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No on Proposition 19 - ... A study by the respected Rand Corp. concluded that sizable tax on pot – a bill introduced this year called for $50 per ounce – could create a whole new black market for cheaper drugs.”(12) I agree with The Fresno Bee because people might want to keep buying drugs tax free. For example, if drug dealers stay on the down low it is more likely that people will go to the dealer to make their purchase. This is because people would agree that instead of having to pay $50 dollars worth of tax, that they can buy $50 dollars worth of tax free marijuana....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Marijuana] 1570 words
(4.5 pages)
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California's Proposition 8 - Proposition 8 was a piece of legislation formally called the California Marriage Protection Act which was an amendment to the Constitution of the State of California. The amendment was voted on and passed during the state elections of November 5th, 2008. The new legislation added to the constitution reads: “Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.” The issue was prompted in May of 2008, when the California Supreme Court ruled that same sex couples had a right to marry one another according to the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution of the United States....   [tags: Sexual Rights] 919 words
(2.6 pages)
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Reason to Oppose the Proposition 19 - ... Due to T.H.C. one hallucinates instead of focusing solely on the road. Likewise, researchers Horrey and Wickens (2006) reveal that, “cell-phone distraction causes 2,600 deaths and 330,000 injuries in the United States every year”. Furthermore, the California Department of Motor Vehicles (1991) codifies that, “it is unlawful for anyone with 0.08 percent or more alcohol in his or her blood to drive”. On this note, research from the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (C.D.C) (1993) found that, “deaths among young persons aged 10-24 years in the United States are related…to motor-vehicle crashes (37%)”....   [tags: Drugs ]
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878 words
(2.5 pages)
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California’s Proposition 19 - ... In one study carried out by Daniel Tashkin of UCLA, the results yielded that “smoking marijuana, even regularly and heavily, does not lead to lung cancer, emphysema or COPD” (Taskhin, Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function...). This is interesting because federal health and drug enforcement officials have used Tashkin's earlier studies on marijuana to promote that the drug is dangerous. Tashkin says he “still believes marijuana is potentially harmful, its cancer-causing effects appear to be of less concern than previously thought” (Tashkin)....   [tags: argumentative essay] 2199 words
(6.3 pages)
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The Impact of California's Proposition 13 - The Impact of California's Proposition 13 California's Proposition 13 had a big impact on American government and public policy because it put to vote the reduction of property taxes. This Proposition had a great impact as it swept the county and made headlines in newspapers around the world. People used this initiative process to gain a greater control over their lives. The California taxpayers stood up and said no more to excessive taxes because they were tired of out of control property taxes and losing their homes because they could not pay property taxes while the government did nothing to help them....   [tags: Papers] 679 words
(1.9 pages)
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In Support of Proposition 83 - In Support of Proposition 83 "A rape or sexual assault occurs every two minutes. A child is abused every 35 seconds" (Schwarzenegger). Proposition 83, also known as Jessica's Law was made by the parents of Jessica Lunsford. "Five months ago, my daughter was taken from her bed, across the street, repeatedly raped for three days and then she was buried alive," said Mark Lunsford, Jessica's father. "These are not the kind of things that are supposed to happen to our children" (Comey). Yet, sadly these horrific things go on everyday....   [tags: Pedophilia Child Abuse ] 1503 words
(4.3 pages)
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Proposition 184 in California - Proposition 184 in California Last year in California voters approved a controversial ballot initiative. Proposition 184, also known as the three strikes and you're out law, was passed on November 9, 1994. Under this new legislation repeat offenders, upon committing their third felony offense, will be sentenced to a mandatory twenty-five years to life in prison(California 667). The initiative passed by a landslide, with 76% of the voters in favor of it. The State Senate soon after voted the bill into law, with only seven members voting against it....   [tags: Papers] 2677 words
(7.6 pages)
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California Proposition 215: Legalizing Medical Marijuana - Also known as California Proposition 215, the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 made headlines around the country as the first law ever to change the legality of medical marijuana for public consumption statewide. Originating in San Francisco, it was passed by 55.6% of California voters on November 5, 1996 (Human Rights and the Drug War). The ideology behind passing Prop. 215 is that marijuana contains a number of legitimate medical uses and should be made available to those who would benefit from it....   [tags: Medical Marijuana] 2673 words
(7.6 pages)
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Against California Proposition 2 Essay - In the November 2008 General Election, citizens of the state of California will be asked to consider many issues affecting the state as a whole. Out of the many propositions to be decided upon, Proposition Two has become one of particular interest. Currently, forty million animals are being raised on California farms for production of milk, dairy, cattle, and chickens: given these very large numbers and increased consumer awareness of current management practice, there has been an increase in concern for ethical treatment and welfare of livestock within the public....   [tags: Farm Management Animal] 1301 words
(3.7 pages)
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Proposition 187: Dont Mess With Texas - Proposition 187: Don't Mess With Texas In November of 1994, Californians passed the most controversial piece of state legislation this decade. Proposition 187 was designed to stem the flow of illegal aliens into California by withholding all non-emergency medical benefits from non-naturalized citizens. Latinos turned out in record numbers to voice their disapproval, and for good reason too. The health care resolutions of Proposition 187 were products of poor reason and unsound economic judgment....   [tags: essays research papers] 1357 words
(3.9 pages)
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Against Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act - Abstract: California’s Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act both expand criminal DNA databases far beyond what is necessary to protect citizens and prosecute violent crime. DNA profiling techniques and databases have developed largely over the last fifteen years, and the recent expansions are only a part of an ongoing trend of ‘function creep’ that characterizes database expansion. Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act expand DNA databases originally designed to house DNA samples from violent criminals to include samples from anyone arrested for a felony crime....   [tags: DNA Database Crime Criminals]
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1711 words
(4.9 pages)
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Tension In California Politics - ... Through the passage of Proposition 112, the salary of legislators increased for the second time from $40,816 to $52,500 in 1990(Lubenow, 7).We see how legislators utilizes the initiative process to bring benefits to their institution. Many Californians believe that Proposition 140 was only consequential to the legislative system. Many people tend to forget that Proposition 140, although it created term limits, it allowed the legislature to be more reflective of the California population. Since 1990, Proposition 140 has brought change in Sacramento by increasing the numbers of women and minority legislators....   [tags: American Government, Proposition 140] 1917 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Crisis of Democracy and the Indoctrination of Our Children - The Crisis of Democracy and the Indoctrination of Our Children Literacy for cultural reproduction uses institutional mechanisms to undermine independent thought, a prerequisite for the Orwellian "manufacture of consent" or "engineering of consent." In this light, schools are seen as the ideological institutions designed to prevent the so-called crisis of democracy, another Orwellian concept, meaning the beginnings of democracy....... In fact, this very perspective on schools was proposed by the Trilateral Commission…….This commission was created in response to the general democratic participation of masses of people in the Western world in questioning their governments ethical behavior....   [tags: Literacy Education Proposition 227 Essays]
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4832 words
(13.8 pages)
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Propostition 36 - Propostition 36 Where has our war on drugs gotten us thus far. Currently, nearly 500,000 Americans are incarcerated for drug law violations, a ten-fold increase in two decades. The overall inmate population has quadrupled to nearly 2 million arrests for drug law violations and continues to rise. The vast majority of these arrests are for simple possession. (Crime in The United States, Uniform Crime Reports, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999.) Personally, three convicted drug-users have shared their battle with addiction with me; the results of these conversations were far from optimistic....   [tags: Papers] 1203 words
(3.4 pages)
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Public Safety or Public Trickery - Public Safety or Public Trickery In past years, the debate over human and mountain lion interaction has been quite heated. The California Legislature has addressed issues concerning the hunting of mountain lions for over 80 years. On March 26, 1996, the most recent ballot measure deciding the fate of the California cougar (Felis concolor), Proposition 197, was not passed. This would have repealed the 1990 passing of Proposition 117, which banned all trophy hunting of mountain lions, allowing only trained Department of Fish and Game officials to kill lions that became a threat to public safety and welfare....   [tags: Proposition 197 Mountain Lions Wildlife Essays]
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987 words
(2.8 pages)
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Finite Evidence and Universal Propositions - Finite Evidence and Universal Propositions There is a lot of empirical evidence supporting the proposition '‘All metals expand when heated’. For example on many, many occasions we have observed metals expanding when heated. Because of this large amount of evidence we take the proposition to be true (or highly likely to be true). The proposition '‘All metals expand when heated’ is caled a universal proposition. A universal proposition mentions al things of a certain kind. The proposition '‘Al metals expand when heated’ is about al metals, not just some of them; it is about al pieces of metal, not just some pieces....   [tags: Ampliative Logic] 4413 words
(12.6 pages)
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Russell on the Structure of Propositions - Russell on the Structure of Propositions ABSTRACT: The comparison of Russell's views on semantics before 1905 with the theory of Frege allows one to expose the common sources of their interest in semantical problems and the specific character of their examination. During the investigation of the principles of mathematics and elaboration and realization of the program of logicism, questions regarding the logical structure of mathematical and logical propositions as well as the relation of linguistic signs and logical forms arise for both authors....   [tags: Semantics Mathematics Russell Essays]
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3513 words
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Are There Synthetic A-Priori Propositions? - Are There Synthetic A-Priori Propositions. From a logical point of view, the propositions that express human knowledge can be divided according to two distinctions. First is the distinction between propositions that are a priori, in the sense that they are knowable prior to experience, and those that are a posteriori, in the sense that they are knowable only after experience. Second is the distinction between propositions that are analytic, that is, those in which the predicate is included in the subject, and those that are synthetic, that is, those in which the predicate is not included in the subject....   [tags: Papers] 848 words
(2.4 pages)
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Proposal for International Foods at the University Dining Services - Proposal for International Foods at the University Dining Services Pedro Cabrera came to State University from Puerto Rico. He decided to be an exchange student at State because he was interested in experiencing life in the United States, and because he was excited about the excellent veterinarian program offered at State. While he loves attending college and living in the United States, there are some things that he would like to change, or rather introduce to State University. Pedro admitted that he feels homesick at times, a feeling not uncommon to new freshmen....   [tags: Argument Proposition Essays] 1306 words
(3.7 pages)
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Proposal for a Sustainable Forestry Management Policy - Proposal for a Sustainable Forestry Management Policy Forests are an invaluable natural resource with multiple conflicting uses. When left to stand, forests help conserve biodiversity, stabilize the environment and control erosion; when logged, they provide building materials, fuel and agricultural land for human use. The challenge is to find an equilibrium between these uses: in other words, to make the transition toward sustainable forestry management. Unfortunately, poverty has driven people in developing countries to clear-cut large tracts of land, while instability and corruption have rendered developing country governments powerless to stop illegal logging and trade in illegal forest products....   [tags: Proposal Proposition Essays]
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757 words
(2.2 pages)
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Value Propositions of Sirius Satellite Radio - I think there are only two value propositions that Sirius gives their consumers. I think the number of radio stations and genres that they have is the most important. The second most important I think is that they have no commercials on most of their stations. I think that these value propositions would sell most of the nation, but that isn't true because there are only around 700,000 subscribers total. I completely agree with these value propositions, these value propositions give satellite radio the edge against FM and AM radio....   [tags: Marketing] 630 words
(1.8 pages)
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Prohobition - PROHIBITION In all probability, no one thing gave more character to the era known as the ‘Roaring 20s’, than what was called ‘the long dry spell’ (a.k.a. Prohibition). Prohibition was the result, of the longstanding efforts, by largely Protestant religious groups, who had preached temperance since the early colonial period. What had been known as the temperance movement came to be a drive for all out prohibition right about the turn of the century. From about 1900-1904 there was a dramatic turn of events in which the Anti-Saloon League changed its goals from social reform to legislate reform, and came to have a fair amount of influence in this country’s politics....   [tags: Essays Papers Alcohol 18th Amendment]
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1200 words
(3.4 pages)
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Abortion and the California Constitution - Through out the history of the constitution of california there has been a number of attempts to change how abortion in teens is handled. Proposition 4 intends to give the parents the right to know when their unmancipated teens want to get an abortion. some supporters of this proposition argue that it will save lives and money for the state. People against it say is more dangerous to teens because they could be driven to use not regulated clinics and or to run away from home. In this research paper we will go through both points of view, and also the implications of continuing with the current constitution or changing it as the proposition 4 dictates....   [tags: Law Essays] 1917 words
(5.5 pages)
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California's Promise - ... The voters who voted yes on this proposition had no idea how consequential Proposition 13 was to the future of California. The initiative process became a means for the public to change California policies; whether in proposition that are reform in nature or implementation of new laws. Majority of voters who support a specific proposition do not comprehend the effects of the proposition on the lives of Californians. However, when the public feels the effects of past proposition, they assume that the problem can be fixed through the passage of another initiative that negates the effect of the first initiative....   [tags: State Government, State Deficit] 1871 words
(5.3 pages)
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Wittgenstein’s Context Principle - ... Within a proposition, the role that names have is to represent something in the world. For example, in the proposition “Romeo loves Juliette”, “Romeo” is a name for someone, “Juliette” is a name for someone else and “loves” is a name for a relation between the two. This seems straightforward enough. However, it is also noticeable that “loves” names a different kind of thing than “Romeo” or “Juliette” do . Just what kind of thing is named by a given name can be seen by the place the name is allowed to occupy in any coherent proposition....   [tags: Literature]
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Tractatus Logico Philosophicus - ... For our purposes it would suffice to note that Frege's choice of words indicates that the context principle is first and foremost intended as a methodological principle- a maxim we ought to abide by when going about the analysis of a meaning of a word. It is possible to adhere to Frege’s version of the context principle while recognizing compositionality: we can maintain that words do in fact have a meaning in isolation but that an analysis of their meaning must be done in context (in order to avoid certain ambiguities, for instance)....   [tags: Ludwig Wittgenstein] 1866 words
(5.3 pages)
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what would jesus brew - Is Justified True Belief Really Knowledge. So, you think you found some truth in the traditional concepts that knowledge is true belief. Well, I just might have to burst your bubble and join up with Edmond L. Gettier’s famous counterexample’s to these particular beliefs. Gettier, published these ambitious counterexamples in a June 1963 article entitled, “Is Justified Knowledge True Belief.” The traditional concepts of knowledge seem to hold that the following three stipulations are jointly sufficient in verifying the claim that S knows p ( where S is some entity with the capacity for knowing and p is some proposition or claim): (i) p is true, (ii), S believes that p, and (iii), S is justified in believing that p....   [tags: essays research papers] 926 words
(2.6 pages)
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Mind And Machine - Mind and Machine: The Essay Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and the possibilities of consciousnessness in machines has adequately, in my opinion, revealed that it is most unlikely that we will ever converse or interract with a machine of artificial consciousness....   [tags: essays research papers] 2418 words
(6.9 pages)
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Wittgenstein's Dilemma - Wittgenstein's Dilemma Either language can be defined or it can be investigated empirically. If language is defined then this will be mere tautology. If language is investigated empirically then this will lead to a substantial yet contingent truth. The cure for this dilemma for Wittgenstein in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was to submit the doctrine that the structure of language cannot be said but only shown. This doctrine is vague and misconceived. In this essay, I will show that it is vague and misconceived and, consequently, why it does not cure his dilemma....   [tags: Philosophy Science Language Papers] 4296 words
(12.3 pages)
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Municipal Budgeting and Revenue - Municipal Budgeting and Revenue Introduction Every government entity has a primary goal, which is to be as efficient and effective as possible while expending the smallest amount of resources. In addition, the resources expended cannot be more than the resources received as revenues. The budgeting process is a tool that assists government entities in being both efficient and effective. Before a budget can be adequately prepared, you must first understand the budgeting concept and secondly be knowledgeable of budget types....   [tags: Budget Finance Government Essays]
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2489 words
(7.1 pages)
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Judgement According to Mill - Judgement According to Mill This paper discusses Mill’s views about judgement as presented in Book I of A System of Logic. Its purpose is twofold: first, to understand the exact nature of the question Mill asks about judgement; and second, to expound his answer thereto. I want to commence with a brief, terminological point. Mill uses the term "judgement" interchangeably with the term "proposition," both of which can be defined provisionally as the bearers of truth or falsity. In most of his discussion, however, he uses the language of "propositions;" consequently, I do the same in this paper....   [tags: Philosophy Logic Philosophical Essays] 2028 words
(5.8 pages)
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Traffic Relief Ahead in California - Traffic Relief Ahead in California Under California constitutional law, services provided by state agencies generally must be performed by state civil service employees. In some cases the state may contract with private firms to obtain services. However, there are limitations as to when such contracting is allowed, for example, if services needed by the state are: (1) of a temporary nature, (2) not available within the civil service, or (3) of a highly specialized or technical nature. According to the argument in favor of Proposition 35, private contracting has been further limited by several lawsuits filed by Caltrans bureaucrats....   [tags: Papers] 1067 words
(3 pages)
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Argument for Existence of God - Argument for Existence of God The real is the rational, and the rational is the real. In philosophical discussion, no statement is, perhaps, more important or more controversial. Yet, this is the very position that I advocate within this paper. The equation of the rational with the real is at the heart of the argument I here consider, that being the ontological argument for the existence of God. There are several versions of the ontological argument for the existence of God, which is to say that several versions exist....   [tags: Papers] 4708 words
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Solutions to Juvenile Crime - Solutions to Juvenile Crime Crime is a plague that has haunted American citizens for centuries. The severity of crime has ranged from running a red light to cold blooded murder. Statistics indicate that crime rates have been on the rise in the previous decades, especially juvenile crime. Statistics show that, ‘the number of youths aged 14 and younger who have been charged with homicide has jumped by 43 percent in the past twenty years’ (Kids With No Hope, No Fear, No Rules, And No Life, 2)....   [tags: Crime Juvenile Violence Civil Liberties Essays]
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2317 words
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Heidegger and the Logic of Categorical Syllogisms - Heidegger and the Logic of Categorical Syllogisms       According to traditional syllogistic logic, which has its roots in Aristotle, there are four types of propositions: the A proposition ("All S are P"), the E proposition ("No S are P"), the I proposition ("Some S are P"), and the O proposition ("Some S are not P"). These propositional types represent all of the possible combinations of the dichotomies of affirmative/negative and universal/particular. Each makes a claim that a certain essent (the particular I and O propositions) or an entire class of essents (the universal A and E propositions), the subject or subject-class, relates in some way (belongs or does not belong) to a class of essents designated by the predicate of the proposition....   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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1178 words
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Averting Arguments: Nagarjuna’s Verse 29 - Averting Arguments: Nagarjuna’s Verse 29 ABSTRACT: I examine Nagarjuna’s averting an opponent’s argument (Verse 29 of Averting the Arguments), Paul Sagal’s general interpretation of Nagarjuna and especially Sagal’s conception of "averting" an argument. Following Matilal, a distinction is drawn between locutionary negation and illocationary negation in order to avoid errant interpretations of verse 29 ("If I would make any proposition whatever, then by that I would have a logical error. But I do not make a proposition; therefore, I am not in error.") The argument is treated as representing an ampliative or inductive inference rather than a deductive one....   [tags: Nagarjuna Verse 29 Essays]
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Logical Positism and the Vienna Circle - Logical Positism and the Vienna Circle Moritz Schlick and A.J. Ayer were both logical positivists, and members of the Vienna Circle. They had differing yet concentric views on the foundations of knowledge, and they both shared the quest for truth and certainty. Moritz Schlick believed the all important attempts at establishing a theory of knowledge grow out of the doubt of the certainty of human knowledge. This problem originates in the wish for absolute certainty. A very important idea is the concept of "protocol statements", which are "...statements which express the facts with absolute simplicity, without any moulding, alteration, or addition, in whose elaboration every science consists, and which precede all knowing, every judgment regarding the world." (1) It makes no sense to speak of uncertain facts, only assertions and our knowledge can be uncertain....   [tags: Papers] 1198 words
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Primary Research Tool-Same-Sex Marriage - Primary Research Tool-Same-sex Marriage The sample in this report came from eighteen random business in West Hollywood and Hollywood area. It ranged from local retailers to chains such as Ramada and Starbucks. The sample includes male and female managers, associates, and business owners answering survey questions. The survey included demographic questions such as age, eduction level, sexual orientation, and ethnicity. The survey also had questions on how Proposition 8 could have had an affect on business....   [tags: Review, argumentative, persuasive] 876 words
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The Ambivalence of Direct Democracy - ... Proposition 13 essentially set the property tax rate to 1% and stated that the assessed value of homes could not exceed the 1975-76 assessed value. This reduced taxes by about 57% (californiataxdata.com), a truly drastic decrease, which translates to a loss of $7 billion in property taxes during the 1978-79 fiscal year (McCaffery & Bowman, 530). Consequently, Proposition 13 led to intense repercussions; the huge decreases in finances forced local agencies to look for funding elsewhere, and severe cuts were made....   [tags: Government]
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Prop. 36 The Real Truth - Proposition 36 The Real Truth As you might already be aware there is a ballot initiative on this upcoming November’s election about drugs, and drug treatment. This measure is called Proposition 36. If this measure were to pass, state law would be changed, so that certain non-violent adult offenders who use or possess illegal drugs would receive drug treatment and supervision in the community, not prison. Right now California is ranked number one in the nation for its rate of imprisonment for drug offenders....   [tags: essays research papers] 1288 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Effects of Livestock Wealth and Reproductive Success on the Mukogodo Men - The Effects of Livestock Wealth and Reproductive Success on the Mukogodo Men Many studies have been conducted pertaining to various Maa-speaking societies. Numerous correlations have been documented in lieu of the speculation that “success in achieving culturally defined goals should tend to correlate with reproductive success” [(Irons 1979: 258) from (Cronk 1991: 345).] The article revolves mainly around the Mukogodo, found in north central Kenya (target universe). During the early 20th century this group was arranged into four clans and thirteen patrilineages, coming into more and more contact with Maa-speaking pastoralists, adding pressure to their day to day, traditional, way of life....   [tags: Mukogodo Culture Kenya Lee Cronk Essays] 2354 words
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Selected Response Assessment: The Construction of Teaching and Learning that Meet the Needs of Students. - ... For example, teachers can use a table of specification where a test for a class in Participatory Democracy can be divided into contents such as Forms of Democracy, Political Variants, Social Movements, and so on. Then for each content a certain amount of questions can be established according to the focus of assessment, for example, under Social Movements, the teacher can have 4 questions that measures knowledge and understanding, 5 that focus on comparative reasoning, and 3 in classification reasoning (Stiggins, 104-109)....   [tags: Assessment ]
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Humanism - ... Rogers' wrote about this incident, “...helped me to experience the fact--only fully realized later that it is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried. It began to occur to me that unless I had a need to demonstrate my own cleverness and learning, I would do better to rely on the client for the direction of movement in the process....   [tags: Biography, Carl Rogers] 2178 words
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Prop 209 - Introduction It has been said that California’s 1996 Proposition 209 is misleading. It can also be said that it is discriminating to women and minorities. Proposition 209 was passed on November, 5 1996 but has not taken effect since the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional in February 1997. Body As I stated before, Proposition 209 was passed in 1996 by California voters. It was passed by a margin of 56% to 46% but was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1997 and has not taken effect....   [tags: essays research papers] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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Substitutivity in Semantic Logic - Substitutivity The problem of substitutivity has always been a thorn in the side of the study of semantic logic. Why does it sometimes appear that terms that refer to identical objects cannot be replaced with each other in propositions without altering the truth value or meaning of said proposition. Leibniz's Law would seem to ensure that we could perform such an action without anything significant having changed, but this is clearly not so. I intend to look at the history, not only of this problem, but of the theories that have created an atmosphere in which these questions can be contemplated....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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3925 words
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The Problem with Verification - The Problem with Verification In the following essay I will attempt to attack John H. Hick's view of verification, and how it can be processed within steps. I will expand on how religion, and everything that is contained within it, can't be verified at all. Although Hick discussed the problems of verification in Chapter 8 "The Problems of Verification" in Philosophy of Religion, he lacked discussion on crucial elements, discussing the problem of verifying religion as a whole. The problem of verification isn't just one problem but many....   [tags: Papers] 904 words
(2.6 pages)
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language - What is the Language of Thought Hypothesis. LOTH is an empirical thesis about the nature of thought and thinking. According to LOTH, thought and thinking are done in a mental language, i.e. in a symbolic system physically realized in the brain of the relevant organisms. In formulating LOTH, philosophers have in mind primarily the variety of thoughts known as ‘propositional attitudes’. Propositional attitudes are the thoughts described by such sentence forms as ‘S believes that P’, ‘S hopes that P’, ‘S desires that P’, etc., where ‘S’ refers to the subject of the attitude, ‘P’ is any sentence, and ‘that P’ refers to the proposition that is the object of the attitude....   [tags: essays research papers] 8769 words
(25.1 pages)
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f - ... It offers information regarding the boundaries, essence, and the purpose of the discipline. A paradigm has to be at least implicitly acknowledged by the members of the profession. Hence, every profession has one prevailing paradigm. A nursing paradigm must express the nature, the goals, and the process of nursing. There are four vital components of a nursing paradigm, which are: People, environment, health and nursing. All four must be incorporated in a paradigm to be considered a nursing paradigm (Thibodeau, 1983)....   [tags: ] 766 words
(2.2 pages)
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Gay Marriage: Views From Different Angles - Gay Marriage: Views From Different Angles The gay marriage debate has been simmering for almost as long as I can remember. Considering how long society has been hearing about this particular issue, it seems odd that the debate is now, more or less, treading water . The four articles I have selected give information from four different perspectives including that of liberals, conservatives, homosexuals, and orthodox Jews. With so many differing opinions, one can understand why it's been so hard for the nation to come to a definite decision on the issue....   [tags: Gay Marriage, argumentative, persuasive]
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1508 words
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Illegal Immigration - Illegal Immigrants Should NOT be Denied Benefits - Illegal Immigrants Should not be Denied Benefits           On her way to work, a nurse is assaulted while racial slurs are yelled at her. The same route that she has taken to work for the last ten years without a problem, now leads her to violence (Hornblower36). Instances of discrimination and racism such as this one, have increased since the passing of Proposition 187 in California. For years, the border states of this nation have faced a steady increase in the costs they are forced to pay for providing benefits to illegal immigrants....   [tags: Illegal Immigration, Illegal Immigrants]
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1342 words
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Bilingual Education in Public Schools - Bilingual Education in Public Schools For the past thirty years in the State of California, bilingual education has been undertaken by all the public schools of the state. Under such system, children of non-American ethnic have had a special treatment in their early academic career. Children of minority groups have been thought various subjects in their native tongues. Such subjects are Math, History and some Science classes. The bilingual program presented the student a scholastic curriculum that simultaneously instructed students all the required classes while teaching them the English language....   [tags: Bilingual Language Education Essays] 3734 words
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Indians Vs. The Constitution - They are Native Americans who are trying to build better lives for themselves but are stopped in there tracks by the state supreme court. Proposition 5 passed in November of 98, which would allow more gambling in the Indian reservations. The proposition was ruled to be unconstitutional. Now the Indians are rebutting the fact that they are sovereign and the ballot was passed. Under existing law, Indian tribes operate as semi-sovereign nations, and are liable under federal law only. Recently, the long-standing political and legal tension between the Indians and the government, which has characterized the relationship since colonization, has entered into the debate over tribal gaming....   [tags: essays research papers] 2852 words
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On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus - On Naming and Possibility in Kripke and in the Tractatus* ABSTRACT: Raymond Bradley has put forward an essentialist interpretation of the ontology of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-philosophicus and aims to develop the model dimension that is implicit therein. Among other theses, Bradley maintains that tractarian names can be interpreted as Kripkean rigid designators; this idea enables him to approach the Tractus from the perspective of possible worlds semantics. I reassess Bradley's thesis by examining the tractarian notion of name and the Kripkean concept of rigid designator in Naming and Necessity, and consider whether an interpretation of tractarian names as rigid designators is possible....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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The Fallacy of Nonsense - The Fallacy of Nonsense Lewis Carroll was a professor of logic, writing among his well known works of fiction, treatises on the subject of logic and even a textbook, Symbolic Logic. “It is the function of logic to classify and formulate fallacious forms of argument as well as valid ones.” (Burks 367) So is it some of the functions of Carroll’s tales of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Presenting different puzzles, riddles, or what appears to be on the surface nonsense, Carroll in these books present many questions of logic and indirectly their solutions, challenging the ability of the reader to believe what has been presented....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Saint Augustine's Deduction that Free Will is a Good Gift from God - Saint Augustine's Deduction that Free Will is a Good Gift from God Before the central theme of this essay is analytically summarized, it is important to note a few propositions already established in the conversations between Saint Augustine and Evodius. Firstly, Saint Augustine has already ascertained that God gave human beings free choice of the will – Evodius is also sure of this proposition. He deduces that since our existence came from God, then it must be God who gave us free will....   [tags: Papers] 928 words
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A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition - A Comparative Analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's Tradition ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Frege-Russell's tradition. The Comparison of these is made on the grounds of the analysis of existence. Choosing "existence" as the object of the analysis is very essential. It is so because understanding of the category of existence is strongly connected with the whole system. Thus, while analyzing the category, one can make a reconstruction of the concept scheme (in both traditions); show their functioning; and compare them to each other....   [tags: Lvov-Warsaw School Frege Russell Tradition] 3709 words
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The Cartesian Doubt Experiment and Mathematics - The Cartesian Doubt Experiment and Mathematics ABSTRACT: The view that Descartes called mathematical propositions into doubt as he impugned all beliefs concerning common-sense ontology by assuming that all beliefs derive from perception seems to rest on the presupposition that the Cartesian problem of doubt concerning mathematics is an instance of the problem of doubt concerning existence of substances. I argue that the problem is not 'whether I am counting actual objects or empty images,' but 'whether I am counting what I count correctly.' Considering Descartes's early works, it is possible to see that for him, the proposition '2+3=5' and the argument 'I think, therefore I am,' were equally evident....   [tags: Mathematics Math Mathematical Papers] 3426 words
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Denying Public Aid to Immigrants is Unconstitutional - Denying Public Aid to Immigrants is Unconstitutional Legislation has been approved in California to make illegal aliens ineligible for public social services, public health care services, and public school education at elementary, secondary, and post secondary levels.  News of the passage of this legislation has been received with mixed feelings not only in California, but throughout the United States. Due to the unconstitutional nature of the California law, it is necessary that it be thrown out....   [tags: Illegal Immigration, Illegal Immigrants]
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Five Features of Reality - Five Features of Reality "Forms of life resemble what I call, 'realities'. Forms of life are always form of life forming. Realities are always realities becoming" (Mehan & Wood, Five Features of Reality, 65). What is Reality. Is reality what everyone believes in or does everyone have his or her own reality. Can your reality change what you believe in. Is reality a belief, or is it what you believe in your reality. Can your reality be right or wrong. Reality is an actual situation or event where life cannot be real with an individual and society put together....   [tags: Papers] 1195 words
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Kant's Idea for a Universal History with Cosmopolitan Purpose - Question: In his essay “Idea for a Universal History with Cosmopolitan Purpose” Kant argues that the greatest problem for the human species is “that of attaining a civil society which can administer justice universally.” Discuss how Kant argues for this claim and what his proposal is for achieving it historically You may supplement your answer by briefly outlining one contemporary version of Kant’s proposal.. Do you think Kant’s proposal has at all been approximated in modernity. (Word count1820 words) First this article will explore the claims which ground Kant’s argument for a universal history by discussing the main arguments within each proposition in the essay....   [tags: essays research papers] 1781 words
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Politics and Policies Influencing America’s Education of Bilingual Students - ... Improvements were made in our country’s education of ELL with the ruling in the case of Lau versus Nichols in 1974. The initial suit was brought by 1,800 Chinese students in the San Francisco area who claimed that they were not receiving equal educations within that system because they lacked proficiency in English. Initially, the students were unsuccessful in their claim as the court ruled that students bring to the educational system with them different linguistic and cultural backgrounds and that the school system itself cannot accommodate for such differences....   [tags: Language ]
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A Company Based on Digital Advertising: Big Spaceship - Digital advertising is one of the fast expanding and fast evolving industry. Big Spaceship entered the digital marketing industry in the early stage of its development, and this shaped a strong advantage for the firm as one of the most creative leaders. Big Spaceship as one of the innovation-led digital marketing agency, it focuses on the practice of innovation-driven culture and following a distinctive model of engaging with client. Value proposition portrays by Big Spaceship is one of the key factor of it achievements, the differentiation, strengths and weaknesses of the value proposition by Big Spaceship will be discussed in the following essay....   [tags: Digital advertising, advertising,companies,] 586 words
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Legalizaiton of Gay Marriage Exploratory - Exploratory Paper: Should Same Sex Marriage Be Legal. The proposed legalization of same-sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. As a heavily campaigned development currently discussed in law assessment; these extremely confrontational and debatable political questions are facing present day American courts. If same-sex marriage is legalized, its affect on the parents, children, same sex couples, families, and the social and political world will be astronomical....   [tags: Homosexual Lesbian Legal Marry]
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Wal Mart Stores Inc - Wal Mart Stores Inc Abstract Explores the marketing strategies employed by Wal-Mart Corporation and their efforts to compete in the “new” economy. Includes an assessment of Wal-Mart’s expressed and apparent positioning and value proposition based upon internal documents, public relations statements, web page and advertising. Includes an assessment of Wal-Mart’s competitive position and strategy. Includes an assessment of Wal-Mart’s marketing mix. Introduction The new economy, characterized by sophisticated technology, global communication and “knowledge as a commodity” demands a great deal from organizations that intend to remain competitive....   [tags: Business Finance Marketing Essays]
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Transmission of Pain Signals by the Brain at the Spinal Level - ... The final proposition of the gate control theory is that when the output level of the transmission cells located in the spinal cord goes beyond a critical level, the action system is triggered and the patterns of experience and behavior characteristic of pain are noted (Anderson, 2004, p. 355). When the gate control theory was published, it elicited massive research as it revealed the immense evidence of psychological factors in terms of how humans react to pain; factors that had for a long time been largely dismissed....   [tags: Anatomy, The Central Nervous System] 2035 words
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Ontology of Mathematics - An ontological theorist generally begins his discussion with a preconceived notion of what kind of thing an object will turn out to be. Instead, we will here begin with a Thomassonian approach to the ontology of mathematics. First, let us consider what happens when we rst come to determine a mathematical proposition (which I will use synonymously with 'mathematical entitty'). A mathematician does not feel as though he creates mathematical theories. Pythagoras can hardly be thought to have created the claim that a2 + b2 = c2....   [tags: Mathematics]
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The Origins of Philosophy - ... The man who sought the material principle of things would also hold tentative insights into the natural world. Thales introduced generalizations about a set of facts or principles (such as the connection between celestial movements with certain geometric laws), that formed the basis for future experiments to confirm their viability. Proclus proclaimed that "Thales first went to Egypt and thence introduced geometry into Greece. He discovered many propositions himself, and instructed his successors in the principles underlying many others, his method of attacking problems had greater generality in some cases and was more in the nature of simple inspection and observation in other cases." This "deductive science", or the process of deriving suppositions and mathematical statements from observation by means of logic, was first developed by Thales....   [tags: greek philosphy, informative] 736 words
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Sentential Falsehood Logic FL4 - Sentential Falsehood Logic FL4 ABSTRACT: In some philosophical conceptions, statements are valued as true, false, senseless (neither true nor false), or inconsistent. Falsehood logic FL4 makes it possible to operate correctly by such statements. Logic with falsehood operator FL4 is formulated. For FL4 metatheorems of consistency, deduction and completeness are fulfilled. Correlation between falsehood logic FL4 and four-valued Belnap’s logic and von Wright’s truth logic T"LM is considered. In FL4, the implication for Belnap’s logic is defined so that the truth-valued matrix of it is characterized for logic of tautological consequences Efde....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Logical Papers] 1685 words
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The Chico Times: Newsworthy or Not? - Issue In California, there was a large anti-gay rights protest with 3,000 people who marched down a closed-off street. The local newspaper chose not to run the story, although it was a big enough story to be covered in national news. The protestors had sent the paper a press release, as it was important that the citizens be informed of the march and its results. The newspaper argues that it has the right to publish what it deems newsworthy. The protestors argue that the community has a right to be kept aware of important topics, and say that the paper didn’t publish the story of the successful march because of the impact it would have....   [tags: Print Media]
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Medical Marijuana: The Truth - ... Arizona passed Proposition 203 in November of 2010 by 50.13% of the voters. Under this law an Arizona citizen can legally go through the Arizona Department of Health Services to obtain an identification card after April 14, 2011. To legally obtain this card a few prerequisites have to be met before it becomes legally binding. In order to receive permission from the state the inquiring person has to have a physician-certified form submitted stating that the patient meets the necessary statutes required under Proposition 203; excluding any person who has a previous felony....   [tags: Drugs]
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Informative Speech For Gun Ownership - Certainly one of the chief guarantees of freedom under any government, no matter how popular and respected, is the right of the citizen to keep and bear arms. This is not to say that firearms should not be very carefully used and that definite rules of precaution should not be taught and enforced. But the right of the citizen to bear arms is just one more safeguard against a tyranny which now appears remote in America, but which historically has proved to be always possible. -Hubert Humphrey, 1960 My background is probably atypical for a somewhat high-profile supporter of the right to keep and bear arms....   [tags: essays research papers] 650 words
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Russell's Theory of Descriptions in On Denoting - Russell's Theory of Descriptions in On Denoting INTRODUCTION The aim of this essay is to give an exposition of the theory of descriptions as it is first set forth by Russell in his article 'On Denoting' found in Mind 1905. Each section of this article will be explained in my own words, with the exception of some of the symbolic logic. Russell's own words are indicated by speech marks. I have tried not to simply re-write what Russell has said, but rather endeavoured to explain, in an original way, each part of Russell's theses, and in the order that they are found in the article....   [tags: Denotation Philosophy Papers] 4035 words
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What Anti-Individualists Cannot Know A Priori - What Anti-Individualists Cannot Know A Priori ABSTRACT: The attempt to hold both anti-individualism and privileged self-knowledge may have the absurd consequence that someone could know a priori propositions that are knowable only empirically. This would be so if such an attempt entailed that one could know a priori both the contents of one’s own thoughts and the anti-individualistic entailments from those thought-contents to the world. For then one could also come to know a priori (by simple deduction) the empirical conditions entailed by one’s thoughts....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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The Affirmative Action Debate - The Affirmative Action Debate   Most Americans desire a colorblind society. A society where individuals are judged upon merit, as opposed to the color of their skin. That is the reason Affirmative Action was birthed by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. That is also the reason that Proposition 209 was voted for in 1996.  These two historical events are driven by the desire of equality.         What is Affirmative Action?  According to Geraldine Leshin, it is "Taking positive or active steps to accomplish the public policy goal of equal employment opportunity."   What is Proposition 209?  Its a new law that has been passed that "prohibits the state of California and local governments from discriminating against or granting preferential treatment to any individual or group on the basis of race,  sex, color, ethnicity or national origin in public employment, public education or public contracting (San Jose Mercury News)."        Affirmative action was implemented for important reasons.  "Broadly defined, affirmative action refers to efforts to increase educational and employment opportunities for minorities and women.  More specifically, it applies to various programs and policies designed to increase the number of minorities and women hired by government and industry and admitted into colleges and universities."(Faundez, 213)         Affirmative action is important especially in the work force....   [tags: affirmative action argumentative persuasive]
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Criticism of the Verification Principle in A.J. Ayer's Book Language, Truth and Logic - Criticism of the Verification Principle in A.J. Ayer's Book Language, Truth and Logic INTRODUCTION This essay will consist in an exposition and criticism of the Verification Principle, as expounded by A.J. Ayer in his book Language, Truth and Logic. Ayer, wrote this book in 1936, but also wrote a new introduction to the second edition ten years later. The latter amounted to a revision of his earlier theses on the principle.It is to both accounts that this essay shall be referring. Firstly, I shall expound the verification principle....   [tags: Philosophy] 4592 words
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Is The Statue of Liberty a Lie? - Is The Statue of Liberty a Lie. The issue of immigration has shaped the history of the United States throughout the years of its existence. People from numerous different countries have immigrated to America in search of a better life and new opportunities. While Americans often ponder whether immigration is a benefit to society, legislators have recently enacted many anti-immigration laws which have been enforced to keep control over illegal immigration. Many different positions exist concerning illegal immigration in the United States....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Science Vs Philosophy - You have a person. An event occurs. The event enters into the sensory perceptions the person. The person's experience, logic, and beliefs (in other words the brain) will interpret this in a fashion parallel to the person's brain. This is the interpretation of the astronaut. You may or may not have a person. If the person exists, the event enters into his sensory perceptions. If it could be proven that his sensory perceptions are completely accurate (that is, if it could be proven that what we experience with our senses represents the largest, most complete picture of everything) then the person will interpret this in a fashion parallel to this person's brain....   [tags: Philosophy] 1838 words
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Ethics and Community in Aristotle - Ethics and Community in Aristotle ABSTRACT: I show that Aristotle’s ethics is determined by his notion of communities which are in turn determined by hundreds of themes in his Topics-sameness and difference, part and whole, better than, etc. These are tools for all dialectical investigations into being and action (viz. Top. I.11 104b2) for they secure definitions and get at essences of things or their aspects. Reflecting structures of being and good, they allow Aristotle to arrive at objective reality and good....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]
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The Classical Conception Of Rationality - The Classical Conception Of Rationality ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to describe the classical conception of rationality, i.e., to indicate the theses traditionally associated with this conception. I do not intend to discuss these theses in detail. Rather, I focus on the question regarding the main elements of the classical conception of rationality. I am interested in the rationality of cognition and of knowledge (epistemic/epistemological rationality), especially in the rationality of science (scientific rationality)....   [tags: Rational Rationality Scientific Papers]
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René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes : A Dialogue - René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes: A Dialogue As one embarks on the incredible journey through Descartes’ meditations, a plethora of doubts, criticisms and seemingly fundamental problems arise and block one’s progress. No doubt, many of these can be attributed to the fact that we of the twenty-first century come more than three and a half centuries after the brilliant mind of Descartes (or shall we say, ‘that was Descartes’) spawned the immense framework of philosophy that is contained within The Meditations....   [tags: Politics Philosophy Sociology]
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