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Radiation - ... The half-life is not reliant on any external forces such as state, pressure or temperature. The only thing known that is able to change the half-life is direct nuclear interaction from another particle eg: high energy collisions in a particle accelerator. Transuranic Elements Transuranic elements are elements beyond uranium in the periodic table (having atomic numbers greater than 92). Two common practices of producing transuranic nuclei is through the bombardment of the nucleus with neutrons or ions (Alpha particles)....   [tags: Science, Chemistry]
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Radiation Sterilization - Nuclear and Radioactivity Physics Radiation Sterilization Medical products, such as surgical dressings, sutures, catheters and syringes must be sterilized before they can be used in medical procedures. This is frequently done using radiation. *HOW DOES THIS PROCESS WORK. Radiation sterilization involves exposure of products to gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source for a predetermined amount of time. The step by step process is such:  Hermetically sealed medical products are packed in cardboard boxes....   [tags: Physics] 990 words
(2.8 pages)
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Infrared Radiation - Infrared Radiation When you go outside on a sunny day, you can feel the heat from the sun on your skin. The heat that you feel has traveled 150 million kilometers from the sun through space by infrared radiation. Radiation with frequencies below the red end of the spectrum is infrared. Infrared is different to convection and conduction because it does not require particles to transfer heat. There are no particles in between the space between earth and the sun, but still the infrared radiation can travel through it....   [tags: Papers] 432 words
(1.2 pages)
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Nuclear Radiation - Nuclear Radiation There are many ways that the movie The Day the Earth Stood Still and the short story “There Will Come Soft Rains” are similar. “There Will Come Soft Rains” by Ray Bradbury is a science fiction story that deals with nuclear radiation and what the future world would be like if there was an atomic bomb. This short story is a good example of what could happen in the future. The Day the Earth Stood Still is a movie that also has the same genre, that it is science fiction. It helps people realize the horror of the use of nuclear weapons....   [tags: essays research papers] 547 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Different Types of Radiation - The Different Types of Radiation There are four types radiation: alpha radiation, beta radiation, and gamma radiation. Neutron radiation is also encountered in nuclear power plants and high-altitude flight and emitted from some industrial radioactive sources. [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE]Alpha Radiation Alpha radiation is a heavy, very short-range particle, and actually an ejected helium nucleus. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate human skin, but Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds....   [tags: Papers] 383 words
(1.1 pages)
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The Atomic Bomb and Radiation - The Atomic Bomb and Radiation Radiation as a carcinogen was first established in December 1895 after Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays. In 1902, the first radiation induced cancer was reported emerging from an ulcerated area of the skin. By 1911, a large number of these such skin cancers were reported as well as the first report of leukemia occurring in five radiation workers (Little 2000). Following these discoveries, large-scale tumor induction studies were carried out in animal models over the following 30 years....   [tags: Weapons Health Science Papers]
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Effects of Ultra Violet Radiation - Introduction During our studies in Biology lab, we have learned about Ultra Violet Radiation; the uses and harms that this radiation emits controlled and uncontrolled. One study was in the Noble paper that studied the effects of Ultra Violet radiation on seed growth and germination with the thought in minds how the increase of global Ultra Violet radiation may affect plants growth and germination. This scientific experiment is similar to the Noble paper study but differentiates in that this experiment will document the effects of gamma radiation on radish seeds in germination and on overall growth of the seeds....   [tags: Biology] 775 words
(2.2 pages)
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Effects of Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy - Effects of Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy Throughout the years of my life, I have had to deal with people that I love dearly suffer from cancer. When I was 10 years old, I lost my father to cancer. It was a devastating blow to my life, even though I was young and didn’t really understand what was going on, the impact that it played made on me, made me think what was the point of living. As time went on many people that played a special role in my life died of cancer, and many survived and fought the dangerous disease....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1890 words
(5.4 pages)
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Coduction Convection Radiation - Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat transfer is the way heat moves through matter to change the temperature of other objects. There are three types of heat transfers, Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. The first kind of heat transfer, conduction, is heat transferring through direct contact of materials. This would be the same thing as a pan on the stove. The heat from the stove touches the pan directly, therefore making the pan hot. The next type of heat transfer is convection....   [tags: essays research papers] 354 words
(1 pages)
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Cell Phone Radiation - Cell Phone Radiation Introduction to Cell Phones Today, cell phones have become widely used among our society. However, there has been some customer concern of human safety concerning the use of cell phones. Cell phones are know to emit low levels of radiofrequency energy in the microwave range while in use and while in the standby mode, which leads to many ethical issues. History It is very interesting to note that a cell phone is actually a radio. However, it is an extremely sophisticated radio....   [tags: Telephones Health Communication Essays] 1487 words
(4.2 pages)
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Radiation in Cellular Phones - Radiation in Cellular Phones Introduction: The use of cellular phones is an ever-increasing necessity. With this growing usage comes the customer concern of the safety of the product. You see, cellular telephones are known to emit low levels of radiofrequency energy in the microwave range when in use. This is the same type of radiation found in household microwaves. Even more significant, the cellular telephones emit the same type of low level radiofrequency (RF) while in standby mode. This indicates that being exposed to the RF does not require the phone to be in use, just that it is nearby....   [tags: Technology Research Essays] 1247 words
(3.6 pages)
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Utra Violet Radiation - ... In C. violaceum, the 8x103 basepair long violacein biosynthetic operon is composed of vioABCD and all of them are necessary for the production of violacein pigment as the end product (August et al., 2000). The transposon mutagenesis study revealed that the disruption of vioA or vioB resulted in the complete loss of biosynthesis of violacein intermediates while disruption of vioC and vioD resulted in the production of violacein precursors (August et al., 2000). We have recently reported antimycobacterial (Mojib et al., 2010) and anticancer activity (Mojib et al., 2011) of violacein-like purple pigment (PVP) from an Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp....   [tags: Environment, Purple Violet Pigment, Photons] 2749 words
(7.9 pages)
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UV Radiation on Organisms - This project is significant because it could help bring about a better understanding of, how UV wave lengths affect the people and the hole in the ozone layer. By determining the effects of UV on Artemia Salina we come closer to alleviating the effects of UV radiation on organisms. In the future this could lead to better UV protection technology. IV: UV exposure in seconds DV: Mortality Rate DV2: Growth Rate it mm/day H1=the UV radiation will kill more Shrimp the longer they are exposed to it....   [tags: Research Analysis] 862 words
(2.5 pages)
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Black Body Radiation - At the beginning of the 20th century Quantum Mechanics theory was established. It starts with the discovery of electromagnetic [EM] energy quantization by Max Plank (1900) [1] needed to explain black body radiation distribution as a function of frequency and temperature. He explained it by a model where resonators (latter identified as harmonic oscillators) can emit radiation only by quanta of energy. Later Bohr [2] found the Quantum Mechanical model for the Hydrogen atom, using Planck’s constant as a measure for angular momentum quantization....   [tags: Physics] 881 words
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Uses of Nuclear Radiation - Uses of nuclear radiation Smoke Detectors Smoke alarms contain a weak source made of Americium-241.Alpha particles are emitted from here, which ionise the air, so that the air conducts electricity and a small current flows. If smoke enters the alarm, this absorbs the particles, the current reduces, and the alarm sounds. Thickness Control In paper mills, the thickness of the paper can be controlled by measuring how much beta radiation passes through the paper to a Geiger counter. The counter controls the pressure of the rollers to give the correct thickness....   [tags: essays research papers] 456 words
(1.3 pages)
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Thermionic Emission and Radiation and Half-Lifes - Thermionic Emission and Radiation and Half-Lifes For the write-up section of my coursework I went on a trip to the Kent and Canterbury Hospital in order to look at the application of physics within the field of medicine. I intend to spend time explaining two physics principles which have uses in this scientific field, and illustrate how they are used, either within the diagnosis or treatment of a patient. Two principles: 1. Thermionic emission. 2. Radiation and half-lives....   [tags: Papers] 1187 words
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Effects of Microwave Radiation On The Human Body - Effects of Microwave Radiation On The Human Body I am going to research the effects of microwave radiation on the human body mainly from mobile phones. I am going to collect a wide range of information from a number of reliable and different sources. To research the effects of microwave radiation on the human body I am going to look at five different sources. Firstly I am going to look at the Internet to find two sources of information one from a scientific organisation and one from a mobile phone manufacturer....   [tags: Papers] 1569 words
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The Effect of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation on Marine Ecosystems - The Effect of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation on Marine Ecosystems Abstract Nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water, nearly all of it being in the form of oceans. Therefore, any environmental changes that are sensed on a global scale are certainly expressed in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature by which one aspect of the changing environment, ultraviolet radiation, affects the sensitive balance of the oceans. Specifically, the focus will be on the relationship between increasing ultraviolet radiation and the survival of phytoplankton, fish, and other aquatic animals....   [tags: Geology] 906 words
(2.6 pages)
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EMF Radiation: Serious Health Hazard for People - ... So scientists began to do some experiments to figure out that whether EMF has health hazards or not. The Council of Europe (COE) has recently recommended that all Wi-Fi (wireless phones, laptops, and other electronic devices) should be banned from schools which starting another round of this controversy. (Novella .S, 2011) This is a signal that some organizations have realized that EMF radiation is harmful for people especially for young children. The EMF mainly caused brain cell damage of young children because they are still in a growth process....   [tags: Technology, Electromagnetic Fields] 1257 words
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The Effects of Colours and Radiation on the Rate of Cooling of Tap Water - The Effects of Colours and Radiation on the Rate of Cooling of Tap Water Aim: To investigate radiation and the rate at which it cools ordinary tap water according to the colour of insulation. Apparatus needed: · Several Standard 250ml glass beakers (to be replaced after each test) · A kettle (to heat the water) · A square of bubble-wrap (to sit under the beaker to insulate it from the floor) · A Thermometer · A stopwatch · Safety Goggles (due to handling very hot water) · The materials I will use to encourage radiation are: Silver Foil Black Paper White Paper Method: 1/ After setting the equipment up, as shown....   [tags: Papers] 969 words
(2.8 pages)
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X-ray Technique Based on Synchrotron Radiation Used on Silicon Solar Cell - ... The extra energy will rapidly lose as heat and the electron relaxes to the bottom of the conduction band and the hole relaxes to the top of valence band [2]. Thus, PV cells are most efficient for photons with energy equal to the band gap. In other words, no energy is wasted as heat. The efficiency limit for single cell is 29% while the efficiency can be increased to 42.5% and 47.5% for 2-cell and 3-cell tandem stacks respectively as shown in the figure(1) below [3]. The optimal bandgap of the top cell is 1.7 eV ~ 1.8 eV for a 2-cell tandem with a Si bottom cell and 1.5 eV and 2.0 eV for the middle and upper cells for a 3-cell tandem [3]....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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Nuclear Waste Disposal - Nuclear Waste Disposal As the millenium approaches, we are faced with the problems created by our technological advances. Everyday we are forced to see the results, from acid rain to polluted beaches. But there is one problem in particular that will probably out-live our generation and the generation which has created it. If properly contained and monitored, it has little affect on us and our environment. However, once it is free of it's containment, it is a destructive and deadly force. This problem is nuclear waste....   [tags: Radiation Pollution Papers]
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The Toxicological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident - The Toxicological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident Radiation has both beneficial and harmful effects. The most detrimental health effect on humans, is the incidence of cancer, which has been studied. Humans are exposed to radiation more than they realize. They are exposed medically with x-rays, just by being outside with cosmic rays, and by accidents such as at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Exposure to radiation is high and more studies are done which improve radiation protection. The Chernobyl disaster is one such example in which the studies done had implications in the future of radiation protection....   [tags: Cancer Radiation Papers]
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The Discovery of Radioactivity and its Effects - During the 1800’s, the late 1800’s, scientist discovered radioactivity. The study of radio activity became a phenomenon amongst scientist during this time period. With the discovery of new elements polonium and radium by Marie and Pierre Curie, the use of radioactivity to probe the center of an atom, provided the instructions of a nuclear weapon that will kill innocent Japanese, leaving there face disfigured, and permanently changed. The majority of people know of the effect of radioactivity but not how it was discovered and its close relation to physics....   [tags: chemistry, Radiation, Atomic Bomb] 1163 words
(3.3 pages)
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Radiology - Radiology Humanity, constantly learning, growing, and facing more challenges each second of the day. Whether the challenges are mental or purely physical. We have found more efficient, safer, and easier ways of doing the tasks we may face. From moving cargo, to sending information via the Internet. Probably the greatest accomplishments we have made, are in the studies of medicine/treatment. And to be specific, the study of radiology. Radiology, the process of working and viewing inside the human body without breaking the skin....   [tags: Radiation Medical Medicine Essays] 1882 words
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Chernobyl - Chernobyl The accident On April 26, 1986, Soviet's Union Chernobyl nuclear plant exploded letting out a massive amount of radiation that all Russian citizens would debate for years to come. At exactly 1:21 am. on April 26th 1986 in Chernobyl, a city near the Pripiat River the No. 4 reactor exploded and released thirty to forty times the radiation of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombing. The exact causes of the explosion are not known, however scientists and researchers, under thorough investigation, have uncovered possible causes to the explosion....   [tags: History Radiation Explosion Essays]
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longterm nuclear effects - When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms: blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms: blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms: blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation....   [tags: essays research papers] 364 words
(1 pages)
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Radioactive Sickness - ... Radiation is defined as energy released from atoms. This released energy is either a wave or a tiny particle of matter known as x-rays or gamma rays. Exposure to x-rays or gamma rays is measured in units of roentgens, but the absorbed dose of radiation is measured in a unit called a gray (Gy). Radiation sickness is caused by contact to a high measured quantity of this ionizing radiation. Radiation in the body is measured by total body exposure; that being the total combine radiation source of outside and inside the body....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Nuclear Energy: Are the Benefits Worth the Risk? - ... This process is what creates the radiation, in a sense. As a uranium atom decays, it emits an alpha particle, consisting of two protons, and to neutrons. There are three different types of radiation when talking about radioactive materials, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma. Alpha particles are large particles, and cannot enter the body through the skin (though this depends on their energy). However, these particles can be ingested from food exposure, or enter the blood stream through a wound, via particles of dirt....   [tags: Energy ]
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Nuclear Power - Nuclear Power As our population increases, so will our demand for electricity. Air conditioners, computers, televisions, microwaves, and many other appliances have become necessities for Americans. All methods of producing electricity have drawbacks. As the earth becomes warmer, we must look for ways to decrease our use of fossil fuels. There are several ways to produce electricity without releasing air pollution. The most feasible method at this time is nuclear energy. Nuclear energy presents a safe, clean, and inexpensive alternative to other methods of producing electricity....   [tags: Energy Environmental Papers]
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Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect - The world is a greenhouse. The role of the atmosphere is to insulate and warm the surface of the earth. The greenhouse effect is not a new phenomenon. Humans can help reduce the increasing greenhouse effect. The atmosphere insulates and warms the surface of the earth. Incoming solar radiation passes through the atmosphere. The surface of the earth absorbs some of the radiation. The unabsorbed radiation is emitted back out in the form of infrared radiation. Gases, such as, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor absorb the reflected infrared radiation....   [tags: essays research papers, climate change] 337 words
(1 pages)
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The Electromagnetic Spectrum - PART 1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum is the range of frequencies of possible electromagnetic radiation. The Spectrum ranges from 0 Hertz up to 2.4x1023 Hertz. The exact wavelength limits of the Spectrum are unknown however it is widely believed that the short wavelength limit is equal to the Planck Length (1.616x10-35m) and the long wavelength limit is the length of the Universe. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is an occurrence that takes the form of self-propagating waves produced by the motion of electrically charged particles, which can move through matter or a vacuum....   [tags: Physics]
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The Chernobyl Accident-An Epidemiological Perspective - ... “Hypothyroid” condition is when the thyroid gland is working too slowly that resulted in weight gain. The thyroid cancer was diffused throughout food chains; pastures eaten by cows which were deposited by radioactive iodine were concentrated in their milk, which was subsequently drunk by children. The radiation-induced thyroid cancer would not have resulted if people had stopped giving locally supplied contaminated milk. Treatment of thyroid cancer is primarily and fundamentally “Surgical”, that involve in the removal of parts or all of the thyroid gland depending on the stage at which it is affected....   [tags: Health ]
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Skin Cancer in Australia - Skin Cancer in Australia Skin cancer is a significant public health issue in Australia. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun in the UVA and UVB wavelengths is the primary cause. Australia has been a world leader in efforts to protect the ozone layer, the main line of defense against ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. Ultraviolet radiation induces the formation of thymine dimers that cause mutation of skin cells if not repaired before DNA replication. Mutations of tumor suppressor genes can lead to uncontrolled cell growth....   [tags: Medical Health Dermatology Essays]
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Global Effects of Ozone Depletion - Global Effects of Ozone Depletion Ozone depletion in the earth’s atmosphere is under constant scrutiny by the American press and people. Perhaps the concern is warranted; the ozone layer protects life on earth by absorbing 97-99% of the damaging ultraviolet radiation from the sun (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). Over the past twenty years, the stratospheric ozone has decreased approximately 3% per decade. Possible concerns have been raised about loss of polar caps, DNA damage, increased human health risks, and environmental process disturbance....   [tags: Environment Ozone Layer Essays Papers]
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Radioactive Isotopes - Radioactive Isotopes I never thought nuclear energy would play a role in my life, but that was until two years ago when my family was hit with horrifying news. A close friend of ours was diagnosed with breast cancer. Because of a new technology called radiation therapy or radiotherapy, my mother’s best friend is alive today. Radiotherapy is produced by a form of nuclear energy called radioactive isotopes. The class EGEE 101 has educated me about the subject of nuclear energy, but I wanted to take it a step further and discover how nuclear energy plays a role in medicine....   [tags: Chemistry Atoms Energy Essays]
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Depleting Ozone and Its Effect on Society - Depleting Ozone and Its Effect on Society Is there a reason for us to be concerned. Can ozone depletion really be connected to something that is truly harmful to humans. How are we directly affected by ozone depletion. How much do we actually know about the ozone and the things that are going on in the atmosphere. There are many questions that arise when talking about the ozone depletion in relation to skin cancer. Today both environmentalists and researchers alike focus on the increasingly dangerous affect that ultraviolet radiation has on present day society....   [tags: Environment]
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Chernobyl - Chernobyl The topic I have chosen for this term paper is "Ex-Soviet Bloc's Environmental Crisis, Issue C." #2 Upgrading nuclear reactors to meet international standards. I have chosen this topic because nuclear power is not only an environmental issue but also a severe health issue for the citizens around the nuclear site and also for the rest of the country and world because of food products that could be grown there and used as market items. Nuclear radiation is in no way healthy to anyone....   [tags: essays research papers] 1726 words
(4.9 pages)
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The Atomic Bomb - The Atomic Bomb The aftermath: Humanity, the Earth, Nature Some people often hear the word "Atomic Bomb" or hear about the cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki and picture a war torn city and a bomb that killed many. While they are right in connecting the two, the aftermath of the atomic bomb goes much deeper than that. By simply stating that it killed and injured thousands of people is an understatement. The damage from the bomb ranged from high temperature fires that scorched the land to the killing of fetuses due to in-utero radiation exposure....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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The Physics Behind Remote Sensing - Remote Sensing is the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between the electromagnetic energy and matter (Sabins, 1997). Remote sensing offers extensive applications in almost every area of science from monitoring forest fires to geologic mapping . Although many aspects of remote sensing are complex and difficult to understand the basic theory behind remote sensing is simple physics. There are four major stages of remote sensing. The first stage is the source of energy, usually the sun, which sends energy to a target....   [tags: Physics]
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Nuclear Weapons and Its Negative Effects on Human Beings and Environment - ... Nuclear detonation in Japan destroyed houses and natural resources. Global warming increased uncertainly, and many human lives destroyed due to the blast. Global warming became the big issue in Japan for many days. “A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that since 1950, the world's climate has been warming, primarily because of emissions from unfettered burning of fossil fuels and the razing of tropical forests. Such activity adds to the atmosphere's invisible blanket of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping "greenhouse" gases....   [tags: Environment ]
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Fluoroscopy - ... Moreover, dark adaption of the eye resulted in decreased spatial and temporal sensitivity (Balter, 2001). The poor illumination from fluoroscopic screens studied by William Chamberlain in 1941 lead to the advancement of the image intensifier in the 1950s (Bushong, 1997). With the development of the image intensifier physicians were able to view the screen in standard light conditions. A further refinement to the image intensifier meant that a video system could be connected to it giving a recording of the examination which allowed medical staff to sight the images in a low dose rate area (Martin & Harbison, 2006)....   [tags: Health ]
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technology - THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Following surgery, a single dose of the cancer drug carboplatin is just as effective, and less toxic, than the standard three weeks of radiation therapy traditionally used to fight stage 1 seminoma, a form of testicular cancer, British researchers report. In addition, treatment with carboplatin results in the development of fewer new seminomas compared with traditional radiation therapy, according to the report in the July 23 issue of The Lancet. For the past half-century, the standard care for seminoma has been to remove the cancerous testicle, usually followed by three weeks of radiotherapy....   [tags: essays research papers] 546 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Validity Of Essiac As a Cure For Breast Cancer - The Validity Of Essiac As a Cure For Breast Cancer Doctors continue to study breast cancer, one of the leading causes of death in women, in attempt to find an all out cure. More and more women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. In 1995, an estimated 182,000 women in the United States were diagnosed, of which 10% to 15% were already locoregionally advanced (Ames et al, 1996). Breast cancer has been plaguing women since 1600 B.C. where it was treated with such methods as amputation or by burning the lesion (Eberlein, 1994)....   [tags: Biology Health Medicine Essays]
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Ernest Rutherford - Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand in 1871 as one of 12 children. It was Rutherford who first "split" an atom and who discovered the atomic "nucleus", a name that he invented. For this he is regarded as the greatest experimental physicist of his time. Rutherford was one of the first and most important researchers in nuclear physics. Soon after the discovery of radioactivity in 1986 by the French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, Rutherford discovered the three different types of radiation....   [tags: Papers] 574 words
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The Possible Danger of Mobile Phones to our Health - The Possible Danger of Mobile Phones to our Health Ever since the price of mobile phones dropped, resulting in a huge increase in the number of people owning them, the question has always been asked as to whether they are safe and if they pose a danger to our health. The full results of long-term use on such a huge scale has never been able to be tested, as quite simply they have not been around long enough for the symptoms to make themselves clear. What are the effects of mobile phones and how serious are they....   [tags: Papers] 1807 words
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Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems - The Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems Introduction Throughout the years, advances in technology and scientific development have greatly influenced our global community. Various anthropogenic factors, such as the increased combustion of fossil fuels and widespread usage of manmade chemicals, have greatly affected the planet's atmosphere and it's ozone layer. Ozone Depletion The stratospheric ozone layer is the Earth's natural means of protection from the Sun's damaging ultraviolet rays....   [tags: Geology] 834 words
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The Dangers of Electromagnetic Fields - The dangers of the electromagnetic can be low on danger and high on danger. Depending on the amount of how much the body absorbs verifies the lethality of the EMFs. Humans are extremely sensitive to EMFs. Yes if a person absorbs too much energy it can lead potential to death, but if they absorb small portions it can lead can lead to nausea, paranoia, and many more small affects. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued cautionary advisories on EMFs. Everyone is exposed to EMFs; they come in forms such as from power lines, basements, cell phones, or even x-rays and other medical equipment....   [tags: Health ] 1048 words
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The Effects of Tanning - ... It travels less than 333 miles. This type of radiation cannot reach the earth’s surface because it is filtered out by the ozone layer. It cannot be a factor in causing skin damage in humans(Ultraviolet Radiation 1). Skin cancer is a major risk to consider when tanning. Tanning may cause three different types of skin cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and worst of all, malignant melanoma(Ultraviolet Radiation 1). There are more than 700,000 cases of squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed each year....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Cancer] 1425 words
(4.1 pages)
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Health Risks Related to Cell Phone Use - Health Risks Related to Cell Phone Use Many people have raised the question: "Can cell phones cause brain damage?" The answer, well it depends on who you ask. There have been many studies that have all found various results. There have been studies on humans that were conducted by the Swedish, British, and Americans. There have also been tests conducted on animals. In the U.S., cellular telephones operate in a frequency ranging from about 800 to 2100 megahertz (11). The radiation produced is higher than radios and cordless phones, but lower than that of microwave ovens and radar....   [tags: Expository Essays Research Papers] 473 words
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Nuclear Power and Testing - Nuclear Power and Testing With the development of nuclear power came a heavy moral debate between scientists and politicians. The government chose to protect its national security and engage in an “arms race,” rather than protecting its citizens. The nuclear testing between 1951-1962 exposed thousands of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada residents (“Downwinders”) to nuclear fallout, resulting in genetic defects, leukemia, and cancer in many of the fallout’s victims. In her 1992 book Refuge, Terry Tempest Williams claims she “cannot prove her mother, Diane Dixon Tempest, or [her] grandmothers, Lettie Romney Dixon and Kathryn Blackett Tempest, along with [her] aunts developed cancer from nuclear fallout in Utah ( Tempest 286,);” however, scientific tests, although hard to conduct in this circumstance, have proved a strong correlation between fallout exposure and cancer within the downwind population....   [tags: Energy Pollution Papers] 2350 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Unknown Dangers of Cell Phones - The Unknown Dangers of Cell Phones When I was sixteen years old, I wanted a cell phone more than anything. Not only did all my friends have them, but my parents did not allow me to talk to my boyfriend Jimmy. So I thought having a cell phone would be the instant solution to all my problems. Not only would I be able to talk to Jimmy whenever I wanted but having a cell phone would give me so much more independence. Not to mention the fact that they were extremely glamorous and simply the thing to have....   [tags: Health Communication Papers] 2567 words
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depletion of the ozone layer - Our Radiant Planet: Depletion of the Ozone Layer Ozone is a relatively unstable form of molecular oxygen containing three oxygen atoms produced when upper-atmosphere oxygen molecules are split by ultra violet light. Stratospheric ozone is found in a broad band, extending generally from 15 to 35km above the earth. Although the ozone layer is surprisingly thin, it acts as a protective shield to the earth, as it filters out most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (in particular UV-B) that would otherwise reach our planets surface....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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lung cancer - Lung cancer is the most common cancer-related cause of death among men and women. Lung cancer can be undetected for many years causing it to become more dangerous and possibly fatal. There is not cure for lung cancer or any cancer, but if detected in an early stage the lung cancer can be detected, treated, and hopefully terminated. There are many new and developing treatments being tested now that may save lives in the future. Through understanding what the lung cancer is, doctors can easily diagnose and assess cancer patients....   [tags: essays research papers] 1454 words
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Nuclear Weapons: Scars on the earth - Nuclear Weapons: Scars on the Earth Nuclear weapons have a long-lasting and devastating effect on the world for many years after an initial explosion. Fallout from United States atmospheric testing from 1945 to 1963 killed an estimated 70,000 to 800,000 people worldwide. People who have worked in the early nuclear weapons programs have been exposed to significant amounts of radiation (Schwartz 395). When a nuclear weapon goes off, there are four basic types of explosions: air bursts, surface blast, subsurface burst, and high altitude burst....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Ozone - Ozone Ozone (O3) is a molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms, similar to the oxygen we breathe (O2), however oxygen consists of only two oxygen atoms. In the stratosphere, a region high up in the upper atmosphere, light rays are responsible for the breaking down of oxygen (O2), breathable oxygen into its two separate oxygen atoms. Lone oxygen atoms are markedly reactive. When a lone oxygen atom comes into contact with a breathable oxygen molecule (O2) it combines to form ozone (O3). The ozone layer is a small residual amount of ozone concentrated in a band in the upper atmosphere....   [tags: Ozone Layer Oxygen Environmental Essays]
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Nuclear Energy is Safe and Clean - Nuclear Sized Responsibility Abstract Nuclear energy is a promising source of electricity for the future. Although there are many people against it, it is only because many do not know of the progresses nuclear energy has made since it was started. Nuclear energy has become one of the cleanest sources of energy with minimum radiation. These are such small quantities that we receive only about .5 millirems of it yearly while nature sums it up to 360 millirems for the average person. Many of us shy away from nuclear energy due to fear caused by ignorance but with some patience and research one can realize the potential that nuclear power has and how it can shape a new era in the future....   [tags: Power Plant Energy Safety]
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Importance of Radiological Technology - ... They also use lead letters and place them by the bone they are about to x-ray so the doctor knows which side of the body that bone came from, the left or right, and it is always the patients left or right. While taking the x-ray, they stand behind a lead wall before they use the control panel, which is where they push the button to take the x-ray. The x-ray is important because it reveals any broken bones inside the body, and helps the doctor to know exactly what they're dealing with. The ultrasound machine is a "noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine internal structures of the body" (Jones 840)....   [tags: Medical Technology ]
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Comparative Study of SAR from Mobile Phones With and Without Headset - ... The numbers of cell phones and cell towers are increasing without giving due respect to its disadvantages. Because of this, scientists worldwide are concerned about the potential health risks associated with the use of mobile phones. As we all know, the radiations are nothing but the microwave energy. The range of microwave is 1 to 300Ghz.Usually this word is used for wavelength measured in micron ranges. In revised version microwave frequencies refer to those in the range from1Ghz to 106Ghz....   [tags: Technology]
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Plutonium Discovered more Harmful than Uranium - ... Beta particles are negatively charged and small, allowing them to move fast and penetrate up to 2 centimetres of human skin. Gamma rays are high-energy waves, and can travel long distances and penetrate human skin. However, they can be blocked by concrete, led, metal or even water. Both beta and gamma rays are often found in most radioactive materials, while alpha particles appear in much more hazardous elements such as uranium and plutonium. Alpha Particles An alpha particle is a type an ionizing radiation, which emits particles, composed of two protons and two neutrons, without elections; giving it a net positive charge....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Breast Cancer Treatment - Breast Cancer Treatment Only lung cancer kills more women each year in the United States than breast cancer does. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that over 184,000 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in women in 1996 (ACS Breast). Although these statistics are alarming, there are a number of treatment options available for those that are diagnosed with breast cancer. The best way to treat any disease is to prevent it. Since little is known about breast cancer, there are no established rules for prevention....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1952 - 1952 In 1954, many barriers were broken that made this a year of success. One of the major achievements is the cure for Polio being discovered which saved many lives and made the disease extinct. Other successes include the revolution of music and the birth of Rock & Roll. Other achievements this year were the invention of the first 2-seated sports car, the corvette, and the beginning of the Sports Illustrated magazine. During this year, RCA also produced the first color television where families could watch shows such as the Nelsons and the Show of Shows....   [tags: 1950's]
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Extinction Of Dinosaurs - Could an exploding star have been responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. This idea has become popular again as an explanation for the disappearance of the dinosaurs. An exploding star can blast material enormous distances into space. If this material reached Earth’s atmosphere, changes may have occurred that were harmful to life. We call an exploding star a supernova. Nova is the Latin word for new, and in ancient times, when an exploding star was observed, people often thought a new star was being born....   [tags: essays research papers] 394 words
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The Causes of Cancer - The Causes of Cancer Cancer is the number one killer in America today.We can say the known causes of cancer are radiation,sunlight,pollution,cigarette smokingand improper diets.I will explain the major causes of cancer,but before I proceed let me define the term "cancer."To be defined cancer is an abnormal,uncontrolled growth of cells that can spread beyond their natural boundaries to other parts of the body.Cancers can develop in numerous parts of the body. The importance of radiation as a cause of cancer has been recognized for many years.Exposure to toxic levels of radiation produces genetic damage,and since the genes control cell behavior this can lead either to cancer or cell death,depending upon the dose.the most common type of cancer which is caused by radiation is known as leukemia.Another type of cancer caused by raidiation is ,cancer of the white blood cells....   [tags: Papers] 314 words
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Nuclear Weapons and their effects - A nuclear explosion is caused by the release of energy in an atom, either through fission or fusion. Fission weapons cause an explosion by the splitting of atomic nuclei. This happens when a neutron collides with the nucleus of an atom. The protons in the nucleus are transformed into a great amount of energy and two or three more neutrons are sent out, which go on to split other nuclei. If this continues, a chain reaction will occur. The result is a gigantic explosion. To form a chain reaction, a certain amount of material is needed....   [tags: essays research papers] 643 words
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Computers and Health - Computers and Health For my I-Search topic I chose to research health related issues due to increased computer usage both in the work and home settings. Computer technology is becoming commonplace in the work field. As a teacher, I use the computer to present topics to my students, enter grades, send email to co-workers and parents, and to post homework assignments on the Internet. Ten years ago, teachers and other professionals used computers on a limited basis. I became interested in the side effects caused by prolonged usage of computers since several family members complain of wrist soreness as well as eyestrain due to the effects of monitor radiation....   [tags: Technology Papers]
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Telescope - Telescope Light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation coming from the universe outside the Earth must travel enormous distances through space and time to reach observers. Only the brightest and nearest stars can be seen with the unaided eye. To see farther and to clarify and measure what is seen, a telescope is needed. The word telescope is derived from the Greek words tele, "from afar," and skopos, "viewer." Even a simple homemade telescope can clearly show Saturn's rings, Jupiter's bands and red spot, stars, nebulae, and nearby galaxies not visible to the unaided eye....   [tags: science] 2519 words
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Ozone - Ozone Ozone is an important molecule in maintaining the homeostasis in the environment. Ozone, the molecule O3, makes a layer in the stratosphere, situated 10 to 15 kilometers from the earth's surface. The dioxide molecule, O2 and Oxygen atom O, collide with each other result in the formation of Ozone, O3. In this reaction, the molecule O3 contains an excess of energy. Once the molecule is formed, it is not stable enough to last long. The energy-rich O3 molecules discards the excess energy by colliding with another atom or molecule and transferring the energy in the form of heat....   [tags: essays papers] 1002 words
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What is Nuclear Power? - The process used was to gather information from books, the Internet, and interviewing my father who works at a nuclear power plant. There are many forms of energy. Coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power are the most common forms of energy used in the United States. Three of these energies are limited: coal, gas, and oil. Nuclear power is unlike the other three because it uses the fission process instead of combustion. This form of power is unlimited. It produces heat energy like the others, but does not produce Carbon Dioxide and other particulate emissions....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Think Twice Before You Tan - Nearly 30 million people tan indoors in the United States every year. Of those 30 million, more than one million people are diagnosed with skin cancer according to the Skin Cancer Foundation. Despite that fact hundreds of thousands of people still visit tanning salons today. Skin tone nor age matter when it comes to the chances of getting skin cancer. Of the many causes of skin cancer existing, ultra violet radiation from tanning salons is by far at the top of the list. There are studies linking ultraviolet radiation to the deadliest form of skin cancer....   [tags: Health]
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Nuclear Energy in North America - Nuclear energy, a stable, emission free source of energy and has become a cornerstone for many countries energy needs. There are currently 463 commercial nuclear reactors producing 372,000 MWe in over 30 countries. North America produces 17% of their required energy from nuclear reactors, putting the USA 17th and Canada 21st in the world. Although this seems like a good portion, there are nine countries producing over 40% of their required power from nuclear energy. But why is a heavy energy dependent and environmentally conscious continent of North America producing such little percent of their power from a stable, emission free energy source; the very qualifications that North Americans desire in order to control the green house effect....   [tags: Energy] 1138 words
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X-Rays: From Discovery to Practical Application - ... 1 The bones and teeth are denser than the skin or other soft tissue therefore they absorb more x-rays, when an x-rays film is put on one side of the body and x-rays are shot through the body only the radiation that goes through the softer tissues reaches the film and changes its colour, that is why it is possible to see the bones’ silhouette making it possible to diagnose broken or cracked bones. The examination of softer tissues like the lungs, blood vessels and the intestines was later possible with the ingestion of appropriate solutions that absorbed more x-rays....   [tags: Physics]
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Hiroshima - The first most powerful bomb, which is called the atom bomb, was dropped on August 6 , 1945. In a city located in Japan, called Hiroshima. With these facts and the information i've read from this one book called "Hiroshima" I have a very strong opinion which I will speak of now. I think that the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima was a petty, childish way of trying to win a war. It was inhuman, so horrible that anyone whom lived through it, would most likely be traumatized for the rest of their living lives....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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Dangers of Cell Phones - Although cell phones appear to be harmless devices, they are proven to be detrimental and unsafe to prolonged users. Cell phone users need to be more aware of the potential consequences of improper usage. Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have elevated, especially after the enormous increase in the use of mobile phones. Furthermore, texting while driving is a risk that many individuals take, and could lead to serious, life-threatening consequences. Nevertheless, there are quite a few solutions that may help a cell phone user in preventing the potential consequences of prolonged cell phone use....   [tags: Technology/Health] 599 words
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The Disaster at Chernobyl - The Disaster at Chernobyl On April 26th, 1986, operators at the Chernobyl Power Plant in Chernobyl, Ukraine, ran what they thought to be a routine safety test. But fate was not on the side of these operators. Without warning, reactor #4 became unstable, as it had been operating at a low power for a possible shutdown and the reactor’s design caused it to be unsafe at this level of power. Internal temperatures rose. Attempts to cool the system produced the opposite effect. Instantly, the nuclear core surged with power....   [tags: Nuclear Explosions Ukraine Essays History]
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Nuclear Holocaust - Nuclear testing was a global issue during the 1960s. With threats of nuclear war from the communist countries of the Russia, Cuba and China, the United States was anxious to protect itself with a nuclear arsenal of its own. After the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II, the United States did additional nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, Nevada and New Mexico. General knowledge of nuclear radiation was minimal to the public at that time and the United States government could not warn their citizens about the dangerous effects of exposure to nuclear radiation....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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photosynthesis - Organisms Depend Upon Photosynthesis A. Organisms Depend Upon Photosynthesis 1. Photosynthetic organisms (algae, plants and a few other organisms) serve as ultimate source of food for most life. 2. Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into chemical bond energy of carbohydrates. 3. Most food chains start with photosynthesizers. Solar Radiation Key Discoveries of Photosynthetic Process Structure of Chloroplasts Function of Chloroplasts A. Solar Radiation 1. Solar radiation is described in terms of its energy content and its wavelength....   [tags: essays research papers] 1816 words
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The Big Bang Theory - The Big Bang Theory Why is the Universe expanding. What is Cosmic Back Ground Radiation (CBR). There are many questions asked about our Universe, which we know so little about. Scientists, in their attempt to answer these and other confrontations, have found one idea that seems to explain much of what we don't understand: The Big Bang Theory. An explosion of incomprehensible speed was the beginning of our known Universe and existence. At that time matter as small as the head of a pin inflated to become larger than the visible Universe of today in less than one millisecond....   [tags: Big Bang Theory Science Essays Papers] 1334 words
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The World Within - The World Within What can be done with medicine today is truly astounding. In just a little over a century, we have gone from crude, anaesthetized surgery with non-sterilized instruments to the ability to delicately rebuild a hand or bypass a major artery with little risk to the patient and without even leaving a large scar. These great heights to which we have ascended are based upon a number of breakthroughs in sanitation and sterilization, antibiotics, and any number of other small discoveries that make possible today’s operating room – but by far the most powerful and groundbreaking advances have been made in the field of human imaging....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Positive Effects of Nuclear Power - Positive Effects of Nuclear Power The use of nuclear power in the mid-1980s was not a popular idea on account of all the fears that it had presented. The public seemed to have rejected it because of the fear of radiation. The Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union in April of 1986 reinforced the fears, and gave them an international dimension (Cohen 1). Nevertheless, the public has to come to terms that one of the major requirements for sustaining human progress is an adequate source of energy....   [tags: Papers] 938 words
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