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Your search returned over 400 essays for "rationalism"
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Empiricism and Rationalism - Philosophy uses a term for empirical knowledge, “posteriori”, meaning that knowledge is “dependent upon sense experience”. (Markie, 2008, section 1.2) Yet, philosophical empiricism is defined in such an absolute way; which causes philosophical empiricism to be an inaccurate philosophical position from which to address all aspects of human life. Philosophical empiricism is defined as “the belief that all human knowledge arises from sense experience.” (Nash, 1999, page 254) Yet, medical empiricism is so far to the other extreme as to be insulting, while this empiricism is still said to be based on all sensory experience; only the scientific sensory experience is valued and counted....   [tags: philosophy]
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1014 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism - There are two main schools of thought, or methods, in regards to the subject of epistemology: rationalism and empiricism. These two, very different, schools of thought attempt to answer the philosophical question of how knowledge is acquired. While rationalists believe that this process occurs solely in our minds, empiricists argue that it is, instead, through sensory experience. After reading and understanding each argument it is clear that empiricism is the most relative explanatory position in epistemology....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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846 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism - Rationalism and empiricism were two philosophical schools in the 17th and 18th centuries, that were expressing opposite views on some subjects, including knowledge. While the debate between the rationalist and empiricist schools did not have any relationship to the study of psychology at the time, it has contributed greatly to facilitating the possibility of establishing the discipline of Psychology. This essay will describe the empiricist and rationalist debate, and will relate this debate to the history of psychology....   [tags: Philosophy]
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1587 words
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Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth - We live in a time where everyone is searching for a reason to believe in something, there have posters and advertisement stating that “Only Prayer Can Save America”. Well if prayer can save us then there is only one question left to be answered. Who are we praying to. What are we praying for. God is the almighty, the creator of everything and without him there would be no world and no us. But many people seem to question if He really exist. In the world there are many streams of philosophy that have argued the existence of God, Platonism, naturalism, Aristotelianism, realism, empiricism, and rationalism they have even tried to convince nonbelievers about the defensibility and validity of God...   [tags: Philosophy ]
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839 words
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Knowledge Acquisition: Empiricism vs Rationalism - For this critical analysis essay, I am writing on the following discussion post: "Rationalism is more via[b]le than empiricism in regards to knowledge. Empiricism may have the data and research to support its claims, but Rationalism strives to prove its evidence through reason. Using the example in our text book, the number 2 can never be greater than the number 3 - it is just plain illogical and does not make any sense to think or state that. Our reason for defending this claim is that using our priori, or from the former, states that we do not physically have to experience the number 3 being greater than the number 2 (the nature of numbers is gray area)....   [tags: Critical Analysis Essay]
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1780 words
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Empiricism Versus Rationalism: Descartes and Hume - Rationalism and empiricism have always been on opposite sides of the philosophic spectrum, Rene Descartes and David Hume are the best representative of each school of thought. Descartes’ rationalism posits that deduction, reason and thus innate ideas are the only way to get to true knowledge. Empiricism on the other hand, posits that by induction, and sense perception, we may find that there are in fact no innate ideas, but that truths must be carefully observed to be true. Unlike one of empiricism’s major tenets, Tabula Rasa, or blank slate, Descartes believed that the mind was not a blank slate, but actually came pre-loaded, if you will, with ideas, which are part of our rational nature an...   [tags: philosophy, god, science] 541 words
(1.5 pages)
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Rationalism in America: The Age That Shaped the World - It can be said, but not denied, that the United States of America is one of the most powerful countries in the world today, and has been for arguably the last one hundred years. With its political agendas and military strength it shapes governments; with its social trends and values it shapes cultures. But what, exactly, shaped the United States. The various worldviews that have sprouted from Western philosophy is the most obvious answer, but, to be more specific, it is how those worldviews were adopted that were of the most significance....   [tags: U.S. History ]
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1878 words
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Rene Descartes is a Rationalist - There is a distinct difference between rationalism and empiricism. In fact, they are very plainly the direct opposite of each other. Rationalism is the belief in innate ideas, reason, and deduction. Empiricism is the belief in sense perception, induction, and that there are no innate ideas. With rationalism, believing in innate ideas means to have ideas before we are born.-for example, through reincarnation. Plato best explains this through his theory of the forms, which is the place where everyone goes and attains knowledge before they are taken back to the “visible world”....   [tags: Rationalism vs Empiricism]
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716 words
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Rationalism and Empiricism - Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism and Empiricism are most likely the two most famous and intriguing schools of philosophy. The two schools deal specifically with epistemology, or, the origin of knowledge. Although not completely opposite, they are often considered so, and are seen as the "Jordan vs. Bird" of the philosophy world. The origins of rationalism and empiricism can be traced back to the 17th century, when many important advancements were made in scientific fields such as astronomy and mechanics....   [tags: Philosophy Epistemology Papers]
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1485 words
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The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz - The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieval philosophers and by Bacon and Hobbes....   [tags: Papers] 1674 words
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When Rationalism and Empiricism Collide: the Best of Both Worlds - For a lengthy period of time, philosophers have been fiercely debating the classification of philosophical epistemology into two categories: rationalism and empiricism. Empiricism is the idea that knowledge can only be gained through obtaining facts via observation or experimentation, while rationalism is obtaining knowledge through logical reasoning . Though rationalism and empiricism are very viable methods of thought in philosophy on their own, these philosophical schools’ arguments become much stronger when used in conjunction....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1310 words
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The Role of Naturalism and Rationalism in American and British Gun Policy - Although they may not be aware of it, complex philosophic principles influence the simple actions of the mass’s everyday lives. In fact, long lasting and well defined contentions of basic philosophy concerning the actions of human beings has not only affected individuals, but also entire countries. Some of the greatest nations on Earth have been formed around key thoughts and opinions of several great philosophers. Primarily amongst these, however, or John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom wrote on “The State of Nature”, or the state of absolute freedom....   [tags: Gun Control Laws] 753 words
(2.2 pages)
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Extreme Rationalism - Extreme Rationalism Rationalism is the idea that we can gain knowledge through the processes of mind alone. Empiricism is the idea that we can only gain knowledge through the senses. Empiricism has been adopted by the Western world because it is the foundation of the scientific approach to life that we use. Various popular sayings such as 'seeing is believing' and 'I heard it with my own ears', show that we accept the use of the senses without question....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
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The Effect of Rene Descartes and David Hume on the Philosophical World - Rene Descartes and David Hume both have had a profound effect on the philosophical world. Both these philosophers are associated explicitly with two separate schools of philosophy which are Rationalism and Empiricism. It is this division between Rationalism and Empiricism that allows for Descartes and Hume to present differing accounts of the mind and mentality. Descartes is widely recognized as the father of modern philosophy, he is a rationalist, who considers knowledge of the metaphysical as existing separate from physical reality believing that truth cannot be acquired through the senses but through the intellect in the form of deductive reasoning....   [tags: rationalism, empirism] 1078 words
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Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - There are different views about how we gain knowledge of the world, through our senses or through our minds, and although many say that it is one or the other I believe that although we gain some knowledge through sense data not all of our ideas come from these impressions. There are those who stand on the side of empiricism, like David Hume, and those who stand on the side of rationalism, like René Descartes; then there are also those who believe that one can have a foot on both sides, like Immanuel Kant....   [tags: rationalism, empiricism]
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1411 words
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Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge - Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge Rationalism ----------- Rene Descartes was the main rationalist. He said he believed he had to doubt everything known to him to really understand knowledge. Rationalism first began in Ancient Greece with two extreme rationalists - Parmenides and Zeno. Rationalists believed in innate ideas - ones that are present at birth, in the mind. When Descartes started his thoughts, it was in the 17th century, during the rise of science....   [tags: Papers] 986 words
(2.8 pages)
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How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 - How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 Many changes took place between 1650 and 1750. There was territory expansion as European countries started colonies in the Americas. Political changes took place as well, as people began to rise up against the government. New economic standards were set as people realized that having money was not the way to economic control but by controlling the means of production. Britain, France, and Spain were busy establishing colonies in the Americas....   [tags: Papers] 329 words
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The Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason Analysis - The “Age of Enlightenment” also known as the “Age of Reason” took place around Europe between the 17th and 18th century. It was a movement that took place to emphasize the use of reason and science in the world. In addition, it was to enlighten or shed light upon the use of factual reasoning and promote the use of evidence when doing things. Thinkers and well-known philosophers of the time such as Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert, Descartes, Montesquieu and more were beginning to understand and promote reasoning beyond the traditional ways of doing things....   [tags: reasoning, enlightment, rationalism] 648 words
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Analysis of Rathenau Paper on Policy and the Evidence Beast - ... Nevertheless, the empiric view of knowledge on which positivism is based has long been subject to limitations. Immanuel Kant noted for instance that knowledge does not only come from the senses but also from a basic pallet of conceptual knowledge we all have. Furthermore, the interpretation of observations can differ due to the different way everyone acquires concepts. The claims done by Staman and Slob (2012) mentioned earlier are analyzed below for using this perspective on science. The aforementioned claims (k1,k2 an k3) are all subject to reliability issues if true knowledge is assumed to only come from what is observable or inductive....   [tags: rationalism and social-constructivism]
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1263 words
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To Know Divine Revelation, We Must Understand How Faith and Reason Work - ... In order to understand how reason complements faith it is necessary to know how each works separately. Reason is “the mode or act of thinking; by extension it comes to designate on the one hand the faculty of thinking and on the other the formal element of thought, such as plan, account, ground, etc.” With reason humans have the power of the intellect to know universal truth. Thanks to reason humans are different from animals, as Aristotle once said “men is a rational animal”, without reason we would not have the capacity to know the truth....   [tags: God, salvation, rationalism] 633 words
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Analysis of Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy - Rene Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes set the groundwork for seventeenth century rationalism, the view opposed by the empiricist school of thought. As a rationalist, Descartes firmly believed in reason as the principal source of knowledge. He favoured deduction and intellect over the senses and because of this he did not find comfort in believing that his opinions, which he had developed in his youth, were credible. It is for this reason that Rene Descartes chose to “raze everything to the ground and begin again from the original foundations,” (13)....   [tags: rationalism, doubt, knowledge]
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1319 words
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Adam Smith: A Brilliant Thinker from the Enlightenment - The Enlightenment was during the eighteenth century, it had brought new ways of philosophy and new ways of thinking. The big idea of the enlightenment was taking old ideals and seeing how they can be improved and altered. Everything that was proved or discovered had to come through some sort of reason, either from experimentation or practical practice. The enlightenment had included many brilliant thinkers, in which one of them is Adam Smith. Adam Smith is considered the father of the science of political economy, he had thought up the idea of capitalism which had included the invisible hand theory, the idea of self-interest and laissez-faire, which states that businesses are free to act how...   [tags: capitalism, rationalism, empiricism] 1221 words
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Approaches to the Construction of Knowledge - ... Similarly, I defined the term “systematic organization” as a precise procedure which occurs and can reoccur and whose resulting product can be compartmentalized and build upon itself. The natural sciences such as biology or chemistry often use this method to support the information they present to the scientific community and to society. In my own experience with biology, there is great stress placed upon following the scientific procedure when conducting experiments in order to ensure accurate results....   [tags: systematic organization, rationalism, history] 1353 words
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Pragmatism as a Philosophy - I have often heard people use the word pragmatic to describe actions, laws or feelings, but I never really looked at pragmatism as a philosophy before. As we studied this semester I found myself asking one question about each philosophy we covered. We discussed skepticism and the claim that we have no knowledge (Lawhead, W., The Philosophical Journey, 2009, p. 55). We compared rationalism and empiricism which posit that we do have knowledge, but disagree on whether that knowledge comes from intellect or experience (Lawhead, p....   [tags: Skepticism, Rationalism, Metaphysics] 892 words
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Descartes and Aristotle - People live life one day at time with the same guidance from their ancestors, and they often question their existence in the universe and try to understand the world around them. People often question their existence in the universe. Philosophers try to answer questions that most people will not think of in their daily lives. Most philosophers try to get to the truth of logical questions through epistemology. Epistemology is a “branch of philosophy that studies the nature and possibility of knowledge” (Soccio)....   [tags: Rationalism, Priori, Posteriori, Philosophers]
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1353 words
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UCSB as a Rationalist Organization - The University of California Santa Barbara is an organization revolving around students and faculty alike. Any organizations can reflect two contrasting perspectives, a Naturalist or Rationalist, which underlines and questions the ideas of structure and formality. Naturalist organizations convey informality due to the basis on the flow of the members’ behavior and relationships among others. But nonetheless, Rationalist organization is formal because the organization’s fluidity is based on the members’ limits and structure....   [tags: Rationalist organization essay] 1116 words
(3.2 pages)
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Rationalim and Fascist Politics - Ghirardo points out that the relationship between modern architecture and fascism is not as clear as recent analysis might have it. What do you think was the aspiration for modern 'rational' architecture and why would it be associated with socialist politics. Further, why was there such a close relationship between modern architecture and fascism in Italy in the pre-war years, but not in germany. Rationalism was one of the key movements in Italy after world war one. It set about broadening the scope of modern architecture by formulating clear strategies for dealing with the industrialisation and urbanisation of Italy ....   [tags: Modern Architecture] 1401 words
(4 pages)
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The Romantic Movement - The Romantic Movement (1800-1850) Art as Emotion The goal of self-determination that Napoleon imported to Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria affected not only nations but also individuals. England's metamorphosis during the Industrial Revolution was also reflected in the outlook of the individual, and therefore in the art produced during the first half of this century. Heightened sensibility and intensified feeling became characteristic of the visual arts as well as musical arts and a convention in literature....   [tags: Rationalism Romanticism Landscape]
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568 words
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Consciousness - Most people would think of consciousness to be their inner thoughts or the awareness one has of themselves and their surroundings. My Introduction to Psychology textbook defines consciousness as,” the subjective experience of perceiving oneself and ones surroundings.” (Kalat, 2011, p.342). According to Oxford dictionary it can be defined in philosophy as “The state or faculty of being conscious, as a condition and concomitant of all thought, feeling, and volition; the recognition by the thinking subject of its own acts or affections” (Schwarz, 2004, p.425)....   [tags: rationalism, empiricism]
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1714 words
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Return to Curiosity: Privileging Wonder over Rationalism in Museum Displays and Learning - ... (Robinson, 2008) Although it is unclear whether the decline in divergent thinking over the course of childhood is directly caused by present education systems, it is clear that most learning energy is directed towards linear and rational forms of thinking. In Resonance and Wonder, Stephen Greenblatt describes the museum as a repository for traces of culture and talks about the resonance of objects. He writes: By resonance I mean the power of the object displayed to reach out beyond its formal boundaries to a larger world, to evoke in the viewer the complex, dynamic cultural forces from which it has emerged and for which as metaphor or more simply synecdoche it may be taken by a viewer t...   [tags: museum organization, contextualization]
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1449 words
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Realism and Literature - In the late eighteenth century, a movement spread throughout the world that was known as the Romantic Era. The works of authors, artists, and musicians were influenced by emotions and imagination. Characters in literature during that time period heavily relied on impulses to guide them in their decisions. Whether it be the logical choice or not, they followed their hearts instead. The image that romanticism created was one of a perfect, unrealistic lifestyle because of the worship to the beauty of nature and human emotions....   [tags: Rationalism, Logic]
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The University of California Santa Barbara as a Rationalist Organization - The University of California Santa Barbara is an organization that revolves around students and faculty alike. Organizations, as a whole, can reflect two contrasting perspectives, Naturalist or Rationalist, that underlines and questions the ideas of structure and formality. A Naturalist organizations highlights informality because it is based on the flow of the members’ behavior and relationships among others. However, a Rationalist organization is formal because the organization’s fluidity is based on the members’ limits and structure....   [tags: informative essay] 1158 words
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Othello: Admirable Leader but Poor Rationalist - In William Shakespeare’s “Othello”, the main character is presented as an admirable leader but a poor rationalist. He is recognized as a hero with the qualities of vigor, charm, and eloquence. However these principles of leadership aren’t always viewed as the criteria for a leader. The battleground is, to Othello at least, is depicted as a place of admiration, where men speak truthfully to one another. Also, the given circumstances of state and warfare are rather straightforward; no one deceives Othello because as leader he should be esteemed....   [tags: Shakespearean Literature ]
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975 words
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Influences of the Rationalist, Structuralist and Culturalist Theoretical Approaches on Comparative Politics - ... Political theorist Antonio Gramsci pointed out that coherence between these two schools of thought can be found when considering the fact that whilst, according to Marxist teachings, capitalist societies are based on underlying structural conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the manifestation of such conflict is dependent on the cultural circumstances of the country concerned. Similarly to culturalists, structuralists adopt a form of methodological holism. Structuralists task themselves with identifying the underlying dynamics that govern social systems as a whole, and upon doing so are able to embark on comparison between larger groups of countries governed by similar s...   [tags: behavior, cost, society] 1615 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Main Models of Comparative Politics - ... The rationalist school of modeling has a common ancestry with economics. Adam Smith, the prominent economic theorist and advocate of the free market is credited with helping to lay out the path for this model. Many of the predominate thinkers in this school of modeling were also established economists, for example Anthony Downs and Mancur Olson. This background in economics was a clear influence on these important contributors, as many of the approaches they take are borrowed from economics....   [tags: rationalist, structuralist, culturalist] 764 words
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Rationality of Organizations and Management Theories - ... It assumes that workers are lazy and cannot handle complicate works. The manger’s work is to issue simple tasks to their subordinates and closely monitor them. A firmly, fairly and detailed work routines and procedures should established too. Under this model, people are expected to be enduring if they pay well and they will produce up to standard because the tasks issued are simple enough and the progresses are closely controlled. The second one is human relation model. It assumes people want to gain self- confidence by getting achievement in their career....   [tags: substantive rationality, human resources]
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1756 words
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The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality - The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality ABSTRACT: The doctrines of the Socinians represent a rational reaction to a medieval theology based on submission to the Church’s authority. Though they retained Scripture as something supra rationem, the Socinians analyzed it rationally and believed that nothing should be accepted contra rationem. Their social and political thought underwent a significant evolutionary process from a very utopian pacifistic trend condemning participation in war and holding public and judicial office to a moderate and realistic stance based on mutual love, support of the secular power of the state, active participation in soci...   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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2830 words
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Education: Empiricists vs Rationalists - The importance of experience in education has always been the subject of philosophical debates. These debates between empiricists and rationalists have been going on for quite some time. Rationalists are of the view that knowledge acquired through senses is unreliable and learning can only be done through reasoning. On the other hand, empiricists believe knowledge is acquired through empirical impressions and concepts that cannot be learnt without being experienced (Evans, 1992, p. 35). This debate was however resolved by Kant who argues that both experience and rationality are necessary in learning....   [tags: philosophy of education]
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How Is the Conflict between Rationality and Irrationality Developed in "Death in Venice?" - The purpose of this essay is to examine the conflict between rationality and irrationality in Death in Venice and to assess how this conflict is developed and possibly resolved. This conflict is fought and described throughout the short story with reference to ancient Greek gods, predominately Apollo and Dionysus and through the philosopher and philosophy of Plato. Through contemporary influences such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, Mann further reflects on these ancient sources through a modern prism and this he does in this tale of life and death of the protagonist Aschenbach....   [tags: European Literature] 1997 words
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A Rationalize of Why People Use Skin Bleaching Products - This paper looks at the way the guy I mean people rationalize their use of skin bleaching products. It also looks at the forces that have led to this predicament of shame and ugliness in any skin tone other than white skin. I have also looked into the psychological and physical effects of colorism on the people of Ghana. The idea of Colorism is not new. It is only recently that a name has been placed on it and it has been studied. Countries that have people with various skin tones have always practiced ways to lighten their skin....   [tags: colorism, beauty, advertisements] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks - Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks As the scientists Jonathan Crystal and Allison Foote have found that rats have “high mental power,” the report of the research suggests that rats can be used in future neuroscience experiments. As a result, the usage of rats in the neuroscience experiments will be increased. The author of the article, Rats and Rationality, Joel Marks argues against this proposal and emphasizes that the usage of rats in the experiments should be decreased. Mark argues that the conclusion of the research to use rats in neuroscience experiment is illogical....   [tags: Article Review]
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982 words
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can rationality and morality coincide - To begin, one can define rationality as a quality of being agreeable to reason. It is when a person does the correct or valid reason in his or her head. It is the correct thing that one honestly considers to be the right thing. On the other hand, morality can be defined as the quality to act properly, it is the way a person conducts or behaves. Morality is about the rightness or the wrongness of something. A good example for morality is that the way a person treats another which can be like if a person needs respect from another, he or she has to show respect to others....   [tags: Value Domains, Rational Agent]
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979 words
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The Economic Rationality Assumption - The economic rationality assumption has given an important connation for the market efficiency, as it has been the base to carry out the construction of the modern knowledge in standard finance. Resulting in the development of the most important insights in finance, such as arbitrage pricing theory of Miller and Modigliani, the Markowitz portfolio optimization, the capital asset pricing theory of Sharp, Lintner and Sharp and the option-pricing model of Black, Scholes and Merton (Pompian, 2006 and Lo, 2005)....   [tags: Arbitrage, Finance] 1240 words
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Distinguished Ways To Achieve Knowledge: A Priori and A Posteriori. - When it comes to knowledge, the main focus of philosophers is propositional knowledge or knowing that something is or is not the case (Vaughn, 254). Philosophers believe that propositional knowledge has three necessary conditions to know a proposition: believe it, it must be true, and we must have good reasons to justify why it is true (Vaughn, 254). In other words, just because we believe in something, it does not make it true. Now in order to have knowledge, our beliefs must be true, and we must have sound reasons to believe that they are true....   [tags: descartes, rationalists, empiricists]
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994 words
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Analysis of Rationality In A Midsummer Night's Dream - William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is not simply a light-hearted comedy; it is a study of the abstract. Shakespeare shows that the divide between the dream world and reality is inconstant and oftentimes indefinable. Meanwhile, he writes about the power of the intangible emotions, jealousy and desire, to send the natural and supernatural worlds into chaos. Love and desire are the driving forces of this play’s plot, leaving the different characters and social classes to sort out the resulting pandemonium....   [tags: Class Division, Abstract Thought, Shakespeare] 1061 words
(3 pages)
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Rationality of Financial Markets on Investment Variables -     The rationality of financial markets has been one of the most hotly contested issues in the history of modern financial economics. Recent critics of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis argue that investors are generally irrational, exhibiting a number of predictable and financially ruinous biases such as overconfidence, overreaction, loss aversion, herding, psychological accounting, miscalibration of probabilities, and regret. The sources of these irrationalities are often attributed to psychological factors – fear, greed, and other emotional responses to price fluctuations and dramatic changes in an investor’s wealth....   [tags: irrational, psychological, investment] 543 words
(1.6 pages)
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Natural Law, Rationality and the Social Contract - Each day, billions of people throughout the world affirm their commitment to a specific idea; to be part of a society. While this social contract is often overlooked by most citizens, their agreement to it nevertheless has far-reaching consequences. Being a member of society entails relinquishing self-autonomy to a higher authority, whose aim should be to promote the overall good of the populace. While making this decision to become part of a commonwealth is usually performed without explicit deliberation, there is a common consensus amongst philosophers that something unique to the human experience is the driving force behind this decision....   [tags: Philosophy, Sociology, Informative] 2087 words
(6 pages)
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Expertise and Rationality - Expertise and Rationality ABSTRACT: I explore the connection between expertise and rationality. I first make explicit the philosophically dominant view on this connection, i.e., the ‘expert-consultation’ view. This view captures the rather obvious idea that a rational way of proceeding on a matter of importance when one lacks knowledge is to consult experts. Next, I enumerate the difficulties which beset this view, locating them to some extent in the current philosophical literature on expertise and rationality....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3305 words
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Ressentiment and Rationality - Ressentiment and Rationality ABSTRACT: This paper is an investigation of the condition of ressentiment. It reviews the two most prominent philosophic accounts of ressentiment: Nietzsche's genealogy of ressentiment as the moral perversion resulting from the ancient Roman/Palestinian cultural conflict and giving birth to the ascetic ideal; and Scheler's phenomenology of ressentiment as a complex affective unit generative of its own affects and values. A single sketch of the typical elements of ressentiment is drawn from the review of these two accounts....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical papers]
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3915 words
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Rationality in Humans - Contradiction is the nature of the society. If there is a religion, there will be those who do not believe. If there is a war, there will be those that want peace. If there is a political movement, there will be those that disagree. Humans are bound to go against their own believes, their own strategies, and their own establishments. Nothing is forever. History portrays people going against the accepted ideologies. It shows the everlasting change of the society. First, they thought that God was the explanation to everything....   [tags: European History] 782 words
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Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine - Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine ABSTRACT: In opposition to the instrumental doctrine of rationality, I argue that the rationality of the end served by a strategy is a necessary condition of the rationality of the strategy itself: means to ends cannot be rational unless the ends are rational. First, I explore cases-involving ‘proximate’ ends (that is, ends whose achievement is instrumental to the pursuit of some more fundamental end) — where even instrumentalists must concede that the rationality of a strategy presupposes the rationality of the end it serves....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Psychopaths and the Future of Humanity - I first encountered the idea of a psychopath in Thomas Harris' thriller, the Silence of Lambs. Hannibal Lecter was deeply fascinating, and all the more frightening because he didn't look like a grotesque monster, a violent & bloodthirsty beast. Instead, it's a charming and intelligent character with a doctorate in psychology. His possible existence forced me to reflect, and sound the depths of darkness within. However, psychopaths remained only a curiosity until this quarter, when I encountered the idea of psychopaths again in the works of moral philosophers....   [tags: Psychology ] 1460 words
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Colonial Period Focused Around God and Church - ... An example of the strong belief that people had in God was the ferocity that Jonathan Edwards preached in this sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”. Edwards rants on an hour long tangent about how God at any time can expel the wicked into the hands of the devil and how only God’s grace can save us. The emphasis and power that Edwards preached is enough to bring any man to his knees. This strong belief echoed throughout America; you didn’t just have to look into a church to see it. Anne Bradstreet’s “Verses upon the Burning House” is a good example of the common ideal that God was the most mighty and that anything that happened, happened for a reason and was inflicted by God so i...   [tags: american culture, puritans, indians] 518 words
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The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality - The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality According to Kant morality is rational and objective. It is based on rational human reasoning. For Kant it is not the consequences of an action that make it moral but the reasoning or intention that goes behind the choices one makes. What Kant is saying is that the only thing which can be qualified as good is good intention....   [tags: Papers] 1134 words
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Historical Types of Rationality - ABSTRACT: In this paper we suggest that the contemporary global intellectual crisis of our (Western) civilization consists in the fundamental transformation of the classical (both Ancient and Modern) types of rationality towards the nonclassical one. We give a brief account of those classical types of rationality and focus on the more detailed description of the contemporary process of the formation of the new HTR which we label as nonclassical. We consider it to be one of the historical possibilities that might radically transform the fundamentals of our human world; in fact, this process has already begun....   [tags: Culture History Essays]
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Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality - Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality Social Anthropology seeks to gauge an understanding of cultures and practices whether they are foreign or native. This is achieved through the studying of language, education, customs, marriage, kinship, hierarchy and of course belief and value systems. Rationality is a key concept in this process as it affects the anthropologist’s interpretation of the studied group’s way of life: what s/he deems as rational or plausible practice. Witchcraft and magic pose problems for many anthropologists, as its supernatural nature is perhaps conflicting to the common Western notions of rationality, mainly deemed superior....   [tags: Social Anthropology]
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Coherence and Epistemic Rationality - Coherence and Epistemic Rationality This paper addresses the question of whether probabilistic coherence is a requirement of rationality. The concept of probabilistic coherence is examined and compared with the familiar notion of consistency for simple beliefs. Several reasons are given for thinking rationality does not require coherence. Finally, it is argued that incoherence does not necessarily involve fallacious reasoning. Most work in epistemology treats epistemic attitudes as bivalent. It is assumed that a person either believes that there is an apple on the table, or that there is not, and that such beliefs must be either warranted or unwarranted....   [tags: Mathematics Science Theories Papers]
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Three Traditions of International Theory - The realist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international anarchy (sociological terms); the rationalist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international society (teleological terms); and the revolutionist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of harmony or single utopia in the world (ethical and prescriptive terms). Realism prioritizes national interest and security over ideology, moral concerns and social reconstructions....   [tags: International Politics]
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Rationality and Inconsistent Beliefs - Many believe that there is something inherently irrational about accepting each element of an inconsistent set of propositions. However, arguments for this doctrine seem lacking other than those that appeal to the principle that the set of propositions that one rationally accepts is (or should be) closed under logical consequences, or those that note that error is made inevitable when one accepts an inconsistent set. After explaining why the preceding sorts of arguments do not succeed, I consider a novel attempt by Keith Lehrer to undermine the chief argument in favor of the claim that it can sometimes be rational to accept inconsistent sets....   [tags: Ration Logic]
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Rationality in Religious Belief - Rationality in Religious Belief The obtaining of information is an inseparable part of human life, and therefore in what ever one may do; one will always collect information. To be of any value, the information collected has to be reliable, and one does not seem to doubt the reliability of evidence because they believe it to be logical, unless they are a sceptic. Some say that religion is something we cannot prove because we acknowledge religion through our feelings, mainly our feeling of trust, or of wonder and awe – sensing that there must be a high being or creator....   [tags: Papers] 552 words
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The English School: A Via Media - The English School: A Via Media The English School, also recognize as The International Society approach of the International Relations is a “Via Media” (Buzan, 2001, p471) between the Rationalism and Realist elements. The idea is that instead of separates elements, these should form a whole picture of the International Relations. The unique approaches of the English School to International Relations are its methodological pluralism, its historicism and its interlinking of three very important concepts: International System, International Society and World Society....   [tags: Education, International Relations] 1003 words
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Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws - Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws ABSTRACT: Davidson argues (1) that the connection between belief and the "constitutive ideal of rationality" (2) precludes the possibility of their being any type-type identities between mental and physical events. However, there are radically different ways to understand both the nature and content of this "constitutive ideal," and the plausibility of Davidson’s argument depends on blurring the distinction between two of these ways. Indeed, it will be argued here that no consistent understanding of the constitutive ideal will allow it to play the dialectical role Davidson intends for it....   [tags: Psychology Essays]
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Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality - Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality ABSTRACT: If the 17th century could be considered the century of the reformation of science, the present century is one of counterreformation in every sense of the word. The ideology of this century can be seen in the titanic efforts to complete the development of science which foundation was laid in the 17th and 18th centuries, in the outright failures, and in attempts at reconstructing the foundation (e.g., Hilbert's formalization program, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, Charlier's theory of a hierarchic universe, Fridman's evolutionary cosmology, Newton's mechanics, relativistic and/or quantum mechanics in physics, the logical turn...   [tags: Science Essays]
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The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory - The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory ABSTRACT: Spohn's decision model, an advancement of Fishburn's theory, is valuable for making explicit the principle used also by other thinkers that 'any adequate quantitative decision model must not explicitly or implicitly contain any subjective probabilities for acts.' This principle is not used in the decision theories of Jeffrey or of Luce and Krantz. According to Spohn, this principle is important because it has effects on the term of action, on Newcomb's problem, and on the theory of causality and the freedom of the will....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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Essay on Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey - The Importance of Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey In the epic poem, Odyssey, Homer provides examples of the consequences of impulsive and irrational thinking, and the rewards of planning and rationality. Impulsive actions prove to be very harmful to Odysseus. His decisions when he is escaping the cave of the Cyclops lead to almost all his troubles through his journey. As Odysseus flees the cave, he yells back "Cyclops - if any man on the face of the earth should ask you who blinded you, shamed you so - say Odysseus, raider of cities, he gouged out you eye." This enrages the giant, and he prays to Poseidon "grant that Odysseus, raider of cities, Laertes' son who makes his home in Itha...   [tags: Homer Odyssey Essays] 1065 words
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Descartes Two Meditations - This paper seeks to discuss the first question. It will have its basis on the first two meditations of Descartes, representing Rationalism, as well as draw from empiricists’ points of view for contrasting views and discussion. I will draw on the curriculum for references, namely “Think, Simon Blackburn, 1999” as well as “The Philosophy Gym, Stephen Law, 2003”. Furthermore, references to the slide from the “Knowledge”-seminar will be used. In the first meditation by Descartes, he argues that everything he perceives as reality might as well be the work of an all-powerful evil demon whose only objective is to deceive him....   [tags: philosophical discussion]
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Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change - Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change ABSTRACT: Imre Lakatos' "methodology of scientific research programs" and Alasdair MacIntyre's "tradition-constituted enquiry" are two sustained attempts to overcome the assumptions of logical empiricism, while saving the appearance that theory-change is rational. The key difference between them is their antithetical stand on the issue of incommensurability between large-scale theories. This divergence generates other areas of disagreement; the most important are the relevance of the historical record and the presence of decision criteria that are common to rival programs....   [tags: Science Scientific Philosophy Essays]
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Analysis of Western Civilizations: Ideas, Politics, and Society - ... Cannabis use is illegal, even though medical specialists have proven its ability to cure certain illnesses, including cancer, but alcohol, which kills many each year, is still perfectly legal. To me, this shows that we are not truly politically free, we are just exponentially better off than other countries. Inner freedom, the ability for each individual to make their own moral choices, is another concept that I am ambivalent about. While for the most part, we are free to choose our own moral ground; our Government does stand in the way and make the decision for us in regards to some things; Such as the gay marriage issue and drugs, but also things such as legal age of dating and what cr...   [tags: rationality, impulse, country, president] 861 words
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The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation - The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation ABSTRACT: In order to understand the rationality of scientific creation, we must first clarify the following: (1) the historical structure of scientific creation from starting point to breakthrough, and then to establishment; (2) the process from the primary through the productive aspects of the scientific problem, the idea of creation, the primary conjecture, the scientific hypothesis, and finally the emergence of the genetic structure establishing the theory; and (3) the problem threshold of rationality in scientific creation....   [tags: Philosophical Science Scientific Papers]
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Conflict and Opposition in the Works: Dr Faustus and Solid Geometry. - When conflict arises in literature it is normally evident both externally and internally. Opposition is an important drive in both Marlowe’s play and McEwan’s short story. The male protagonists are both engaged in an inner life, disregarding everything else without concern for what this might mean. The presence of an external opposing voice in both texts serves to highlight and question this kind of existence. The sheer contrast of protagonist and antagonist is enough to remind the audience how extreme both men’s behaviour is....   [tags: Obsession, Antagonism, Rationality]
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1953 words
(5.6 pages)
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Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge - Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge It is human nature to desire to acquire knowledge, but how we acquire this knowledge is a constant debate between philosophers. For years philosophers have written about different sources of knowledge. We can divide these ideas into two theories, rationalism and empiricism. A question that divides the two dogmas is; "Is perception the source of knowledge?" Empiricists say yes whole-heartedly while Rationalists believe that we accomplish knowledge through reason....   [tags: Papers] 564 words
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Oedipus the King and Antigone: Rationality Versus Emotionalism - Rationality is the quality or state of being agreeable to reason; it is this item that separates man from animal. Man and beast, however, still have something in common: in an emotional state, both are subject to acting irrationally. For instance, a normally very loving pet can become violent simply because one of his toys was taken away - not to say that he is no longer loving, he is just overwhelmed by anger. Likewise, in Sophocles's Oedipus Rex and Antigone, the protagonists Oedipus and Creon (who appears in both stories) exhibit a similar disposition as the "loving pet:" while they are usually reasonable, having their fates verbally revealed to them triggers an emotion that results in th...   [tags: Oedipus Rex, Sophocles] 779 words
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War in the Nuclear Era - Addressing the question of whether war is a rational decision or a mistake is important to understand the causes of war and explain the reduction in the number of wars fought among countries in today’s nuclear era. The argument, under which war is a mistake, is a normative claim about what action states should have chosen, based on the outcomes that have been produced. That is, for a decision to be good, it needs to have produced the actor’s preferred outcome. However, the mistake perspective is problematic under the uncertainty and competitiveness of the anarchic international political system....   [tags: Rationality and World Politics]
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2495 words
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Augustine and the Locus of Collective Memory - In the books X and XI of his Confessions, Augustine aims to tackle the intriguing questions of memory and time, respectively. His phenomenological as well as rigorous approach has attracted many later commentators. Also Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005) can be taken as one of these, although Ricoeur’s angle is decisively distinct from that of Augustine’s – it can be said to represent a certain “hermeneutical rationality”. By using Ricoeur’s material as a springboard, this paper aims to examine both the possibility and the locus of collective memory (part I) as well as Ricoeur’s reply to Augustine’s challenging question “quid est enim tempus?” (part II)....   [tags: hermeneutical rationality, Paul Ricoeur]
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3491 words
(10 pages)
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Various Perspectives on Free Will - ... Chaos provides evidence for this type of indeterminism, it attempt to disprove the idea that things are determined yet it show we have no control. The argument behind chaos relies mainly on the fault of experimenters, who fail to account for chaos or randomness in their studies. Many scientists tend to disregard the indeterminism that happens at the quantum level because of its relative insignificance (Rovelli). However, proponents of chaos argue that by disregarding the randomness at the quantum level, studies do not take in the possibility that quantum events can be amplified....   [tags: rationality, compatibilism, determinism] 3185 words
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Anarchist Political Culture: Tory Corporation - Anarchism An anarchist political culture only exists in small communities where everyone knows everyone. Every person has face to face accountability, and will most likely live out their lives entirely within that community. Their paradigms about society are communal throughout the community and as well are the roles of the individuals in that community. Family contacts and their constant reinforcement through personal contact hold the tightly bound single-culture society together. Due to this the closeness and the shared values amongst the community, a government system is not required....   [tags: rationality, traditions, oligarchy] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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Framing the Innateness Hypothesis - Framing the Innateness Hypothesis Perhaps the most traditional way of framing the innateness hypothesis would be in terms of an opposition between rationalism and empiricism. This is an opposition that is frequently encountered in philosophical debates over language acquisition, with the one side arguing that language acquisition is a phenomenon associated with the maturation of a language faculty or "organ," while the other side argues that language acquisition is instead a process of generalization from experience....   [tags: Language Learning Essays]
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1582 words
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Analysis of Satirical Literature - During the Age of Enlightenment, people began believing in and relying upon rational thought instead of religious dogma to explain the world. This newfound emphasis on rationality promoted a breadth of freedom in speech that was previously unknown, a fact which was utilized by philosophers such as John Locke, Rousseau, and Sir Isaac Newton. In addition, the Age of Enlightenment produced famous writers who didn’t agree with the irrational politics and old traditions of their respective countries, and instead relied upon wit and satire to expose the corruption and poor human condition existing around them....   [tags: Enlightenment Writers, Rationality] 798 words
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Analysis of Friedrich Nietzsche´s Book 5 of The Gay Science - ... Nietzsche declares that even if some of these interpretations may include “too much devilry, stupidity and foolishness”, it does not matter because it does not rely on faith (Nietzsche 336). The new infinite that arises is ours, in which the abundance of perspectives is too overwhelming for any scholar to give meaning to such chaos. There is no logical reason how such disorder should be confined to a single perspective in order to better understand the world, as the world is infinite in all its glory....   [tags: god, science, rationality, freedom, progress] 1632 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience - The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience Explain the principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence in religious experience The principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence all play crucial roles while attempting to explain religious experience. The principle of credulity states that religious experiences should be taken at their face value when we have no positive reason to doubt them....   [tags: Papers] 572 words
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