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Empiricism and Rationalism - ... Does allergy discomfort exist without a allergy test to perceive the level of discomfort. Years later my empirical data was proven valid and my son has been taking allergy medication for over ten years. I accessed my son’s changes in behavior empirically, yet the process that joined that behavior to certain foods was rationalism through reason. Rationalism can have multiple meanings; it can be used to describe “a person who elevates human reasoning above the Scriptures and teachings of the historic Christian faith....   [tags: philosophy]
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1014 words
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Extreme Rationalism - Extreme Rationalism Rationalism is the idea that we can gain knowledge through the processes of mind alone. Empiricism is the idea that we can only gain knowledge through the senses. Empiricism has been adopted by the Western world because it is the foundation of the scientific approach to life that we use. Various popular sayings such as 'seeing is believing' and 'I heard it with my own ears', show that we accept the use of the senses without question....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
(1.5 pages)
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Rationalism and Empiricism - Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism and Empiricism are most likely the two most famous and intriguing schools of philosophy. The two schools deal specifically with epistemology, or, the origin of knowledge. Although not completely opposite, they are often considered so, and are seen as the "Jordan vs. Bird" of the philosophy world. The origins of rationalism and empiricism can be traced back to the 17th century, when many important advancements were made in scientific fields such as astronomy and mechanics....   [tags: Philosophy Epistemology Papers]
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1485 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism - ... According to rationalist thinkers, perception is unreliable as a way of gaining knowledge, and unlike perception, reason is the only thing that is certain, and the only thing that can be studied. In his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke, 1690), Locke distinguished between simple ideas, such as understanding shapes and colours of objects, which are passively acquired, and complex ideas, which actively combine simple ideas to create knowledge. He also distinguished between primary, or true, qualities of an object, and secondary qualities that are perceptual....   [tags: Philosophy]
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1587 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism - ... (White & Rauhut, pg.72) Descartes introduced the idea of "radical doubt", as well as his idea of the workings of a "Master Deceiver" as theories that support rationalism. While his "Master Deceiver" theory does not pose a viable argument for rationalism, "radical doubt", gives rise to new questions about reality, knowledge, and the mind. Ultimately, Descartes' "radical doubt" challenges how we look at the mind and how it represents us with information and knowledge. He uses his radical doubt theory to explain how the information that we receive through our senses is distorted and can not be utilized as a means of knowledge....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth - ... When I first heard about these two streams I wondered what did these have to do with God anyway. But it hit me, there are people (empiricist) in the world that believe that if you can’t see it, touch it, smell it, or hear it isn’t real the empiricist rely on the five senses to uncover the truth. “Empiricism” is a theory about knowledge that emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially the role of ‘sensory perception’; our ability to experience something with one of our five senses (pleaseconvinceme.com, 2011)....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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839 words
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Rationalism in America: The Age That Shaped the World - ... and if there yet remains one thoughtless wretch who believes it not, let him suffer it unlamented.” (111) In this paragraph, Paine is able to showcase his own thoughts on independence, calling it a, “glorious issue,” which can only be achieved through hard work and determination against the British. Paine's choice to describe the colonies' independence as glorious is very powerful, as the term is usually used to describe only the most sought after things, such as precious gems or the kingdom of Heaven....   [tags: U.S. History ]
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1878 words
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The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz - The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieval philosophers and by Bacon and Hobbes....   [tags: Papers] 1674 words
(4.8 pages)
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When Rationalism and Empiricism Collide: the Best of Both Worlds - ... In order to help facilitate for this lack of concrete evidence, scientists try to piece together what they already know into a working conclusion . Empiricism and rationalism must coexist in this world because one without the other results in only half of an answer. Without any sort of observations or facts present in the world, rationalists would base the truth on falsehoods entirely. Without any sort of theories or inferences, empiricists gather data without any means to connect them together into a working conclusion....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1310 words
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The Role of Naturalism and Rationalism in American and British Gun Policy - Although they may not be aware of it, complex philosophic principles influence the simple actions of the mass’s everyday lives. In fact, long lasting and well defined contentions of basic philosophy concerning the actions of human beings has not only affected individuals, but also entire countries. Some of the greatest nations on Earth have been formed around key thoughts and opinions of several great philosophers. Primarily amongst these, however, or John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom wrote on “The State of Nature”, or the state of absolute freedom....   [tags: Gun Control Laws] 753 words
(2.2 pages)
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Pragmatism as a Philosophy - ... Each of these beliefs deal with what reality actually is. Idealism claims there is one type of reality and that it is mental or spiritual in nature (Lawhead, p. 97). If, as Berkeley claims, matter is a useless concept (Lawhead, p. 206), it would be useless for us to try manipulating the world around us. Since we do try to manipulate our world, Berkeley’s idealism does not work with how we live. It is not practical. The other form of monism, materialism, more specifically physicalism, may hold more practical value than idealism....   [tags: Skepticism, Rationalism, Metaphysics] 892 words
(2.5 pages)
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Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge - Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge Rationalism ----------- Rene Descartes was the main rationalist. He said he believed he had to doubt everything known to him to really understand knowledge. Rationalism first began in Ancient Greece with two extreme rationalists - Parmenides and Zeno. Rationalists believed in innate ideas - ones that are present at birth, in the mind. When Descartes started his thoughts, it was in the 17th century, during the rise of science....   [tags: Papers] 986 words
(2.8 pages)
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How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 - How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 Many changes took place between 1650 and 1750. There was territory expansion as European countries started colonies in the Americas. Political changes took place as well, as people began to rise up against the government. New economic standards were set as people realized that having money was not the way to economic control but by controlling the means of production. Britain, France, and Spain were busy establishing colonies in the Americas....   [tags: Papers] 329 words
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The Romantic Movement - The Romantic Movement (1800-1850) Art as Emotion The goal of self-determination that Napoleon imported to Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria affected not only nations but also individuals. England's metamorphosis during the Industrial Revolution was also reflected in the outlook of the individual, and therefore in the art produced during the first half of this century. Heightened sensibility and intensified feeling became characteristic of the visual arts as well as musical arts and a convention in literature....   [tags: Rationalism Romanticism Landscape]
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568 words
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UCSB as a Rationalist Organization - ... UCSB is not a naturalist organization because students and faculty do not have the same authority to be informal with one another. Yet, UCSB’s goals emulate some Naturalist theory as seen in their mission statement. Their mission statement states that each student and faculty member will experience an “educational journey of discovery that stimulates independent thought, critical reasoning, and creativity... [through] interdisciplinary collaboration that is responsive to the needs of our multicultural and global society” (Mission Statement)....   [tags: Rationalist organization essay] 1116 words
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The University of California Santa Barbara as a Rationalist Organization - ... But nonetheless, UCSB’s hierarchy is complex and has many students, faculty and staff and it is the norm for a UCSB member to not know everyone on campus. UCSB is not a naturalist organization because students and faculty do not have the same authority to be informal with one another. Yet, UCSB’s goals emulate some Naturalist theory as seen in their mission statement. UCSB’s mission statement says that each student and faculty member will experience an “educational journey of discovery that stimulates independent thought, critical reasoning, and creativity......   [tags: informative essay] 1158 words
(3.3 pages)
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Othello: Admirable Leader but Poor Rationalist - ... He addresses the reasons behind his downfall, and decides how he wants others to see him, in terms of the story and how he takes responsibility for it. It is a noble speech, and a dubiously noble ending, but still, like Othello, flawed. The setting for Othello's final moments onstage is critical to how it is perceived by Othello, the other players onstage, and the audience. It lends credence to the nobility of the situation, and adds to Othello's misguided self-perception. The experience, in itself, is perfect....   [tags: Shakespearean Literature ]
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The Classical Conception Of Rationality - The Classical Conception Of Rationality ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to describe the classical conception of rationality, i.e., to indicate the theses traditionally associated with this conception. I do not intend to discuss these theses in detail. Rather, I focus on the question regarding the main elements of the classical conception of rationality. I am interested in the rationality of cognition and of knowledge (epistemic/epistemological rationality), especially in the rationality of science (scientific rationality)....   [tags: Rational Rationality Scientific Papers]
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The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality - The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality ABSTRACT: The doctrines of the Socinians represent a rational reaction to a medieval theology based on submission to the Church’s authority. Though they retained Scripture as something supra rationem, the Socinians analyzed it rationally and believed that nothing should be accepted contra rationem. Their social and political thought underwent a significant evolutionary process from a very utopian pacifistic trend condemning participation in war and holding public and judicial office to a moderate and realistic stance based on mutual love, support of the secular power of the state, active participation in social and political life, and the defense of social equality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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2830 words
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Education: Empiricists vs Rationalists - ... In experiential learning, roles for both students and teachers shift. Teachers are supposed involve their students in decision-making or in problem solving, responsibilities that normally belong to them. Moreover, a teacher is supposed to initiate the transfer of learning from a class setting to a real world scenario. This in turn ensures that students ‘learn from experience’. This shift of roles is sometimes referred to as a student-centered curriculum (Goodlad, 1984, p. 24). This because in this method, the students assume the central role making the teacher’s job to be mainly developing ways to engage them in experiences that impact these learners with knowledge....   [tags: philosophy of education]
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How Is the Conflict between Rationality and Irrationality Developed in "Death in Venice?" - The purpose of this essay is to examine the conflict between rationality and irrationality in Death in Venice and to assess how this conflict is developed and possibly resolved. This conflict is fought and described throughout the short story with reference to ancient Greek gods, predominately Apollo and Dionysus and through the philosopher and philosophy of Plato. Through contemporary influences such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, Mann further reflects on these ancient sources through a modern prism and this he does in this tale of life and death of the protagonist Aschenbach....   [tags: European Literature] 1997 words
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Expertise and Rationality - Expertise and Rationality ABSTRACT: I explore the connection between expertise and rationality. I first make explicit the philosophically dominant view on this connection, i.e., the ‘expert-consultation’ view. This view captures the rather obvious idea that a rational way of proceeding on a matter of importance when one lacks knowledge is to consult experts. Next, I enumerate the difficulties which beset this view, locating them to some extent in the current philosophical literature on expertise and rationality....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Ressentiment and Rationality - Ressentiment and Rationality ABSTRACT: This paper is an investigation of the condition of ressentiment. It reviews the two most prominent philosophic accounts of ressentiment: Nietzsche's genealogy of ressentiment as the moral perversion resulting from the ancient Roman/Palestinian cultural conflict and giving birth to the ascetic ideal; and Scheler's phenomenology of ressentiment as a complex affective unit generative of its own affects and values. A single sketch of the typical elements of ressentiment is drawn from the review of these two accounts....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical papers]
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3915 words
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Rationality in Humans - Contradiction is the nature of the society. If there is a religion, there will be those who do not believe. If there is a war, there will be those that want peace. If there is a political movement, there will be those that disagree. Humans are bound to go against their own believes, their own strategies, and their own establishments. Nothing is forever. History portrays people going against the accepted ideologies. It shows the everlasting change of the society. First, they thought that God was the explanation to everything....   [tags: European History] 782 words
(2.2 pages)
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Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks - ... Hence, Mark should not generalize his opinion only based on this particular research to all the rat experiments. The other assumption of Marks, regarding the protection of animals, lacks evidence since the Animal Welfare Act is not the only protection for the animals. There are many other organizations over the world that care about the protection of the animals and work to improve the animal welfare. Therefore, Marks needs solid evidence to support his argument regarding rat experiments and the protection of rats....   [tags: Article Review]
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The Economic Rationality Assumption - ... market for technology stocks in the late 1990s: Under the arbitrage perspective, in the mid-1987 investors should have had a short position in Japanese stocks and cover the position by going long in U.S. stocks since in the long run arbitrage works. However, they had reported enormous amounts of loses in October 1987 when the U.S. market went down far more than the Japanese market. Hence, if the arbitrage were enough, investors would have hedged their investments just when the existing difference to the fundamental values was the highest, but that would end up in putting more pressure for long positions in the Japanese stocks just when they were most overvalued, ending up with more loses (Ritter 2003, pp 430)....   [tags: Arbitrage, Finance] 1240 words
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Natural Law, Rationality and the Social Contract - ... He stated “…human reason needs to advance from the precepts of the natural law, as general and indemonstrable first principles, to matters that are to be more particularly regulated,” (Aquinas, page 19). Thus, Aquinas saw natural law as the product of utilizing reason to decipher God’s commands from eternal law, which in turn was used to create the specific principles found within human law. For Hobbes, natural law did not provide an answer to what constitutes good or evil, but rather resulted from an assumed wickedness that is inherent in people....   [tags: Philosophy, Sociology, Informative] 2087 words
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Historical Types of Rationality - Historical Types of Rationality ABSTRACT: In this paper we suggest that the contemporary global intellectual crisis of our (Western) civilization consists in the fundamental transformation of the classical (both Ancient and Modern) types of rationality towards the nonclassical one. We give a brief account of those classical types of rationality and focus on the more detailed description of the contemporary process of the formation of the new HTR which we label as nonclassical. We consider it to be one of the historical possibilities that might radically transform the fundamentals of our human world; in fact, this process has already begun....   [tags: Culture History Essays]
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Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine - Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine ABSTRACT: In opposition to the instrumental doctrine of rationality, I argue that the rationality of the end served by a strategy is a necessary condition of the rationality of the strategy itself: means to ends cannot be rational unless the ends are rational. First, I explore cases-involving ‘proximate’ ends (that is, ends whose achievement is instrumental to the pursuit of some more fundamental end) — where even instrumentalists must concede that the rationality of a strategy presupposes the rationality of the end it serves....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3442 words
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Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality - Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality Social Anthropology seeks to gauge an understanding of cultures and practices whether they are foreign or native. This is achieved through the studying of language, education, customs, marriage, kinship, hierarchy and of course belief and value systems. Rationality is a key concept in this process as it affects the anthropologist’s interpretation of the studied group’s way of life: what s/he deems as rational or plausible practice. Witchcraft and magic pose problems for many anthropologists, as its supernatural nature is perhaps conflicting to the common Western notions of rationality, mainly deemed superior....   [tags: Social Anthropology]
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Coherence and Epistemic Rationality - Coherence and Epistemic Rationality This paper addresses the question of whether probabilistic coherence is a requirement of rationality. The concept of probabilistic coherence is examined and compared with the familiar notion of consistency for simple beliefs. Several reasons are given for thinking rationality does not require coherence. Finally, it is argued that incoherence does not necessarily involve fallacious reasoning. Most work in epistemology treats epistemic attitudes as bivalent. It is assumed that a person either believes that there is an apple on the table, or that there is not, and that such beliefs must be either warranted or unwarranted....   [tags: Mathematics Science Theories Papers]
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Rationality and Inconsistent Beliefs - Many believe that there is something inherently irrational about accepting each element of an inconsistent set of propositions. However, arguments for this doctrine seem lacking other than those that appeal to the principle that the set of propositions that one rationally accepts is (or should be) closed under logical consequences, or those that note that error is made inevitable when one accepts an inconsistent set. After explaining why the preceding sorts of arguments do not succeed, I consider a novel attempt by Keith Lehrer to undermine the chief argument in favor of the claim that it can sometimes be rational to accept inconsistent sets....   [tags: Ration Logic]
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Rationality in Religious Belief - Rationality in Religious Belief The obtaining of information is an inseparable part of human life, and therefore in what ever one may do; one will always collect information. To be of any value, the information collected has to be reliable, and one does not seem to doubt the reliability of evidence because they believe it to be logical, unless they are a sceptic. Some say that religion is something we cannot prove because we acknowledge religion through our feelings, mainly our feeling of trust, or of wonder and awe – sensing that there must be a high being or creator....   [tags: Papers] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality - The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality According to Kant morality is rational and objective. It is based on rational human reasoning. For Kant it is not the consequences of an action that make it moral but the reasoning or intention that goes behind the choices one makes. What Kant is saying is that the only thing which can be qualified as good is good intention....   [tags: Papers] 1134 words
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Psychopaths and the Future of Humanity - ... However, backsliding towards sentimentalism is an indictment for proponents of moral rationalism. In Kenneth's response to Nichols, Do Psychopaths Really Threaten Moral Rationalism. she makes the claim that philosophers get carried away with the implications of the data and overstate their case. The data may be irrelevant, and the philosopher aren't exactly the ideal candidates to adjudicate it. In addition, the data is not merely descriptive, for they also highlight normative limits for moral reasoning as well as conceptual limits of moral judgment....   [tags: Psychology ] 1460 words
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Three Traditions of International Theory - The realist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international anarchy (sociological terms); the rationalist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international society (teleological terms); and the revolutionist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of harmony or single utopia in the world (ethical and prescriptive terms). Realism prioritizes national interest and security over ideology, moral concerns and social reconstructions....   [tags: International Politics]
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Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws - Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws ABSTRACT: Davidson argues (1) that the connection between belief and the "constitutive ideal of rationality" (2) precludes the possibility of their being any type-type identities between mental and physical events. However, there are radically different ways to understand both the nature and content of this "constitutive ideal," and the plausibility of Davidson’s argument depends on blurring the distinction between two of these ways. Indeed, it will be argued here that no consistent understanding of the constitutive ideal will allow it to play the dialectical role Davidson intends for it....   [tags: Psychology Essays]
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Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality - Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality ABSTRACT: If the 17th century could be considered the century of the reformation of science, the present century is one of counterreformation in every sense of the word. The ideology of this century can be seen in the titanic efforts to complete the development of science which foundation was laid in the 17th and 18th centuries, in the outright failures, and in attempts at reconstructing the foundation (e.g., Hilbert's formalization program, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, Charlier's theory of a hierarchic universe, Fridman's evolutionary cosmology, Newton's mechanics, relativistic and/or quantum mechanics in physics, the logical turn of the Vienna circle and epistemological anarchism in methodology)....   [tags: Science Essays]
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Essay on Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey - The Importance of Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey In the epic poem, Odyssey, Homer provides examples of the consequences of impulsive and irrational thinking, and the rewards of planning and rationality. Impulsive actions prove to be very harmful to Odysseus. His decisions when he is escaping the cave of the Cyclops lead to almost all his troubles through his journey. As Odysseus flees the cave, he yells back "Cyclops - if any man on the face of the earth should ask you who blinded you, shamed you so - say Odysseus, raider of cities, he gouged out you eye." This enrages the giant, and he prays to Poseidon "grant that Odysseus, raider of cities, Laertes' son who makes his home in Ithaca, never reaches home....   [tags: Homer Odyssey Essays] 1065 words
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The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory - The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory ABSTRACT: Spohn's decision model, an advancement of Fishburn's theory, is valuable for making explicit the principle used also by other thinkers that 'any adequate quantitative decision model must not explicitly or implicitly contain any subjective probabilities for acts.' This principle is not used in the decision theories of Jeffrey or of Luce and Krantz. According to Spohn, this principle is important because it has effects on the term of action, on Newcomb's problem, and on the theory of causality and the freedom of the will....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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The English School: A Via Media - ... The International Society also referred, as Grotian tradition because of their closeness is focus on the institutionalization of shared interest and identity between states. Rationalism creates, maintain and share the norms, rules and institution. The World Society or Kantian takes individuals, non-state organization and global population in consideration and as a central focus. Revolutionism puts importance of the state system. The idea of an international society is simple: states in international societies that they shape and are shaped by....   [tags: Education, International Relations] 1003 words
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Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge - Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge It is human nature to desire to acquire knowledge, but how we acquire this knowledge is a constant debate between philosophers. For years philosophers have written about different sources of knowledge. We can divide these ideas into two theories, rationalism and empiricism. A question that divides the two dogmas is; "Is perception the source of knowledge?" Empiricists say yes whole-heartedly while Rationalists believe that we accomplish knowledge through reason....   [tags: Papers] 564 words
(1.6 pages)
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Framing the Innateness Hypothesis - Framing the Innateness Hypothesis Perhaps the most traditional way of framing the innateness hypothesis would be in terms of an opposition between rationalism and empiricism. This is an opposition that is frequently encountered in philosophical debates over language acquisition, with the one side arguing that language acquisition is a phenomenon associated with the maturation of a language faculty or "organ," while the other side argues that language acquisition is instead a process of generalization from experience....   [tags: Language Learning Essays]
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Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change - Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change ABSTRACT: Imre Lakatos' "methodology of scientific research programs" and Alasdair MacIntyre's "tradition-constituted enquiry" are two sustained attempts to overcome the assumptions of logical empiricism, while saving the appearance that theory-change is rational. The key difference between them is their antithetical stand on the issue of incommensurability between large-scale theories. This divergence generates other areas of disagreement; the most important are the relevance of the historical record and the presence of decision criteria that are common to rival programs....   [tags: Science Scientific Philosophy Essays]
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The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation - The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation ABSTRACT: In order to understand the rationality of scientific creation, we must first clarify the following: (1) the historical structure of scientific creation from starting point to breakthrough, and then to establishment; (2) the process from the primary through the productive aspects of the scientific problem, the idea of creation, the primary conjecture, the scientific hypothesis, and finally the emergence of the genetic structure establishing the theory; and (3) the problem threshold of rationality in scientific creation....   [tags: Philosophical Science Scientific Papers]
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Oedipus Rex and Antigone: Rationality Versus Emotionalism - Rationality is the quality or state of being agreeable to reason; it is this item that separates man from animal. Man and beast, however, still have something in common: in an emotional state, both are subject to acting irrationally. For instance, a normally very loving pet can become violent simply because one of his toys was taken away - not to say that he is no longer loving, he is just overwhelmed by anger. Likewise, in Sophocles's Oedipus Rex and Antigone, the protagonists Oedipus and Creon (who appears in both stories) exhibit a similar disposition as the "loving pet:" while they are usually reasonable, having their fates verbally revealed to them triggers an emotion that results in them behaving irrationally....   [tags: World Literature] 779 words
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Plato's Moral Psychology - Plato's Moral Psychology I argue that Plato's psychological theories are motivated by concerns he had about moral theory. In particular, Plato rejects the modern account of rationality as the maximization of subjectively evaluated self-interest because, had he adopted such an account, his theory of justice would be subject to criticisms which he holds are fatal to the contractarian theory of justice. While formulating a theory to remain within ethical constraints sometimes violates the canons of scientific theorizing, Plato avoids this mistake....   [tags: Argumentative Rationality Argument Papers] 3996 words
(11.4 pages)
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Kant as a Philosopher - Kant as a Philosopher How does one label Kant as a philosopher. Is he a rationalist or an empiricist. Kant makes a distinction between appearances and things in themselves. He also says that things in themselves exist, and that we have no knowledge of things in themselves. This could be labeled "CLOSE TO NONSENSE", but we know Kant better than that. No matter how many laps on the track of metaphysics Kant takes us through, he is still widely held as one of the greatest modern philosophers of our time....   [tags: Papers] 1257 words
(3.6 pages)
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Knowledge of God - Here we will look at the surety of God and to better understand where we get our knowledge that we have received. The knowledge can be express through our senses or through the logical knowledge that is in us automatically, according to rationalism. Whether through the Word of God, proven solutions or through our senses like personal experience that had been given unto us about whom God is and the purpose He has for us. What does Rationalism and Empiricism express about the knowledge we get and where does it come from....   [tags: Religion]
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The Christian Worldview - ... Knowledge via tenacity is knowledge gained from hearing information repeatedly to the point that it is processed as accurate regardless of facts. The problem with tenacity is that the claims may be false. The next two, rationalism and empiricism are the combination of knowledge via science. Knowledge via rationalism involves logical reasoning. It is the combination of stating precise ideas (often in the form of syllogism), applying logical rules, and making logical conclusions based on the ideas....   [tags: Christianity]
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Constructivism - ... One notable problem with pure empiricism is that it does rely upon reasoning. If the concept of causality is true, there must be some form of reasoning to be able to relate one action to a reaction. Hume’s principle of induction assumes that one experience will be similar to a previous experience under similar circumstances. It takes a measure of reasoning to assume that the previous experience of dropping a glass would result in the same consequence when dropping a vase. To account for this, Hume believes that reason draws connections between concepts in the mind, but it cannot form connections between those ideas in the external world (Lawhead, 2010)....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Of Mircacles - David Hume wrote An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding in 1748 and contained in this was an essay entitled “Of Miracles”. David Hume was a Scottish Philosopher that lived in the 18th century he was born on May 7th, 1711 and would die on August 25th, 1776. He was from a philosophical school known as Empiricism, which basically means that everything originates through sense experience. He believed that everything we know ultimately started in the senses. So, in essence we learn and know everything we do via our five senses: sight, hearing, taste, and touch....   [tags: Philosophy] 790 words
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The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience - The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience Explain the principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence in religious experience The principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence all play crucial roles while attempting to explain religious experience. The principle of credulity states that religious experiences should be taken at their face value when we have no positive reason to doubt them....   [tags: Papers] 572 words
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The Elimination of Natural Theology - The Elimination of Natural Theology ABSTRACT: The dispute between fideists and rationalists seems intractable since those who argue for faith alone claim that they are offended by the use of reason in religion. The advocates of reason claim that they are equally offended by the appeal to faith. This dispute may be resolved by showing that those who rely on faith may be seen as engaging in an experiment of living, so they can become part of a rational experiment without having to alter their practice; in contrast, those who use reason to justify religion can be seen as addressing a spiritual need....   [tags: Religion Religious Theological Papers]
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Ethics of Civil Disobedience - Ethics of Civil Disobedience Ban animal cruelty. Give aid to the poor. Save the rainforests. Obey the law. As a human race we must strive to fulfill these commands, for they are our moral duties and obligations. Our obligation to morality sometimes leads to a dilemma. What happens when a law contradicts the morally right thing to do. Would it be moral to act illegally by breaking the law. No matter how drastic the measure, we are still required to act morally--even if one must break the law to do so....   [tags: Ethics Morals Philosophy Rationality Essays]
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New Public Management and Decision Making in UK Public Policy - Discuss how the tendency of New Public Management has impacted on decision making in UK public policy. New Public Management is generally used to describe a management culture that emphasises upon the citizen or customer as being central, as well as having accountability for results. It also suggests organizational structures and promotes decentralized control, many different types of service delivery mechanisms, including quasi-markets with public and private service providers competing for resources....   [tags: Business and Management Studies] 1427 words
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Ideas of the Parthenon - The Greek people of the 5th century BC created a culture that was deeply rooted in philosophy and the arts. Their endless search for their place in the grand scheme of the universe and in nature around them influenced everything in their lives especially their love of the arts. Their drama, sculpture, and even architecture are all shining examples of the ideas that were so dominant in the minds of the Greek people. What could be considered the crown jewel of Greek architecture, the Parthenon, is one such of these examples....   [tags: essays research papers] 1427 words
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European Integration - The key development in the study of European integration is the growing awareness of the "new world" created for both whites and Indians as a result of their contact. Earlier histories showed the creation of the European civilization over Indian "savagery", or illustrated the decimation of native peoples through military defeat and disease. In both versions, native peoples were seen primarily as passive victims, but recent analyzation of past writings and tell another story entirely. They draw the attention to the enduring native resistance to white domination....   [tags: American History] 983 words
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The Birthmark - ... Also, with no margin of doubt, Hawthorne clarifies that it is not only unlawful but also suicidal to compel nature beyond its ordained ultimatum. On the one hand, Romanticism's motive is to wipe out logic and replace it with emotion while, on the other hand, Rationalism is nothing more than any view claiming reason as a source of justification. In this short narrative, we find Romanticism's superiority over Rationalism. The narrative's problematic personage, "Aylmer, is a scientist, artist, aesthete--and newlywed....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Nathaniel Hawthorne] 1083 words
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The Origin of Ideas - The Origin of Ideas Webster's dictionary defines the word idea as 1) something, such as a thought or conception, that potentially or actually exists in the mind as a product of mental activity, 2) an opinion, a conviction, or a principle, 3) a plan, scheme, or method 4) the gist of a specific situation, and 5) a notion. We have a better understanding of these definitions today because of the thoughts and writings of Descartes and John Locke. These two have very different views on the origin of ideas....   [tags: Papers] 810 words
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Gertrude Stein’s Masking: Convention and Structure - ... The usage of the mask, for North, represents the breaking down of the dichotomy between “impersonality and individuality, [and] conventional representation and likeness.” Rowe visits North’s assertion that the role of the mask, as applied to visual art, is “convention embodied, the sign of signs,” which exposes the structure of art by challenging assumptions about its inherent nature. Rowe notes that Stein uses the literary mask of Melanctha to reveal “linguistic conventions—and the related conventions of race, gender, sexuality, and other forms of identity” through the distortion of the conventions themselves, and through the use of “strategic distortion…of the customary practices of technocratic rationality.” On the other hand, North explicates this use of masking to its extreme, considering the possibility that not just an aspect of language, but language as a whole can be used as a mask in a creative work....   [tags: art, compare]
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Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period - Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period The eighteenth century was fraught with change. Dryden, Pope and Johnson were dominating the literature. Fahrenheit was building his first mercury thermometer. The Boston Tea Party and the French Revolution occurred. However, some of the most drastic changes occurred in thought. Prior to the eighteenth century, thinkers such as Locke, Spinoza, Descartes, and Hobbes dominated Western thought to the extent that they changed the way people viewed the world....   [tags: American America History]
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The Nature and Working of PEMS - ... In every department there was a role to play in the planning and budgeting. These roles were performed by preparing department plans that were designed to assist themselves and other actors in making the entire system work properly. Each department was responsible for the preparation of a strategic overview. This document provided a review of departmental objectives in light of the government priorities. Some goals would be an assessment of alternative means of pursuing departmental goals and new policy options contemplated by the department....   [tags: Canadian Political Science] 1981 words
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Jonathan Swift's Influence on the Age of Reason - Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, opened the door for satire. He was one of the most well known satirist of The Age of Reason, which gained him much respect as a writer. Swift’s works and lifestyle reflect the Humanities of The Age of Reason, thus giving the reader a glimpse of the common man’s life during this time. In order to understand the life of Jonathan Swift, one must explore his works and The Age of Reason. The Age of Reason was a new beginning for many man kind during the eighteenth century, therefore opening the door for people to pursue happiness and liberty....   [tags: Age of Reason, Jonathan Swift, satire, ] 1742 words
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How Romanticism Changed Society's Way of Thinking - ... Peckham describes Romanticism “as a revolution in art and ideas, often considered to be only an expression of a general redirection of European life.” (Gleckner) This is a brilliant description because Romanticism relies on imagination rather than rationalism, and the movement is definitely a redirection of European life considering the reaction towards the Enlightenment Movement. Literature helped describe the movement of Romanticism because Romantics embraced nature, so they exalted the creative individual in the person of the hero....   [tags: Literature ]
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Use of Symbols to Portray the Descent from Civilization to Savagery in Golding's Lord of the Flies - D.H. Lawrence once said, “This is the very worst wickedness, that we refuse to acknowledge the passionate evil that is in us. This makes us secret and rotten.” Sir William Golding tells about the evil and sadistic things that can be expressed throughout humanity in his novel, Lord of the Flies. Lord of the flies is a translation of a Hebrew name for Satan, Beelzebub. In the novel, William Golding portrays the boys’ descent from civilization to savagery through the following symbols: the conch shell, Piggy’s glasses, and the Lord of the Flies....   [tags: lord of the flies] 666 words
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Philosophical Anthropology - Philosophical Anthropology ABSTRACT: Philosophers cannot avoid addressing the question of whether philosophical anthropology (that is, specifically philosophical inquiry about human nature and human phenomenon) is possible. Any answer must be articulated in the context of the nature and function of philosophy. In other words, philosophical anthropology must be defined as an account of the nature of the subject of philosophical thinking. I argue that if philosophical thinkers admit that they are beings in nature, culture, and history, then the possibility of a uniquely philosophical theory of human nature and human phenomenon should be discarded....   [tags: Philosophy Essays] 2994 words
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Reality, the Mind, and God - Reality, the Mind, and God The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Great Britain are marked by a general and persistent concern about threats to orthodoxy in religion. Many doctrines and views were seen as threatening: theories about the origin and nature of human knowledge, metaphysical claims about the nature of the world, claims about human nature, about the person and action. (Yolton 3) According to the major viewpoints held in metaphysics, one of the four major categories in the study of philosophy, there are three major ways to regard the constitution of reality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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The Age Of Reason - The Age Of Reason The eighteenth century saw unprecedented growth of literature and the arts in Europe and America. Britain during this time period also enjoyed prolonged periods of civil peace that stood in sharp contrast to the bloody and protracted civil and international conflicts that lasted throughout the 17th century. Furthermore, as the rising middle classes increasingly sought both education and leisure entertainment, the marketplace for artistic production swelled dramatically. One of the most critical elements of the 18th century was the increasing availability of printed material, both for readers and authors....   [tags: History Historical Science Europe Essays] 2455 words
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Reason for the Weak - ... Freedom being the content of existence that cannot be judged or determined by anything, becoming the basis for mankind. It is through Dostoevsky’s experiments with human nature and spiritual and natural laws that coincide with one's ability to view the innermost workings of the nature of man. Using the stream of consciousness technique, Dostoevsky conveys Raskolnikov’s thoughts to the reader, and we are able to follow how Raskolnikov is acutely aware of the situation and opportunities available to the people of the city....   [tags: Informative, Blind Faith, God] 1999 words
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romanticism - Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of "nothing." The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19th century and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology....   [tags: essays research papers] 1322 words
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A Study of Epistemology - A Study of Epistemology In the sixth century B.C., Homer alludes to a separation of knowledge between the mortals and the gods. He speaks of both gods and human beings as “knowing things”- creatures of knowledge. However, there is a “great difference in the quality and the scope of the knowledge available to the two groups” (Everson, Pg.12). For the mortal human being the contrast between “divine and human knowledge”, paired with possible deception by the gods, has led him to question the idea of knowledge as it exists independently, reminding him that there are many things he cannot “know for certain” (Everson, Pg....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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Figurative Language In The Third Book Of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels - “And though I (…) understand all mysteries and all knowledge and have no charity, I am nothing.” /St Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 13, 2 / Each of the four books of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels discusses one aspect of human nature. The discussions’ language is rather satirical than an earnest tone. The first book is about the physical aspect, the voyage to Brobdingnag focuses on the “Homo politicus”, the political man. The third book is about intellect, while in the land if the Houyhnhnms we can “meet” the moral man....   [tags: Gulliver's Travels] 1567 words
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Capital Punishment in the American Colonies - American colonies were introduced to the practice of capital punishment, through European colonization. The offenses punishable by the death penalty in each colony varied from stealing, to denying the existence of God. Ceasre Beccaria’s 1776 essay, titled On Crimes and Punishment acted as the chief catalyst behind the abolition movement against the death penalty. In his essay, Beccaria asserted that the death penalty deprives men of life, true deterrence resulted from imprisoning criminals and using this as an example to show the value of freedom and laws, and that the death penalty be used only in cases of treason....   [tags: Death Penalty, American History] 1039 words
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Antigone and Othello: Tragic Heroes - Othello and Antigone are both tragic heroes. They do great deeds and have great power or strength. For example, Othello defeats Venice's enemies. Antigone makes sure that a Theban right is a Theban due. But fatal character flaws destroy the lives of the two heroes. Both of them suffer from pride and uncontrolled passion. Othello is so proud of his integrity and courage that he doesn't recognize his violent temper and his manipulability by Iago. Antigone is so proud of her commitment to the true, the right, the proper, and the correct that she doesn't respect differing, less passionate opinions....   [tags: Antigone, Othello, tragedy, Heroes,] 971 words
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The Parthenon - The Parthenon There are some historians that believe before the Parthenon began, Athens concluded a peace treaty with Persia in 449 BC. The Athenian Empire was at the height of its power when the work on the Parthenon began in 447 BC and continued until 432 BC. The Delian League/Athenian Empire continued to exist even after the reason for its existence ceased to be valid. It is now openly acknowledged that Athens was not just the head of the Greek defense league but an imperial master over other Greek states....   [tags: Greek History]
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The Parthenon - The Parthenon is an amazing Greek temple that was built 2,500 years ago. Even the architects of today have numerous questions about how it was constructed and how it has held up through its eventful past. The Parthenon's detailed appearance is not its only meaningful quality. The Parthenon was constructed as a temple to the goddess, Athena, and as an icon of the Greek people themselves. The Parthenon represents the Greek ideals of humanism, idealism, and rationalism. Humanism was important to the Greek culture because they believed focusing on human values were key to life....   [tags: Ancient Greece] 1400 words
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Descartes Six Meditations on First Philosophy - Throughout the six meditations on First Philosophy, French philosopher Rene Descartes seeks to find a concrete foundation for the basis of science, one which he states can only include certain and unquestionable beliefs. Anything less concrete, he argues will be exposed to the external world and to opposition by philosophical sceptics. The sense of the Cartesian reform is the imposition of a new method of thinking. Descartes’ method to begin with is reductive, removing all knowledge acquired without control, to become analytical, putting forward any knowledge in a process of division to present simple elements, those which are clear and distinct....   [tags: Philosophy] 1342 words
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Should We Trust Our Senses to Give Us Truth? - ... By simple definition from the senses, a rose is a rose, whether described by different individuals. However, the meaning of its paradoxical nature can only be derived from reason. The senses cannot give us reason. This is because they collect raw and direct data as it is, and they deliver the exact appearance of events. They cannot therefore be used as they fail to give the uncovered meaning and formation, which is only possible through rationalism. The reason and application brings about the aspect of reality, which is related to the truth....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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The American Renaissance - ... It taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. “The individuals who are known today as Transcendentalists—including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, the younger William Ellery Channing, Bronson Alcott, Elizabeth Peabody, and George Ripley—embraced a system of ideas that provided the basis for critique of virtually all aspects of American life.” (Davis 159) “One way to look at the Transcendentalists is to see them as a generation of well-educated people who lived in the decades before the American Civil War and the national division that it both reflected and helped to create.” (Lewis....   [tags: American History]
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