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Potassium - Potassium Potassium is a vital element in the human body. Potassium had never been distinguished between sodium until the eighteenth century. Before potassium was recognized as an element, potassium carbonate was mixed with animal fat to make soap. It was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in England, in 1807. Sir Davy was able to isolate potassium using electrolysis. Potassium was the first metal isolated by this procedure. Today, it is still not found free in nature. It is obtained by electrolysis of chloride or hydroxide....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate - The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Aim To investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature. Background Knowledge Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) is an ionic compound. The strong ionic bonds hold the compound in an ionic lattice which gives KNO3 its crystalline structure. These ionic bonds also have other properties which will affect my investigation, I must be aware of these properties for greater accuracy in my method. The ionic bonds give KNO3 high melting and boiling temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 1245 words
(3.6 pages)
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Solubility of Potassium Chlorate - Solubility of Potassium Chlorate Solubility is the maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in 100g of solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on the type of ionic particles in it. So the solubility of each substance is different. The formula of solubility is: SOLUBILITY(g/100g)= (SOLUTE / SOLVENT) * 100 I did an experiment to prove this and find the solubility of potassium chlorate, an ionic solid. Apparatus: 2g potassium chlorates, some distilled water, a stand, a clamp, two beakers, a thermometer, a test tube, and a measuring cylinder....   [tags: Papers] 686 words
(2 pages)
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Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate - Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate Stability --------- Stable. Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, and strong reducing agents. Toxicology ---------- Harmful if swallowed. May cause reproductive disorders. ------------------------------------------------------- Hazard: oxidizing ----------------- Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine the crystallisation temperature of the solution potassium nitrate at different concentrations and use information to find out the standard enthalpy of potassium nitrate....   [tags: Papers] 1413 words
(4 pages)
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A Stoichiometry Experiment Involving Potassium Chlorate - Introduction In any science that requires computation, specifically in Chemistry, gathering measurements of various physical and chemical properties need to be strictly accurate and precise for it is in this most crucial phase that either make or break the quality and value of science. No matter how good the experiment was performed, without forethought on how to gather and process data correctly, the collected information would not be reliable enough to draw out a conclusion on it. This experiment is divided into two parts, thus having dipartite objectives for the whole experiment....   [tags: Chemistry] 1258 words
(3.6 pages)
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Percent Composition by Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate - % Composition By Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the percent composition by mass of oxygen in potassium chlorate. Procedure: 1.The mass of the crucible and the cover was measured. 2.KClO3 was added to the crucible. 3.The mass of the crucible, cover and KClO3 was measured. 4.MnO2 was added in the crucible. 5.The mass of the crucible, cover, KClO3 and MnO2 was measured. 6.The Bunsen Burner was lit. 7.The covered crucible was placed over the flame of the Bunsen Burner using a ring stand....   [tags: Chemistry] 359 words
(1 pages)
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Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate - Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate Principle: This experiment consists of titrating the ferrous ion with permanganate ion to study the oxidation-reduction reaction. The ions react in acidic solution to give ferric ion and a reduced ionic form of manganese. All the reactants and products except permanganate ion are weakly colored, whereas permanganate is a very intensely colored ion. Then a solution of permanganate is removed as long as there is a ferrous ion present to react with it....   [tags: Papers] 455 words
(1.3 pages)
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Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate - Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrate Background Information Molecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways. The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
(2.8 pages)
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Experiment Proving Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES) Patients Potassium Channels Conduct Electrical Current - In order to understand Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES), it is first necessary to have a general understanding of the nervous system. The human nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the neural tissue outside the CNS. PNS is composed of two basic types of neurons (nerve cells): motor neurons and sensory neurons. Motor neurons, the target of LES, are used to send signals from the CNS to the body to stimulate a reaction....   [tags: Biology Central Nervous System Lambert Eaton] 2671 words
(7.6 pages)
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Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance - ... Excessive use of antacids (case study-using more than the recommended dose) may also cause metabolic alkalosis by neutralizing gastric acid, which has the same effect as loss from vomiting. Ingesting sodium bicarbonate as an antacid to neutralize gastric acid has the same effect as any other antacid. Any sodium bicarbonate ingested that exceeds the amount required to neutralize the gastric acid will be absorbed, contributing further to metabolic alkalosis. Chloride depletion also results from loss of GI secretions caused by severe vomiting (case study) or diarrhea....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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The Harcourt Essen Experiment - The Harcourt Essen Experiment The aim of this investigation is to: 1) find the rate equation for the reaction between hydrogen peroxide, potassium iodide and sulphuric acid by using the iodine stop clock method and plotting graphs of 1/time against concentration for each variable. Then to find the activation energy by carrying out the experiment at different temperatures using constant amounts of each reactant and then by plotting a graph of in 1/t against I/T, 3) to deduce as much information about the mechanism as possible from the rate equation....   [tags: Chemistry, Science, Experiment] 1470 words
(4.2 pages)
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?Should the decision to keep a person on life support be made by family members only?? - ‘Should the decision to keep a person on life support be made by family members only?’ This question has major impact on many people’s lives, their deaths, and their quality of life. Many other questions can be asked in conjunction with this question. How would you like to be kept on life support. Would you want a doctor to make the decision of ‘life or death’. The questions just keep on coming, and every time we seem to find ourselves divided. This issue is relevant because of the recent media coverage over Terri Schiavo’s right to live or die and the fact that any of us could be in her situation....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Fertilizers - Fertilizers are substances added to the soil sprayed on leaves of plants to help them grow better or in some cases faster. Plants need twenty essentail elements to help them grow. Plants make carbohydrates. A plant needs nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium the most to grow healthy. Most soils naturally contain enough trace elements for field crops, but such elements must be added when certain fruits and vegetable plants are grown. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the top three elements needed in plant growth....   [tags: essays research papers] 593 words
(1.7 pages)
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Superior Flexor Muscle Cells - Effects of Extracellular Potassium Concentration on Membrane Potentials in Crayfish Superior Flexor Muscle Cells Intracellular measurement of membrane potentials in cells of the crayfish superficial flexor muscle can reveal the effects of varying the extracellular concentrations of potassium ion on the resting potential. Our results suggest that at high extracellular potassium concentrations, the resting potential resembles that of the potassium’s equilibrium potential, and at low potassium concentrations, resting potential is less related to potassium equilibrium potential....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers] 870 words
(2.5 pages)
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MR - Investigating Rate of Reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate ions with respect to Temperature and use of a Catalyst Introduction The aim of this experiment was to investigate the affect of the use of a catalyst and temperature on the rate of reaction while keeping all the other factors that affect the reaction rate constant. In the reaction, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide will be used to provide the peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions respectively. The ionic formula for the reaction is as follows: S2O82- (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 2SO42- (aq) + I2 (aq) However, in order to measure the rates of reaction, sodium thiosulphate and starch are added....   [tags: essays research papers] 851 words
(2.4 pages)
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Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome - Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome Abstract Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome is a human disorder that causes deafness and an irregular heartbeat. It is caused by a mutation in a protein that is a potassium ion channel. The mutations lead to a protein that does not serve the purpose it was designed to serve. It is difficult to treat, but there are things that can be done for both the cardiac and auditory aspects of it. Implantation of a device used as a sort of bionic ear can be used as treatment for the deafness characteristic of JLNS....   [tags: Biology Mutation]
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Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates - Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates Aim: To investigate a range of metal carbonates and see if they thermally decompose. Thermal Decomposition INVESTIGATION [IMAGE] ------- Written By Tauqir Sharif ------------------------ Research: When a metal is thermally decomposed the bond between the metal and its carbonate (carbon and oxygen) is removed and the carbonate is released as carbon dioxide. Metal Carbonate = Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide Malachite is an ore of copper....   [tags: Papers] 2469 words
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The Functions of Osmosis - The Functions of Osmosis Osmosis is the passive transport of water through a selectively permeable membrane, a membrane that allows certain needed particles to pass through it more easily than others. Pores in this type of membrane are large enough for water to pass effortlessly through it. The flow of water during osmosis depends on the concentration of a solute either within a cell membrane or surrounding the membrane. Water naturally flows from a hypertonic solution, an area of high concentration of solute, to a hypotonic district, a solution containing a lower concentration of solute....   [tags: Papers] 635 words
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The K+ Channel Revisited - The K+ Channel Revisited Many scientists enter the field of neuroscience with a desire to understand how the human brain functions to create our actions. Some take a large approach and study reactions to stimulus in live animals. This approach leaves us still wanting to know about things that aren't a result of an outside stimulus. Other scientists take the minimalist approach and start by studying the exact mechanisms of individual cells of the brain. But, what good does that do us for everyday life....   [tags: Chemical Neuroscience Chemistry Papers]
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Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution - Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution [IMAGE] Biology Coursework Monique Noel 12T Finding the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution. Introduction I am investigating the optimum pH bacterial and mammalian amylase digests starch solution. To do this I will conduct an experiment using bacterial and mammalian amylase, subjecting them to varying pH levels and record at which pH level the enzyme digests starch solution most efficiently....   [tags: Papers] 1242 words
(3.5 pages)
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Pyrotechnics - PYROTECHNICS Pyrotechnics special effects are widely used in motion picture production to create all types of effects involving explosions, fires, light, smoke and sound concussions. The types of pyrotechnics materials used include flash powder, flash paper, gun cotton, black powder (gunpowder), smokeless powder, detonator explosives, and many more. They are used in bullet hits (squibs), blank cartridges, flash pots, fuses, mortars, smoke pots, sparkle pots, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 493 words
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Inhibitory Or Excitatory Potential Changes - Inhibitory Or Excitatory Potential Changes Graded potentials can be either hyperpolarizations (inhibitory) or depolarizations (excitatory). Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, also referred to as IPSP, is the temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential occurs when synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to exit the cell (carrying a positive charge with them) or for the chloride ions to enter the cell (carrying a negative charge with them)....   [tags: Biology Biological Papers]
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Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings - ... In the experiment that was undertaken bioassays were tested to gain an understanding of how in particular copper chloride, potassium chloride and manganese chloride affect the colouration and growth rate compared to distilled water. It was known through previous research on the topic that bioassays can both be beneficial and harmful towards different plants. Hopefully by conducting this experiment it will reveal the conditions that tomato seedlings are able to survive in. Through previous research it can be hypothesised that copper chloride will have a major negative effect on the overall appearance and growth of these tomato seedlings followed by manganese chloride and potassium chloride....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Chemicals Tests for Anions in Various Salts - Chemicals Tests for Anions in Various Salts APPARATUS Spatula Test tubes and racks Pipettes Chemicals used Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid solution Barium chloride (harmful) Silver nitrate solution Metal salts used for testing Potassium chloride (KCI) Iron chloride (FECI3) Sodium sulphate (NASO4) Calcium carbonate (CACO3) Lead carbonate (PBCO3) Tap water RISK ASSESMENT Potassium chloride Explosive when mixed with combustion materials....   [tags: Papers] 497 words
(1.4 pages)
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Mineral Composition of Seaweed - The mineral composition of three groups of seaweed under study is shown in Table 3. As an illustration, most of the seaweeds showed high value of Potassium, Magnesium and Iron, but low in Copper and Cobalt that is coincided to those estimated by Krishnaiah et al. (2008), but significantly higher with those results reported by Rupérez (2002). Among minerals, Potassium occurred in the highest proportions in all seaweeds (515.6±35.7-876.6±15.9 mg/100g) which are significantly lower than those results obtained by Matanjun et al., (2009) (8371.2±0.0-13155.2±1.1 mg/100g).The highest content of potassium was detected for brown algae and red algae....   [tags: science experiments,] 631 words
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Anorexia and Bulimia - ANOREXIA Anorexia or other wise know as Anorexia Nervosa, is a condition characterized by fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, as well as a distorted body image or in other words, someone who thinks that they are fat when they are probably already too thin. Such a distorted image can lead to an excessive weight loss from stopping food intake and or excessive exercise. Anorexia nervosa is not associated with any preexisting physical illness. It is found in teens and young adults, but especially young women....   [tags: Causes of Bulimia, Eating Disorders] 362 words
(1 pages)
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Inhibitory or Excitatory Potential Changes - Inhibitory or Excitatory Potential Changes Risperidone is a serotonin antagonist which blocks GABA-evoked currents in pyramidal neurons (Feng et al, 2001). Risperidone lengthens action potentials and blocks potassium current in rabbit heart muscle. In human atrial muscle risperidone decreases outward current but has no effect on inward current. It lengthens the repolarization of atrial and ventricular action potentials only at high drug levels. Risperidone reduces the membrane resting potential and prolongs action potential duration....   [tags: Drugs Psychology Psychiatry Medical Essays]
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Dating Methods - General Differances Between Relative and Absolute Dating Methods Getting dates for fossils that are found in sites being excavated by anthropologist is very important. Dates show the evolution from early hominid specimens to our own species, Homo homo sapiens. There are many methods that can be used to acquire these dates, but all of these methods fall into one of two catorgories. They can either give a absolute date or a relative date. An absolute date is one in which you get an actual date in years....   [tags: essays papers] 1443 words
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Basic Physiology of a Neuron and How it Fires - Basic Physiology of a Neuron and How it Fires Describe the basic physiology of a neuron. Detail the manner by which neurons fire action potentials and how neurons communicate with one another across synapses. Outline the process of how an action petential occurs and hoe it propagates down an axon. Explain how chemical transmission occurs at synapses and how this allows neurons to activate of inhibit one another. [Picture from "Answer to Neuron Structure"] Neurons are the basic units of the brain....   [tags: Papers] 722 words
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Lab Report Using a Chemical Titration to Measure Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide to Water and Oxygen - Lab Report Using a Chemical Titration to Measure Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide to Water and Oxygen Overview: In this laboratory you will use a chemical titration to measure and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide (HO) to water and oxygen using the enzyme catalase. Objectives: Before doing this exercise, you should understand: Ø the general functions and activities of enzymes Ø the relationship between the structure and function of enzymes Ø the concept of initial reaction rates of enzymes Ø how the concept of free energy relates to enzyme activity Ø that changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration can affect the initial reaction rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions....   [tags: Papers] 1829 words
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Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types - Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types The aim of my particular experiment was to investigate into the possible existence of distribution of stomata within different leaf types. My investigation also requires me to research into the rate of transpiration into the different leaf types and if this has an effect of the distribution of stomata on the leaves surface. Prediction I predict that the environment of which I found my particular leaf type had an effect on the stomata distribution in my particular leaf type....   [tags: Papers] 3941 words
(11.3 pages)
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The Importance of Fruit in a Well-Balanced Diet - ... For example, apples stored in the refrigerator in a plastic bag stay crisper and keep more of the nutrients helpful to the body. While apples store better in the refrigerator, bananas keep better in a fruit bowl at room temperature. Bananas kept in the refrigerator will only turn black from decay; they will not ripen. After decay begins, the banana loses the nutrients desired. Although some fruits keep freshness better either in the refrigerator or at room temperature, some fruits do not lose nutritious value either way....   [tags: Nutrition]
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The Problem of Dehydration - ... These ions can serve as a catalyst, accelerating reactions that normally would take much more than a few seconds. (OH). Another important property of water is represented by its capacity to dissipate heat through evaporation. This characteristic has an important role in the physiology of thermo-regulation. At high atmospheric temperatures, the body receives much more heat than it needs. If this heat is not dissipated, the body will suffer. Fortunately, the human body has several mechanisms to remove heat....   [tags: Health ]
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Airbags - In 1968-- Allen Breed first patented Airbags that inflate on impact. These early years models were inflated by compressed gas, and came with problems such as pressure loss, and slower inflation. In the 1970's solid prominent airbags were first introduced, and suffered fewer problems than compressed gas models. In 1975 GM tested airbags on it's government only Chevrolet. Soon after they became options on commercial vehicles, and gradually gained popularity. Since 1998 all new cars had to be equipped with driver and passenger-side airbags....   [tags: Law School Applications] 383 words
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Osmosis and Diffusion Investigation - Osmosis and Diffusion Investigation Aim: To examine the process of osmosis and diffusion. Part A: Step 1: Q1.[IMAGE] Q2. The jiggling motion is visible because the fat globules are constantly being bombarded by smaller particles. [IMAGE] Q3. The Brownian motion is the ‘jiggling’ motion of the milk fat globules. All matter is in constant motion. Step 2: Q4. a) After 5 minutes Clear uncoloured water Cloud of purple stain * Potassium Permanganate [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] b) After 24 hours [IMAGE] Potassium Permanganate [IMAGE][IMAGE] The potassium permanganate will have spread throughout the beaker as the water molecules are constantly moving around....   [tags: Papers] 558 words
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Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports - Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports Certain foods can make a difference in sports competition. Conditioning, strength, and speed have been the focal points of athletic training for years; however, the research on nutritional elements indicates their importance to an athlete's optimal performance. Knowing the proper food to eat before, during, and after a physical activity can help an athlete in achieving their desired performance. The most important nutrient categories are starches, minerals, sugars, and electrolytes....   [tags: Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet] 880 words
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End-Stage Renal Disease - This article is for people whose kidneys fail to work. This condition is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Today, there are new and better treatments for ESRD that replace the work of healthy kidneys. By learning about your treatment choices, you can work with your doctor to pick the one that's best for you. No matter which type of treatment you choose, there will be some changes in your life. But with the help of your health care team, family, and friends, you may be able to lead a full, active life....   [tags: essays research papers] 3364 words
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Evolution of Man - Evolution of Man Scientists continue to debate the history of man. It is generally agreed upon by the scientific community, however, that humans evolved from lesser beings, and this essay will function to provide evidence to support this claim. Several points will be outlined, including the general physical changes that occurred between several key species on the phylogeny of man, and a discussion of dating methods used to pinpoint the age of the fossils. This essay will begin with a brief discussion of dating techniques....   [tags: Science Anthropology]
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How Various Mechanisms By Which Substances Cross The Cell Me - Homeostasis is essential to the cell’s survival. The cell membrane is responsible for homeostasis. The membrane has a selective permeability which means what moves in and out of the cell is regulated. Amino acids, sugars, oxygen, sodium, and potassium are examples of substances that enter the cell. Waste products and carbon dioxide are removed from the cell. All of these substances cross the membrane in a variety of ways. From diffusion and osmosis, to active transport the traffic through the cell membrane is regulated....   [tags: essays research papers] 882 words
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Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution - Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution Background Metals are an order of chemical elements in the periodic table. They are arranged in atomic number. All of them are solid (apart from mercury), good thermal and electrical conductors and are shiny when polished. Metals and non - metals are separated in the table by a diagonal line. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The reactivity series is a table to show which metals are most reactive to the least reactive....   [tags: Papers] 919 words
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The Validity of Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution - The Validity of Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution Evolution. Is it a fact or fiction. I thought that Evolution, was just a theory, but I was wrong. I believe that Darwin’s theory has had a great impact on the world today. It has caused many debates between religious authorities and those from the scientific community. This theory had prompted individuals to think about the Origin of the Universe, Earth, and how did life really begin. However, what distinguishes Charles Darwin from the others is the fact that he collected and provided substantial evidences and he related various branches of science such as geology, botany and biology, which helped, validate his theories....   [tags: Papers]
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Wiring Up Biology - Wiring Up Biology WHEN the commonplaces of one discipline are applied to an unrelated field, they can prove curiously fruitful. In 1952 two British physiologists, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley, managed just such a fruitful crossover, applying textbook physics to living tissue. They were both later knighted, and shared a Nobel prize in 1963. The experimental method they pioneered remains fundamental to research into the behaviour of nerve cells. As anyone who has ever had an electric shock knows, electricity has powerful effects on living matter....   [tags: Papers] 1539 words
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The Effect of a Healthy Lifestyle on Aging - The Effect of a Healthy Lifestyle on Aging Lifestyle is an important predictor of 'How well a person ages'. Important factors such as eating right and exercising regularly are major components of a healthy lifestyle that play an important role on how long a person can live. The focus of this research is to explain the relationship between aging and the food you eat, how often you exercise , and your mental state . Finally it will focus on different ways of maintaining a decent lifestyle in order to live longer and happier....   [tags: Papers Diet Health Exercise Old Essays]
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A Balanced Diet - A Balanced Diet This section contains details on what a healthy diet should consist of and why each vitamin and mineral is an essential part of staying healthy. The majority of people in this country eat too much fat and not enough fibre and for most people a healthy diet is simple and easy to do. The move towards a healthy diet may just mean eating more fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. People in the UK have a 1 in 3 chance of developing cancer at some time in their lives, eating a healthy diet, which includes 5 portions of different fruit and vegetables a day can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease, or cancer....   [tags: Papers] 831 words
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Health Problems and Your Food - ... What if you were told the cookie you are about to eat or the soda you are about to drink contains a chemical known to leave slow healing spores on the human skin. Would you still eat or drink what you have in your hand. Most citrus flavored soda and commercially baked goods contain a chemical called Bromine. Not only is Bromine used as an emulsifier in soda and dyes in baked goods it is used in insecticides, fire extinguishers, flame proofing agents, photographic compounds, sanitizers, natural gas and oil production....   [tags: Nutrition ]
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The Importance of Ion Channels - ... In addition, a mutant KCNE1 gene at the LQT5 locus on chromosome 21 has been found to produce faulty beta subunits that bind with the KVLQT1 alpha subunits, which ultimately delays activation and slows repolarization in myocardial cells (Zareba et al., 1998). Recent clinical studies indicate that individuals with the mutated KVLQT1 gene (LQT1 or LQT5), have lower occurrences of cardiac arrest and sudden death, when compared to those who are carriers of HERG or SCN5A mutations (Westenskow et al., 2004)....   [tags: Disease, Disorders]
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The Activation Energy of Bromide ion and Bromate ion - The Activation Energy of Bromide ion and Bromate ion To Determine the Activation Energy of the Reaction between Bromide ion and Bromate (V) ion in Acid Solution Objectives: By reacting Potassium Bromide and Potassium Bromate in the acid solution in varies temperature, we can then determine the Activation Energy of the reaction in different temperature through the equation:[IMAGE]. Questions: 1. Give an equation for the reaction between phenol and bromine. 2. What is the use of methyl orange in this experiment....   [tags: Chemical Reactions Reaction Rates Essays] 447 words
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Bio-report - 1.) Cellular Transport a.Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane from a region where water molecules are more concentrated to one where they are less concentrated. The transport of water is simple the cell being selectively permeable will allow water through it until an equilibrium is reached and at that time water will flow both in and out of the cell maintaining the equilibrium. For example a red blood cell is placed into a isotonic solution which means both the solution and the cell have the same concentration the net movement of water is zero, water however does move freely in and out of the cell to maintain the balance....   [tags: essays research papers] 537 words
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Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa - Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa Today, both anorexia and bulimia are the most common eating disorders and affect almost 15 percent of American teenagers. Eating disorders are fifteen times more likely to occur in adolescent girls than adolescent boys. They can be fatal and thousands die from every year but this is one mental illness that can be beaten. Anorexia is increasing more rapidly in developed countries than in underdeveloped countries. Bulimia is becoming the more common type of eating disorder among teens....   [tags: Causes of Bulimia, Eating Disorders]
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Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case - Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case Experiments to Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case with the Pervis Vinegar Company on Unknown Toxins The aim of this experiment is to preform tests on two samples of vinegar, one that is commercially safe and the other not (from the Pervis Company) to determine the unknown toxin contained in the Pervis Vinegar. Materials: * Numerous Beakers/Conical Flasks * Phenolphthalein Indicator * Burette * Numerous Test Tubes * Sticky Tape * Test Tube Rack * Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) * Calculator * Sample of Commercially Safe Vinegar * 2 Surgical Swabs (large cotton bud) * Sample of Pervis Vinegar (Toxic) * 2 Agar Gel Plates * Universal Indicator * Incubator Oven * Incubator * Bunsen Burner * Water * 2 Small Syringes * Potassium Chromate Solution * Hydrochloric Acid Methods To fully determine and identify the unknown toxin present in the Pervis vinegar sample, four tests were needed....   [tags: science] 1002 words
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Acquired Diabetes Insipidus - Acquired NDI Acquired NDI is the consequence of several conditions (Table 2) that are characterized by an increased water output and reduced urine osmolality, despite elevated levels of AVP. In many of these conditions, the kidney is unable to handle water due to an impaired responsiveness to vasopressin. As discussed below, a number of rat models with NDI have been evaluated, and common for all is a reduced expression of AQP2 in the principal cells of the collecting ducts. However, as is discussed, the degree of AQP2 downregulation as well as the intracellular localization of the protein differs significantly among the various conditions, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for AQP2 dysregulation in the various models....   [tags: essays research papers] 2198 words
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Aluminum - Aluminum, symbol Al, the most abundant metallic element in the earth's crust. The atomic number of aluminum is 13; the element is in group 13 (IIIa) of the periodic table. Hans Christian Orstead, Danish chemist, first isolated aluminum in 1825, using a chemical process involving potassium amalgam. Between 1827 and 1845, Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist, improved Oersted's process by using metallic potassium. He was the first to measure the specific gravity of aluminum and show its lightness. In 1854 Henri Sainte-Claire Deville, in France, obtained the metal by reducing aluminum chloride with sodium....   [tags: essays research papers] 1227 words
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The Dandelion - The Dandelion, of the genus Taraxacum and the class Magnoliopsida is a close relative of the Sunflower. The name, Dandelion comes from the French phrase for ¡¥Teeth of Lion¡¦, dent de lion, due to the likeness of the shape of the plant¡¦s leaves and a lion¡¦s canine teeth, whilst its generic name, Taraxacum Officinale was influenced by the plant¡¦s many medical properties. Taraxacum meaning ¡¥disorder-remedy¡¦ and Officinale, stating that the plant has medicinal attributes. Other popular names for this plant include swine snout, priest¡¦s crown and pissabed....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Ventricular Tachycardia - Objectives The objectives of this case study are to evaluate the cause of death for a female patient that presented to the ER with ventricular tachycardia, of which elevated to ventricular fibrillation and was unsuccessfully resuscitated. Furthermore, what genetic presupposition to development of VT did she have, and how was this augmented by the influence of Seldane ® (active ingredient terfenadine), an over the counter anti-histamine allergy season remedy. Clinical History During spring time of 1998, a typically healthy 43 year old deaf woman presented in the ER with cardiac arrhythmia....   [tags: essays research papers] 775 words
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Australopithecines Vs. Homo - Genetic evidence sheds considerable light on the origins of the hominid lineage. An increasing body of fossil data helps us to understand where and when hominids came into existence. The first signs of hominid evolution are the morphological changes associated with bipedality, a locomotor pattern that offered fitness, advantages in a new environment. However, other behaviors remained similar to those of nonhuman primates. Dramatic progress came with the evolution of Homo erectus, who exhibited more "human" morphology and life ways....   [tags: Genetics] 1486 words
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Consequences of the Different Forms of Modern Agriculture - Consequences of the Different Forms of Modern Agriculture Incomplete Essay Until about four decades ago, crop yields in agricultural systems depended on internal resources, recycling of organic matter, built-in biological control mechanisms and rainfall patterns. Agricultural yields were modest, but stable. Production was safeguarded by growing more than one crop or variety in space and time in a field as insurance against pest outbreaks or severe weather. Inputs of nitrogen were gained by rotating major field crops with legumes....   [tags: Papers] 591 words
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Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed - Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed Introduction ============ For healthy growth plants need several substances. Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. Nitrates are essential for making amino acids and for the 'synthesis' of proteins. Phosphates are essential as they have an important role in reactions involved in photosynthesis and respiration. Potassium is also important as it helps the enzymes involved in photosynthesis and respiration to work....   [tags: Papers] 1471 words
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Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach - Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach In this investigation, I am looking to determine the amount of chlorine present in household bleach. However, in order to do this I would have to calculate the mass represented by chlorine in the mass of the household bleach. After doing that, I would then have to represent this as a percentage. In order to calculate the mass represented by the chlorine in the mass of the household bleach, I would have to titrate this solution, along with an excess of potassium iodide and ethanoic acid against sodium thiosulphate from the burette using starch solution as an indicator....   [tags: Papers] 995 words
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The Use of Fertilisers in Farming - The Use of Fertilisers in Farming Plants or in this case crops make their own food through photosynthesis, but in order to do so require nutrients. These come in two main forms: Macronutrients and Micronutrients. The primary nutrients that plants use include nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, of which are usually depleted first in the soil because plants use large amounts of them for their growth. Secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium and sulphur, but there are usually enough of these nutrients in the soil....   [tags: Papers] 2098 words
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Lab Report The Effects of Drugs on Cardiac Physiology - Lab Report The Effects of Drugs on Cardiac Physiology The study of cardio physiology was broken up into five distinct parts all centering on the cardiovascular system. The first lab was utilization of the electrocardiogram (ECG). This studied the electrical activities of the heart by placing electrodes on different parts of the skin. This results in a graph on calibrated paper of these activities. These graphs are useful in the diagnosis of heart disease and heart abnormalities. Alongside natural heart abnormalities are those induced by chemical substances....   [tags: Papers] 1801 words
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The Use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture - The Use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture Agriculture today dominates the majority of all land uses. As a result it has a fundamental role in maintaining the countryside and protecting the environment. The development of the use of fertilisers and pesticides has dramatically increased the efficiency of food production and has in fact more than quadrupled food production in the last century[1]. They also have reduced the cost and increased the variety of foods available....   [tags: Papers] 2430 words
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The Growth of Bean Seedlings Experiment - The Growth of Bean Seedlings Experiment Growth of a Beans Experiment Aim: To compare the growth of bean seedlings in a different soil solution. Background Knowledge: Plants make there own food by photosynthesis. They need light and CO2 from the atmosphere and the water absorbed from the soil. Plants also need very small quantities of minerals for healthy growth. Mineral ions are absorbed through the roots from the dissolved chemicals compounds in the soil. When garden centres sell bottles of “Plant Food” they are selling solutions of some of the important minerals; these can be added to the soil in which the plants are growing....   [tags: Papers] 634 words
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Molecular Insights into the Hormone Insulin - Molecular Insights into the Hormone Insulin Insulin plays a major role in providing energy for cells to function, as it begins reactions that convert glucose into energy. It is a hormone that acts as a messenger to other cells to uptake glucose, allowing them to produce energy to continue functioning. Using Rasmol and Chem3D software, the molecular structure of insulin was examined to understand its binding with its receptor and to gain chemical insight into its activities related to the production of energy....   [tags: Biology Medical Hormones Diabetic Diabetes]
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P-type ATPases - ... Skou isolated and homogenised the sciatic nerve from the crab, due to its non-myelinated structure, similar to that of the Giant squid. The homogenised tissue was then centrifuged and membrane fragments extracted. Skou discovered that the enzyme was activated by a concentration of Na and K ions, causing an increase in phosphate release. Skou later discovered the inhibition of the ATPase by ouabain, a cardiac glycoside. This discovery linked the enzyme to active transport, due to the work undertaken by Schatzmann in 1954....   [tags: Chemical Biology, Biochemistry]
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Decomposing Hydrogen Peroxide - ... Activation energy is that which is required for a reaction to be initiated. In order for a reaction to occur, the atoms or molecules must collide with each other, and with enough kinetic energy to break the existing bonds, forming an “activated complex.” Once this has occurred, the new bonds of the product(s) may be formed and a discrete quantity of energy will either be released or contained within the new bonds(Chang 582). In a third pairing of these experiments, two trials with equal concentrations of reactants will be performed at different temperatures....   [tags: Chemistry]
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So Sweet - ... Lower calorie intake is the primary reason that has lead to sugar substitute’s popularity and over usage. Many medical personnel fret that this benefit has given consumers the green light to consume more. The question now is, how much quantity of a good thing is safe to eat. This new trend of eating more diet beverages, light products and sugar-free foods that was once limited or unfavorable to consumers, prompted the FDA to determine an acceptable daily intake (ADI) amount. The FDA states acceptable daily intake (ADI) is defined as the amount of a food additive that can be safely consumed on a daily basis over a person's lifetime without any adverse effects....   [tags: Nutrition ] 1301 words
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Free Energy - ... The two oppositely orientated Asn-Pro-Ala sequences at the center of the channel are highly conserved in all the aquaporins, with the positions of proline and alanine in several cases switched. Recently, aimed on locating the cation filter in the prototypical water-specific AQP1, Beitz etc. explored cation permeation in a series of AQP1 channels[20]. The conductance of excess proton, sodium cation (Na+), and potassium cation (K+) in mutants AQP1-N76D, AQP1-H180A/R195V, and AQP1-N76D/H180A/R195V were measured....   [tags: Energy] 1195 words
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The Pathophysiology of Acute Renal Failure - ... A serum potassium level test, like the serum creatinine test, is also a good indicator of how well the kidneys are filtering. Doctors also use an ultrasound, x-ray, or MRI to look at the kidneys. In the first stage of renal failure Stage one of acute renal initials diminished function. Signs and symptoms will start to show up in any testing done. glomerular filtration rate at stage one is still at least 90%. Stage two glomerular filtration rates falls to 60-89%. Stage three glomerular filtration rates falls to 30-59%....   [tags: Disease ]
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Acid/Base Chemistry - ... White grape juice and 8 am 9-6 had lower values (0.42; 0.52), as compared to 7 am 9-5 (0.61), 1 pm 9-4 (0.65) and 8 pm 9-5 (0.65) (Table 1). These results are similar to the total acidity range (0.11 to 0.70 g/100 mL) reported by Kallithraka and others (1997). Results indicate that °Brix depends on degree of fermentation. Results for 7 am 9-5 (4.5), 1 pm 9-4 (5.0), 8 pm 9-5 (5.0) and 8 am 9-6 (10.2) were similar to previously reported Brix range of 4.6 to 11.8 (Wintersteen and others 2005)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Acute Renal Failure - ... (Brady, 1995) This happens when the kidneys are directly affected by hypertension, diabetes, infection, or other dysfunctions of the renal system such as acute glomerulonephritis. Postrenal is seen in less than 5% and is caused from acute obstruction of the urinary tract. (Brady, 1995) If removal of the obstruction is immediate, the kidneys can return to normal function. Many diagnostic tests exist for the treatment and diagnosis of ARF and include: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): BUN measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]
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The Field of Medicine - ... It is usually performed by nurses who may have little or no laboratory experience. Therefore, the procedure though basic could be undermined and thus less reliability. From different readings, mistakes made by such employees can be observed in sample anthology wherein heamolysis can be realized in whole blood samples in form of ruptured red cells throughout specimen collection thus causing augmented potassium and other analytes in the samples thus false results and less reliability(22). Another issue that can be related to personnel and touches on reliability of the performance of POCT is giving an Additional task to a non laboratory staff who is already busy with his or her work....   [tags: Medical Care, Treatment] 1563 words
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The Application of Critical Thinking to the Terri Schiavo Case - ... Schiavo] ‘is in a chronic vegetative state’ and that [she] exhibits ‘an absence of voluntary activity or cognitive behavior’” (Pearse 2). Almost ten years to the day after the initial incident Judge George Greer Orders the removal of the PEG tube and estimates the death of Mrs. Schiavo to occur in seven to fourteen days after the removal or the PEG tube. The Schindlers seek an appeal of this decision and go to Florida’s Second District Court of Appeals on January 24, 2001. The 2nd DCA upholds Judge Greer’s ruling....   [tags: Case Review ]
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Dronedarone - ... Preliminary electrophysiological experiments showed dronedarone to exhibit similar efficacy as amiodarone. Further bolstering a successful therapeutic future was the purposive removal of the iodine atoms and the addition of a methyl-sulfonamide group to exclude hypo- and hyperthyroidism as well as pulmonary fibrosis from the list of serious side effects. A more detailed examination of its pharmacology found dronedarone to retain the multichannel binding properties of its parent molecule by blocking not only potassium channels but calcium and sodium channels as well, all of which contribute to the different phases of the cardiac action potential....   [tags: Pharmaceuticals] 1965 words
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chemistry - Question: What is the solubility curve of KNO3 Prediction: Draw a sketch to show the shape of the curve you expect for the solubility of a typical solid dissolving in water at different temperatures. Plot solubility on the y-axis and temperature on the x-axis. Materials: Large test tube Balance Stirring wire Two-hole stopper to fit the test tube, with a thermometer inserted into one hole 400mL beaker graduated cylinder or pipette or burette hot plate or Bunsen burner with ring clamps and wire gauze retort stand and thermometer clamp potassium nitrate, KNO3 distilled water Procedure: 1....   [tags: essays research papers] 460 words
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Ionic Bond - When ionic solids dissolve, they divide to give their positive and negative ions that make up the solids. These ions become hydrates and have the same relative proportions when in solution and when solid. The more the solid dissolves, the more the ion’s concentration increases. This increase and build-up allows for the reverse reaction to occur. In this phase of the reaction the ions crystallise out in order for the reaction to have a greater chance of occurring. Eventually the rate of dissolving will equal the rate of crystallisation....   [tags: essays research papers] 538 words
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Marijuana - The Two-Faced Detergent Whether soil particles are attached to carpet fibers, wood floors or restroom sinks, they need to be removed. But how is this done. Most of us wipe or scrub a dirty surface with soap and water without a second thought about how they actually work to remove soil. The process of removing dirt begins at the molecular level. In order to understand how soap works, we must first acknowledge what soap actually does. By definition, soap is a mixture of sodium or potassium salts and long chain organic acids....   [tags: essays research papers] 526 words
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Report on Ionization Energies - Report on Ionization Energies INTRODUCTION: The ionization energy of an atom measures how strongly an atom holds its electrons.The ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the remote gaseous atom The first ionization energy, I1, is the energy needed to remove the first electron from the atom: i.e. the most loosely held electron. Na(g) -> Na+(g) + 1e- The second ionization energy, I2, is the energy needed to remove the next (i.e....   [tags: Papers] 455 words
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Euthanasia Essay - Analysis of Physician Assisted Suicide Debate - Analysis of the Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Debate      This essay leaves no rock unturned in its analysis of the debate involving euthanasia and assisted suicide. Very thorough definitions are given for both concepts - with examples that clarify rather than obscure the reader's understanding.   Euthanasia is the intentional causing or hastening of death in a person with a medical condition that is judged to be serious. The patient may either be (a) alert and (b) aware and (c) competent to make their own decisions and (d) able to communicate or the patient may have (a) decreased alertness (due to encephalopathy or coma), (b) diminished awareness (retardation, dementia, vegetative state) and (c) be incompetent to make their own decisions or (d) be unable to communicate due to aphasia, or inability to speak....   [tags: Euthanasia Physician Assisted Suicide]
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Analysis of the Impact of Stress on Health - The Impact of Stress on Health        People seeking a higher education are under extreme stress and don't even realize it. They are dealing with the high cost of a college education and are being pressured to quickly get through college and into the workforce. Many students are working extra jobs to help pay for their tuition while still taking a full load of courses. They have their time and resources stretched so thin that they find it hard to manage college life. Many people attending college are suffering from poor eating habits, lack of organization and seem to be getting little rest or relaxation....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Sports, Athletes, and Nutirion - Athletic Fuel - Pure Athletic Fuel       An athlete's diet must include foods particularly suited for the athlete's sport. This has been an area of great study in recent years. Researchers are creating diets that provide athletes with the foods that contain high levels of the nutrients needed for each particular sport. For an athlete to have proper nutrition in sports, one must have knowledge of the six classes of nutrients and the four basic food groups. The six classes of nutrients are water, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates, and proteins....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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