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Protocol and Key Terms for OSPF - OSPF Packet Types: The OSPF protocol using its assigned number 89 runs directly over IP. There are five different packet types used by the protocol. 1) Hello: Hello packet is used to discovery and maintain the neighbours in the area. 2) Database Description: Adjacencies are formed using database description packets. The link state advertisements are summarized by the router and passes the information, through database description packets to the adjacent router. 3) Link State Request: After the exchange of the database description packets between router and its neighbour, the router discovers that link state advertisements are required to be updated or complete topological database....   [tags: packet, states, protocol] 537 words
(1.5 pages)
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Networking and Telecommunication: CAN protocol - CAN originally developed for the automotive industry is an International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined serial bus standard to replace the complex wiring with a two-wire bus. The specification signifies the high immunity to electrical interference. The ability to self diagnose and repair data errors make it significant. The CAN communication protocol is based on carrier-sense, multiple-access protocol using collision detection and arbitration on message priority (CSMA/CD+AMP). Normally, a logic-high is associated with a one, and a logic-low is associated with a zero – however not so on a CAN bus....   [tags: automotive industry, protocol controller]
:: 7 Works Cited
1240 words
(3.5 pages)
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Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) - Introduction The following paper will review the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) as a widely accepted standard. A brief description will be provided with visual aids to help with understanding. A current implementation of EAP with the Transport Layer Security (TLS) will be described. Common implemented security measures will also be disused. Following the security measures I will provide research on common attack vectors and ways to mitigate these attacks to protect secure data transmissions....   [tags: Extensible Authentication Protocol]
:: 13 Works Cited
1893 words
(5.4 pages)
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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a distance vector routing protocol, where a router shares information with neighboring routers about the network in an autonomous system and shares only the information that neighboring routers don’t have instead of the whole message. It is an enhanced version of Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, both of them uses the same distant vector technology and the distance information within them is not changed....   [tags: router, protocol, features] 588 words
(1.7 pages)
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User Datagram Protocol - User Datagram Protocol is one of the transport layer protocol which offers limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between hosts. Data is further subdivided into data grams for transmission across the hosts. UDP does not allow retransmission of the damaged or lost packets and there is no acknowledgement for the packet which has been sent. DGRAM_SOCK is the type of socket used for transmission of data. Unlike TCP, however, UDP does not provide the service of dividing a message into packets (datagram's) and reassembling it at the other end....   [tags: data, udp, internet protocol]
:: 3 Works Cited
988 words
(2.8 pages)
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Networks: An Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol - An Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is the most used interior gateway protocol and computation intensive protocol where energy consumption in Internet Protocol (IP) networks is the main concern. The energy in an IP network can be saved by allowing a subset of IP router interfaces on sleep mode setting during the low traffic hours through the model of “move” by dint of an Energy Aware Routing (EAR) strategy, which is completely compatible with OSPF and is based on the “Shortest Path Tree (SPT) exportation” techinque or “Dijkstra's Algorithm”....   [tags: computation, gateway protocol]
:: 3 Works Cited
1147 words
(3.3 pages)
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Proposal to Implement Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) - IPv4 The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal to implement Internet Protocol version four (IPv4) also known as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) structure as our primary means of communication within our network infrastructure. We are currently using a legacy mainframe system that limits are current means of network connectivity with other evolving network systems and it is in our best interest that we look into the future as well as keep up with changing times as Information Technicians....   [tags: Transmission Control Protocol]
:: 5 Works Cited
1140 words
(3.3 pages)
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International Trade and The Kyoto Protocol - International Trade and The Kyoto Protocol Pollution, specifically global warming, is of growing concern to people and governments. It is a controversial issue whose validity is still being debated by scientists. The Kyoto Protocol is an international attempt to address global warming through emissions controls. Traditional neoclassical economic models do not incorporate pollution in rudimentary theories of supply, demand, or pricing, as a result, firms do not consider pollution as a cost of production, which leaves government regulation as the primary method for controlling these externalities....   [tags: Kyoto Protocol Pollution Enivronmental Essays]
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2554 words
(7.3 pages)
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The Routing Information Protocol ( RIP ) - The Routing Information Protocol ( RIP ) INTRODUCTION: I will summarize Request For Comments (RFC) 1058, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), by discussing RIPs basic algorithm/distance vector algorithm, protocol, message format, protocol limitations, and new improvements to RIP. RIP is very important to internetworking, since it passes information about routes between networks and hosts. It allows hosts and gateways to exchange information for the purpose of computing routes. BASIC ALGORITHM/DISTANCE VECTOR ALGORITHM: RIP was designed to work with moderate sized networks, which used pretty much the same technology....   [tags: Routing Information Protocol RIP Essays]
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1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - TCP/IP The OSI reference model or Open System Interconnection is the most common model used in today’s networks. The OSI model divides the required network processes into seven different layers allowing for effective communication. Layer 7 or the Application function provides network services to application processes, interacts and supports the networks needs of various software’s, and provides protocols. Layer 6 or Presentation function provides proper communication from one host to another. With-in this layer data is encrypted, compressed, and formatted for proper data representation....   [tags: IT Networks]
:: 9 Works Cited
1197 words
(3.4 pages)
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Border Gateway Protocol: Origin Misconfigurations and Effects - Introduction The Internet is a highly unstable and non-reliable network which requires a strong routing protocol. There are about 493870 routes on the Internet and the number is increasing every day (CIDR Report). Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the exterior gateway routing protocol used for routing over the Internet worldwide. BGP exchanges routing information between autonomous systems over the Internet. An autonomous system (AS) can be defined as network or group of routers that implement the same routing policy (Halabi, 96)....   [tags: internet, routing protocols]
:: 9 Works Cited
1747 words
(5 pages)
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The Vulnerability of Antiquated Protocols - Protocols are a common focus of attack because of the number of devices that can be targeted. Devices made by different vendors are able to communicate and work with each other because of standard protocols that allow them to understand each other. The wide use of these protocols makes them an appealing target to attackers. If a flaw can be found in a popular protocol, then many devices made by different vendors will be vulnerable to the attack. There are a number of different protocols over the years that have been updated due to vulnerabilities found in their original versions, a prime example being the SSH protocol....   [tags: Secure Shell Protocol, SSH]
:: 5 Works Cited
564 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Kyoto Protocol - In regard to the Kyoto protocol David Miliband, United Kingdom environment minister under Prime Minister Tony Blair, has argued that its “an After you Claude situation” based on the fact that no country wants to be the “first in taking action to cut their greenhouse emissions for fear that the other government will fail to follow. So they find ways to stall, while their greenhouse gas output climbs steadily skywards” (Milliband in Financial Times) . This paper does not ignore other major problems of the Kyoto Protocol such as funding, but, instead will only look at what Milliband has identified as the problem with the Kyoto Protocol as mentioned above....   [tags: Environment, Environmental ]
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1418 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Kyoto Protocol - Global warming has become one of the most complicated issued facing the whole world. It may cause significant changes in natural, ecological or social systems. Under this circumstance, developed nations has decided to work together to combat this serious problem. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Its objective is to make nations that ratified the agreement reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases toward the target set for each nation....   [tags: Environment ]
:: 2 Works Cited
987 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Kyoto Protocol - This paper examines the Kyoto Protocol and the United States position on their participation in the Kyoto Protocol. To understand the underpinnings of the Kyoto Protocol one must agree that our planet is warming, and we (its citizens) are contributing to its warming. Any general argument about global warming has to address at least the following five questions: 1. Is global warming really occurring. 2. If global warming is occurring, are humans responsible for it. 3. If global warming is occurring, what will the consequences be for life on earth....   [tags: Environment, Global Warming Crisis] 1377 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Kyoto Protocol - In 1998, Dr. James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies, testified before the U.S. Congress that “the greenhouse effect has been detected and it is changing our climate now.” His statements made internation headlines which lead to increased public awareness of climate change—making it a salient issue for the general public. In response to public concern and what climatologists had known for years, the United Nations and other international bodies established policies to limit the emission of green houses gases....   [tags: Greenhouse Effect, Carbon Credit] 998 words
(2.9 pages)
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Taking a Look at the Kyoto Protocol - The Kyoto Protocol is a binding international agreement, which began in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. As of June 2013, there were a total of 192 parties participating in the Kyoto Protocol, Canada was no longer one of them. Canada was one of the first to sign the agreement, in 1998; more than 4 years later, Canada formally approved the Kyoto Accord, in 2002. This meant Canada would have to decrease its emissions, by 6% in comparison to 1990 levels (461 Mt), by the year 2012. Despite some efforts, Canada failed to meet these requirements and in fact increased total emissions by roughly 24% by the year 2008....   [tags: binding international agreements] 873 words
(2.5 pages)
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The Kyoto Protocol and The Green Movement - The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change, which commits its parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Kyoto was seen only as the short-term costs of compliance, not the long-term planetary benefits. Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms....   [tags: Climate Change Research Paper]
:: 6 Works Cited
2780 words
(7.9 pages)
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The Creation of Border Gateway Protocol - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), being a dynamic routing protocol, exchanges routes between BGP neighbors, which is sometimes called “peers”. The main aim behind the creation of this protocol was to expand and replace Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). Occasionally, BGP is described as a reachability protocol rather than a routing protocol. BGP is a Path Vector Protocol (PVP), which aims at maintaining paths to different hosts, networks and gateway routers and determines the routing decision based on that....   [tags: peers, routing, multiple connections] 1065 words
(3 pages)
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Routing Information Protocol: A Survey - Abstract: - As we can see today the new technology provides many facilities and fast communication, such as internet. We must think how the information transfers from the source to the destination. In fact, there is a device who mange this operation and called router, this device explore the path from the source to the destination in low cost. However, In this report we will go to present one of the most popular algorithm use in the routing its Distance Vector algorithm which is the basis of the well-known Routing Information Protocol (RIP) then we will go to explain how this protocol works what is the problem, and how we can manage this problem and solve it, when use this protocol ....   [tags: Technology, Communication and Network]
:: 6 Works Cited
2245 words
(6.4 pages)
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Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol - Climate change has been a big issue since the 1800s and still continues to grow today. On December 1997, countries set up an international treaty , the United Nation Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) that set up a plan for how to reduce climate change.the plan was called Kyoto Protocol was set up in Kyoto, Japan. The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005 ,under the agreement countries decide to cut their yearly emission as measured in the six greenhouse gases. (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change).The goal was the countries would reduce their emissions by 2008 to 2012 ,by an average of 5.2 percent since 1990 level....   [tags: environment, CO2, natural gas]
:: 8 Works Cited
1335 words
(3.8 pages)
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German Nazi: The Wannsee Protocol - ... As a result many European Jews had many of their rights; such as their political, legal, and civil rights taken away from them. The rights of European Jews slowly lessened and eventually on November 28 1938 The Reich Ministry of the Interior restricted the freedom of movement of Jews in Europe, which meant that Jews would have a much harder time trying to escape Europe. When Germany invaded Soviet Russia, Himmler gave orders to the SS Cavalry Brigade in Russia to “shoot all Jewish men and in addition demanded that violent measures were to be taken against Jewish women.” Himmler’s orders were understood differently by both the 1st Cavalry and the 2nd Cavalry, as the 1st Cavalry murdered...   [tags: jewish, anti-semitism, race] 1434 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Greenhouse Gas Protocol - Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, particularly from industrial production, to combat global climate change is one of the biggest sustainable development challenge for the international community. Countries are adopting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), low carbon development strategies and climate change policies to tackle issues of climate change and at the same time meet their development goals. At the global level, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol, have paved ways for voluntary GHG emission reduction targets....   [tags: environment, pollution, global warming]
:: 3 Works Cited
1568 words
(4.5 pages)
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Open Systems Interconnections Protocol - Open Systems Interconnections Protocol The Open Systems Interconnections Protocol is a model used for international means. This model allows communication between various hardware systems and software systems throughout the world regardless of the network architecture that is present. The internet itself and other various communication methods would become extremely limited by comparison without any similar type of protocol in place. The Open Systems Interconnections Model is mainly for computers and devices that are communicating over a network and to other networks, but can also be implemented on a local scale even if only between two devices....   [tags: model for hardware and software systems]
:: 3 Works Cited
1163 words
(3.3 pages)
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What´s the WPS Protocol - The WPS protocol relies on an eight digit Personal Identification Number (PIN) to allow the authentication of users on to the network. The protocol further relies on a session of eight Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) messages that are followed by a final message which identifies the successful completion of the session. WPS automatically configures the network name (SSID) and the WPA security key for the access point and the WPS enabled client. The benefit is that a user does not need to know what the SSID or the passcode or security key is....   [tags: pin, network, devices] 1729 words
(4.9 pages)
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Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol - The growing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools require specialized instruction in order to succeed academically and become proficient in English. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, commonly known as SIOP, is one method of providing that instruction. SIOP is the product of several research studies conducted over the past fifteen years by two researchers, Dr. Jana Echevarria and Dr. Deborah J. Short (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006) and is a method to help ESL and content teachers meet the needs of their linguistically diverse students....   [tags: Language ]
:: 7 Works Cited
3140 words
(9 pages)
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Telemental Health Collaboration Protocol - Telemental Health Collaboration Protocol: What is the best way for rural nurses to help the elderly population decrease depression. Goal The goal of Rural Telemental Health (RTH) is to increase the access to those in the rural regions of states by using teleconferencing, video-conferencing, emails, group video-conferencing and the telephone to help the geriatric patient improve depression. Telemental Health and/or Telemedicine will also improve communication and collaboration with a team of healthcare providers such as rural clinic nurses and primary care physicians while giving the rural geriatric population access to a much needed health service....   [tags: Rural Nurses, Elderly Population, Depression]
:: 11 Works Cited
1946 words
(5.6 pages)
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Network Protocols: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables administrators to allow automatic configuration on their network (Odom, 2012). DHCP was developed in 1993 and has since become a staple on enterprise networks. DHCP will allow Elliott’s Solutions Inc.’s administrators to more easily deploy hosts onto the network. DHCPv6 has been developed specifically for IPv6. DHCPv6 has can configure clients using stateless address autoconfiguraiton. Utilizing this protocol for Elliott’s Solutions Inc.’s network will help eliminate the probability of human error....   [tags: administrators, computer securities]
:: 5 Works Cited
1039 words
(3 pages)
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Kyoto Protocol - “After ten days of tough negotiations, ministers and other high-level officials from 160 countries reached an agreement this morning on a legally binding Protocol under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2%. The agreement aims to lower overall emissions from a group of six greenhouse gases by 2008-12, calculated as an average over these five years.” (UNFCCC, 2011) In December of 1997, 160 countries gathered in Kyoto, Japan to agree upon a Protocol that will curb emissions and hopefully restore emission levels to pre-industrial numbers....   [tags: Environment ]
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1686 words
(4.8 pages)
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H.323 Protocol - H.323 is a protocol used for transmission of real-time video and audio data over a packet-switched network like Internet Protocol. It is a protocol standard for multimedia communications. H.323 protocol is maintained by the Study Group 16 within the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Telecommunication Standardization Sector, also known as ITU-T. Most VoIP application utilizes H.323 protocol, since it supports call forwarding, call setup and teardown. A key feature of H.323 protocol is QoS (Quality of Service), which allows traffic management and real-time prioritization to be placed over Ethernet....   [tags: Information Technology ] 628 words
(1.8 pages)
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Protocol Analysis - There are several methods useful for learning the practices involved in choice are examined: information incorporation, protocol analysis, information monitoring, analysis of eye movements, and the concept of task analysis. Implications of recent work using these methods are discussed, particularly for characterizing consumer decision rules and for understanding how decision rules are developed and implemented. Due to recent development in attention in using information dispensation perception in studying consumer conduct phenomena there has been a subsequent disquiet with existing procedures for the growth and examining those models of user conduct which explicitly consider information disp...   [tags: Consumer Studies]
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1829 words
(5.2 pages)
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Session Initiation Protocol - Session Initiation Protocol Introduction Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for establishing multimedia communication session over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. SIP was originally designed by Mark Handley and Henning Schulzrinne in the year 1996. Latest version of SIP is specified in RFC 3261 from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Network Working Group. SIP is a request response protocol i.e. it deals with request from clients and responses from server....   [tags: Information Technology ] 1094 words
(3.1 pages)
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Border Gateway Protocol - The protocol I chose to write about is the Border Gateway Protocol because it is the main protocol used to operate the internet and recommended protocol for Cisco design certifications. The BGP protocol is an inter-autonomous protocol; which means it is for connecting separate large networks, such as a college network to a corporate network or the internet. Due to the large number of routes and connection this protocol must manage; it uses very many features, or attributes, to achieve this. Cisco defines these attributes as weight, local preference, multi-exit discriminator, origin, AS_path, next hop, and community....   [tags: Information Technology]
:: 2 Works Cited
648 words
(1.9 pages)
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File Transfer Protocol - Introduction As the use of computers is on the rise, the understanding of networks and how they interact with computers becomes a necessity for its end users. One of the pieces that allow the interaction of computers and networks is the protocol. According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, a protocol is essentially a set of rules that define how computers communicate with other computers over a network (Merriam-Webster). There are many protocols that presently exist (e.g. HyperText Transfer Protocol, Internet Protocol), but one of the most useful protocols to users who have the desire of sharing files with one another may just be the File Transfer Protocol, or FTP....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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1110 words
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Protocol Padding Techniques - In this type of attacks when a CBC-encryption is used the plain text is easily recovered. As discussed above the best practice would be using ENCRYPT-THEN-MAC. In the TLS protocol padding technique is added to make the block the size multiple of cipher text. After this the block is finally encrypted with a CBC mode. In the decryption process the cipher text is taken and XOR’d with the cipher text block of the previous one and compared with that of the existing MAC [5]. Here a “Padding Oracle Attack” can be made as the padding is not secured by the MAC because in TLS protocol the padding is done after the tag is produced....   [tags: CBC encryption, TLS and DTLS] 523 words
(1.5 pages)
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Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) for Backbones - Abstract : Internet Protocol version 6(Pv6) is the advanced version of the IPv4 protocol and both of these protocols are part of TCP/IP suite.TCP/IP is the only protocol for transmission of data over the internet As the internet is not secure place for transmission of secure and confidential information (packets) So to protect this information over the non secure channels(internet ) the IPSec was introduced .IPSec is the worldly know standard for the secure transmission over the internet . IPSec is mandatory for IPv6 and optional for IPv4 deployments .But as the IPsec provides authentication, confidentiality and integrity of the internet protocol (IP) packets but it slows down the transmi...   [tags: Technology, Networking] 1210 words
(3.5 pages)
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File Transfer Protocol: A White Paper - File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an application layer protocol, which has the primary function of transferring data files between computers (Clark 2003). The protocol specification was originally developed in the early 1970s, and was published as RFC 114 in April 1971, by Abhay Bhushan. This occurred even before the Internet Protocol Suite – commonly known as TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) – was even established (Kozierok 2005). The protocol specification has undergone numerous revisions over the years since its first inception....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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1240 words
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The Current Version of the Internet Protocol IPv4 - ... Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6, but found widespread deployment first in IPv4, for which it was re-engineered. IPsec was a mandatory specification of the base IPv6 protocol suite, but has since been made optional Multicasting is the transmission of a packet to multiple destinations in a single send operation, it is part of the base specification in IPv6. In IPv4 this is an optional although commonly implemented feature. IPv6 multicast addressing shares common features and protocols with IPv4 multicast, but also provides changes and improvements by eliminating the need for certain protocols....   [tags: multicasting, ip addresses] 772 words
(2.2 pages)
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Transmission Control Protocol - How does that web page you requested appear on your screen or that email to Aunt Lucy get there so fast and reliably. Well thanks to something called TCP/IP, and the US government who funded the research to develop it, we can communicate across the world in seconds. This amazing feat took years of research and the work of some very smart people in the Department of Defense whose job was to develop reliable and secure communications for the US Military. TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol which basically is a set of rules or procedures that have been agreed on formally that define how telecommunications devices exchange data....   [tags: network technology] 659 words
(1.9 pages)
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Network Time Protocol - The Internet is a global system of interconnected networks that serve several billion of users worldwide. These millions of interconnected networks consist of public, private, government, academic and business networks which amount to around 903,909,315 hosts. Cisco also estimated that by 2015, there would be 3.47 devices connected per person resulting in around 25 billion devices connected to the Internet. The Internet is continuously growing primarily because people are relying on it more and more....   [tags: NTP, internet,cisco]
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1228 words
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Next Generation Internet Protocol IPV6 - As the internet growth rate has been reached to a very high level, and using a heavy multimedia application such as video and audio stream, Qos (Quality of Service) technology has become more relevant and important. IPV6 (Next generation internet protocol) have more features and characteristics then IPV4 such as providing more address space and new fields that can be used to enhance and make the usage of IP Network more frequent even with the sensitive traffic flow. The currently used Ipv4 which has supported the internet for more than 20 years have many problems such as No QOS were implemented, so many other protocols are used to guarantee request for the sensitive traffic flow....   [tags: Information Technology]
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761 words
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Voice Over Internet Protocol Attacks - Definition: VoIP or Voice over Internet Protocol, is a type of transmissions medium that is responsible for the delivery of real-time voice and data communication. Unlike its analog predecessor in which the transport functionality was routed via the public switched telephone network (PSTN), calls are now converted from an analog signal to a digital format, which is what the Internet Protocol (IP) uses for transmission and delivery, making VoIP possible. Several other key processes, such as signaling, authentication, security, call control, and voice compression, are established by VoIP prior to and during the call setup phase....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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1060 words
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The Kyoto Protocol - The Kyoto Protocol The Protocol: In December of 1997 the industrial nations of the world met in Kyoto, Japan to discuss a protocol that would require each nation to reduce their emission levels of greenhouse gases. On average the protocol required a 5.2% reduction on emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon-dioxide, in each signatory nation. 1 However some nations, like the U.S. who were obligated to reduce emissions by 7% of their 1990 levels by 2012, were required to reduce emission levels more or less than the average of 5.2% based on the current levels the nation emits....   [tags: Environment USA Carbon Emissions Essays Papers]
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1207 words
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The Effect of the Kyoto-Protocol on the Earth - The Effect of the Kyoto-Protocol on the Earth In the article “Global-warming Rules Begin Feb.16” by Traci Watson published in USA Today, Watson’s explanation is that this protocol on global warming is likely to have a ripple effect on the USA, even though U.S. leaders have bowed out of this treaty to avoid its potential impacts on the economy. It seems to other writers that carbon dioxide may not contribute so much to global warming and that this protocol will have a bad influence upon the economy....   [tags: Environment Fossil Ecology Essays]
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982 words
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Can the Kyoto Protocol Stop Climate Change? - Can the Kyoto Protocol fix the climate change. Climate change may be a serious problem for the future human generation, but many countries have pushed the climate change aside due to not enough scientific evidences to prove. Since the end of World War II, the world has done a great job to live in peace. Despite some conflicts, overall world has lived peaceful under the United Nation. However, the climate change will disturb the world peace and destroy the future generation’s habitat. Beginning, the average world temperature has risen a bit every year....   [tags: Global Warming Essays]
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3190 words
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Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol - Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol       In the world today there are talks about why and how the people of this planet are polluting the rivers, lakes, soil, and even air. With these talks countries are coming up with great ways to reduce this problem. They see the effects and they are happy and life goes on but there is another problem, the one the everyday people just can’t solve with their own hands, that problem is the theory of global warming. During December of 1997, a meeting in Kyoto, Japan, started a huge trend to try to improve the world’s greenhouse gas releasing which could cause an unnatural shift in climate throughout the world....   [tags: environmental pollution climate change]
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889 words
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Advantages and Limitations of the Kyoto Protocol - Advantages and Limitations of the Kyoto Protocol The advent of industrialized civilization has brought to us many remarkable feats that enhance our everyday lives. Such things as automobiles, airplanes, tractors, mainframe computers, and even relatively simple machines like lawnmowers have intertwined themselves into the everyday culture of modern day industrialized countries.. These products have provided us enormous benefits compared to the types of lives our ancestors used to live. In the eyes of some, the consequences of industrial activities that have evolved around the world will not pose any problems in the future, however as most have realized, this is not true....   [tags: Papers] 1412 words
(4 pages)
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Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol - Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol Environmental issues are becoming a growing concern for the world as well as for the world's leaders. Pollution, littering and the burning of fossil fuels are all problems that have drastically affected humans over the past few years. Impure drinking water, radiation, less ecological diversity and cancer are a few of such harms that the world has experienced. However, one of the most prominent concerns is the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect, a natural occurrence, is turning deadly with the introduction of humans and carbon emissions and is slowly heating up the world....   [tags: Environmental, Environment, Climate Change] 1214 words
(3.5 pages)
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Biosafety Protocol: Is There A Need For One? - Biosafety Protocol: Is There A Need For One. Outline Thesis statement: An international biosafety protocol should be created to establish and maintain control over the products designed with biotechnology. I. The existing laws and regulations that govern the release of transgenic organisms are inadequate or nonexistent. A. The developed nations of the world are using regulations that were designed to control and monitor crops created with traditional technologies. B. Biotechnology is regulated by three different agencies....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1739 words
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Characteristics and Challenges of Developing Multicast Routing Protocol - ... This is achieved by checking every node IP address against destination IP. The tree management algorithm of LSHBH uses three control messages. Messages are periodically sent to the source by the receivers. The source node periodically produces messages that are multicasted in the network. While the messages travel down in the tree, the intermediate nodes may possibly create messages that are responsible of refining the tree structure. In this paper, we propose link stability based hop by hop (LSHBH) multicast routing scheme that establishes a route from source to multicast destinations in VANET....   [tags: architecture, stability, path] 1377 words
(3.9 pages)
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Kyoto Protocol: A Collective Effort to Reducing Energy Consumption - The growing concern of global warming has placed great emphasis on the greenhouse gases introduced to the atmosphere. Sample of the arctic ice records reveals that current level of carbon dioxide are " 23 per cent higher than at any time in at least 420,000 years" (David Suzuki Foundation, 2002). The response to this crisis is the Kyoto Protocol, a collective effort to reducing the human harm on the atmosphere, primarily focused on greenhouse gases. In the following will be the summary of two alternating approach towards the demands of the Kyoto protocol to reducing energy consumption by "more efficient or cleaner technologies, or through changes in the types of fuel consumed" (David Suzuki...   [tags: Energy ]
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836 words
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Internet Protocol - The Next Generation - Internet Protocol - The Next Generation Internet Protocol, or IP is the addressing system used on the Internet. Due to the rapid expansion of the Internet, the current version, Ipv4, is in need of updating. Internet Protocol version 4 addresses "are 32-bit numbers often expressed as 4 octets in "dotted decimal" notation (for example, 192.168.45.230)." [IANA website]. This system supplies 4,294,967,296 (or 232) addresses. While this number may seem to be plenty, some say the internet is doubling in size every 9 months....   [tags: Expository Essays Research Papers]
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A Review on Alleviation of Blackhole Attacks on AODV Protocol - In the paper [5] a solution to encounter black hole attack is proposed. Here, the AODV is modified. In order to check whether the route advertised exists and free of malicious nodes, the intermediate nodes should add the address of the next hop node in RREP packets. Once the source node receives the RREP packet, it finds the details of the next hop node and sends a Further request to the next hop node in order to verify the existence of the next hop node. The next hop node sends the Further reply packet to the source node to confirm the route information....   [tags: mobile nodes, RREP, MANET]
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Voice Over Internet Protocol - Voice Over Internet Protocol(Voip) VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP) INTRODUCTION: In the eyes of most, all packets are created equal. One of the most active areas of telecommunications today is in the area of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). The logic behind this trend makes perfect sense. If we have invested heavily in an Internet Protocol (IP) network, why can’t we make full use of it. This is a question posed by many managers and Information Technology (IT) professionals in a wide range of businesses....   [tags: essays research papers] 2361 words
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Protocol-Independent Multicast - 1. Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) [4]: Protocol Independent multicast [4] is defined as the collection of multicast routing protocols that are used to route multicast IP traffic to different distribution points over LAN, WAN and the Internet. PIM is classified into two different versions and operates in two different modes PIM-SP (sparse mode) and PIM-DM (dense mode) [7] that are used to perform routing operations similar to that of other routing protocols like OSPF, BGP and so on. The properties of PIM are as follows [7] • It provides a loop-free tree communication between two routers....   [tags: Source Tree, Router to Router]
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Voice over Internet Protocol - Voice over Internet Protocol Definition of VoIP “Mr. Watson, come here, I want you!” These were the first words that were spoken over the phone back on March 10 1876. If you combine this invention with the same invention of the first computer that was completed nearly 70 years later in 1946, you would then be able to access VoIP. VoIP is also known as voice over internet protocol. VoIP is in essence the ability to talk with ones voice via computer to computer. In the next few pages you will learn about the history of VoIP, how it works, the requirements that are needed to use VoIP, the benefits and risks of this type of technology, and lastly you will get a glimpse at the future of VoIP....   [tags: VoIP Technology Networking Essays]
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Kyoto Protocol - Introduction In response to growing concerns over the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, many nations came together in 1992 to sign the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). This voluntary agreement pledged that member nations would work to reduce greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. As it became apparent that major nations such as the United States would not be able to meet these guidelines, the parties to the treaty decided in 1995 to start negotiations for a protocol that would legally bind nations to reductions and limitations in greenhouse gas emissions (Congressional Research Service Report 98-2)....   [tags: Geology Global Warming]
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spanning tree protocol - Spanning Tree Protocol Spanning tree protocol is a protocol that prevents loops that are not wanted in a network. In order for a network to work properly it has to have only one active path between two network stations. If there are multiple active paths between stations loops can and will occur. When loops occur, there can sometimes be duplicate messages in the network. The loops are created by the network and if the devices that connect the network segments are all configured to forward, they will continuously forward frames into an endless network loop....   [tags: essays research papers] 500 words
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Protocol Review Of Telephone And Data Networks - Protocol Review of Telephone and Data Networks The Internet protocol suite is a highly related collection of protocols. It is also commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP and IP were the first and primary protocols developed for internetworking. However, it is comprised of many other protocols that collaborate with each other to perform each distinct task required for communication on and to other network components. Based on the network topology and devices that reside on the network, the protocols that will be discussed are IMCP, TCP, IP, UDP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IMAP4, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, and Rlogin....   [tags: Networks Telecommunications]
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Global Warming Essay: The Kyoto Protocol - Introduction From man’s basic understanding of existence, he acknowledges that his presence is but a fraction in time in relation to the longevity of the Earth’s existence. This attests to the time period in which the Earth functions. Man’s calculations of year to year changes in the Earth’s atmosphere are meager at best in determining the cycle for such an entity. Man’s oldest data dating back from ice core samples from Antarctica can not trace back further than a minute percent of the history of the billions of years that the Earth has existed....   [tags: Global Warming] 1683 words
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Policy Implications from the Montreal Protocol - Policy Implications from the Montreal Protocol Executive Summary In the mid 1980s, the international community decided to address the issue of ozone depletion. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was signed, setting out abatement schedules for major ozone depleting substances. Due to several unique factors surrounding the issue of ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol was, and continues to be, a great success. That being said, there are a number of problems that parties to the agreement have faced over the years, and it is important to learn from these and apply the lessons to future international environmental agreements....   [tags: Environment Kyoto Essays Papers]
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Multi-Protocol Label Switching - MPLS - Multi-Protocol Label Switching - MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching, more commonly referred to as MPLS, was defined in the late 1990sas a traffic engineering mechanism to replace IP over ATM in Internet backbones. In the mid-90s efforts were made to combine IP and ATM technologies, the first one being IP switching developed by Ipsilon, competition came very quickly from other companies, notably Cisco with “Tag Switching”, IBM with “Aggregate Route-based IP Switching” and Cascade with “IP Navigator”....   [tags: Technology] 2377 words
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What is Voice over Internet Protocol? - Voice over Internet Protocol Before we begin our discussion on transporting voice over a data networks, it is important to understand the concept and terms associated with a traditional telephone network. One of the most common piece of telecommunication equipment used today is the telephone. When you plug an ordinary analog telephone into the wall jack installed by the local telephone company, you are connected to the telephone network and are able to place calls. 1), but how is this process performed....   [tags: essays research papers] 3156 words
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Networking Topologies and TCP/IP Protocol - Networking Topologies and TCP/IP Protocol Bus Topology It just doesn't get much simpler than the physical bus topology when it comes to connecting nodes on a Local Area Network (LAN). The most common implementation of a linear bus topology is IEEE 802.3 Ethernet. All devices in a bus topology are connected to a single cable called the bus, backbone, or ether. The transmission medium has a physical beginning and an end. All connections must be terminated with a resistor to keep data transmissions from being mistaken as network traffic....   [tags: Network Technology] 1371 words
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Voip, Voice Over Internet Protocol - VoIP, Voice over Internet Protocol, is an emerging new technology that involves the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or any other IP – based network. It does not utilize traditional dedicated, circuit – switched voice transmission lines. Voice data flows over a general – purpose packet switched network Problems associated with VoIP includes echoes, jitter, latency, packet loss....   [tags: Technology Voip Internet] 1948 words
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An Efficient Secure and Private Ownership Transfer Protocol For Ubiquitous Networks - Abstract—Radio Frequency IDentification based systems, which are the most famous example of ubiquitous networks, are getting pervasively deployed in many daily life applications where privacy sensitive is entrusted to tag or server. In some applications, ownership transfer of RFID labels is another significant requirement. Specifically, the owner of RFID tags could be required to change several times during its lifetime. During the transfer, new owner first obtains necessary private information from the old owner, with these information he then takes over tag identification and authorization so as to have secure communication with tags....   [tags: Technology ]
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Offering Anomymity Protection with Anonymous Location-based Efficient Routing Protocol - ... Anonymous routing protocols are crucial in MANETs to provide secure communications by hiding node identities and preventing traffic analysis attacks from outside observers. Anonymity in MANETs includes identity and location anonymity of data sources (i.e., senders) and destinations (i.e., recipients), as well as route anonymity. “Identity and location anonymity of sources and destinations” means it is hard if possible for other nodes to obtain the real identities and exact locations of the sources and destinations....   [tags: broadcast, routing, manet] 1949 words
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Building Information Modeling Protocol Exhibit by the American Institute of Architects - ... Lastly, an as built model can be finalized so as to represent the model as it has been physically constructed by the contractor. This is also an important responsibility because an as built model would provide important information for future reference and to the possible operation and maintenance of the dormitory. Overall, the importance of establishing the responsibilities of each model element is clearly shown within the Protocol Exhibit and specifically shown through levels of development within the model element table....   [tags: compliance, dormitory, model, development] 2408 words
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A Heuristic Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks in Home Automation - The paper proposes a greedy-algorithm heuristic routing (GAHR) protocol and an A* algorithm for route finding thereby evaluating them with conventional routing protocols to overcome their disadvantages and to make them more suitable for Home Automation. There are certain unique characteristics which Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) possess and they are described in the paper as follows: 1. Easy deployment and reduced installation cost 2. Good scalability 3. Easy integration with mobile user devices Before designing a routing protocol for WSNHA there are some requirements the protocols should satisfy and some of which are discussed in the paper: Improved energy efficiency, low storage and alg...   [tags: algorithm, devices] 581 words
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Mobile Ad Hoc Network Temporarily Forms a Network without Support - I. INTRODUCTION Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring infrastructureless network of mobile devices .MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that establishes the network in absence of fixed infrastructure.MANET routing protocols possess two properties such as: 1. QUALITATIVE PROPERTIES. 2. QUANTITATIVE PROPERTIES. 1.Qualitative properties involves: • Distributed operation • Loop freedom • Demand based routing • Security 2.Quantitative properties involves: • End to end throughput....   [tags: qualitative, quantitative, protocol] 1450 words
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Cardiac Catheterization Should have a Liberalized Preoperative Fasting Protocol - In medicine, there are innumerous amounts of tests and procedures performed every day. These procedures irrespective of how invasive or noninvasive they are require patients to be ‘Nil per Oral’ (NPO) for several hours prior to the procedure. Traditionally fasting preoperatively has been mandatory to prevent any risks related to aspiration during anesthesia. When anesthesia is induced in patients, it inhibits the patients cough and swallow reflex posing a higher risk for the patient to aspirate any gastric contents....   [tags: Nil per Oral (NPO)]
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Cimate Change: New Zealand’s Obligation to the Kyoto Protocol - ... This can have many implications on an organisation. One issue that an organisation may face from the beginning is highlighting sustainability in their mission statement. When they do this they are bound by social obligation to ensure that any processes and products they offer are in line with sustainability. For a New Zealand organization wanting to take advantage of the ‘clean and green’ brand they will have to incorporate sustainability from the top management downwards. Organizations may want to also use sustainability as a means of gaining competitive advantage over their competition....   [tags: environment, sustainability, emission levels] 984 words
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Canada's Role in the Kyoto Accord - Canada’s Role in the Kyoto Accord The Kyoto Protocol is a binding international agreement, which began in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. As of June 2013, there were a total of 192 parties participating in the Kyoto Protocol, Canada was no longer one of them. Canada was one of the first to sign the agreement, in 1998; more than 4 years later, Canada formally approved the Kyoto Accord, in 2002 ("CBC.ca - Timeline: Canada and Kyoto"). This meant Canada would have to decrease its emissions, by 6% in comparison to 1990 levels (461 Mt), by the year 2012....   [tags: The Kyoto Protocol, Japan]
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Kazakhstan and United States Income Tax Treaty - Kazakhstan has concluded 43 double taxation treaties with different countries around the globe and one of them is the United States. Kazakhstan and the United Stated singed an income tax treaty and protocol on October 24, 1994. The parties initialed the proposed convention and protocol during the first half of 1993. Although similar to the U.S. - Russia income tax treaty, the new Kazakh accord contains some distinguishing features. Creditable taxes The new agreement applies to the Kazakh on profits and income provided by the laws “On Taxation of Enterprises, Associations and Organizations” and “On the Income Tax on Citizens of the Kazakh SSR, Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons.” Treaty a...   [tags: protocol, permanent, dividend] 1205 words
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Biologically Inspired QoS Aware Routing Protocol to Optimize Lifetime in Sensor Networks - I. INTRODUCTION A WSN is a self-directed set of portable or movable systems that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. As it is a decentralized network, all the network related activities such as, including topology realization, routing, event delivery, etc., must be incorporated into the mobile nodes. In recent years, the internet users have drastically increased, thereby the demand for real time and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints also needs to be improved [1]....   [tags: decentralized networks]
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Understandings and Approaches to Human Trafficking in the Middle East - ... While the definition is quite ambiguous, and contains many gaps, it seems that the intent of the definition was to make it more general so that it can be applied more broadly to different situations of human trafficking. However, the authors are arguing that this ambiguity and broadness can backfire as the definition can be interpreted in many different ways, which can cause problems when it comes to persecution and prevention efforts –the authors state that this has enabled laws on trafficking to have “narrowly focused the term [human trafficking] on women in sex work” (31)....   [tags: Palermo protocol, Kafala system]
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Reflection of an Interview on Public Opinion of US National Security - ... For example, I asked: “…should the federal government adopt more transparent practices in regard to the surveillance of citizens?” This question poses, for the first time in the conversation, the idea of transparency within the government which could have given the impression that transparency is needed. My motive in asking relatively specific rather than open-ended questions was found in Chong’s article, “How People Think, Reason, and Feel about Rights and Liberties”. He found that open-ended questions, much like most survey questions, tend to create “top-of-head” responses rather than more thoughtful and insightful answers that better gauge the interviewee’s opinion....   [tags: surveillance, protocol, questions] 949 words
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Mobile and Wireless Communication: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks - Introduction From the ancient days human being has invented many new methods for communication in order to transfer their messages to each other. Now we can see that there are many methods using which we can establish effective communication. One of those reliable methods of communication is Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET). It is also referred as Mobile mesh network. It is an automatic-configured network of mobile devices which are connected by the wireless links. It is a new technique of wireless paradigm for the mobile hosts....   [tags: protocol developers, applications]
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The Complex World of Search Engines - ... It is also sometimes used to let search engines know whether or not to follow links on the page (Search Engine Watch). Another essential programming language of any webpage is CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets. These “style sheets” are used to add styles, such as fonts, backgrounds, text sizes, et cetera, to one’s website (W3C). Without the use of style sheets, webpages would look very bland, having basically black text on a white background. If there were a “big three” for web programming languages, JavaScript would be one of them, the other two of course being HTML and CSS....   [tags: software robots, protocol, google]
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The Netnews Administration System - 1 Project 1: 1.a RFC 4707: The Netnews Administration System: The Netnews Administration System is a platform which has been made for ease for administration and utilization of Netnews via online. Further the newsgroups data kept in the centralization boundary database in an environment of client-server protocol to be distributed. Moreover, the data can be accessed by news servers, news administrators, and the readers. However, three of them have different access, such as the server can perform configuration automatically, on the other hand Administrator can only obtain data manually....   [tags: administration, internet, gopher protocol]
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