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The Existence Of God - The existence of God has long been a topic of debate. It is the ultimate topic of discussion, as everyone seems to have an opinion on it. I will look at the traditional arguments for the existence of God, the ones that have stood the test of time, and find out how convincing the arguments really are by looking at each one in turn, analysing the logic behind each argument, and finally looking at its criticisms and the responses to the criticisms. The first argument for the existence of God I will look at is the cosmological argument, more commonly known as the "First Cause" argument....   [tags: Religion, Theology, Philosophy] 1655 words
(4.7 pages)
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Response to George Berkeley’s Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous - A Response to George Berkeley’s Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous The following essay is a response to George Berkeley’s Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, in which he argues that the Cartesian notion of substance is incoherent, that the word "matter" as Descartes uses it, does not mean anything. This essay is also about words as memories, and about the two fictional Marcels, young and old. Hylas is a Cartesian thinker, and Philonous is Berkeley’s voice of reason. Words are like vessels—they are merely novel constructions of sounds empty of meaning until we fill them....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays] 1021 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Truth of Proust and Descartes - The Truth of Proust and Descartes In the Overture, Marcel first puts forth his task: to "piece together the original components of [his] ego." (Proust 6) In his synopsis of the Meditations, Descartes, too, puts forth his goal: to attain the "most certain and most evident… knowledge of our mind and of God" (Descartes 10). These projects are parallel: in two remarkably different literary forms and through two very different philosophical processes, the authors, Proust and Descartes, through their narrators, seek to comprehend truth....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays] 781 words
(2.2 pages)
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Enlightenment and the Death of God - Enlightenment and the Death of God Intellectual thought since Nietzsche has found itself one way or another addressing the death of God. Most of this thinking, however, has taken place from an atheistic starting point and has not considered its own presuppositions. It strives to find consistent outworking from these presuppositions and to eradicate the shadow of God carried over from the Enlightenment tradition because of its grounding in a theistic worldview. However, the outcome and implications of thinking after the death of God has been found hideous and many attempts have been made to transcend the absurdity there....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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3437 words
(9.8 pages)
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No Universal Truth - No Universal Truth Hume wrote, “be a philosopher; but, amidst all your philosophy, be still a man,” (qtd. in Jones 351). This statement strikes me more than all others, written by Hume or any of the philosophers from W. T. Jones’ Hobbes to Hume. It demonstrates to me that even after all of the inquisition towards what and how we can know anything, and the very methodical ways in which Hume is reputed to examine these things, he realizes that nothing is truly certain and begins to lean towards a pragmatic and radically empirical point of view....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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1588 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Philosophies of John Stuart Mill as a Guide for the World - The Philosophies of John Stuart Mill as a Guide for the World Dr. Pest's comments: This student's term paper is a model of how to apply the philosophical concepts of a previous century to our present society. She showed how the ideas of John Stuart Mill can be used by intelligent people to construct a society with more opportunities for women and to insure respect for intellectual freedom. As the world moves into the twenty-first century, it faces many problems. War, disease, over-population, and starvation are examples of problems that have yet to be solved....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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4251 words
(12.1 pages)
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Karma - Karma The doctrine of Karma is a spiritual doctrine based on the theory of cause and effect. Although Karma does not exactly fit the definition of supernatural phenomenon it is a spiritual doctrine based on the philosophy that God is not responsible for the happiness or failure of an individual, rather, we as individuals are solely responsible for the consequences of our own behavior. The concept of Karma has two major interpretations; the most common approaches are to the idea of reincarnation, particularly in the West where the idea has almost no existence....   [tags: Spiritual Religion Philosophy Essays]
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1057 words
(3 pages)
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Relationships in a World without God - Relationships in a World without God In a world in which lives are shaped by irreversible choices and by random events, a world in which everything occurs but once, existence seems to lose its substance. Life in this designless universe raises questions of identity and can cause turmoil between the relationships of the self to others, the self to history, and the self to God. Through the words of existentialist novelists and philosophers Milan Kundera and Jean-Paul Sartre, we witness the philosophical and psychological struggles for identity, existence, and ‘being’ of the characters in The Unbearable Lightness of Being, and Nausea....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Religion Essays] 2220 words
(6.3 pages)
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Confucianism And Buddhism - Are Confucianism and Buddhism religions. To answer this question one must first find the definition of the word religion. According to our text book the word religion come from the Latin word religio which means awe for the gods and concern for proper ritual (experiencing the worlds religion 3). The definition of the word religion according to several dictionaries is a belief in a divine or superhuman power or powers to be obeyed and worshiped as the creator and the ruler of the universe, or any specific systems of belief, worship or conduct often involving a code of ethics and philosophy....   [tags: Comparative Religion] 973 words
(2.8 pages)
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Hinduism - What is Hinduism. Sanatana Dharma, otherwise known as Hinduism, means "eternal religion". Defining Hinduism may be difficult due to multiple variations of religions, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, which have steamed from Sanatana Dharma beliefs. Instead of focusing on a direct definition of Hinduism, it might be easier to identify Hindu philosophies and key practices that make up Hindu beliefs. Is it a religion or is it a culture. The truth is - it is both a religion and a way of life. Hinduism is also known as "Sanatana Dharma" to Hindus....   [tags: Religion Hindu] 1148 words
(3.3 pages)
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Social Contract Theory and the Nature of Society, Rules and Morality - Social Contract Theory and the Nature of Society, Rules and Morality Social contract theory is a philosophy about the nature of morality and the origins of society. Its adherents believe “social organization rests on a contract or compact which the people have made among themselves” (Reese, 533). This concept was first articulated by the Sophists, who said societies are not natural occurrences but rather the result of a consensus of people (Reese 533). Plato expresses these ideas in The Republic when he says that society is created to meet human needs (Encyclopedia 1)....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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660 words
(1.9 pages)
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Islam And Christianity - Christianity and Islam continue to be the two fastest growing religions in the world. Men and women, both Christian and Muslim, are now asking the question, must these two religions collide. Is there no common ground between them. Many Muslims are taught that Christianity seeks to eliminate Islam; that Christians have no knowledge or understanding of their faith; that Christians condemn Islam, and hold the teachings of Islamic Fundamentalism responsible for many if not all the terrorist activities throughout the world....   [tags: Religion Religious] 1928 words
(5.5 pages)
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Theories, People, Places, And Events Surrounding The New Testament - The New Testament, a compilation of ancient texts dating from the birth of Jesus Christ to an unknown Second Coming of Christ, is a very important document to the archaeological history of the world, as well as the history of man on Earth. However, one would wonder how and why it was written, what influenced it, who were the people involved in it, what events surround it, and so on. Essentially, what truly influence the New Testament to stand at its current status quo. The attempt is made here to expostulate on that and attempt to provide an answer or answers to those pressing questions....   [tags: Religion Religious ] 1546 words
(4.4 pages)
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Scientology - Scientology Some hale and some hate L. Ron Hubbard. Before my months of research into the religion of Scientology I had never learned of a man so loved and so dispised by many. The science-fiction writer turned leader/ antithesis depending on where you stand made his way into the world in 1950 when a book called dianetics hit America's west coast like a storm. Some claim it was his plan saying he was only out for money. I can not conclude other than that L. Ron Hubbard was a genius in the craft of foolery and money making....   [tags: Religion Scientology] 1226 words
(3.5 pages)
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Confucianism - Confucianism The religion of Confucianism is and interesting and unique religion. The various parts of this belief system deal more with humanity than with deities or supernatural occurrences. It is this fact that leads many to believe that Confucianism is more a philosophy or way of life than a religion. There are, however, various ceremonies and beliefs that those who follow Confucianism observe. In short, Confucianism has had more impact on the lives of the Chinese than any other single religion....   [tags: Religion Confucianism] 1263 words
(3.6 pages)
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Taoism - Throughout history, Taoism has been one of the most influential religions of Eastern culture. This is certainly one of the most unique of all religions. Many Taoists, in fact, do not even consider it a religion; and in many ways it is not. Taoists make no claim that the Tao exists. That is what essentially separates Taoism from the rest of the world religions: there is no heated debate or battle over Taoist doctrine; there have been no crusades to spread the religion. The very essence of Taoism is quite the opposite....   [tags: Religion Tao] 1819 words
(5.2 pages)
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Buddhism - Buddhism As a college student that has lived and grown up in western New York, I do not have too much experience with the other religions of the world. I have grown up a Christian Protestant my whole life, and I am a firm believer in my religion. Soon after reading the chapter on Buddhism in Huston Smith’s book The World’s Religions, I came to understand and respect the Buddhist religion. I came to learn who the Buddha as a man really was, and the steps he took in becoming a religious icon. I know understand that Buddhism is not all meditation and relaxing....   [tags: Religion Buddhism] 1605 words
(4.6 pages)
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An Inseparable Nation - ... Once cannot live without common sense, and common sense is meaningless if it challenges God’s intent. It is possible to find a balance between these two basic philosophies of self-governing just as it is possible to balance the laws of society with the commandments of the Church: “One man: both citizen and ecclesiastical.” (Leo XIII) The philosophies of Divine Law and Natural Law are the basis for all earthly governing. Divine Law consists of commands given directly from God through scripture and tradition; whereas, the philosophy of Natural Law is derived from human ratiocination....   [tags: Religion, Government]
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2099 words
(6 pages)
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The Origins Of The Church Of Scientology - ... Ron Hubbard was very intelligent and ambitious; at the age of three years old he began reading books on philosophy and other topics that are said to be far beyond the analytical comprehension of a “youngster”. Furthermore, while leading his fellow scouts to victory in the Washington Post sponsored Scout Advancement Competition at the age of twelve, Hubbard became the youngest boys scout in history to accomplish this task and receive twenty-one merit badges in ninety days, Even as a child he was exceptional (lronhubbard.org/biography)....   [tags: Religion Scientology]
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1556 words
(4.4 pages)
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Mind, Matter and Descartes - Mind, Matter and Descartes "Cogito Ergo Sum," "I think, therefore I am," the epitome of Rene Descartes' logic. Born in 1596 in La Haye, France, Descartes studied at a Jesuit College, where his acquaintance with the rector and childhood frailty allowed him to lead a leisurely lifestyle. This opulence and lack of daily responsibility gave him the liberty to offer his discontentment with both contrived scholasticism, philosophy of the church during the Middle Ages, as well as extreme skepticism, the doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible....   [tags: Philosophy essays] 673 words
(1.9 pages)
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Philosophical Anthropology - Philosophical Anthropology ABSTRACT: Philosophers cannot avoid addressing the question of whether philosophical anthropology (that is, specifically philosophical inquiry about human nature and human phenomenon) is possible. Any answer must be articulated in the context of the nature and function of philosophy. In other words, philosophical anthropology must be defined as an account of the nature of the subject of philosophical thinking. I argue that if philosophical thinkers admit that they are beings in nature, culture, and history, then the possibility of a uniquely philosophical theory of human nature and human phenomenon should be discarded....   [tags: Philosophy Essays] 2994 words
(8.6 pages)
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Man's Search for the Purpose of Life - Man's Search for the Purpose of Life Man is in search of happiness, but has no peace of mind. Even if he succeeds in achieving his objectives, he remains dissatisfied. His search for peace and happiness, therefore, never ends. Saint Augustine says that God gave us the senses for using them properly, but we misuse them by indulging in sensual pleasures; whereas the bliss for which we should have striven remains enshrined in scriptures only. Man is an ensouled entity gifted with body, mind, and intellect....   [tags: Religion Christianity Happiness Philosophy Essays] 5502 words
(15.7 pages)
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Confucianism And Christianity - History's halls rang with the sound of a single hammer as one man remodeled Christianity for all time. This man was Martin Luther, and he changed history's course when he nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg, Germany on October 31, 1517. These theses challenged the Roman Catholic Church by inviting debate over the legitimacy of many of the Church's practices, especially the sale of indulgences.1 Luther's simple action not only got him into trouble with church authorities but also precipitated the reform of Roman Catholicism in Europe....   [tags: Religion Religious] 1841 words
(5.3 pages)
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Perception of God's Presence in Paton's Novel Cry, the Beloved Country - Theoretically, the Bible states that God is always present alongside his people. “Teach them to obey everything that I have taught you, and I will be with you always, even until the end of this age.” Matthew 28:20. In the novel, Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton, conveys a message that God’s presence is both acknowledged and ignored by the characters and a message to “love thy brother as yourself” (Matthew 19:19) through forgiveness in spite of of skin color. Foremost, Stephen Kumalo continuously seeks and lives in the presence of the Lord....   [tags: Theology, Religion] 773 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Existence of God I According to Descartes - The Existence of God I According to Descartes Once Descartes has "proved" his existence by way of the Cogito argument, and has determined what it is that belongs to his essence of being a thinking thing, he must move to examining questions about the world around him. However, before doing this, he thinks it better to examine the question of the existence of God. If he can prove that he was created by a perfectly benevolent creator, then his innate ideas must carry some semblance of truth, as God is not a deceiver and has placed these ideas in Descartes....   [tags: Religion God Descartes Philosophy Essays] 1751 words
(5 pages)
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A Life of Celibacy; Buddhism and Sex - A Life of Celibacy; Buddhism and Sex Buddhism which just may be the most tolerant religion in the world, constitutes teachings that can coexist with almost any other religions. Buddhism began with Siddhartha Gautama who lived in northern India in the sixth or fifth century B.C.E. The religion has guidelines in two forms in which Buddhist followers must follow. These are the Four Noble Truths and the Eight fold Path. Buddha taught that man is a slave to his ego and that the cause of suffering is desire, essentially the way to end suffering is to overcome desire....   [tags: Religion Buddhism] 1901 words
(5.4 pages)
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Gregory's First Theological Oration - Gregory's First Theological Oration Growing up as a Catholic, I never even considered watching whom I spoke in front of when in a conversation about God. I never dwelled on the fact that I might be putting "the sword into the enemies hands", or that only people that were concerned with God should speak of Him. Gregory of Nazianzus believed that only certain people, certain places and certain occasions were worthy of the discussion of God. In Gregory's First Theological Oration, he clearly delivers the guidelines that believers should heed when speaking of or about God....   [tags: Religion Religious] 1623 words
(4.6 pages)
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Workplace Spirituality - ... The meaning may be related to personal value, such as contributing to society and others, and go beyond monetary benefits. The third one is transcendence of self, connecting to something larger than self. This theme includes the connectedness to others, community, and the organization. The final theme is “personal growth and development of one’s inner life at work”. Organization can provide conditions for the growth and development of employees. Despite various perspectives about workplace spirituality, three dimensions were focused in the present study....   [tags: Religion, Work] 790 words
(2.3 pages)
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Prosperity and Peril at the Peak with Pericles - ... With this newfound “material as well as moral independence,” (Robinson 38) the self-represented people of Athens began to have an identity. With this greater equality and freedom came new ideas, and ideals, among intellectuals in Athens. Whereas Greek philosophers were once concerned with nature, “now, in the new day of democracy, with its theory of human equality, they turned to the study of man” (Robinson 67). Because of democracy’s insistence on human’s roles in their society, and indeed its newness, philosophers now not only examined natural philosophy and science, but further considered human potential....   [tags: Philosophy, Greek] 1732 words
(4.9 pages)
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Mahayana Vs. Theravada: A Multiform Comparison - Significant differences abound between the two principal schools of modern Buddhism, Mahayana and Theravada. Among the many distinctions that exist, a few could be considered especially integral to an understanding of how these mutually exclusive divisions contrast with each other. Before treating these specific dissimilarities, however, it must be established that the one, fundamental divergence between the sects, which could possibly be understood as resulting in the following earmarks that make both brands unique unto the other, is that Mahayana practice stresses an inclusiveness that stands antithetically to Theravada’s doctrinal preservation....   [tags: Buddhism Religion] 1149 words
(3.3 pages)
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Siddhartha the Life of a Prophet - ... He is said to have fasted for six years trying to understand the why suffering existed. It is recorded that he deprived his body so much that he could have easily died; He held his breath until his head roared, ate little food-and what he did eat was sickening-endured painful body positions for lengthy periods, became entrusted with filth, and lost weight until his bones protruded and he could feel his bones protruded and he could feel his spine by pressing on his abdomen. (Warren 107) It is said that he underwent such extreme measures that at one moment he almost died had Siddhartha not have come by and given him some food....   [tags: Religion, Buddhism] 1390 words
(4 pages)
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Similarities Between Jesus and Others in History - Everything supposedly attributed to Jesus, and everything that Christians claim is special or unique about him had already been done many times before. He performed miracles, as many others before him claimed to have done. He was "born of a virgin", just like so many others. Last, but not least, Jesus claimed to be the son of God. It is believed that Jesus performed miracles, such as the infamous water into wine (John 2:9), and healing of the blind (Mark 8:21-23) But it has also been recorded that several other prominent figures in history have performed miracles themselves....   [tags: Religion Christian] 1014 words
(2.9 pages)
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The Path of a Buddhist - The Path of a Buddhist Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama. Today, Buddhism has an estimated seven hundred million followers, known as Buddhists. Most practicing Buddhists believe in ideas such as karma, dharma, samsara and nirvana. In addition to these, Buddhists base their lives and actions on the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Taught by Gautama, the Noble Eightfold path is a theory, that when put into action, serves as a way to end suffering (The Noble Eightfold Path)....   [tags: Religion Buddhism] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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David Hume's Anti Miracle Belief - The problem of miracles is an ancient one that has persisted for most of human history, but that has been addressed with some depth only in the last few centuries. The great empiricist philosopher David Hume was one of the first to present an analysis of miracles that tried to explain why they are created (by human beings themselves, in Hume’s opinion) and why people are so ready to believe in them. This is an important field of study, as with greater knowledge of the character of physical law, one finds more and more (rather than less) accounts of miracles being touted as exceptions to natural laws....   [tags: Philosophy Hume] 1579 words
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Comparing Phaedo and Ecclesiastes - Comparing Phaedo and Ecclesiastes   Separated by language, history and several hundred miles of the Mediterranean Sea, two of the world's greatest cultures simultaneously matured and advanced in the centuries before the birth of Christianity. In the Aegean north, Hellenic Greeks blossomed around their crown jewel of Athens, while the eastern Holy City of Jerusalem witnessed the continued development of Hebrew tradition. Though they shared adjacent portions of the globe and of chronology, these two civilizations grew up around wholly different ideologies....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3034 words
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Human Values and Ethics - What Science Cannot Discover, Mankind Cannot Know - Human Valuse and Ethics - What Science Cannot Discover, Mankind Cannot Know Those who maintain the insufficiency of science, as we have seen in the last two chapters, appeal to the fact that science has nothing to say about "values." This I admit; but when it is inferred that ethics contains truths which cannot be proved or disproved by science, I disagree. The matter is one on which it is not altogether easy to think clearly, and my own views on it are quite different from what they were thirty years ago....   [tags: Philosophy Essays] 4382 words
(12.5 pages)
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Comparing and Contrasting Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle - Introduction: We humans like to think. Some people take it as a hobby. While others take it as a job. That is basically what a philosopher is. A philosopher is a person that usually thinks about life and tries to find out mysterious questions, and how to solve them. Since a long time ago, in ancient Greece, many people would just meditate about life, and would sit or talk and write books about life. These have always been one of Greek's reasons of why it is so famous. Because of their marvelous philosophers....   [tags: Philosophers, Philosophy] 700 words
(2 pages)
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Thomas Paine: Patriot and Writer - ... While this support of society may seem contrary to views of modern transcendentalists, one must consider the reasoning behind the dislike of society exhibited by most transcendentalists. In Paine's time, society was unable to be independent and free just as in the 1830's and 1840's, the individual was unable to be independent and free. Both Paine and transcendentalists were merely trying to remove oppression in order to better themselves and make deeper connections to the soul and nature. Paine's views on the difference between Government and society can be seen early on....   [tags: Philosophy, Transcendentalism] 2046 words
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A Very Brief History on the Existence of God - ... Additionally, Descartes reasons that because he exists with an innate idea of God, God then must also exist. He explicitly states this: “I have no choice but to conclude that the mere fact of my existing is and of there being in me an idea of a most perfect being, that is God, demonstrates most evidently that God too exists” (34). In the Fifth Meditation, Descartes offers a second, but similar proof for God’s existence. Descartes begins by asserting that a triangle, even if it does not exist anywhere in the world “still has a certain determinate nature, essence, or form which is unchangeable and eternal” which is not fabricated and which does not depend on the mind (43)....   [tags: Philosophy, Descartes] 1213 words
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A Very Brief History on the Existence of God - ... Descartes likens his innate idea of God to the “mark of a craftsmen impressed upon his work” –similar to a stamp which says ‘Made by God’. Additionally, Descartes reasons that because he exists as a thinking thing and has an innate idea of God, God then must also exist. He explicitly states this: “I have no choice but to conclude that the mere fact of my existing is and of there being in me an idea of a most perfect being, that is God, demonstrates most evidently that God too exists” (34). In the Fifth Meditation, Descartes offers a second, but similar proof for God’s existence....   [tags: Philosophy, Descartes] 1132 words
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The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The cosmological argument seeks to prove the existence of God by looking at the universe. It is an A posteriori proof based on experience and the observation of the world not logic so the outcome is probable or possible not definite. The argument is in three forms; motion, causation and being. These are also the first three ways in the five ways presented by Aquinas through which he believed the existence of God could be shown....   [tags: Philosophy Religion] 800 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Ontological Argument - The Ontological Argument In Anselm's ontological argument he is trying to prove the existence of God, his argument is an argument purely based on the mind and does not require the moral agent to venture into the real of the senses. Ontology is to do with being, or what something is. Anselm's ontological argument concerns existence and whether it is an attribute of God in the same way omnipotence, omniscience and benevolence are believed to be. The argument is an a priori argument....   [tags: Philosophy Religion] 681 words
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The Teleological Argument - William Paley and David Hume’s argument over God’s existence is known as the teleological argument, or the argument from design. Arguments from design are arguments concerning God or some type of creator’s existence based on the ideas of order or purpose in universe. Hume takes on the approach of arguing against the argument of design, while Paley argues for it. Although Hume and Paley both provide very strong arguments, a conclusion will be drawn at the end to distinguish which philosophiser holds a stronger position....   [tags: Philosophy/Religion]
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Erasmus: Live Learn Love - ... Using the inclusion in his handbook of a section on "imitation," the normal practice in rhetorical theories, Erasmus would seem to hold to particular elements of standard rhetorical and educational practices. He moves counter to the way people were starting to move in that time. For Erasmus, a writer shows his independence by reproducing and going over the “holy” more classical representations to create a new and independent representation of “intertextuality.” Using pieces of unfamiliar texts would later be done in the works of Montaigne with what he termed topoi; and Bacon would use the term topoi by contrasting contradictory sayings or principles of wisdom, a practice he believes should be done, and he mentions this in “The Advancement of Learning.” However, according to Erasmus, appropriating and referring to older works showed that meaning was inherent in a part or an allusion and thus able to be used from one context to another, this he disagreed with much, most explicitly in his Convivium religiosum, and by Montaigne and Bacon, both, borrowed from Erasmus' works....   [tags: Religion, Philosophy]
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Evil and Sin - ... The slothful, those who failed to cultivate their love inhabit the next level (Alighieri 189-199), and finally the sins of avarice, gluttony, and lust, characterized by loving something good too strongly, are found near the top (Alighieri 203, 237, 266). It is clear that Dante did not yield to the simplistic view that all sin emanates from some evil power and is somehow beyond our control. Dante saw sin in our very nature – love. In canto seventeen he explains, “Not the Creator nor a single creature, as you know, ever existed without love, the soul's love or the love that comes by nature” (Alighieri 185)....   [tags: Religion Philosophy]
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From Apocalyptic to Messianic: Philosophia Universalis - From Apocalyptic to Messianic: Philosophia Universalis ABSTRACT: Perhaps for the first time in history, the turn of a millennium is directly reflected in philosophy-as an apocalyptic end of philosophy. Recently, an attempt to channel apocalyptic into messianic has been undertaken by Derrida in his Spectres of Marx. However, Derrida's endeavor does not relate directly to philosophy and thus does not alter its apocalyptic landscape. Considering the critical state of contemporary philosophy, it is unclear whether such an alteration can be performed in the West....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophic Essays]
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The American Encounter With Buddhism - Before reading "The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844-1912: Victorian Culture and the Limits of Dissent" by Thomas A. Tweed I had no experience with Buddhism except for what I have seen in the movies and in the media. Seeing Buddhism through these different sources, it does not portray an accurate illustration of what the religion is truly regarding. Having little to no knowledge about the background of the religion makes reading this book both interesting and a little difficult to read at the same time....   [tags: Tweed Buddhism Religion] 1390 words
(4 pages)
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Complementary: The Sacred and the Secular - ... Religiously, the shamans aided Kings in giving the proper sacrifices to ancestors. Shamans revered “deities [of] nature”, serving as an indirect premise to early Daoist concepts—“this worldly”. Politically, while also indirectly serving as the foundation of Confucian ideals, this separation of power established a social chain of command. Similarly, the introduction of filial piety allowed further religious and political merging. Ancestral worship varied, with heavy emphasis on royal lineage, and placed “political importance of the spirit world” in ordinance with “the state”....   [tags: Religion, Chinese Ideals] 1282 words
(3.7 pages)
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The World Consensus GameTM - The World Consensus GameTM The World Consensus GameTM allows anyone to contribute to the creation of a world consensus on issues that divide people. Participants can look up positions that have been taken on topics that people disagree on and can contribute to the discussion of these topics. Participation is easy to do. Once you identify a question that interests you, a map is provided that shows the positions that have been taken on that question along with definitions of positions. You can examine arguments that have been provided for a position, including the argument judged best by philosophers and the argument favored by the general public, and you can express your judgment on positions and arguments....   [tags: Communication Technology Philosophy Papers] 2297 words
(6.6 pages)
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The Rise Of Christianity - The rise of Christianity in philosophy One influential cult was based upon a mystical interpretation of Plato. Neo-Platonism was like a rational science that attempted to break down and describe every aspect of the divine essence and its relationship with the human soul. An Alexandrian Jew named Philo tried using Greek philosophy to interpret the Jewish scriptures. He wanted to unite the two traditions by suggesting that the Greek philosophers had been inspired by the same God who had revealed himself to the Jews....   [tags: Religion Christian Christianity] 1315 words
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Religious Influences in Government Policy - ... These false assumptions can be cleared with little effort, just a small amount of research into human history and one will find that these laws existed in the earliest forms of organized government; in fact one of the first laws ever known to have been developed was the code of Ur-Nammu (ca. 2050 B.C.¬)2 Long before the development of any monotheistic religion and certainly before it was possible for one of these to have influenced the development of our laws, and it includes amongst laws and punishments for theft, kidnapping, rape, and yes MURDER....   [tags: Government Law Religion]
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Scientology - Scientology In today's society it is evident that the worlds of science and religion are in a constant battle to explain many of life’s mysteries. Whereas science fields have their theorems and hypotheses, religions have doctrines and dogmas that frequently conflict with a scientist’s view. The age old question of whether science and religion will ever merge positively has been answered by the new religion Scientology. Scientology is described as an applied religious philosophy that began in the 1950's....   [tags: Religion Science Research papers]
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2061 words
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Hinduism - Hinduism Introduction Hinduism is a religion that originated in India and is still practiced by most of the Natives as well as the people who have migrated from India to other parts of the world. Statistically there are over seven hundred million Hindus, mainly in Bharat, India and Nepal. Eighty five percent of the population in India is Hindu. The word Hindu comes from an ancient Sanskrit term meaning "dwellers by the Indus River," referring to the location of India's earliest know civilization, the Pakistan....   [tags: Hindu Religion Papers]
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5650 words
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Christianity - "Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and if true, of infinite importance. The only thing it cannot be is moderately important" (C.S. Lewis). Christianity is a religion based on the life and teaching, in the New Testament, of Jesus. It is a type of religion that only believes in one God. People who follow this religion are called Christians. Most Christians believe that God is one eternal being who exists as three distinct, eternal, and indivisible persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ the eternal Word), and the Holy Spirit....   [tags: religion christianity report] 1640 words
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The Influence of Christianity on Ancient and Modern Greece - The Influence of Christianity on Ancient and Modern Greece Problems with format ?From the earliest establishment of Christian churches in Macedonia, Achaia, Epirus, and Crete, to the expansion of the Orthodox Church, Greece has been a formidable landmark for development of Christianity throughout the world.. From its arrival to Greece with the first preaching of Paul, the Christian faith has undergone a unique assimilation into the cultural and philosophical traditions of the Greek people to create a church, visibly distinguishable from all other sects and denominations of Christianity.....   [tags: Greek Creece Religion Essays]
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Plato's Antipaideia: Perplexity for the Guided - Plato's Antipaideia: Perplexity for the Guided ABSTRACT: ‘Paideia’ connotes the handing down and preservation of tradition and culture, even civilization, through education. Plato’s education of philosophers in the Academy is inimical to such an essentially conservative notion. His dialectical method is inherently dynamic and open-ended: not only are such conclusions as are reached in the dialogues subject to further criticism, so are the assumptions on which those conclusions are based. In these and other ways explored in this paper, Plato demonstrates that paideia has no harbor within philosophy....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays] 3120 words
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The Factor of Consolidation of the Mankind - The Factor of Consolidation of the Mankind Works Cited Missing ABSTRACT: The aspiration of people almost everywhere to construct a public life on the basis of justice is the predominant tendency in the historical development of humankind. The natural world in which we dwell is, from the standpoint of our using its resources to satisfy our vital needs, one and indivisible. Thus, the public conditions of human activity in the economic, social, and political spheres should be brought into harmony with nature's conditions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 2974 words
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The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard - The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard ABSTRACT: Following Ronald Green's suggestion concerning Kierkegaard's dependence upon Kant, I show how Kierkegaard drew upon Kant's The Metaphysics of Morals in order to develop his own doctrine of divine love. Where Kant saw only a peripheral role for love in the moral life, we will see how Kierkegaard places love at the center of human life in Works of Love. The leap of faith requires that every aspect of life be informed by love in response to God's love for us....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Karl Jaspers and Seung Sahn - Karl Jaspers and Seung Sahn In this paper I will be making a comparison between the thoughts of Karl Jaspers and Korean Zen master Seung Sahn on the nature of consciousness and transcendence. The essays in question by Jaspers are his essays “On the Origin of My Philosophy,” written in 1941, and his lectures on the significance of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and “the Encompassing,” given in 1935 (p. 158). The other text being studied is The Compass of Zen, a compilation of Seung Sahn’s lectures on the three main branches of Buddhism....   [tags: Compare Contrast Philosophy Essays]
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Jainism - Jainism Jainism is one of the oldest practicing religions, although, today Jainism appears in its present day form in the areas of Northeastern India, just as it did thousands of years ago. It's a religion composed in arrangement so that it's characteristic are associated with the religions like Buddhism and Hinduism. In the beginning, however, the Jains prayed to the Hindu gods mainly for earthly support like a male heir, long life, and prosperity. Jainism can be trace its beginnings to the Indus river valley civilization of three thousands B.C....   [tags: Religion History Religious Essays] 2360 words
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Reincarnation - Reincarnation Although reincarnation is not a scientifically proven fact, its existence cannot be disproved either. Reincarnation is central to Buddhist philosophy. Without the existence of reincarnation, among other things, the law of karma would not hold, thus throwing into question almost all other tenets of Buddhism (Tibetan or otherwise). At the same time, Buddhism is a religion that asks practitioners to examine each of its beliefs closely before accepting them. Of all other world religions, Buddhism is probably the one that places the least importance on blind faith....   [tags: Religion Buddhism Spiritual Papers]
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Women’s Bodies in Taoism - Women’s Bodies in Taoism “I would rather live in a world where my life is surrounded by mystery than live in a world so small that my mind could comprehend it.” This powerful statement by Henry Emerson Fosdick so simply defines the concept of a common Chinese religion. Taoism is a religion practiced by many Asians and by people around the world. It is a religion that is so beautifully complex and yet based on principle as simple as breathing in and out. This paper will outline some basic information on the Taoist tradition, examine the views of the female body in Taoism as presented by Barbara Reed and my own critique of the tradition will be provided....   [tags: Religion Religious Essays]
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Hinduism and Buddhism - Hinduism and Buddhism Works Cited Not Included      Throughout the world, different nations have different beliefs or religion. Some religions evolve from others, and others are combination of other religions. Religion is a way of life, a lifestyle; it should dictate how you live your life. For instance, in India, Buddhism evolved from Hinduism, a religion were people believe in 300, 000 gods. Even though, Hinduism and Buddhism have different similarities such as believes in god, soul, and rituals, which in some ways connected to each other, both religions believe of what happens after life....   [tags: Religion Religious Essays Papers] 1023 words
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The Sacred Books In Hinduism And Buddhism - Sacred Books, in my opinion, are the most important things that can preserve the knowledge of religion. When transmitted orally certain interpretations may occur, especially when translated into different languages. India was a mother of many religions, particularly Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism “has no one identifiable founder, no strong organizational structure to defend it and spread its influence, nor any creed to define and stabilize its beliefs; and in a way that seems to defy reason, Hinduism unites the worship of many gods with a belief in a single divine reality.” (Molloy: 74) The Hindu scriptures are divided into two parts, the shrutis (what is heard) and the smritis (what is remembered)....   [tags: Hinduism Buddhism Religion ] 1581 words
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Daoism: A Journey - ... Full of sagacity and wisdom, the Tao Teh Ching first addresses the issue of the Dao and its place as a core belief among Daoists. The Dao, roughly translated as “the Way”, is perhaps better explained by Lao Tzu in the Tao Teh Ching than in any other text. The very first section of the Tao Teh Ching puts the Dao rather simply stating, “Tao can be talked about, but not the Eternal Tao./ Names can be named, but not the Eternal Name./ As the origin of heaven-and-earth, it is nameless:/ As “the Mother” of all things, it is nameable,” (3)....   [tags: Religion, Taoism, China] 1166 words
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China and Japan - ... The effect of Buddhism in China was one of the most profound changes China ever had, as it affected their economy. This time, economy brought about religion; Buddhism came into China through international trade. As South Asian countries came into China, they spread their religion which at that time was majorly Buddhism. To gain favor from the foreign traders, the emperors showed frivolities towards them. “Tang emperors spent huge sums of money on Buddhism” (Dubois, 2011, p. 34). They constructed Buddhist monasteries, excluded monks from taxes and lavished them with other benefits....   [tags: Chinese Philosophy, Ming ] 1014 words
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Taoism: Potential Within Passivity - Taoism is the first major philosophical and religious tradition explored by Peter Marshall, in his book Nature's Web. Marshall calls Taoism "the way of nature," emphasizing that this is the ideal religion from the perspective of ecological sensibility. Passivity is a key element of Taoist thought, and is a repeated concept in the primary Taoist text, the Tao Te Ching. The concept of passivity stresses that the wise person will not attempt to cause change in his world, but will rather be receptive to and allow natural changes to happen, as is the way of nature....   [tags: Taoism Religion Ecology] 1456 words
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Skepticism - Skepticism Skepticism is the Western philosophical tradition that maintains that human beings can never arrive at any kind of certain knowledge. Originating in Greece in the middle of the fourth century BC, skepticism and its derivatives are based on the following principles: There is no such thing as certainty in human knowledge. All human knowledge is only probably true, that is, true most of the time, or not true. Several non-Western cultures have skeptical traditions, particularly Buddhist philosophy, but properly speaking, skepticism refers only to a Greek philosophical tradition and its Greek, Roman, and European derivatives....   [tags: Skeptic philosophy philosophers] 1132 words
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What Christian Literature Is - What Christian Literature Is Lewis here writes about Christianity and literature, specifically what is Christian literature and how does it differ with secular literature. He read this paper to a religious society at Oxford fairly early in his Christian walk. The question he seems to be answering is, "What is Christian literature?" His main argument is that the rules for good literature are the same for both Christian and non-Christian. He writes, "The rules for writing a good passion play or a good devotional lyric are simply the rules for writing tragedy or lyric in general;" He goes on to use a typical Lewisian styly argument by discussing a Christian cook book, "Boiling an egg is the same process whether you are a Christian or a Pagan." He then adds to his argument a very important point, that the Christian view of literature must be that attitude of excellence....   [tags: Christianity Literature Religion Essays] 4679 words
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Marcellin And Gandhi - How Religious Beliefs and Values have the power to Address Problems of Social Injustice and inspire us in our Own Lives. In the world that we live in today, nothing is more powerful than religious beliefs and values in society. Wars are fought and won over them, communities are brought closer because of them, and they transcend race, class and all social restraints. Religious beliefs and values have the power to address problems of social injustice and inspire us in our own lives. This can be seen though the analysis of great religious figures in the western and non western world, such as Marcellin Champagnat and Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi....   [tags: Marcellin Gandhi Religion Comparison] 1988 words
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Muslim Fundamentalism - The term "fundamentalism" came into existence at the Niagara Falls Bible Conference which was convened to define those things that were fundamental to belief. The term was also used to describe "The Fundamentals", a collection of twelve books on five subjects published in 1910 by Milton and Lyman Steward. Fundamentalism as a movement arose in the United States starting among conservative Presbyterian academics and theologians at Princeton Theological Seminary in the first decade of the Twentieth Century [5] [6]....   [tags: Religion Islam Muslim] 941 words
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The Integral Humanism of Mahatma - The Integral Humanism of Mahatma ABSTRACT: Humanism as a theistic, pragmatic theory was first conceived around 2000 BCE in India. It is a this-worldly, human-centered, secular philosophical outlook. Gandhi understands religion as connoting the individual’s integrity and society’s solidarity. Free-will for him is freedom of the "rational self." Morality is not a matter of outward conformity, but of inward fulfillment. His integral humanism is indicated by his enumerated seven social sins: (1) politics without principles; (2) wealth without work; (3) commerce without morality; (4) knowledge without character; (5) pleasure without conscience; (6) science without morality; and (7) worship without sacrifice....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Gandhi Essays] 2800 words
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Biography of J. Gresham Machen - Biography of J. Gresham Machen John Gresham Machen was born in Baltimore, Maryland on July 28th 1881 to parents Arthur Webster and Mary Hones Gresham. From an early age Machen was taught lessons of the bible and of Jesus. His family attended a Presbyterian church called Franklyn Street Presbyterian. (Wikipedia) Machen's father was a lawyer and therefore Machen was considered to be brought up in a rather privileged home. He attendee a private college where he was educated in classics such a Greek and Latin....   [tags: Biography Theology Religion Machen] 1823 words
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Do You Agree With Albert? - Do You Agree With Albert. INTRODUCTION I can’t seem to find the right words to begin a new chapter in my life. This is not only a research paper for a class in school any more. It symbolizes the beginning of what I have longed to do since I arrived at Santa Clara a few years back. I have had a yearning for a philosophy that makes sense to me personally; one that does not have to conform to anything I have studied so far. This is my chance. Although the format I have chosen is not the most elegant, it does organize my thoughts in the clearest way....   [tags: Science Religion Religious Essays]
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Korean Buddhism - Korean Buddhism Buddhism was first brought from China to the Korean peninsula in the year 372 CE. At this time the dominant and traditional religion was Shamanism. While Shamanism was the belief in animism and nature-spirit worship, Buddhism expressed the idea that human beings as well as nature possess spirits and should be included in the rites of worship. This had no conflict with Shamanism and so it was easily adapted. The early elementary forms of Buddhism believed primarily in cause and effect related to the path of happiness (Buddhapia)....   [tags: Religion Korea Religious Essays]
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Karl Marx - Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly liberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his father converted the family to the Evangelical Established Church, Karl being baptized at the age of six....   [tags: Biographies Philosophy Papers] 2357 words
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Consilience, by Wilson, Life is a Miracle by Berry and Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance by Pirsig - The Philosophy of Science in Consilience, by E. O. Wilson, Life is a Miracle by Wendell Berry and Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance by Robert Pirsig Introduction The plot where the fields of science, ethics and religion intersect is fertile for study, and the crops it yields often represent the finest harvest of an individualís mind. In our time, modern philosophers of science have tilled this soil and reaped widely differing and important conclusions about the nature of humankind, its relationship to the natural world and the role that science should take in the discernment process....   [tags: Philosophy Term Research Papers]
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Feminist Principles - ... To put in another way, the female is the mother and the mother is the Tao. The Tao makes up the world including the basis of life and life forms. For this reason, the mother of Tao makes it clear that she is the source of Yang and Yin. Another passage he elaborates on is water. One key point is that water is flexible, as well as, soft and weak even at the lowest level. In fact, water cannot be destroyed, thus making it stronger to conquer rocks and stones. This metaphor of water characterizes on the feminine principles of the Yin....   [tags: Philosophy, Lao Tzu] 1054 words
(3 pages)
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Hume On Empiricism - Hume On Empiricism The ultimate question that Hume seems to be seeking an answer to is that of why is that we believe what we believe. For most of us the answer is grounded in our own personal experiences and can in no way be justified by a common or worldly assumption. Our pasts, according to Hume, are reliant on some truths which we have justified according to reason, but in being a skeptic reason is hardly a solution for anything concerning our past, present or future. Our reasoning according to causality is slightly inhibited in that Hume suggests that it is not that we are not able to know anything about future events based on past experiences, but rather that we are just not rationally justified in believing those things that we do....   [tags: Hume Philosophy empiricism Essays] 1197 words
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The Potential of the Raëlian Movement through Humanism - The Potential of the Raëlian Movement through Humanism The Raëlian Movement, which began in late 1973, is a relative newcomer to the scene of world religions. While its late arrival has presented some difficulty in drawing followers, the movement has significant promise. The Raëlian Movement is overtly optimistic in its belief of the innate ability of humans to live prosperous lives. The Raëlian Movement combines principles of secular humanism effectively with scientific accounts of religious events to create a philosophy that has significant potential....   [tags: Religion Raëlian Movement Essays]
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