Atmosphere in The Signalman - How Charles Dickens creates atmosphere in The Signalman Charles Dickens is renowned for his unusual narrative structure and his ability to include his readers within the story. 'The Signalman' is no exception to this. Whilst reading the text I found it easy to relate to and determine the specific scenario, this is relative to escapism. Because the 'Signalman' is fictional the reader can escape to the periodic settings. Dickens created this suspension of disbelief through premonitions and semantic fields....   [tags: English Literature] 662 words
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights - The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights ABSTRACT: Through a comparative analysis of the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped. By this case analysis, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the elucidation of the relation between language and philosophy in this regard. 1. Introduction Through a comparative case analysis regarding the Chinese language, this paper discusses how the structure and functions of a natural language would bear upon the ways in which some philosophical problems are posed and some ontological insights are shaped....   [tags: China Chinese Language Essays] 5656 words
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Translation, Quotation and Truth - Translation, Quotation and Truth ABSTRACT: If logical truth is truth due solely to syntactic form, then mathematics is distinct from logic, even if all mathematical truths are derivable from definitions and logical principles. This is often obscured by the plausibility of the Synonymy Substitution Principle that is implicit in the Fregean conception of analyticity: viz., that synonyms are intersubstitutable without altering sentence sense. Now, unlike logical truth, mathematical truth is not due to syntax, so synonym interchange in mathematical truths preserves sentence syntax, sense, and mathematical necessity....   [tags: Mathematical Mathematics Math Essays] 3462 words
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Short Term and Long Term Memory - Encoding and retrieval are essential to the workings of the memory, and the fact that there are two main kinds of memory – short term and long term – is significant. Short term memory holds information for fairly short intervals, whereas long term memory stores information for a far longer amount of time. The relationship between both, as some Psychologists claim, is envisaged by stage theory. When information is encoded, it is stored in short term memory. It must remain there for a long time in order for it to be finally stored in long term memory....   [tags: essays research papers] 1251 words
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Cognition - Cognition What is cognition. It is the general term given for mental activities. In cognitive psychology, it is the study of higher mental processes; memory, attention, language, reasoning etc. in contrast to behaviourists; cognitive psychologists are more ready to posit mechanisms and processes that are not directly observable, such as memory stores and switches of attention. Cognitive research includes several different facets of mental life, such as the use of imagery in representation, processes of decision making and problem solving and reasoning....   [tags: Papers] 1536 words
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Psychological Research Report on Memory - ABSTRACT How is memory encoded and what methods can lead to greater recall. There have been many different models suggested for human memory and many different attempts at defining a specific method of encoding that will lead to greater recall. In this experiment subjects are asked to do a semantic task on a word related to them and an orthographic task in which they analyze the letter in the word. The results of the experiment indicate that the words which where encoded semantically and are related to the self have greater recall....   [tags: essays research papers]
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Semiotics - Semiotics Summary For each of us and for organisations in general the effective use of information is a critical success factor. You only need to think of the assignments you need to complete and the demand for a diverse and unified communication of information being required. There are two broad paradigms for dealing with information: • Information as a ‘substance’ flowing through a system (Stamper et.al.) • Information as a ‘process’ ie a social activity of making and maintaining relationships (Cheek et.al.) We have chosen the later paradigm, however both need modelling approaches which allow us to collect and communicate knowledge and information effectively....   [tags: Properties Signs ] 1285 words
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Theoretical Approaches to Speech Production - Theoretical Approaches to Speech Production There are two main theories of Speech production, Spreading Activation Theory - SAT (Dell, 1986: Dell & O’Seaghdha, 1991) and Word- Form Encoding by Activation and Verification – WEAVER++ (Levelt et al., 1989: 1999). The SAT theory was devised by Dell (1986) then revised by Dell & O’Seaghda (1991). The theory works on a 4 level connectionist model: parallel and dynamic. The Semantic level is the meaning of what is going to be said. The Syntactic level is the grammatical structure of the words in the planned utterance The Morphological level is the morphemes (basic units of meaning of word forms) in the planned sentence....   [tags: Spreading Activation Theory SAT] 512 words
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Study of Communication - Studies on Human Communication The past century has been an enormously productive one in regard to the analysis and description of human communication. Building on the ideas of Ferdinand de Saussure, early structuralists delineated the phonological and morphological building blocks of speech by refining and applying the concepts of the phoneme and the morpheme. In addition to the rigorous description of hundreds of indigenous languages, anthropological linguists using this body of data worked on the problem of language histories and the division of current languages into families of related languages with the concomitant contribution to cultural history....   [tags: Human Communication, Ethnography of Speaking] 2740 words
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Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis - Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis Barbiero, in his note on framing the innateness hypothesis, mentions that "to frame the innateness question is to attempt to distinguish among the different constraints and mechanisms that can be attributed to the human biological endowment for language". In this note, I follow up on Barbiero's proposal by discussing empiricist views, mainly Quinean views, on the innate learning mechanisms that enable children to acquire not only the semantics but also the syntax of their language....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition - A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's tradition. The Comparison of these is made on the grounds of the analysis of existence. Choosing "existence" as the object of the analysis is very essential. It is so because understanding of the category of existence is strongly connected with the whole system. Thus, while analyzing the category, one can make a reconstruction of the concept scheme (in both traditions); show their functioning; and compare them to each other....   [tags: Lvov-Warsaw School Frege Russell Tradition] 3709 words
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The Passive Voice - The Passive Voice The English language has two voices--the active and the passive. The active voice and the passive voice differ in that a passive verb phrase has an additional auxiliary BE followed by an EN participle. In a sense, the English passive is "inflexible" when compared to the passive formation of other languages. For example, some languages use word order, verb inflections, and impersonal constructions to form the passive voice. In their book, The Grammar Book: ESL/EFL Teacher's Course, Celce-Murcia and Larson-Freeman demonstrate how the Bantu passive voice differs from the English passive voice....   [tags: Research Paper Language Papers]
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Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar - Grammar and the Role of Writing Center Tutors as Teachers of Grammar Communication in any form requires a protocol. The evolution of language from sounds into words is proof of that. People recognized that in order for two people to understand each other, they must have a common code that will allow each one to transmit and receive signals accurately. If the word “red” signified two different colors to two different people, for example, then there would be a breakdown of communication. Language has grown complex over time and in its current form, it enables users to communicate with precision and nuance....   [tags: Teaching Writing Grammer Education] 6463 words
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Biomechanical and Cognitive FOR - During a literature search to find an operational definition for the concept “frames of reference (FOR)” within occupational therapy (OT), the AOTA’s 2nd edition of the book “Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process” delivered no specific definition despite it’s stated purpose to “present a summary of interrelated constructs that define and guide occupational therapy practice” (AOTA, 2008). Further readings of older and current OT literature, offered conflicting views or definitions for FOR and it is often difficult to distinguish between the meanings of FOR and models, finding oneself in a “semantic minefield” (Hagedorn, 1994): “In summary, model building is composed of five phases which forms a sequence of interlocking systems… the frame of reference, assumptions and concepts are crucial to exploring, organizing and developing the model… [A frame of reference is] a mechanism which can be used to explain the relationship of theory to action… [it] is not the total model, but does form part of the model building process” (Reed, 1984)....   [tags: Occupational Science] 792 words
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Subliminal Perception, Neuropsychology, and the I-Function - Unconscious Processing: Subliminal Perception, Neuropsychology, and the I-Function In his 1957 book The Hidden Persuaders, Vance Packard warned the American public that "Large-scale efforts are being made, often with impressive success, to channel our unthinking habits, our purchasing decisions, and our thought processes... Typically these efforts take place beneath our level of awareness; so that the appeals which move us are often, in a sense, hidden" (1). Packard was convinced - perhaps rightly so - that advertisers were "professional persuaders" whose marketing techniques were deceptive and overly manipulative....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Dissociative Identity Disorder - Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is considered by the American Psychiatric Association to be one of 4 main kinds of dissociative disorders (DSM-IV): "The essential feature of dissociative disorders is a disturbance or alteration in the normally integrative functions of identity, memory, or consciousness" (8). If identity is the main function affected, the person is said to have DID. Most non-DID people have one identity comprised of many parts that work harmoniously together....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Ontological Relativism and the Pragmatic Notion of Metaphysical Truth - Ontological Relativism and the Pragmatic Notion of Metaphysical Truth ABSTRACT: I. Introduction The mind body problem resembles a black hole in the universe of philosophy: It takes a lot of energy which could be spent otherwise. Therefore, it would be liberating to show that it is not a problem at all. That is exactly what I shall do in this paper. Roughly, I shall argue as follows: First, I will show that the traditional mind body problem as a logical conflict will not occur if one is more decided in dualism....   [tags: Philosophy Metaphysics Research] 2267 words
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A Kantian Interpretation of Demonstrative Reference - A Kantian Interpretation of Demonstrative Reference ABSTRACT: According to Kant, we refer to what is out there in the world by performing a demonstrative act, like pointing at an object with a finger. A Kantian mode of demonstrative reference is characterized by the existence of a real, 2-placed affective relation between an intuiting subject and the referent. Parsons suggests that Kantian intuition is both singular and immediate, and immediacy demands an object of intuition to be present, a condition clearly satisfied by objects within our immediate perceptual field....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Kant Essays] 3142 words
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Thoughts on a Possible Rational Reconstruction of the Method of - Thoughts on a Possible Rational Reconstruction of the Method of "Rational Reconstruction" ABSTRACT: Rational reconstructions standardly operate so as to transform a given problematic philosophical scientific account-particularly of a terminological, methodological or theoretical entity-into a similar, but more precise, consistent interpretation. This method occupies a central position in the practice of analytic philosophy. Nevertheless, we encounter-even if only in a very few specific publications-a vague image of it....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Performance Practice in a World Music Ensemble - Performance Practice in a World Music Ensemble INTRODUCTION One of the objectives of the Indiana University International Vocal Ensemble (IVE) is to sing music of non-western cultures in the native language, and to the degree possible, sing with integrity of vocal and musical style. A subsequent objective is to imitate music accurately when presented with an aural model. With these objectives in mind I am interested in semantic perception and computer analysis cues of vocal timbre and the degree, if any, to which vocal timbre can be imitated between cultures, and how this information can be added to a transcription to aid the singer....   [tags: Timbre Music Essays] 1652 words
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Bull Durham: To The True Meaning Of The First Fight Scene - Bull Durham: To the True Meaning of The First Fight Scene The theme of this paper is to dissect the first fight scene; in the movie Bull Durham, between Crash Davis; who is played by Kevin Costner; and "Nuke" LaLoosh; who is played by Tim Robbins. The fight takes place in a bar scene between these two men who have never met before. The reason for the fight is that Crash Davis is talking to a women by the name of Annie Savoy who is sitting at one of the tables. Nuke already believes that Annie is going to be with him all season long, but Crash believes otherwise....   [tags: essays research papers] 1727 words
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Communication Process - Communication Process Introduction Communication establishes relationships and makes organizing possible. Every message has a purpose or objective. The sender intends -- whether consciously or unconsciously -- to accomplish something by communicating. In organizational contexts, messages typically have a definite objective: to motivate, to inform, to teach, to persuade, to entertain, or to inspire. This definite purpose is, in fact, one of the principal differences between casual conversation and managerial communication....   [tags: essays research papers Work Communication] 816 words
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Vocabulary - Introduction One of the most fascinating aspects of words is that they all have a past. Some words in English, for example, can be shown to have been in place for more than 5000 years (P. Baldi, 1999). Ordinarily we pay little attention to the words we articulate; we concentrate instead on the meaning we intend to express and we are seldom conscious of how we express that meaning. Only if we make a mistake and we have to correct it or we have difficulty remembering a word we become conscious of our word....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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What is an expert? - Currently the most prevalent is that an expert is a person who has some skill or knowledge in some domain that is matched by only a few other people. These people are thus extraordinary in some way. Anders Ericsson, probably the best known of the researchers on expertise defines expertise as Relatively stable outstanding performance.Experts are often labeled as such. People called exceptional, superior, gifted, talented, specialist, expert, etc. tend to belong to the set of experts. There is no doubt that there are large differences in the quality of performance of different people on different tasks or in different domains....   [tags: essays research papers] 1566 words
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