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Extreme Rationalism - Extreme Rationalism Rationalism is the idea that we can gain knowledge through the processes of mind alone. Empiricism is the idea that we can only gain knowledge through the senses. Empiricism has been adopted by the Western world because it is the foundation of the scientific approach to life that we use. Various popular sayings such as 'seeing is believing' and 'I heard it with my own ears', show that we accept the use of the senses without question....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
(1.5 pages)
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Rationalism and Empiricism - Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism and Empiricism are most likely the two most famous and intriguing schools of philosophy. The two schools deal specifically with epistemology, or, the origin of knowledge. Although not completely opposite, they are often considered so, and are seen as the "Jordan vs. Bird" of the philosophy world. The origins of rationalism and empiricism can be traced back to the 17th century, when many important advancements were made in scientific fields such as astronomy and mechanics....   [tags: Philosophy Epistemology Papers]
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The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz - The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieval philosophers and by Bacon and Hobbes....   [tags: Papers] 1674 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism - ... According to rationalist thinkers, perception is unreliable as a way of gaining knowledge, and unlike perception, reason is the only thing that is certain, and the only thing that can be studied. In his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke, 1690), Locke distinguished between simple ideas, such as understanding shapes and colours of objects, which are passively acquired, and complex ideas, which actively combine simple ideas to create knowledge. He also distinguished between primary, or true, qualities of an object, and secondary qualities that are perceptual....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism - ... (White & Rauhut, pg.72) Descartes introduced the idea of "radical doubt", as well as his idea of the workings of a "Master Deceiver" as theories that support rationalism. While his "Master Deceiver" theory does not pose a viable argument for rationalism, "radical doubt", gives rise to new questions about reality, knowledge, and the mind. Ultimately, Descartes' "radical doubt" challenges how we look at the mind and how it represents us with information and knowledge. He uses his radical doubt theory to explain how the information that we receive through our senses is distorted and can not be utilized as a means of knowledge....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth - ... When I first heard about these two streams I wondered what did these have to do with God anyway. But it hit me, there are people (empiricist) in the world that believe that if you can’t see it, touch it, smell it, or hear it isn’t real the empiricist rely on the five senses to uncover the truth. “Empiricism” is a theory about knowledge that emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially the role of ‘sensory perception’; our ability to experience something with one of our five senses (pleaseconvinceme.com, 2011)....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Rationalism in America: The Age That Shaped the World - ... and if there yet remains one thoughtless wretch who believes it not, let him suffer it unlamented.” (111) In this paragraph, Paine is able to showcase his own thoughts on independence, calling it a, “glorious issue,” which can only be achieved through hard work and determination against the British. Paine's choice to describe the colonies' independence as glorious is very powerful, as the term is usually used to describe only the most sought after things, such as precious gems or the kingdom of Heaven....   [tags: U.S. History ]
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When Rationalism and Empiricism Collide: the Best of Both Worlds - ... In order to help facilitate for this lack of concrete evidence, scientists try to piece together what they already know into a working conclusion . Empiricism and rationalism must coexist in this world because one without the other results in only half of an answer. Without any sort of observations or facts present in the world, rationalists would base the truth on falsehoods entirely. Without any sort of theories or inferences, empiricists gather data without any means to connect them together into a working conclusion....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 - How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 Many changes took place between 1650 and 1750. There was territory expansion as European countries started colonies in the Americas. Political changes took place as well, as people began to rise up against the government. New economic standards were set as people realized that having money was not the way to economic control but by controlling the means of production. Britain, France, and Spain were busy establishing colonies in the Americas....   [tags: Papers] 329 words
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Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge - Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge Rationalism ----------- Rene Descartes was the main rationalist. He said he believed he had to doubt everything known to him to really understand knowledge. Rationalism first began in Ancient Greece with two extreme rationalists - Parmenides and Zeno. Rationalists believed in innate ideas - ones that are present at birth, in the mind. When Descartes started his thoughts, it was in the 17th century, during the rise of science....   [tags: Papers] 986 words
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The Role of Naturalism and Rationalism in American and British Gun Policy - Although they may not be aware of it, complex philosophic principles influence the simple actions of the mass’s everyday lives. In fact, long lasting and well defined contentions of basic philosophy concerning the actions of human beings has not only affected individuals, but also entire countries. Some of the greatest nations on Earth have been formed around key thoughts and opinions of several great philosophers. Primarily amongst these, however, or John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom wrote on “The State of Nature”, or the state of absolute freedom....   [tags: Gun Control Laws] 753 words
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The Romantic Movement - The Romantic Movement (1800-1850) Art as Emotion The goal of self-determination that Napoleon imported to Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria affected not only nations but also individuals. England's metamorphosis during the Industrial Revolution was also reflected in the outlook of the individual, and therefore in the art produced during the first half of this century. Heightened sensibility and intensified feeling became characteristic of the visual arts as well as musical arts and a convention in literature....   [tags: Rationalism Romanticism Landscape]
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Pragmatism as a Philosophy - ... Each of these beliefs deal with what reality actually is. Idealism claims there is one type of reality and that it is mental or spiritual in nature (Lawhead, p. 97). If, as Berkeley claims, matter is a useless concept (Lawhead, p. 206), it would be useless for us to try manipulating the world around us. Since we do try to manipulate our world, Berkeley’s idealism does not work with how we live. It is not practical. The other form of monism, materialism, more specifically physicalism, may hold more practical value than idealism....   [tags: Skepticism, Rationalism, Metaphysics] 892 words
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Psychopaths and the Future of Humanity - ... However, backsliding towards sentimentalism is an indictment for proponents of moral rationalism. In Kenneth's response to Nichols, Do Psychopaths Really Threaten Moral Rationalism. she makes the claim that philosophers get carried away with the implications of the data and overstate their case. The data may be irrelevant, and the philosopher aren't exactly the ideal candidates to adjudicate it. In addition, the data is not merely descriptive, for they also highlight normative limits for moral reasoning as well as conceptual limits of moral judgment....   [tags: Psychology ] 1460 words
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Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge - Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge It is human nature to desire to acquire knowledge, but how we acquire this knowledge is a constant debate between philosophers. For years philosophers have written about different sources of knowledge. We can divide these ideas into two theories, rationalism and empiricism. A question that divides the two dogmas is; "Is perception the source of knowledge?" Empiricists say yes whole-heartedly while Rationalists believe that we accomplish knowledge through reason....   [tags: Papers] 564 words
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Three Traditions of International Theory - ... Further, assumption that there is a common distrust of long-standing collaboration or coalition leads to their fundamental political condition of Anarchy. Revolutionist on the other hand may be described more specifically as those who keenly trust in the ethical togetherness of society of states i.e. international society. They recognize themselves with it and as a result both assert to speak for unity and feel paramount responsibility to realize to it .The revolutionists came up with concept of agreement or solitary utopia for and among all peoples because they were inspired by an effective society of states called Respublica Christiana in 700 to 1200 AD....   [tags: International Politics]
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Framing the Innateness Hypothesis - Framing the Innateness Hypothesis Perhaps the most traditional way of framing the innateness hypothesis would be in terms of an opposition between rationalism and empiricism. This is an opposition that is frequently encountered in philosophical debates over language acquisition, with the one side arguing that language acquisition is a phenomenon associated with the maturation of a language faculty or "organ," while the other side argues that language acquisition is instead a process of generalization from experience....   [tags: Language Learning Essays]
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Ideas of the Parthenon - The Greek people of the 5th century BC created a culture that was deeply rooted in philosophy and the arts. Their endless search for their place in the grand scheme of the universe and in nature around them influenced everything in their lives especially their love of the arts. Their drama, sculpture, and even architecture are all shining examples of the ideas that were so dominant in the minds of the Greek people. What could be considered the crown jewel of Greek architecture, the Parthenon, is one such of these examples....   [tags: essays research papers] 1427 words
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European Integration - The key development in the study of European integration is the growing awareness of the "new world" created for both whites and Indians as a result of their contact. Earlier histories showed the creation of the European civilization over Indian "savagery", or illustrated the decimation of native peoples through military defeat and disease. In both versions, native peoples were seen primarily as passive victims, but recent analyzation of past writings and tell another story entirely. They draw the attention to the enduring native resistance to white domination....   [tags: American History] 983 words
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The English School: A Via Media - ... The International Society also referred, as Grotian tradition because of their closeness is focus on the institutionalization of shared interest and identity between states. Rationalism creates, maintain and share the norms, rules and institution. The World Society or Kantian takes individuals, non-state organization and global population in consideration and as a central focus. Revolutionism puts importance of the state system. The idea of an international society is simple: states in international societies that they shape and are shaped by....   [tags: Education, International Relations] 1003 words
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Kant as a Philosopher - Kant as a Philosopher How does one label Kant as a philosopher. Is he a rationalist or an empiricist. Kant makes a distinction between appearances and things in themselves. He also says that things in themselves exist, and that we have no knowledge of things in themselves. This could be labeled "CLOSE TO NONSENSE", but we know Kant better than that. No matter how many laps on the track of metaphysics Kant takes us through, he is still widely held as one of the greatest modern philosophers of our time....   [tags: Papers] 1257 words
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Knowledge of God - ... It seems to me that people take the word of God lightly and doesn’t realize how powerful God’s word can be. It can transform and change lives, if we just believe. The knowledge we get are sent from above and my Father knows what we need to survive he on earth for His Glory. In Proverbs 2:2-7 (New King James Version) states that “So that you incline your ear to wisdom, .and apply your heart to understanding; yes, if you cry out for discernment, and lift up your voice for understanding, if you seek her as silver, and search for her as for hidden treasures; then you will understand the fear of the LORD, and find the knowledge of God....   [tags: Religion]
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The Christian Worldview - ... Knowledge via tenacity is knowledge gained from hearing information repeatedly to the point that it is processed as accurate regardless of facts. The problem with tenacity is that the claims may be false. The next two, rationalism and empiricism are the combination of knowledge via science. Knowledge via rationalism involves logical reasoning. It is the combination of stating precise ideas (often in the form of syllogism), applying logical rules, and making logical conclusions based on the ideas....   [tags: Christianity]
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New Public Management and Decision Making in UK Public Policy - Discuss how the tendency of New Public Management has impacted on decision making in UK public policy. New Public Management is generally used to describe a management culture that emphasises upon the citizen or customer as being central, as well as having accountability for results. It also suggests organizational structures and promotes decentralized control, many different types of service delivery mechanisms, including quasi-markets with public and private service providers competing for resources....   [tags: Business and Management Studies] 1427 words
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The Birthmark - ... Also, with no margin of doubt, Hawthorne clarifies that it is not only unlawful but also suicidal to compel nature beyond its ordained ultimatum. On the one hand, Romanticism's motive is to wipe out logic and replace it with emotion while, on the other hand, Rationalism is nothing more than any view claiming reason as a source of justification. In this short narrative, we find Romanticism's superiority over Rationalism. The narrative's problematic personage, "Aylmer, is a scientist, artist, aesthete--and newlywed....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Nathaniel Hawthorne] 1083 words
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Constructivism - ... One notable problem with pure empiricism is that it does rely upon reasoning. If the concept of causality is true, there must be some form of reasoning to be able to relate one action to a reaction. Hume’s principle of induction assumes that one experience will be similar to a previous experience under similar circumstances. It takes a measure of reasoning to assume that the previous experience of dropping a glass would result in the same consequence when dropping a vase. To account for this, Hume believes that reason draws connections between concepts in the mind, but it cannot form connections between those ideas in the external world (Lawhead, 2010)....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Reality, the Mind, and God - Reality, the Mind, and God The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Great Britain are marked by a general and persistent concern about threats to orthodoxy in religion. Many doctrines and views were seen as threatening: theories about the origin and nature of human knowledge, metaphysical claims about the nature of the world, claims about human nature, about the person and action. (Yolton 3) According to the major viewpoints held in metaphysics, one of the four major categories in the study of philosophy, there are three major ways to regard the constitution of reality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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A Study of Epistemology - A Study of Epistemology In the sixth century B.C., Homer alludes to a separation of knowledge between the mortals and the gods. He speaks of both gods and human beings as “knowing things”- creatures of knowledge. However, there is a “great difference in the quality and the scope of the knowledge available to the two groups” (Everson, Pg.12). For the mortal human being the contrast between “divine and human knowledge”, paired with possible deception by the gods, has led him to question the idea of knowledge as it exists independently, reminding him that there are many things he cannot “know for certain” (Everson, Pg....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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The Elimination of Natural Theology - The Elimination of Natural Theology ABSTRACT: The dispute between fideists and rationalists seems intractable since those who argue for faith alone claim that they are offended by the use of reason in religion. The advocates of reason claim that they are equally offended by the appeal to faith. This dispute may be resolved by showing that those who rely on faith may be seen as engaging in an experiment of living, so they can become part of a rational experiment without having to alter their practice; in contrast, those who use reason to justify religion can be seen as addressing a spiritual need....   [tags: Religion Religious Theological Papers]
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The Age Of Reason - The Age Of Reason The eighteenth century saw unprecedented growth of literature and the arts in Europe and America. Britain during this time period also enjoyed prolonged periods of civil peace that stood in sharp contrast to the bloody and protracted civil and international conflicts that lasted throughout the 17th century. Furthermore, as the rising middle classes increasingly sought both education and leisure entertainment, the marketplace for artistic production swelled dramatically. One of the most critical elements of the 18th century was the increasing availability of printed material, both for readers and authors....   [tags: History Historical Science Europe Essays] 2455 words
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Figurative Language In The Third Book Of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels - “And though I (…) understand all mysteries and all knowledge and have no charity, I am nothing.” /St Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 13, 2 / Each of the four books of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels discusses one aspect of human nature. The discussions’ language is rather satirical than an earnest tone. The first book is about the physical aspect, the voyage to Brobdingnag focuses on the “Homo politicus”, the political man. The third book is about intellect, while in the land if the Houyhnhnms we can “meet” the moral man....   [tags: Gulliver's Travels] 1567 words
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Jonathan Swift's Influence on the Age of Reason - Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, opened the door for satire. He was one of the most well known satirist of The Age of Reason, which gained him much respect as a writer. Swift’s works and lifestyle reflect the Humanities of The Age of Reason, thus giving the reader a glimpse of the common man’s life during this time. In order to understand the life of Jonathan Swift, one must explore his works and The Age of Reason. The Age of Reason was a new beginning for many man kind during the eighteenth century, therefore opening the door for people to pursue happiness and liberty....   [tags: Age of Reason, Jonathan Swift, satire, ] 1742 words
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Of Mircacles - ... In fact, David Hume said that we can never know causation. For instance, if someone was to pick up an apple and drop it an Empiricist would say that one can never know the causal relationship between the two actions. The individual would not know if the fact that the apple dropped when he let it go was of a causal relationship, coincidental, or if there was a correlation. This means that the senses are inherently troublesome. For example, if you were to conduct and experiment of dropping the apple one hundred times the chance of that apple dropping on the one hundredth and one drop would be almost zero....   [tags: Philosophy] 790 words
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How Romanticism Changed Society's Way of Thinking - ... Peckham describes Romanticism “as a revolution in art and ideas, often considered to be only an expression of a general redirection of European life.” (Gleckner) This is a brilliant description because Romanticism relies on imagination rather than rationalism, and the movement is definitely a redirection of European life considering the reaction towards the Enlightenment Movement. Literature helped describe the movement of Romanticism because Romantics embraced nature, so they exalted the creative individual in the person of the hero....   [tags: Literature ]
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Use of Symbols to Portray the Descent from Civilization to Savagery in Golding's Lord of the Flies - D.H. Lawrence once said, “This is the very worst wickedness, that we refuse to acknowledge the passionate evil that is in us. This makes us secret and rotten.” Sir William Golding tells about the evil and sadistic things that can be expressed throughout humanity in his novel, Lord of the Flies. Lord of the flies is a translation of a Hebrew name for Satan, Beelzebub. In the novel, William Golding portrays the boys’ descent from civilization to savagery through the following symbols: the conch shell, Piggy’s glasses, and the Lord of the Flies....   [tags: lord of the flies] 666 words
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German Expressionism and Its Roots - German Expressionism and Its Roots Personal freedom and alternative thinking -- these were the conditions in Weimar Republic Germany during the heyday of the Expressionist movement in film. Spanning the years 1909-1924, theirs was a time of revolution (in Russia and Germany), war (World War I), and reaction (the rise of National Socialism in Germany). Anxious about the disintegration of their culture, filmmakers such as F.W. Murnau, Robert Wiene, and Ernst Lubitsch used cinema to create new forms of visual representation, exploring the possibility of reversing power relations through the look....   [tags: essays papers] 329 words
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Romantic Sensibility - In life as well as literature, some sought to display their sensibility by weeping and fainting and blushing and reacting extravagantly to scenes of poverty or illness. Sensibility was understood as a capacity intimately connected with the physical nature of nerves. Essential to its existence was its operation on the body as well as the mind. Thus a propensity to blush and weep might be taken as evidence that the weepers, full of sensibility, loved their neighbours as themselves. (Spacks 141) During the Romantic period, the Sensibility movement began: as a result, the "conduct of private affections, charity, education, sympathy, genius, honour, and even the use of reason…became political statements" (Jones 13)....   [tags: Romantic Period]
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Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period - Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period The eighteenth century was fraught with change. Dryden, Pope and Johnson were dominating the literature. Fahrenheit was building his first mercury thermometer. The Boston Tea Party and the French Revolution occurred. However, some of the most drastic changes occurred in thought. Prior to the eighteenth century, thinkers such as Locke, Spinoza, Descartes, and Hobbes dominated Western thought to the extent that they changed the way people viewed the world....   [tags: American America History]
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The Development of Psychology - The Development of Psychology Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and the mind. This definition implies three things. The first is that psychology is a science, a field that can be studied through objective methods of observation and experimentation. The second is that it is the study of behavior, animal activity that can be observed and measured. And the third is that it is the study of the mind, the conscious and unconscious mental states that cannot be seen but inferred through observation....   [tags: Research Essays Term Papers]
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Division Between Ancient and Modern Science - Division Between Ancient and Modern Science Introduction Power has played a significant role in the motivation of scientific progress, specifically in comparing modern science and ancient science. Power-seekers have been greatly attracted to scientific pursuits, seeking monetary, life-giving or glory-earning ends. In ancient science "the lure of health, wealth, and eternal life charmed many an alchemist to the poorhouse, madness, or an untimely death" (Coudert 35), while modern society itself has embraced scientific development with a similar fervor....   [tags: Religion Philosophy Papers]
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Education without Truth in Postmodern Perspectivism - Education without Truth in Postmodern Perspectivism Poststructuralist relativism, following the Nietzschean critique of Western rationalism, denounces the quest for truth as a quest to legitimize various claims on the level of universal human value, by covering up the indirect coercion of their discourse or imagery. Using perspectivism as an argument against philosophical grounding of various patterns and schemes, post-modern thinkers, under the influence of Poststructuralist relativism, try to depart from the cognitivist tradition by transforming philosophical thought to an edifying discipline (Rorty) or learning (Lyotard) liberated from a theory of knowledge, and giving into a discourse of literary or prosy character....   [tags: Argumentative Linguistic Papers] 4006 words
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The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality - The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality ABSTRACT: The doctrines of the Socinians represent a rational reaction to a medieval theology based on submission to the Church’s authority. Though they retained Scripture as something supra rationem, the Socinians analyzed it rationally and believed that nothing should be accepted contra rationem. Their social and political thought underwent a significant evolutionary process from a very utopian pacifistic trend condemning participation in war and holding public and judicial office to a moderate and realistic stance based on mutual love, support of the secular power of the state, active participation in social and political life, and the defense of social equality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Jewish Philosophers on Reason and Revelation - Jewish Philosophers on Reason and Revelation Footnotes are Misssing ABSTRACT: Are reason and revelation different sources of truth. Do they contradict or complement each other. The present essay tries to give an answer to these ancient questions from a Jewish pluralistic point of view. I describe the essential views of the most important representatives of the two main schools of Jewish thought: the rationalists Maimonides, Moses Mendelssohn, and Hermann Cohen, and the antirationalists Judah Halevi and Solomon Levi Steinheim....   [tags: Research Essays Term Papers] 3649 words
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Ethics and Reality - Ethics and Reality One of the most pervasive problems in theoretical ethics has been the attempt to reconcile the good for the individual with the good for all. It is a problem which appears in contemporary discussions (like those initiated by Alasdair MacIntyre in After Virtue) as a debate between emotivism and rationalism, and in more traditional debates between relativism and absolutism. I believe that a vital cause of this difficulty arises from a failure to ground ethics in metaphysics. It is crucial, it seems to me, to begin with "the way the world is" before we begin to speculate about the way it ought to be....   [tags: Religion Philosophy Papers]
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Normative and Educational Ethics - Normative and Educational Ethics The controversies in our time between teleological and deontological ethics which come down to the problem "from being to ought," referring to human being or nature, can be resolved only by an adequate conception of human nature. Taking up the ancient tradition (Plato, Aristotle, Stoa) again, we can re-examine the teleological conception of human nature as primarily instinctive and selfish, and say that human nature is constituted also by reason and that the instinctive nature is predisposed to be guided by reason or intellect....   [tags: Philosophy Morals Papers] 4030 words
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The Significance of System Cybernetics for Contemporary Philosophy- Post-Modernity in System Cybernetics - The Significance of System Cybernetics for Contemporary Philosophy- Post-Modernity in System Cybernetics ABSTRACT: I call the union of cybernetics and systems theory 'Systems Cybernetics.' Cybernetics and systems theory might be thought of a major source of today's striking development in cyber-technology, the science of complex adaptive systems, and so on. Since their genesis about the middle of this century, these two have gradually come to be connected with each other such that they have now formed an integrative theory which can be called Systems Cybernetics....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 3250 words
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The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant - The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant Criticism is Kant's original achievement; it identifies him as one of the greatest thinkers of mankind and as one of the most influential authors in contemporary philosophy. But it is important to understand what Kant means by'criticism', or 'critique'. In a general sense the term refers to a general cultivation of reason 'by way of the secure path of science' (Bxxx). More particularly, its use is not negative, but positive, a fact that finds expression in the famous expression, 'I have therefore found it necessary to deny knowledge to make room for faith' (Bxxx)....   [tags: Kant Philosophical Essays]
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Transcendentalism - Transcendentalism The highly religious philosophy of Transcendentalism developed as the response of a group of people who felt that it was unnecessary to practice a religion (and live a life) that was based on fear. The first Transcendentalists set out to create a more liberal way of life that allowed for personal growth, justice and freedom. To truly understand the implications of Transcendentalism and why Transcendentalists believed what they did, one must first look at the root of Transcendentalism, Unitarianism....   [tags: essays papers]
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Nazism - National Socialism was similar in many respects to Italian fascism (see Fascism). The roots of National Socialism, however, were peculiarly German, grounded, for example, in the Prussian tradition of military authoritarianism and expansion; in the German romantic tradition of hostility to rationalism, liberalism, and democracy; in various racist doctrines according to which the Nordic peoples, as so-called pure Aryans, were not only physically superior to other races, but were the carriers of a superior morality and culture; and in certain philosophical traditions that idealized the state or exalted the superior individual and exempted such a person from conventional restraints....   [tags: essays research papers] 770 words
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romanticism - Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of "nothing." The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19th century and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology....   [tags: essays research papers] 1322 words
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Woman is a Rational Animal - Woman is a Rational Animal "But now what am I, when I suppose that there is some supremely powerful and, if I may be permitted to say so, malicious deceiver who deliberately tries to fool me in any way he can?"(Decartes, 19). These words by Descartes seem to correlate directly with the theme of deception in the Princesse De Cleves. In a world where appearance is merely a fiction created by necessity and nothing is as it first seems, the ability to reason through a situation for public gain is highly coveted and revered....   [tags: Papers] 1072 words
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The Origin of Ideas - The Origin of Ideas Webster's dictionary defines the word idea as 1) something, such as a thought or conception, that potentially or actually exists in the mind as a product of mental activity, 2) an opinion, a conviction, or a principle, 3) a plan, scheme, or method 4) the gist of a specific situation, and 5) a notion. We have a better understanding of these definitions today because of the thoughts and writings of Descartes and John Locke. These two have very different views on the origin of ideas....   [tags: Papers] 810 words
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Nihilism- Original Writing - Nihilism- Original Writing Nihilism as a philosophical position is the view that the world, and especially human existence, is without meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. It is more often a charge leveled against a particular idea than a position to which someone is overtly subscribed. Movements such as Dada, Deconstructionism, and punk/black metal/ death metal/ metal/goth have been described by various observers as "nihilist". Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Baudrillard has called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch, and some Christian theologians and figures of authority assert that modernity and postmodernity represent the rejection of God, and therefore are nihilist....   [tags: Papers] 2332 words
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Modern Britain as a Secular Society - Modern Britain as a Secular Society Modern Britain is a secular society . To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence agree with this view In this essay I will look at the work of various sociologists and analyze and evaluate them to see what extent they agree with the fact that modern Britain is secular society. Martin 1978 believes that the term secularization has become almost meaningless because everyone has different interpretations of it....   [tags: Papers] 781 words
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The Enlightenment - Advancement from Enlightenment As the 1900's rolled around, many changes were to come. New leaders, government styles, and new ideas were just the start. The main focus of the Enlightenment era was based on reason, rationalism, and the idea of "Inevitable Progress." Enlightenment was pushed forward by great people such as Kant, Bulgaria, Thomas Jefferson, Isaac Newton, Francois-Marie Ardouet de Voltaire, Thomas Hobbes, to name a few. As the 20th century rapidly approached, the enlightenment was strongly criticized and new ideas were on the rise....   [tags: World History] 1009 words
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Capital Punishment in the American Colonies - American colonies were introduced to the practice of capital punishment, through European colonization. The offenses punishable by the death penalty in each colony varied from stealing, to denying the existence of God. Ceasre Beccaria’s 1776 essay, titled On Crimes and Punishment acted as the chief catalyst behind the abolition movement against the death penalty. In his essay, Beccaria asserted that the death penalty deprives men of life, true deterrence resulted from imprisoning criminals and using this as an example to show the value of freedom and laws, and that the death penalty be used only in cases of treason....   [tags: Death Penalty, American History] 1039 words
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Antigone and Othello: Tragic Heroes - Othello and Antigone are both tragic heroes. They do great deeds and have great power or strength. For example, Othello defeats Venice's enemies. Antigone makes sure that a Theban right is a Theban due. But fatal character flaws destroy the lives of the two heroes. Both of them suffer from pride and uncontrolled passion. Othello is so proud of his integrity and courage that he doesn't recognize his violent temper and his manipulability by Iago. Antigone is so proud of her commitment to the true, the right, the proper, and the correct that she doesn't respect differing, less passionate opinions....   [tags: Antigone, Othello, tragedy, Heroes,] 971 words
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The Parthenon - ... The Greek gods are created from the human ideals. Such gods include, Zeus which stands for masculine creative power, Hera for maternal womanliness, Athena for wisdom, Apollo for youthful brilliance, and Aphrodite for feminine desirability. Humanism is also expressed in kinship with nature. Even though their gods were conceived in the image of humans, the Greeks also tried to explain the many entities found in their forests, skies and seas including nymphs, satyrs, tritons and zephyrs, all of which are contributed to their imagination....   [tags: Greek History]
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The Parthenon - ... (Beckham) The cella frieze is crafted in low relief, giving it a slightly raised look but showing a cherished event between the Gods and the Athenians. “… use of the human body as units of measure and the idealized human form to define perfect proportions, the Parthenon literally embodies the words of the Greek Philosopher, Protagoras, who lived in Athens during the construction of the Parthenon: Man is the measure of all things” (Beckham). Moreover, all the Gods and Goddesses in the Parthenon are sculpted in human form....   [tags: Ancient Greece] 1400 words
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Descartes Six Meditations on First Philosophy - ... As a result he separates understanding from imagination, stating that the human mind exists separately from the body, yet are joined to form a unit. It is important to note that Descartes does not claim to have reached a concrete and stable foundation. His claim to certainty of his ideas regarding existence and knowledge extends further past his own interpretation. I believe that for Descartes, mathematics represents the ideal knowledge needed to follow philosophy in order to produce genuine variables....   [tags: Philosophy] 1342 words
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Should We Trust Our Senses to Give Us Truth? - ... By simple definition from the senses, a rose is a rose, whether described by different individuals. However, the meaning of its paradoxical nature can only be derived from reason. The senses cannot give us reason. This is because they collect raw and direct data as it is, and they deliver the exact appearance of events. They cannot therefore be used as they fail to give the uncovered meaning and formation, which is only possible through rationalism. The reason and application brings about the aspect of reality, which is related to the truth....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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The American Renaissance - ... It taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. “The individuals who are known today as Transcendentalists—including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, the younger William Ellery Channing, Bronson Alcott, Elizabeth Peabody, and George Ripley—embraced a system of ideas that provided the basis for critique of virtually all aspects of American life.” (Davis 159) “One way to look at the Transcendentalists is to see them as a generation of well-educated people who lived in the decades before the American Civil War and the national division that it both reflected and helped to create.” (Lewis....   [tags: American History]
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Reason for the Weak - ... Freedom being the content of existence that cannot be judged or determined by anything, becoming the basis for mankind. It is through Dostoevsky’s experiments with human nature and spiritual and natural laws that coincide with one's ability to view the innermost workings of the nature of man. Using the stream of consciousness technique, Dostoevsky conveys Raskolnikov’s thoughts to the reader, and we are able to follow how Raskolnikov is acutely aware of the situation and opportunities available to the people of the city....   [tags: Informative, Blind Faith, God] 1999 words
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O’Connor’s Works: An In-Depth Analysis - ... In the same way, this can quickly be identified in her brief tale "Revelation." The individuals in the tale are identified by actual physical features and some are even established with racial terms. The primary personality in the tale is prejudiced, Mrs. Turpin, refers to the greater category lady as "well-dressed". She also brands the youthful lady as "ugly”. When Mrs. Turpin discuss with her dark-colored employees, she uses the term "nigger" in her ideas.. She fought with the lupus disease which has triggered her to use a level of assault and frustration to create her stories somewhat disappointed....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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French Literature in the Age of Reason - French Literature in the Age of Reason The Age of Reason, or the Enlightenment, was a period in France during the 1700's following the classical age. Within this time, philosophers placed the emphasis on reason as the best method for learning. It explored issues in education, law philosophy, and politics. It attacked tyranny, social injustice, superstition, and ignorance. This time produced advances in such areas as anatomy, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. These were the ideals taken up for both the American and French revolutions....   [tags: European Europe History] 436 words
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German Expressionism - German Expressionism German Expressionism is a kind of art that is supposed to make you feel something. When you look at a painting such as “The Scream” by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), you ask yourself what kind of emotions does this painting give you. A group of early 20th century German artists used the term “expressionism” to desribe the way they produced art. The title later turned into “German Expressionism”. This art movement was prominent during 1905-1925. In German it is known as “Die Brucke” and “Der Blaue Reiter”....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Romanticism In Literature - Romanticism In Literature Romanticism in literature, began around 1750 and lasted until 1870. Different from the classical ways of Neoclassical Age(1660-1798), it relied on imagination, idealization of nature and freedom of thought and expression.      Two men who influenced the era with their writings were William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, both English poets of the time. Their edition of “Lyrical Ballads';, stressed the importance of feeling and imagination. Thus in romantic Literature the code was imagination over reason, emotion over logic, and finally intuition over science....   [tags: essays research papers] 513 words
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romanticism in song lyrics - As a boy lays in a field of grass, near a stream, beneath the sun, he sings to the daisies. He is Mother Nature’s son. There is a childish peacefulness throughout the song. It is spiritual because Mother Nature is the stream and the wind and the field of grass. There is an almost surreal and dreamlike atmosphere and a certain sweetness in tone. The word choice and diction throughout “Mother Nature’s son” are directly related to the tone of the song. Words such as young, singing, all day long, boy, and son contribute to the youthfulness of the poem....   [tags: essays research papers] 391 words
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Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood - Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood Romanticism is a revolt against rationalism. The poets and authors of this time wrote about God, religion, and Beauty in nature. The romantics held a conviction that imagination and emotion are superior to reason. One such author is William Cullen Bryant, he wrote the poem Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood. This poem uses many literary devices, and has a strong message to portray to the reader. The poem Inscription for the Entrance to a Woods is to show how nature is the answer....   [tags: Papers] 370 words
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Rebecca Rush's Novel Kelroy Portrays Realistic and Romantic Characters - Rebecca Rush's Novel Kelroy Portrays Realistic and Romantic Characters Kelroy is a novel of manners, which means that the book is not as dependent upon plot as it is character. Kelroy explores the difference between the characters who are realists and those who are romantics. The realist characters, Mrs. Hammond and Lucy contrast with the romantic character Emily, in the ways they act and the choices that they make. Although Kelroy is a novel of manners, the story contains more plot than the other nineteenth century novels in its category....   [tags: Rebecca Rush Kelroy Essays] 605 words
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Why People Write? - Why People Write. People write for many reasons. They write to educate, , and to entertain to express their feelings of emotions of joy or sadness, also to preserve history In Maya Angelou’s story “Graduation” in Fields of Reading she teaches us about racism in the south in the 1940’s. Angelou writes about how schools in the south were segregated. Black students were deprived of resources to enable students to learn. While schools were endowed with all the resources needed for a prominent education....   [tags: essays papers] 613 words
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John Stuart Mills - John Stuart Mills John Stuart Mill was one of the most well regarded and widely renowned philosophers and economists in history. He was considered a philosophical genius by the age of 20, and was mainly taught only by his father. His father believed that he should be educated and be taught many different languages and philosophies to become a well-rounded individual. When he had to end his studies early in life because of a mental breakdown at the age of 20, he soon recovered and was something different than when he first studied....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Age Of Reason - The Eighteenth Century in America was period of time labeled by the works of enlightened writers, thinkers, and scientists. Focus on reason over faith by many during the Age of Reason was spurred by the work of Sir Issac Newton and Galileo, scientists of the seventeenth century. In America, politics dominated the writings because of the Revolution: “By the time of the War of Independence, nearly fifty newspapers had been established in coastal cities”(95). Due to the enormous amount of political writing, many influential names, such as James Otis, the French writer Voltaire, and the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau emerged and their explosive works reflected the rationalism of the period....   [tags: essays research papers] 500 words
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How America Lost The War In Vi - The Vietnam War was the most controversial war in American history. Costing more than 47,000 U.S. lives and $140,000,000, the war had momentous impact on the country, politically, economically, and socially. More significantly, the United States failed to achieve its stated war aims, for the first time in history. The goal was to preserve an independent, noncommunist government in South Vietnam, but by the war’s end in 1975, all of Vietnam was under the communist rule of Ho Chi Minh’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam....   [tags: essays research papers] 601 words
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monism v dualism - Rene Descartes certainly didn't lack for credentials. As the "Father of Rationalism," "Father of Modern Philosophy," and originator of Cartesian geometry, he had more than enough interests to fill his spare time. But his role as "Father of Skepticism" helped popularize a major change in thinking about the nature of human experience. Dualism, or the doctrine that mind and body are of two distinct natures, is one of the key philosophical problems inherited by psychology....   [tags: essays research papers] 542 words
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Objectivism And Batailleist `powerful Communication - Objectivism and Batailleist `powerful communication' 1. Fellini and textual theory "Sexuality is a legal fiction," says Lacan; however, according to Hanfkopf[1] , it is not so much sexuality that is a legal fiction, but rather the rubicon, and subsequent collapse, of sexuality. Foucault uses the term 'Batailleist `powerful communication' to denote not narrative, but postnarrative. Thus, the subject is interpolated into a textual theory that includes reality as a whole. The primary theme of the works of Fellini is the role of the poet as reader....   [tags: essays research papers] 536 words
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Postmodern Materialism And Subsemantic Cultural Theory - Postmodern materialism and subsemantic cultural theory 1. Structuralist rationalism and the subcapitalist paradigm of reality In the works of Gibson, a predominant concept is the concept of patriarchialist truth. The primary theme of the works of Gibson is not narrative, but neonarrative. But the closing/opening distinction prevalent in Gibson's Neuromancer is also evident in Idoru, although in a more mythopoetical sense. Lyotard's model of subdialectic Marxism suggests that the significance of the poet is significant form....   [tags: essays research papers] 569 words
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The Difference Between Knowing Something and Believing Something - The Difference Between Knowing Something and Believing Something Something doesn't have to be true to be believable. People say lies and people believe them. There are things out, such as God, which there is no actually evidence to his/her being real, but for years people believe there is one. You can't stop someone believing something. Back in Columbus's day, people didn't even believe about the world being anything but flat, until Columbus proved it. He had evidence, it was proved that the world was, in actually fact, sphere....   [tags: Papers] 403 words
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The Verification Principle and Ethics - In order to understand the Verification Principle, one must first become familiar with Logical Positivism. Logical Positivism is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world, with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions in epistemology, the study of knowledge (Wikipedia). The Verification Principle as A.J. Ayer states, is a statement is cognitively meaningful if and only if it is either analytic or in principle empirically verifiable....   [tags: Verification Principle, rhetoric, ethics, ] 643 words
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The Red Badge of Courage as a Naturalistic Work with Realistic Tendencies - The Red Badge of Courage as a Naturalistic Work with Realistic Tendencies   The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane, one of the most significant and renowned books in American literature, defies outright classification, showing traits of both the realist and naturalist movements. It is a classic, however, precisely because it does so without sacrificing unity or poignancy. The Red Badge of Courage belongs unequivocally to the naturalist genre, but realism is also present and used to great effect....   [tags: The Red Badge of Courage]
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