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Empiricism and Rationalism - Philosophy uses a term for empirical knowledge, “posteriori”, meaning that knowledge is “dependent upon sense experience”. (Markie, 2008, section 1.2) Yet, philosophical empiricism is defined in such an absolute way; which causes philosophical empiricism to be an inaccurate philosophical position from which to address all aspects of human life. Philosophical empiricism is defined as “the belief that all human knowledge arises from sense experience.” (Nash, 1999, page 254) Yet, medical empiricism is so far to the other extreme as to be insulting, while this empiricism is still said to be based on all sensory experience; only the scientific sensory experience is valued and counted....   [tags: philosophy]
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1014 words
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Extreme Rationalism - Extreme Rationalism Rationalism is the idea that we can gain knowledge through the processes of mind alone. Empiricism is the idea that we can only gain knowledge through the senses. Empiricism has been adopted by the Western world because it is the foundation of the scientific approach to life that we use. Various popular sayings such as 'seeing is believing' and 'I heard it with my own ears', show that we accept the use of the senses without question....   [tags: Papers] 539 words
(1.5 pages)
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Rationalism and Empiricism - Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism and Empiricism are most likely the two most famous and intriguing schools of philosophy. The two schools deal specifically with epistemology, or, the origin of knowledge. Although not completely opposite, they are often considered so, and are seen as the "Jordan vs. Bird" of the philosophy world. The origins of rationalism and empiricism can be traced back to the 17th century, when many important advancements were made in scientific fields such as astronomy and mechanics....   [tags: Philosophy Epistemology Papers]
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1485 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism - Rationalism and empiricism were two philosophical schools in the 17th and 18th centuries, that were expressing opposite views on some subjects, including knowledge. While the debate between the rationalist and empiricist schools did not have any relationship to the study of psychology at the time, it has contributed greatly to facilitating the possibility of establishing the discipline of Psychology. This essay will describe the empiricist and rationalist debate, and will relate this debate to the history of psychology....   [tags: Philosophy]
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1587 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism - There are two main schools of thought, or methods, in regards to the subject of epistemology: rationalism and empiricism. These two, very different, schools of thought attempt to answer the philosophical question of how knowledge is acquired. While rationalists believe that this process occurs solely in our minds, empiricists argue that it is, instead, through sensory experience. After reading and understanding each argument it is clear that empiricism is the most relative explanatory position in epistemology....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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846 words
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Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth - We live in a time where everyone is searching for a reason to believe in something, there have posters and advertisement stating that “Only Prayer Can Save America”. Well if prayer can save us then there is only one question left to be answered. Who are we praying to. What are we praying for. God is the almighty, the creator of everything and without him there would be no world and no us. But many people seem to question if He really exist. In the world there are many streams of philosophy that have argued the existence of God, Platonism, naturalism, Aristotelianism, realism, empiricism, and rationalism they have even tried to convince nonbelievers about the defensibility and validity of God....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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839 words
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Rationalism in America: The Age That Shaped the World - It can be said, but not denied, that the United States of America is one of the most powerful countries in the world today, and has been for arguably the last one hundred years. With its political agendas and military strength it shapes governments; with its social trends and values it shapes cultures. But what, exactly, shaped the United States. The various worldviews that have sprouted from Western philosophy is the most obvious answer, but, to be more specific, it is how those worldviews were adopted that were of the most significance....   [tags: U.S. History ]
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1878 words
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The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz - The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieval philosophers and by Bacon and Hobbes....   [tags: Papers] 1674 words
(4.8 pages)
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When Rationalism and Empiricism Collide: the Best of Both Worlds - For a lengthy period of time, philosophers have been fiercely debating the classification of philosophical epistemology into two categories: rationalism and empiricism. Empiricism is the idea that knowledge can only be gained through obtaining facts via observation or experimentation, while rationalism is obtaining knowledge through logical reasoning . Though rationalism and empiricism are very viable methods of thought in philosophy on their own, these philosophical schools’ arguments become much stronger when used in conjunction....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1310 words
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The Role of Naturalism and Rationalism in American and British Gun Policy - Although they may not be aware of it, complex philosophic principles influence the simple actions of the mass’s everyday lives. In fact, long lasting and well defined contentions of basic philosophy concerning the actions of human beings has not only affected individuals, but also entire countries. Some of the greatest nations on Earth have been formed around key thoughts and opinions of several great philosophers. Primarily amongst these, however, or John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom wrote on “The State of Nature”, or the state of absolute freedom....   [tags: Gun Control Laws] 753 words
(2.2 pages)
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Pragmatism as a Philosophy - I have often heard people use the word pragmatic to describe actions, laws or feelings, but I never really looked at pragmatism as a philosophy before. As we studied this semester I found myself asking one question about each philosophy we covered. We discussed skepticism and the claim that we have no knowledge (Lawhead, W., The Philosophical Journey, 2009, p. 55). We compared rationalism and empiricism which posit that we do have knowledge, but disagree on whether that knowledge comes from intellect or experience (Lawhead, p....   [tags: Skepticism, Rationalism, Metaphysics] 892 words
(2.5 pages)
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Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge - Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge Rationalism ----------- Rene Descartes was the main rationalist. He said he believed he had to doubt everything known to him to really understand knowledge. Rationalism first began in Ancient Greece with two extreme rationalists - Parmenides and Zeno. Rationalists believed in innate ideas - ones that are present at birth, in the mind. When Descartes started his thoughts, it was in the 17th century, during the rise of science....   [tags: Papers] 986 words
(2.8 pages)
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How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 - How Rationalism Changed the World Between 1650-1750 Many changes took place between 1650 and 1750. There was territory expansion as European countries started colonies in the Americas. Political changes took place as well, as people began to rise up against the government. New economic standards were set as people realized that having money was not the way to economic control but by controlling the means of production. Britain, France, and Spain were busy establishing colonies in the Americas....   [tags: Papers] 329 words
(0.9 pages)
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The Romantic Movement - The Romantic Movement (1800-1850) Art as Emotion The goal of self-determination that Napoleon imported to Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria affected not only nations but also individuals. England's metamorphosis during the Industrial Revolution was also reflected in the outlook of the individual, and therefore in the art produced during the first half of this century. Heightened sensibility and intensified feeling became characteristic of the visual arts as well as musical arts and a convention in literature....   [tags: Rationalism Romanticism Landscape]
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568 words
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UCSB as a Rationalist Organization - The University of California Santa Barbara is an organization revolving around students and faculty alike. Any organizations can reflect two contrasting perspectives, a Naturalist or Rationalist, which underlines and questions the ideas of structure and formality. Naturalist organizations convey informality due to the basis on the flow of the members’ behavior and relationships among others. But nonetheless, Rationalist organization is formal because the organization’s fluidity is based on the members’ limits and structure....   [tags: Rationalist organization essay] 1116 words
(3.2 pages)
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The University of California Santa Barbara as a Rationalist Organization - The University of California Santa Barbara is an organization that revolves around students and faculty alike. Organizations, as a whole, can reflect two contrasting perspectives, Naturalist or Rationalist, that underlines and questions the ideas of structure and formality. A Naturalist organizations highlights informality because it is based on the flow of the members’ behavior and relationships among others. However, a Rationalist organization is formal because the organization’s fluidity is based on the members’ limits and structure....   [tags: informative essay] 1158 words
(3.3 pages)
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Othello: Admirable Leader but Poor Rationalist - In William Shakespeare’s “Othello”, the main character is presented as an admirable leader but a poor rationalist. He is recognized as a hero with the qualities of vigor, charm, and eloquence. However these principles of leadership aren’t always viewed as the criteria for a leader. The battleground is, to Othello at least, is depicted as a place of admiration, where men speak truthfully to one another. Also, the given circumstances of state and warfare are rather straightforward; no one deceives Othello because as leader he should be esteemed....   [tags: Shakespearean Literature ]
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975 words
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The Classical Conception Of Rationality - The Classical Conception Of Rationality ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to describe the classical conception of rationality, i.e., to indicate the theses traditionally associated with this conception. I do not intend to discuss these theses in detail. Rather, I focus on the question regarding the main elements of the classical conception of rationality. I am interested in the rationality of cognition and of knowledge (epistemic/epistemological rationality), especially in the rationality of science (scientific rationality)....   [tags: Rational Rationality Scientific Papers]
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3696 words
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The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality - The Philosophical Legacy of the 16th and 17th Century Socinians: Their Rationality ABSTRACT: The doctrines of the Socinians represent a rational reaction to a medieval theology based on submission to the Church’s authority. Though they retained Scripture as something supra rationem, the Socinians analyzed it rationally and believed that nothing should be accepted contra rationem. Their social and political thought underwent a significant evolutionary process from a very utopian pacifistic trend condemning participation in war and holding public and judicial office to a moderate and realistic stance based on mutual love, support of the secular power of the state, active participation in social and political life, and the defense of social equality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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2830 words
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Education: Empiricists vs Rationalists - The importance of experience in education has always been the subject of philosophical debates. These debates between empiricists and rationalists have been going on for quite some time. Rationalists are of the view that knowledge acquired through senses is unreliable and learning can only be done through reasoning. On the other hand, empiricists believe knowledge is acquired through empirical impressions and concepts that cannot be learnt without being experienced (Evans, 1992, p. 35). This debate was however resolved by Kant who argues that both experience and rationality are necessary in learning....   [tags: philosophy of education]
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1089 words
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How Is the Conflict between Rationality and Irrationality Developed in "Death in Venice?" - The purpose of this essay is to examine the conflict between rationality and irrationality in Death in Venice and to assess how this conflict is developed and possibly resolved. This conflict is fought and described throughout the short story with reference to ancient Greek gods, predominately Apollo and Dionysus and through the philosopher and philosophy of Plato. Through contemporary influences such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, Mann further reflects on these ancient sources through a modern prism and this he does in this tale of life and death of the protagonist Aschenbach....   [tags: European Literature] 1997 words
(5.7 pages)
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Expertise and Rationality - Expertise and Rationality ABSTRACT: I explore the connection between expertise and rationality. I first make explicit the philosophically dominant view on this connection, i.e., the ‘expert-consultation’ view. This view captures the rather obvious idea that a rational way of proceeding on a matter of importance when one lacks knowledge is to consult experts. Next, I enumerate the difficulties which beset this view, locating them to some extent in the current philosophical literature on expertise and rationality....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3305 words
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Ressentiment and Rationality - Ressentiment and Rationality ABSTRACT: This paper is an investigation of the condition of ressentiment. It reviews the two most prominent philosophic accounts of ressentiment: Nietzsche's genealogy of ressentiment as the moral perversion resulting from the ancient Roman/Palestinian cultural conflict and giving birth to the ascetic ideal; and Scheler's phenomenology of ressentiment as a complex affective unit generative of its own affects and values. A single sketch of the typical elements of ressentiment is drawn from the review of these two accounts....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical papers]
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3915 words
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Rationality in Humans - Contradiction is the nature of the society. If there is a religion, there will be those who do not believe. If there is a war, there will be those that want peace. If there is a political movement, there will be those that disagree. Humans are bound to go against their own believes, their own strategies, and their own establishments. Nothing is forever. History portrays people going against the accepted ideologies. It shows the everlasting change of the society. First, they thought that God was the explanation to everything....   [tags: European History] 782 words
(2.2 pages)
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Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks - Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks As the scientists Jonathan Crystal and Allison Foote have found that rats have “high mental power,” the report of the research suggests that rats can be used in future neuroscience experiments. As a result, the usage of rats in the neuroscience experiments will be increased. The author of the article, Rats and Rationality, Joel Marks argues against this proposal and emphasizes that the usage of rats in the experiments should be decreased. Mark argues that the conclusion of the research to use rats in neuroscience experiment is illogical....   [tags: Article Review]
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982 words
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The Economic Rationality Assumption - The economic rationality assumption has given an important connation for the market efficiency, as it has been the base to carry out the construction of the modern knowledge in standard finance. Resulting in the development of the most important insights in finance, such as arbitrage pricing theory of Miller and Modigliani, the Markowitz portfolio optimization, the capital asset pricing theory of Sharp, Lintner and Sharp and the option-pricing model of Black, Scholes and Merton (Pompian, 2006 and Lo, 2005)....   [tags: Arbitrage, Finance] 1240 words
(3.5 pages)
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Natural Law, Rationality and the Social Contract - Missing Works Cited Each day, billions of people throughout the world affirm their commitment to a specific idea; to be part of a society. While this social contract is often overlooked by most citizens, their agreement to it nevertheless has far-reaching consequences. Being a member of society entails relinquishing self-autonomy to a higher authority, whose aim should be to promote the overall good of the populace....   [tags: Philosophy, Sociology, Informative] 2087 words
(6 pages)
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Historical Types of Rationality - Historical Types of Rationality ABSTRACT: In this paper we suggest that the contemporary global intellectual crisis of our (Western) civilization consists in the fundamental transformation of the classical (both Ancient and Modern) types of rationality towards the nonclassical one. We give a brief account of those classical types of rationality and focus on the more detailed description of the contemporary process of the formation of the new HTR which we label as nonclassical. We consider it to be one of the historical possibilities that might radically transform the fundamentals of our human world; in fact, this process has already begun....   [tags: Culture History Essays]
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3004 words
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Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine - Instrumental Rationality and the Instrumental Doctrine ABSTRACT: In opposition to the instrumental doctrine of rationality, I argue that the rationality of the end served by a strategy is a necessary condition of the rationality of the strategy itself: means to ends cannot be rational unless the ends are rational. First, I explore cases-involving ‘proximate’ ends (that is, ends whose achievement is instrumental to the pursuit of some more fundamental end) — where even instrumentalists must concede that the rationality of a strategy presupposes the rationality of the end it serves....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3442 words
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Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality - Witchcraft, Magic and Rationality Social Anthropology seeks to gauge an understanding of cultures and practices whether they are foreign or native. This is achieved through the studying of language, education, customs, marriage, kinship, hierarchy and of course belief and value systems. Rationality is a key concept in this process as it affects the anthropologist’s interpretation of the studied group’s way of life: what s/he deems as rational or plausible practice. Witchcraft and magic pose problems for many anthropologists, as its supernatural nature is perhaps conflicting to the common Western notions of rationality, mainly deemed superior....   [tags: Social Anthropology]
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2268 words
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Coherence and Epistemic Rationality - Coherence and Epistemic Rationality This paper addresses the question of whether probabilistic coherence is a requirement of rationality. The concept of probabilistic coherence is examined and compared with the familiar notion of consistency for simple beliefs. Several reasons are given for thinking rationality does not require coherence. Finally, it is argued that incoherence does not necessarily involve fallacious reasoning. Most work in epistemology treats epistemic attitudes as bivalent. It is assumed that a person either believes that there is an apple on the table, or that there is not, and that such beliefs must be either warranted or unwarranted....   [tags: Mathematics Science Theories Papers]
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3366 words
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Rationality and Inconsistent Beliefs - Many believe that there is something inherently irrational about accepting each element of an inconsistent set of propositions. However, arguments for this doctrine seem lacking other than those that appeal to the principle that the set of propositions that one rationally accepts is (or should be) closed under logical consequences, or those that note that error is made inevitable when one accepts an inconsistent set. After explaining why the preceding sorts of arguments do not succeed, I consider a novel attempt by Keith Lehrer to undermine the chief argument in favor of the claim that it can sometimes be rational to accept inconsistent sets....   [tags: Ration Logic]
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Rationality in Religious Belief - Rationality in Religious Belief The obtaining of information is an inseparable part of human life, and therefore in what ever one may do; one will always collect information. To be of any value, the information collected has to be reliable, and one does not seem to doubt the reliability of evidence because they believe it to be logical, unless they are a sceptic. Some say that religion is something we cannot prove because we acknowledge religion through our feelings, mainly our feeling of trust, or of wonder and awe – sensing that there must be a high being or creator....   [tags: Papers] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality - The Objectivity and Rationality of Morality According to Kant morality is rational and objective. It is based on rational human reasoning. For Kant it is not the consequences of an action that make it moral but the reasoning or intention that goes behind the choices one makes. What Kant is saying is that the only thing which can be qualified as good is good intention....   [tags: Papers] 1134 words
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Psychopaths and the Future of Humanity - I first encountered the idea of a psychopath in Thomas Harris' thriller, the Silence of Lambs. Hannibal Lecter was deeply fascinating, and all the more frightening because he didn't look like a grotesque monster, a violent & bloodthirsty beast. Instead, it's a charming and intelligent character with a doctorate in psychology. His possible existence forced me to reflect, and sound the depths of darkness within. However, psychopaths remained only a curiosity until this quarter, when I encountered the idea of psychopaths again in the works of moral philosophers....   [tags: Psychology ] 1460 words
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Three Traditions of International Theory - The realist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international anarchy (sociological terms); the rationalist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of international society (teleological terms); and the revolutionist normative tradition illustrates international relations as a condition of harmony or single utopia in the world (ethical and prescriptive terms). Realism prioritizes national interest and security over ideology, moral concerns and social reconstructions....   [tags: International Politics]
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Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws - Davidson's Beliefs, Rationality and Psychophysical Laws ABSTRACT: Davidson argues (1) that the connection between belief and the "constitutive ideal of rationality" (2) precludes the possibility of their being any type-type identities between mental and physical events. However, there are radically different ways to understand both the nature and content of this "constitutive ideal," and the plausibility of Davidson’s argument depends on blurring the distinction between two of these ways. Indeed, it will be argued here that no consistent understanding of the constitutive ideal will allow it to play the dialectical role Davidson intends for it....   [tags: Psychology Essays]
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Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality - Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality ABSTRACT: If the 17th century could be considered the century of the reformation of science, the present century is one of counterreformation in every sense of the word. The ideology of this century can be seen in the titanic efforts to complete the development of science which foundation was laid in the 17th and 18th centuries, in the outright failures, and in attempts at reconstructing the foundation (e.g., Hilbert's formalization program, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, Charlier's theory of a hierarchic universe, Fridman's evolutionary cosmology, Newton's mechanics, relativistic and/or quantum mechanics in physics, the logical turn of the Vienna circle and epistemological anarchism in methodology)....   [tags: Science Essays]
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Essay on Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey - The Importance of Rationality in Homer’s Odyssey In the epic poem, Odyssey, Homer provides examples of the consequences of impulsive and irrational thinking, and the rewards of planning and rationality. Impulsive actions prove to be very harmful to Odysseus. His decisions when he is escaping the cave of the Cyclops lead to almost all his troubles through his journey. As Odysseus flees the cave, he yells back "Cyclops - if any man on the face of the earth should ask you who blinded you, shamed you so - say Odysseus, raider of cities, he gouged out you eye." This enrages the giant, and he prays to Poseidon "grant that Odysseus, raider of cities, Laertes' son who makes his home in Ithaca, never reaches home....   [tags: Homer Odyssey Essays] 1065 words
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The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory - The Rationality of Probabilities for Actions in Decision Theory ABSTRACT: Spohn's decision model, an advancement of Fishburn's theory, is valuable for making explicit the principle used also by other thinkers that 'any adequate quantitative decision model must not explicitly or implicitly contain any subjective probabilities for acts.' This principle is not used in the decision theories of Jeffrey or of Luce and Krantz. According to Spohn, this principle is important because it has effects on the term of action, on Newcomb's problem, and on the theory of causality and the freedom of the will....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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The English School: A Via Media - The English School: A Via Media The English School, also recognize as The International Society approach of the International Relations is a “Via Media” (Buzan, 2001, p471) between the Rationalism and Realist elements. The idea is that instead of separates elements, these should form a whole picture of the International Relations. The unique approaches of the English School to International Relations are its methodological pluralism, its historicism and its interlinking of three very important concepts: International System, International Society and World Society....   [tags: Education, International Relations] 1003 words
(2.9 pages)
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Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge - Perception as the Source and Basis of Knowledge It is human nature to desire to acquire knowledge, but how we acquire this knowledge is a constant debate between philosophers. For years philosophers have written about different sources of knowledge. We can divide these ideas into two theories, rationalism and empiricism. A question that divides the two dogmas is; "Is perception the source of knowledge?" Empiricists say yes whole-heartedly while Rationalists believe that we accomplish knowledge through reason....   [tags: Papers] 564 words
(1.6 pages)
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Framing the Innateness Hypothesis - Framing the Innateness Hypothesis Perhaps the most traditional way of framing the innateness hypothesis would be in terms of an opposition between rationalism and empiricism. This is an opposition that is frequently encountered in philosophical debates over language acquisition, with the one side arguing that language acquisition is a phenomenon associated with the maturation of a language faculty or "organ," while the other side argues that language acquisition is instead a process of generalization from experience....   [tags: Language Learning Essays]
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Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change - Lakatos and MacIntyre on Incommensurability and the Rationality of Theory-change ABSTRACT: Imre Lakatos' "methodology of scientific research programs" and Alasdair MacIntyre's "tradition-constituted enquiry" are two sustained attempts to overcome the assumptions of logical empiricism, while saving the appearance that theory-change is rational. The key difference between them is their antithetical stand on the issue of incommensurability between large-scale theories. This divergence generates other areas of disagreement; the most important are the relevance of the historical record and the presence of decision criteria that are common to rival programs....   [tags: Science Scientific Philosophy Essays]
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The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation - The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: The Aspect of the Theory of Creation ABSTRACT: In order to understand the rationality of scientific creation, we must first clarify the following: (1) the historical structure of scientific creation from starting point to breakthrough, and then to establishment; (2) the process from the primary through the productive aspects of the scientific problem, the idea of creation, the primary conjecture, the scientific hypothesis, and finally the emergence of the genetic structure establishing the theory; and (3) the problem threshold of rationality in scientific creation....   [tags: Philosophical Science Scientific Papers]
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Oedipus Rex and Antigone: Rationality Versus Emotionalism - Rationality is the quality or state of being agreeable to reason; it is this item that separates man from animal. Man and beast, however, still have something in common: in an emotional state, both are subject to acting irrationally. For instance, a normally very loving pet can become violent simply because one of his toys was taken away - not to say that he is no longer loving, he is just overwhelmed by anger. Likewise, in Sophocles's Oedipus Rex and Antigone, the protagonists Oedipus and Creon (who appears in both stories) exhibit a similar disposition as the "loving pet:" while they are usually reasonable, having their fates verbally revealed to them triggers an emotion that results in them behaving irrationally....   [tags: World Literature] 779 words
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Plato's Moral Psychology - Plato's Moral Psychology I argue that Plato's psychological theories are motivated by concerns he had about moral theory. In particular, Plato rejects the modern account of rationality as the maximization of subjectively evaluated self-interest because, had he adopted such an account, his theory of justice would be subject to criticisms which he holds are fatal to the contractarian theory of justice. While formulating a theory to remain within ethical constraints sometimes violates the canons of scientific theorizing, Plato avoids this mistake....   [tags: Argumentative Rationality Argument Papers] 3996 words
(11.4 pages)
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Kant as a Philosopher - Kant as a Philosopher How does one label Kant as a philosopher. Is he a rationalist or an empiricist. Kant makes a distinction between appearances and things in themselves. He also says that things in themselves exist, and that we have no knowledge of things in themselves. This could be labeled "CLOSE TO NONSENSE", but we know Kant better than that. No matter how many laps on the track of metaphysics Kant takes us through, he is still widely held as one of the greatest modern philosophers of our time....   [tags: Papers] 1257 words
(3.6 pages)
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Knowledge of God - Here we will look at the surety of God and to better understand where we get our knowledge that we have received. The knowledge can be express through our senses or through the logical knowledge that is in us automatically, according to rationalism. Whether through the Word of God, proven solutions or through our senses like personal experience that had been given unto us about whom God is and the purpose He has for us. What does Rationalism and Empiricism express about the knowledge we get and where does it come from....   [tags: Religion]
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1052 words
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The Christian Worldview - Due to the "highly subjective nature of most scientific theorizing... [we should] let the Bible speak for itself and modify our scientific view of origins accordingly." (as cited in Downey, D., & Porter, S., 2009). God is an intelligent, creative, relational Being. God created all that exists (Gen 1-2) and right from the beginning God affirmed and blessed man’s participation in His creation (Gen 1:28-30, Gen 2:19-20). He created man in His image (Gen 1:26-27, 2:7) and for His fellowship (Gen 3:9)....   [tags: Christianity]
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1486 words
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Constructivism - Empiricists and rationalists have proposed opposing theories of the acquisition of knowledge, which appear unable to coexist. Each theory holds its own strengths but does not demonstrate a strong argument in itself to the questions, “Is knowledge truly possible?” and “How is true knowledge obtained?”. Immanual Kant successfully merged the two philosophies and provided a convincing argument with his theory of empirical relativism, or what some may call constructivism. His theory bridges the gap between rationalism and empiricism and proves that empiricists and rationalists each present a piece of the full puzzle....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Of Mircacles - David Hume wrote An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding in 1748 and contained in this was an essay entitled “Of Miracles”. David Hume was a Scottish Philosopher that lived in the 18th century he was born on May 7th, 1711 and would die on August 25th, 1776. He was from a philosophical school known as Empiricism, which basically means that everything originates through sense experience. He believed that everything we know ultimately started in the senses. So, in essence we learn and know everything we do via our five senses: sight, hearing, taste, and touch....   [tags: Philosophy] 790 words
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The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience - The Principle of Credultiy, the Will to Believe, and the Role of Rationality and Evidence in Religious Experience Explain the principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence in religious experience The principle of credulity, the will to believe and the role of rationality and evidence all play crucial roles while attempting to explain religious experience. The principle of credulity states that religious experiences should be taken at their face value when we have no positive reason to doubt them....   [tags: Papers] 572 words
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The Elimination of Natural Theology - The Elimination of Natural Theology ABSTRACT: The dispute between fideists and rationalists seems intractable since those who argue for faith alone claim that they are offended by the use of reason in religion. The advocates of reason claim that they are equally offended by the appeal to faith. This dispute may be resolved by showing that those who rely on faith may be seen as engaging in an experiment of living, so they can become part of a rational experiment without having to alter their practice; in contrast, those who use reason to justify religion can be seen as addressing a spiritual need....   [tags: Religion Religious Theological Papers]
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Ethics of Civil Disobedience - Ethics of Civil Disobedience Ban animal cruelty. Give aid to the poor. Save the rainforests. Obey the law. As a human race we must strive to fulfill these commands, for they are our moral duties and obligations. Our obligation to morality sometimes leads to a dilemma. What happens when a law contradicts the morally right thing to do. Would it be moral to act illegally by breaking the law. No matter how drastic the measure, we are still required to act morally--even if one must break the law to do so....   [tags: Ethics Morals Philosophy Rationality Essays]
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New Public Management and Decision Making in UK Public Policy - Discuss how the tendency of New Public Management has impacted on decision making in UK public policy. New Public Management is generally used to describe a management culture that emphasises upon the citizen or customer as being central, as well as having accountability for results. It also suggests organizational structures and promotes decentralized control, many different types of service delivery mechanisms, including quasi-markets with public and private service providers competing for resources....   [tags: Business and Management Studies] 1427 words
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Ideas of the Parthenon - The Greek people of the 5th century BC created a culture that was deeply rooted in philosophy and the arts. Their endless search for their place in the grand scheme of the universe and in nature around them influenced everything in their lives especially their love of the arts. Their drama, sculpture, and even architecture are all shining examples of the ideas that were so dominant in the minds of the Greek people. What could be considered the crown jewel of Greek architecture, the Parthenon, is one such of these examples....   [tags: essays research papers] 1427 words
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European Integration - The key development in the study of European integration is the growing awareness of the "new world" created for both whites and Indians as a result of their contact. Earlier histories showed the creation of the European civilization over Indian "savagery", or illustrated the decimation of native peoples through military defeat and disease. In both versions, native peoples were seen primarily as passive victims, but recent analyzation of past writings and tell another story entirely. They draw the attention to the enduring native resistance to white domination....   [tags: American History] 983 words
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The Birthmark - A man is never satiated; he is constantly striving for perfection, imprudent about eventuality. Such is the case in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Birthmark." An escape from reality, Romanticism's superiority over Rationalism, a fascination for God's revelation make Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Birthmark" Romantic literature. When the quest for human feat opposes divine setup, it has no chance of prospering. In fact, trying to flee from reality and intervening nature recurrently leads to upsetting consequences....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Nathaniel Hawthorne] 1083 words
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The Origin of Ideas - The Origin of Ideas Webster's dictionary defines the word idea as 1) something, such as a thought or conception, that potentially or actually exists in the mind as a product of mental activity, 2) an opinion, a conviction, or a principle, 3) a plan, scheme, or method 4) the gist of a specific situation, and 5) a notion. We have a better understanding of these definitions today because of the thoughts and writings of Descartes and John Locke. These two have very different views on the origin of ideas....   [tags: Papers] 810 words
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Gertrude Stein’s Masking: Convention and Structure - Drawing from a wide range of theoretical fields, both Michael North in “Stein, Picasso, and African Masks,” and John Carlos Rowe in “Naming What is Inside,” analyze Gertrude Stein’s Three Lives, engaging the text as a means by which to understand the birth of literary and aesthetic modernism and as a way to explore Stein’s conceptions of the dichotomies brought up by race, gender, culture and geography. The two critical essays approach Three Lives by engaging “masking” as a technique by which to demonstrate the “conventionality” of a subject, and as an integral development in Stein’s creation of American modernism....   [tags: art, compare]
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Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period - Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period The eighteenth century was fraught with change. Dryden, Pope and Johnson were dominating the literature. Fahrenheit was building his first mercury thermometer. The Boston Tea Party and the French Revolution occurred. However, some of the most drastic changes occurred in thought. Prior to the eighteenth century, thinkers such as Locke, Spinoza, Descartes, and Hobbes dominated Western thought to the extent that they changed the way people viewed the world....   [tags: American America History]
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The Nature and Working of PEMS - Outline and assess the nature and working of PEMS. What was its purpose and how well did it live up to expectations. What were its strengths and weaknesses, and what do these say about the validity of rationalism and incrementalism as guiding principles of financial management. PEMS stands for Policy and Expenditure Management System. From 1979 through 1993, PEMS was the federal government’s macro-system of financial management. It was seen as a rational form of financial management. It was based upon the earlier PPBS system....   [tags: Canadian Political Science] 1981 words
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Jonathan Swift's Influence on the Age of Reason - Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, opened the door for satire. He was one of the most well known satirist of The Age of Reason, which gained him much respect as a writer. Swift’s works and lifestyle reflect the Humanities of The Age of Reason, thus giving the reader a glimpse of the common man’s life during this time. In order to understand the life of Jonathan Swift, one must explore his works and The Age of Reason. The Age of Reason was a new beginning for many man kind during the eighteenth century, therefore opening the door for people to pursue happiness and liberty....   [tags: Age of Reason, Jonathan Swift, satire, ] 1742 words
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How Romanticism Changed Society's Way of Thinking - To understand how Romanticism changed the way society thought, you must first understand the meanings and reason behind the movement. The Romantic Movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries was described as a movement in the history of culture, an aesthetic style, and an attitude of mind. (Fiero) Romanticism provided expression of their thoughts and ideas toward their own societies, which was in effect predominantly in Europe and in the United States. The movement was a reaction to the Enlightenment which provided strict ideology and rationalism....   [tags: Literature ]
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Use of Symbols to Portray the Descent from Civilization to Savagery in Golding's Lord of the Flies - D.H. Lawrence once said, “This is the very worst wickedness, that we refuse to acknowledge the passionate evil that is in us. This makes us secret and rotten.” Sir William Golding tells about the evil and sadistic things that can be expressed throughout humanity in his novel, Lord of the Flies. Lord of the flies is a translation of a Hebrew name for Satan, Beelzebub. In the novel, William Golding portrays the boys’ descent from civilization to savagery through the following symbols: the conch shell, Piggy’s glasses, and the Lord of the Flies....   [tags: lord of the flies] 666 words
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Philosophical Anthropology - Philosophical Anthropology ABSTRACT: Philosophers cannot avoid addressing the question of whether philosophical anthropology (that is, specifically philosophical inquiry about human nature and human phenomenon) is possible. Any answer must be articulated in the context of the nature and function of philosophy. In other words, philosophical anthropology must be defined as an account of the nature of the subject of philosophical thinking. I argue that if philosophical thinkers admit that they are beings in nature, culture, and history, then the possibility of a uniquely philosophical theory of human nature and human phenomenon should be discarded....   [tags: Philosophy Essays] 2994 words
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Reality, the Mind, and God - Reality, the Mind, and God The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Great Britain are marked by a general and persistent concern about threats to orthodoxy in religion. Many doctrines and views were seen as threatening: theories about the origin and nature of human knowledge, metaphysical claims about the nature of the world, claims about human nature, about the person and action. (Yolton 3) According to the major viewpoints held in metaphysics, one of the four major categories in the study of philosophy, there are three major ways to regard the constitution of reality....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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The Age Of Reason - The Age Of Reason The eighteenth century saw unprecedented growth of literature and the arts in Europe and America. Britain during this time period also enjoyed prolonged periods of civil peace that stood in sharp contrast to the bloody and protracted civil and international conflicts that lasted throughout the 17th century. Furthermore, as the rising middle classes increasingly sought both education and leisure entertainment, the marketplace for artistic production swelled dramatically. One of the most critical elements of the 18th century was the increasing availability of printed material, both for readers and authors....   [tags: History Historical Science Europe Essays] 2455 words
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Reason for the Weak - The concept of blind faith is often difficult for rational people to comprehend. Rational people believe that every aspect of life must be able to be explained with logic. However, rationalism and faith often come in conflict with each other, creating an exceptional strife in the minds of those unable to accept that which cannot be viewed. In such divergence, the concept of nihilism is often planted into the mind of those who are incapable of acknowledging human nature and the spiritual and natural laws of life....   [tags: Informative, Blind Faith, God] 1999 words
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romanticism - Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of "nothing." The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19th century and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology....   [tags: essays research papers] 1322 words
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A Study of Epistemology - A Study of Epistemology In the sixth century B.C., Homer alludes to a separation of knowledge between the mortals and the gods. He speaks of both gods and human beings as “knowing things”- creatures of knowledge. However, there is a “great difference in the quality and the scope of the knowledge available to the two groups” (Everson, Pg.12). For the mortal human being the contrast between “divine and human knowledge”, paired with possible deception by the gods, has led him to question the idea of knowledge as it exists independently, reminding him that there are many things he cannot “know for certain” (Everson, Pg....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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Figurative Language In The Third Book Of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels - “And though I (…) understand all mysteries and all knowledge and have no charity, I am nothing.” /St Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 13, 2 / Each of the four books of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels discusses one aspect of human nature. The discussions’ language is rather satirical than an earnest tone. The first book is about the physical aspect, the voyage to Brobdingnag focuses on the “Homo politicus”, the political man. The third book is about intellect, while in the land if the Houyhnhnms we can “meet” the moral man....   [tags: Gulliver's Travels] 1567 words
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Capital Punishment in the American Colonies - American colonies were introduced to the practice of capital punishment, through European colonization. The offenses punishable by the death penalty in each colony varied from stealing, to denying the existence of God. Ceasre Beccaria’s 1776 essay, titled On Crimes and Punishment acted as the chief catalyst behind the abolition movement against the death penalty. In his essay, Beccaria asserted that the death penalty deprives men of life, true deterrence resulted from imprisoning criminals and using this as an example to show the value of freedom and laws, and that the death penalty be used only in cases of treason....   [tags: Death Penalty, American History] 1039 words
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Antigone and Othello: Tragic Heroes - Othello and Antigone are both tragic heroes. They do great deeds and have great power or strength. For example, Othello defeats Venice's enemies. Antigone makes sure that a Theban right is a Theban due. But fatal character flaws destroy the lives of the two heroes. Both of them suffer from pride and uncontrolled passion. Othello is so proud of his integrity and courage that he doesn't recognize his violent temper and his manipulability by Iago. Antigone is so proud of her commitment to the true, the right, the proper, and the correct that she doesn't respect differing, less passionate opinions....   [tags: Antigone, Othello, tragedy, Heroes,] 971 words
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The Parthenon - The Parthenon There are some historians that believe before the Parthenon began, Athens concluded a peace treaty with Persia in 449 BC. The Athenian Empire was at the height of its power when the work on the Parthenon began in 447 BC and continued until 432 BC. The Delian League/Athenian Empire continued to exist even after the reason for its existence ceased to be valid. It is now openly acknowledged that Athens was not just the head of the Greek defense league but an imperial master over other Greek states....   [tags: Greek History]
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The Parthenon - The Parthenon is an amazing Greek temple that was built 2,500 years ago. Even the architects of today have numerous questions about how it was constructed and how it has held up through its eventful past. The Parthenon's detailed appearance is not its only meaningful quality. The Parthenon was constructed as a temple to the goddess, Athena, and as an icon of the Greek people themselves. The Parthenon represents the Greek ideals of humanism, idealism, and rationalism. Humanism was important to the Greek culture because they believed focusing on human values were key to life....   [tags: Ancient Greece] 1400 words
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Descartes Six Meditations on First Philosophy - Throughout the six meditations on First Philosophy, French philosopher Rene Descartes seeks to find a concrete foundation for the basis of science, one which he states can only include certain and unquestionable beliefs. Anything less concrete, he argues will be exposed to the external world and to opposition by philosophical sceptics. The sense of the Cartesian reform is the imposition of a new method of thinking. Descartes’ method to begin with is reductive, removing all knowledge acquired without control, to become analytical, putting forward any knowledge in a process of division to present simple elements, those which are clear and distinct....   [tags: Philosophy] 1342 words
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Should We Trust Our Senses to Give Us Truth? - Truth can be described in the correspondence, pragmatist and the coherence theories. Truth can generally be defined as the nature of having accord with certain facts and reality. It involves making correct and informed connections between facts and reality. The senses can be defined in terms of sight, hearing, and touch, smelling and tasting. Senses have been used to determine the aspects of reality and mostly, through appearance. The appearance of things has been used in most occasions to make judgments pertaining to the reality and truth....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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The American Renaissance - In America, the American Renaissance was the period in 1835-1880 in which United States literature came of age as an expression of a national spirit. Literature became one of the most historically significant effects that occurred throughout the time period of the American Renaissance. The American Renaissance is also characterized by renewed national self-confidence new ideas and technologies. Politically and economically, this era coincides with the Gilded Age and the New Imperialism. By the end of the eighteenth century, Enlightenment secularism made profound progress into American thoughts....   [tags: American History]
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