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Potassium - Potassium Potassium is a vital element in the human body. Potassium had never been distinguished between sodium until the eighteenth century. Before potassium was recognized as an element, potassium carbonate was mixed with animal fat to make soap. It was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in England, in 1807. Sir Davy was able to isolate potassium using electrolysis. Potassium was the first metal isolated by this procedure. Today, it is still not found free in nature. It is obtained by electrolysis of chloride or hydroxide....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate - The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Aim To investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature. Background Knowledge Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) is an ionic compound. The strong ionic bonds hold the compound in an ionic lattice which gives KNO3 its crystalline structure. These ionic bonds also have other properties which will affect my investigation, I must be aware of these properties for greater accuracy in my method. The ionic bonds give KNO3 high melting and boiling temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 1245 words
(3.6 pages)
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Solubility of Potassium Chlorate - Solubility of Potassium Chlorate Solubility is the maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in 100g of solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on the type of ionic particles in it. So the solubility of each substance is different. The formula of solubility is: SOLUBILITY(g/100g)= (SOLUTE / SOLVENT) * 100 I did an experiment to prove this and find the solubility of potassium chlorate, an ionic solid. Apparatus: 2g potassium chlorates, some distilled water, a stand, a clamp, two beakers, a thermometer, a test tube, and a measuring cylinder....   [tags: Papers] 686 words
(2 pages)
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Potassium Iodine Lab Report - Potassium Iodine Lab Report Objectives: 1. learn to handle chemicals and equipment safely 2. use a centigram balance to determine mass 3. use a graduated cylinder to measure volume 4. dissolve and filter a solution 5. learn to estimate the uncertainty in calculated masses Materials: Centigram balance, 2 beakers (150-mL or 250-mL), funnel, ring stand, ring, stirring rod, filter paper, graduated cylinder (50-mL), hot plate or oven, safety goggles, lab apron, spatula, fume hood, solid potassium sulfate K2SO4, distilled water Hazards: Bunsen burner- Beware of its flame Make sure to wear goggles and a lab coat for protection Potassium Sulfate K2SO4- do not digest, when flaming it, watch out for drops of it that may splash up and burn you....   [tags: Papers] 639 words
(1.8 pages)
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Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate - Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate Stability --------- Stable. Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, and strong reducing agents. Toxicology ---------- Harmful if swallowed. May cause reproductive disorders. ------------------------------------------------------- Hazard: oxidizing ----------------- Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine the crystallisation temperature of the solution potassium nitrate at different concentrations and use information to find out the standard enthalpy of potassium nitrate....   [tags: Papers] 1413 words
(4 pages)
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A Stoichiometry Experiment Involving Potassium Chlorate - Introduction In any science that requires computation, specifically in Chemistry, gathering measurements of various physical and chemical properties need to be strictly accurate and precise for it is in this most crucial phase that either make or break the quality and value of science. No matter how good the experiment was performed, without forethought on how to gather and process data correctly, the collected information would not be reliable enough to draw out a conclusion on it. This experiment is divided into two parts, thus having dipartite objectives for the whole experiment....   [tags: Chemistry] 1258 words
(3.6 pages)
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Percent Composition by Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate - % Composition By Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the percent composition by mass of oxygen in potassium chlorate. Procedure: 1.The mass of the crucible and the cover was measured. 2.KClO3 was added to the crucible. 3.The mass of the crucible, cover and KClO3 was measured. 4.MnO2 was added in the crucible. 5.The mass of the crucible, cover, KClO3 and MnO2 was measured. 6.The Bunsen Burner was lit. 7.The covered crucible was placed over the flame of the Bunsen Burner using a ring stand....   [tags: Chemistry] 359 words
(1 pages)
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Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate - Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate Principle: This experiment consists of titrating the ferrous ion with permanganate ion to study the oxidation-reduction reaction. The ions react in acidic solution to give ferric ion and a reduced ionic form of manganese. All the reactants and products except permanganate ion are weakly colored, whereas permanganate is a very intensely colored ion. Then a solution of permanganate is removed as long as there is a ferrous ion present to react with it....   [tags: Papers] 455 words
(1.3 pages)
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Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate - Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrate Background Information Molecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways. The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
(2.8 pages)
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Experiment Proving Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES) Patients Potassium Channels Conduct Electrical Current - In order to understand Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES), it is first necessary to have a general understanding of the nervous system. The human nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the neural tissue outside the CNS. PNS is composed of two basic types of neurons (nerve cells): motor neurons and sensory neurons. Motor neurons, the target of LES, are used to send signals from the CNS to the body to stimulate a reaction....   [tags: Biology Central Nervous System Lambert Eaton] 2671 words
(7.6 pages)
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Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance - ... Excessive use of antacids (case study-using more than the recommended dose) may also cause metabolic alkalosis by neutralizing gastric acid, which has the same effect as loss from vomiting. Ingesting sodium bicarbonate as an antacid to neutralize gastric acid has the same effect as any other antacid. Any sodium bicarbonate ingested that exceeds the amount required to neutralize the gastric acid will be absorbed, contributing further to metabolic alkalosis. Chloride depletion also results from loss of GI secretions caused by severe vomiting (case study) or diarrhea....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Analysis of Commercial Vitamin C Tablets - Analysis of Commercial Vitamin C Tablets Aim: To employ iodometric titration to determine the content of vitamin C in commercial tablets using volumetric analysis and compares it with the manufacturersÂ’ specifications. Introduction Vitamin C is an essential substance for maintaining good health and it is proved to be the agent which prevents scurvy. Most animals can synthesize their own vitamin C, but some, such as human cannot. Owing to the increasing concern for oneÂ’s health since the last century, vitamin C tablets become the most popular supplyment to normal diets....   [tags: Papers] 1796 words
(5.1 pages)
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The Harcourt Essen Experiment - The Harcourt Essen Experiment The aim of this investigation is to: 1) find the rate equation for the reaction between hydrogen peroxide, potassium iodide and sulphuric acid by using the iodine stop clock method and plotting graphs of 1/time against concentration for each variable. Then to find the activation energy by carrying out the experiment at different temperatures using constant amounts of each reactant and then by plotting a graph of in 1/t against I/T, 3) to deduce as much information about the mechanism as possible from the rate equation....   [tags: Chemistry, Science, Experiment] 1470 words
(4.2 pages)
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?Should the decision to keep a person on life support be made by family members only?? - ‘Should the decision to keep a person on life support be made by family members only?’ This question has major impact on many people’s lives, their deaths, and their quality of life. Many other questions can be asked in conjunction with this question. How would you like to be kept on life support. Would you want a doctor to make the decision of ‘life or death’. The questions just keep on coming, and every time we seem to find ourselves divided. This issue is relevant because of the recent media coverage over Terri Schiavo’s right to live or die and the fact that any of us could be in her situation....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Determination of Iron II and Iron III in a Solution - The Determination of Iron II and Iron III in a Solution In this investigation I have to find the percentage of Iron II and Iron III in a solution containing both and do so by a volumetric method. To determine the amount of iron II and iron II in a solution I will have to titrate a sample of the solution with another chemical, which will only react with the iron II or iron III. I will also have to find away of either turning iron II into iron III or iron III into iron II. To find a chemical that would only react with iron II or iron III I looked in a textbook called "Understanding Chemistry" (Ted Lister and Jannet Renshaw)....   [tags: Papers] 616 words
(1.8 pages)
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Analysis of Commercial Vitamin C Tablets - Analysis of Commercial Vitamin C Tablets Title: Analysis of Commercial Vitamin C Tablets Objectives: To determine the content of vitamin C in commercial tablets using volumetric analysis and compares it with the manufacturers' specifications. Introduction: Commercially available vitamin C (ascorbic acid [C6H8O6], molar mass = 176 g mol-1) tablets usually specify their vitamin C contents on their packages. In this experiment, a brand of commercial vitamin C tablet and its vitamin C content is to be determined and compared with the value stated on the package....   [tags: Papers] 1550 words
(4.4 pages)
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Fertilizers - Fertilizers are substances added to the soil sprayed on leaves of plants to help them grow better or in some cases faster. Plants need twenty essentail elements to help them grow. Plants make carbohydrates. A plant needs nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and magnesium the most to grow healthy. Most soils naturally contain enough trace elements for field crops, but such elements must be added when certain fruits and vegetable plants are grown. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the top three elements needed in plant growth....   [tags: essays research papers] 593 words
(1.7 pages)
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Superior Flexor Muscle Cells - Effects of Extracellular Potassium Concentration on Membrane Potentials in Crayfish Superior Flexor Muscle Cells Intracellular measurement of membrane potentials in cells of the crayfish superficial flexor muscle can reveal the effects of varying the extracellular concentrations of potassium ion on the resting potential. Our results suggest that at high extracellular potassium concentrations, the resting potential resembles that of the potassium’s equilibrium potential, and at low potassium concentrations, resting potential is less related to potassium equilibrium potential....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers] 870 words
(2.5 pages)
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MR - Investigating Rate of Reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate ions with respect to Temperature and use of a Catalyst Introduction The aim of this experiment was to investigate the affect of the use of a catalyst and temperature on the rate of reaction while keeping all the other factors that affect the reaction rate constant. In the reaction, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide will be used to provide the peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions respectively. The ionic formula for the reaction is as follows: S2O82- (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 2SO42- (aq) + I2 (aq) However, in order to measure the rates of reaction, sodium thiosulphate and starch are added....   [tags: essays research papers] 851 words
(2.4 pages)
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Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome - Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome Abstract Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome is a human disorder that causes deafness and an irregular heartbeat. It is caused by a mutation in a protein that is a potassium ion channel. The mutations lead to a protein that does not serve the purpose it was designed to serve. It is difficult to treat, but there are things that can be done for both the cardiac and auditory aspects of it. Implantation of a device used as a sort of bionic ear can be used as treatment for the deafness characteristic of JLNS....   [tags: Biology Mutation]
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Fertilisers and Their Effect on Plants - Fertilisers and Their Effect on Plants Background information ---------------------- There are 2 types of fertilisers organic and inorganic, inorganic fertilisers can be used straight away. General inorganic fertilisers contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P and K). These are the three main elements which plants need from the soil in order to grow well. (Roberts, The living world 1991). Phosphorus is essential for photosynthesis (the process by which plants trap the sun's energy and uses it to make food)....   [tags: Papers] 1823 words
(5.2 pages)
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Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates - Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates Aim: To investigate a range of metal carbonates and see if they thermally decompose. Thermal Decomposition INVESTIGATION [IMAGE] ------- Written By Tauqir Sharif ------------------------ Research: When a metal is thermally decomposed the bond between the metal and its carbonate (carbon and oxygen) is removed and the carbonate is released as carbon dioxide. Metal Carbonate = Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide Malachite is an ore of copper....   [tags: Papers] 2469 words
(7.1 pages)
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The Functions of Osmosis - The Functions of Osmosis Osmosis is the passive transport of water through a selectively permeable membrane, a membrane that allows certain needed particles to pass through it more easily than others. Pores in this type of membrane are large enough for water to pass effortlessly through it. The flow of water during osmosis depends on the concentration of a solute either within a cell membrane or surrounding the membrane. Water naturally flows from a hypertonic solution, an area of high concentration of solute, to a hypotonic district, a solution containing a lower concentration of solute....   [tags: Papers] 635 words
(1.8 pages)
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Identification of Organic Compounds - Identification of Organic Compounds Aim: to identify six organic compounds by a series of laboratory tests. Apparatus: Test tubes Six unknown chemicals Boiling tubes Water bath Droppers Potassium Manganate Potassium Dichromate Sulphuric Acid Sodium Hydroxide Nitric acid Silver nitrate In this experiment I will attempt to label six colourless liquids. The six are as follows; alkane, alkene, primary alcohol, chloroalkane, bromoalkane and iodoalkane....   [tags: Papers] 445 words
(1.3 pages)
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The K+ Channel Revisited - The K+ Channel Revisited Many scientists enter the field of neuroscience with a desire to understand how the human brain functions to create our actions. Some take a large approach and study reactions to stimulus in live animals. This approach leaves us still wanting to know about things that aren't a result of an outside stimulus. Other scientists take the minimalist approach and start by studying the exact mechanisms of individual cells of the brain. But, what good does that do us for everyday life....   [tags: Chemical Neuroscience Chemistry Papers]
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Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution - Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution [IMAGE] Biology Coursework Monique Noel 12T Finding the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution. Introduction I am investigating the optimum pH bacterial and mammalian amylase digests starch solution. To do this I will conduct an experiment using bacterial and mammalian amylase, subjecting them to varying pH levels and record at which pH level the enzyme digests starch solution most efficiently....   [tags: Papers] 1242 words
(3.5 pages)
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The Effect of Different Concentrations on the Rates of Reactions - The Effect of Different Concentrations on the Rates of Reactions Chemicals, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide, were mixed together. They were both clear solutions and when mixed remained clear at first but then suddenly a blue/black colour rapidly spread within the mixture until all the mixture had turned black. I am going to measure out peroxodisulphate ions and water which will be the effectors, in the experiment, of the rate of reaction. By changing the common factor I found out that it did affect the rate if reaction....   [tags: Papers] 975 words
(2.8 pages)
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Determining the Chloride Concentration of an Unknown Solution - Determining the Chloride Concentration of an Unknown Solution Objective: To standardize a given sample of silver nitrate and to determine the chloride concentration of an unknown solution. Apparatus: 250mL beaker(x2), 100mL beaker, 250mL conical flask(x2), burette, 25mL pipette, pipette filler, stand and clamp, white tile, safety goggles. Materials: Potassium chloride/potassium bromide mixture solution(6 g/dm3), sodium chloride solution(0.040M), silver nitrate solution(~0.05M), potassium chromate solution(5%m/V)....   [tags: Papers] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Pyrotechnics - PYROTECHNICS Pyrotechnics special effects are widely used in motion picture production to create all types of effects involving explosions, fires, light, smoke and sound concussions. The types of pyrotechnics materials used include flash powder, flash paper, gun cotton, black powder (gunpowder), smokeless powder, detonator explosives, and many more. They are used in bullet hits (squibs), blank cartridges, flash pots, fuses, mortars, smoke pots, sparkle pots, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 493 words
(1.4 pages)
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Investigating the effect of temperature or concentration on the rate of a reaction - Investigating the effect of temperature or concentration on the rate of a reaction The Reaction I am going to use potassium carbonate to react with hydrochloric acid to form potassium chloride, water and the gas carbon dioxide. The equation for this is: Potassium carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid Potassium Chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide K2CO3+2HCl 2KCl+H2O+CO2 However the problem is I am trying to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of this reaction. Prediction I think that if I increase the temperature or the concentration of the acid by the same amount each time, the rate of the reaction will also increase around the same amount each time....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1309 words
(3.7 pages)
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Brassica Rapa Plant - Brassica Rapa Plant Brassica rapa is an extremely fast growing species of plant, finishing its life cycle in around 38 days. The plant is a form of turnip with medicinal properties linking it with the suppression of breast and skin cancer. I will grow these plants under conditions where they have all the nutrients required (the Control) and under conditions where one of the essential macro elements is absent. The six macronutrients, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Sulphur (S) are required by plants in large amounts....   [tags: Papers] 2232 words
(6.4 pages)
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Inhibitory Or Excitatory Potential Changes - Inhibitory Or Excitatory Potential Changes Graded potentials can be either hyperpolarizations (inhibitory) or depolarizations (excitatory). Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, also referred to as IPSP, is the temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential occurs when synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to exit the cell (carrying a positive charge with them) or for the chloride ions to enter the cell (carrying a negative charge with them)....   [tags: Biology Biological Papers]
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Colorimetric Determination of Manganese in Steel - Colorimetric Determination of Manganese in Steel Aim:- The aim of this experiment was to find out the percentage of manganese present in a steel paper clip. Introduction:- Colorimetry is an analytical technique that is used to determine the concentrations of coloured substances in solution. It relies on the fact that a coloured substance absorbs light of a complimentary colour to its own and that the amount of light absorbs is proportional to its concentration. Colorimetry is particularly suited to the determination of manganese in steel because the manganese can be converted to the permanganate (VII) ion which is strongly coloured....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
(2.1 pages)
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Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings - ... In the experiment that was undertaken bioassays were tested to gain an understanding of how in particular copper chloride, potassium chloride and manganese chloride affect the colouration and growth rate compared to distilled water. It was known through previous research on the topic that bioassays can both be beneficial and harmful towards different plants. Hopefully by conducting this experiment it will reveal the conditions that tomato seedlings are able to survive in. Through previous research it can be hypothesised that copper chloride will have a major negative effect on the overall appearance and growth of these tomato seedlings followed by manganese chloride and potassium chloride....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Chemicals Tests for Anions in Various Salts - Chemicals Tests for Anions in Various Salts APPARATUS Spatula Test tubes and racks Pipettes Chemicals used Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid solution Barium chloride (harmful) Silver nitrate solution Metal salts used for testing Potassium chloride (KCI) Iron chloride (FECI3) Sodium sulphate (NASO4) Calcium carbonate (CACO3) Lead carbonate (PBCO3) Tap water RISK ASSESMENT Potassium chloride Explosive when mixed with combustion materials....   [tags: Papers] 497 words
(1.4 pages)
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Mineral Composition of Seaweed - The mineral composition of three groups of seaweed under study is shown in Table 3. As an illustration, most of the seaweeds showed high value of Potassium, Magnesium and Iron, but low in Copper and Cobalt that is coincided to those estimated by Krishnaiah et al. (2008), but significantly higher with those results reported by Rupérez (2002). Among minerals, Potassium occurred in the highest proportions in all seaweeds (515.6±35.7-876.6±15.9 mg/100g) which are significantly lower than those results obtained by Matanjun et al., (2009) (8371.2±0.0-13155.2±1.1 mg/100g).The highest content of potassium was detected for brown algae and red algae....   [tags: science experiments,] 631 words
(1.8 pages)
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Anorexia and Bulimia - ANOREXIA Anorexia or other wise know as Anorexia Nervosa, is a condition characterized by fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, as well as a distorted body image or in other words, someone who thinks that they are fat when they are probably already too thin. Such a distorted image can lead to an excessive weight loss from stopping food intake and or excessive exercise. Anorexia nervosa is not associated with any preexisting physical illness. It is found in teens and young adults, but especially young women....   [tags: Causes of Bulimia, Eating Disorders] 362 words
(1 pages)
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Inhibitory or Excitatory Potential Changes - Inhibitory or Excitatory Potential Changes Risperidone is a serotonin antagonist which blocks GABA-evoked currents in pyramidal neurons (Feng et al, 2001). Risperidone lengthens action potentials and blocks potassium current in rabbit heart muscle. In human atrial muscle risperidone decreases outward current but has no effect on inward current. It lengthens the repolarization of atrial and ventricular action potentials only at high drug levels. Risperidone reduces the membrane resting potential and prolongs action potential duration....   [tags: Drugs Psychology Psychiatry Medical Essays]
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Dating Methods - General Differances Between Relative and Absolute Dating Methods Getting dates for fossils that are found in sites being excavated by anthropologist is very important. Dates show the evolution from early hominid specimens to our own species, Homo homo sapiens. There are many methods that can be used to acquire these dates, but all of these methods fall into one of two catorgories. They can either give a absolute date or a relative date. An absolute date is one in which you get an actual date in years....   [tags: essays papers] 1443 words
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Basic Physiology of a Neuron and How it Fires - Basic Physiology of a Neuron and How it Fires Describe the basic physiology of a neuron. Detail the manner by which neurons fire action potentials and how neurons communicate with one another across synapses. Outline the process of how an action petential occurs and hoe it propagates down an axon. Explain how chemical transmission occurs at synapses and how this allows neurons to activate of inhibit one another. [Picture from "Answer to Neuron Structure"] Neurons are the basic units of the brain....   [tags: Papers] 722 words
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Lab Report Using a Chemical Titration to Measure Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide to Water and Oxygen - Lab Report Using a Chemical Titration to Measure Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide to Water and Oxygen Overview: In this laboratory you will use a chemical titration to measure and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide (HO) to water and oxygen using the enzyme catalase. Objectives: Before doing this exercise, you should understand: Ø the general functions and activities of enzymes Ø the relationship between the structure and function of enzymes Ø the concept of initial reaction rates of enzymes Ø how the concept of free energy relates to enzyme activity Ø that changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration can affect the initial reaction rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions....   [tags: Papers] 1829 words
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Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types - Investigating Into the Possible Existence of Distribution of Stomata Within Different Leaf Types The aim of my particular experiment was to investigate into the possible existence of distribution of stomata within different leaf types. My investigation also requires me to research into the rate of transpiration into the different leaf types and if this has an effect of the distribution of stomata on the leaves surface. Prediction I predict that the environment of which I found my particular leaf type had an effect on the stomata distribution in my particular leaf type....   [tags: Papers] 3941 words
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Investigating Which Bleach is the Best - Investigating Which Bleach is the Best Problem: To find out which bleach is the most concentrated and which I the best value for money. Hypothesis: The most concentrated bleach is likely to be expensive because Domestos is well known (has a good reputation). Tesco value is expected to be the best value and is very cheap (less than 1/10 of Domestos’s price. Plan ==== We need to find out which is the most concentrated. --------------------------------------------------- Cl2 + 2KI ® I2 + 2KCL Chlorine causes the bleaching effect we can’t measure chlorine directly but we can measure iodine....   [tags: Papers] 742 words
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The Importance of Fruit in a Well-Balanced Diet - ... For example, apples stored in the refrigerator in a plastic bag stay crisper and keep more of the nutrients helpful to the body. While apples store better in the refrigerator, bananas keep better in a fruit bowl at room temperature. Bananas kept in the refrigerator will only turn black from decay; they will not ripen. After decay begins, the banana loses the nutrients desired. Although some fruits keep freshness better either in the refrigerator or at room temperature, some fruits do not lose nutritious value either way....   [tags: Nutrition]
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The Problem of Dehydration - ... These ions can serve as a catalyst, accelerating reactions that normally would take much more than a few seconds. (OH). Another important property of water is represented by its capacity to dissipate heat through evaporation. This characteristic has an important role in the physiology of thermo-regulation. At high atmospheric temperatures, the body receives much more heat than it needs. If this heat is not dissipated, the body will suffer. Fortunately, the human body has several mechanisms to remove heat....   [tags: Health ]
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Determine the Identity of Metals - Determine the Identity of Metals Experiments to determine the identity of metals by examining the colour of flame when samples of that metal are heated. The aim of this experiment was to find out whether different metals had different reactions when subjected to the flame of the Bunsen burner. This might then allow the classification and identification of certain metals if they have their own reactions, which will be different coloured flames for this experiment. It was hard for me to predict what would occur during the experiment but I was able to write a hypothesis....   [tags: science] 645 words
(1.8 pages)
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Airbags - In 1968-- Allen Breed first patented Airbags that inflate on impact. These early years models were inflated by compressed gas, and came with problems such as pressure loss, and slower inflation. In the 1970's solid prominent airbags were first introduced, and suffered fewer problems than compressed gas models. In 1975 GM tested airbags on it's government only Chevrolet. Soon after they became options on commercial vehicles, and gradually gained popularity. Since 1998 all new cars had to be equipped with driver and passenger-side airbags....   [tags: Law School Applications] 383 words
(1.1 pages)
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Osmosis and Diffusion Investigation - Osmosis and Diffusion Investigation Aim: To examine the process of osmosis and diffusion. Part A: Step 1: Q1.[IMAGE] Q2. The jiggling motion is visible because the fat globules are constantly being bombarded by smaller particles. [IMAGE] Q3. The Brownian motion is the ‘jiggling’ motion of the milk fat globules. All matter is in constant motion. Step 2: Q4. a) After 5 minutes Clear uncoloured water Cloud of purple stain * Potassium Permanganate [IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] b) After 24 hours [IMAGE] Potassium Permanganate [IMAGE][IMAGE] The potassium permanganate will have spread throughout the beaker as the water molecules are constantly moving around....   [tags: Papers] 558 words
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Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports - Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports Certain foods can make a difference in sports competition. Conditioning, strength, and speed have been the focal points of athletic training for years; however, the research on nutritional elements indicates their importance to an athlete's optimal performance. Knowing the proper food to eat before, during, and after a physical activity can help an athlete in achieving their desired performance. The most important nutrient categories are starches, minerals, sugars, and electrolytes....   [tags: Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet] 880 words
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End-Stage Renal Disease - This article is for people whose kidneys fail to work. This condition is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Today, there are new and better treatments for ESRD that replace the work of healthy kidneys. By learning about your treatment choices, you can work with your doctor to pick the one that's best for you. No matter which type of treatment you choose, there will be some changes in your life. But with the help of your health care team, family, and friends, you may be able to lead a full, active life....   [tags: essays research papers] 3364 words
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Evolution of Man - Evolution of Man Scientists continue to debate the history of man. It is generally agreed upon by the scientific community, however, that humans evolved from lesser beings, and this essay will function to provide evidence to support this claim. Several points will be outlined, including the general physical changes that occurred between several key species on the phylogeny of man, and a discussion of dating methods used to pinpoint the age of the fossils. This essay will begin with a brief discussion of dating techniques....   [tags: Science Anthropology]
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How Various Mechanisms By Which Substances Cross The Cell Me - Homeostasis is essential to the cell’s survival. The cell membrane is responsible for homeostasis. The membrane has a selective permeability which means what moves in and out of the cell is regulated. Amino acids, sugars, oxygen, sodium, and potassium are examples of substances that enter the cell. Waste products and carbon dioxide are removed from the cell. All of these substances cross the membrane in a variety of ways. From diffusion and osmosis, to active transport the traffic through the cell membrane is regulated....   [tags: essays research papers] 882 words
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The History Of the Periodic Table - The History Of the Periodic Table By 1860 about sixty elements were known and a method was needed for organisation. Many scientists made significant contributions that eventually enabled Dmitri Mendeléev to construct his table. The Periodic Table is based on the properties of matter. We can describe, identify, separate, and classify all the elements by properties. There are two types of property of matter. Physical properties which describe the material as it is and chemical properties which describe how an element reacts, with what it reacts, the amount of heat it produces as it reacts, or any other measurable trait that has to do with the power of the element....   [tags: Papers] 1083 words
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Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution - Investigating Which Metal Combination Gives Out the Most Voltage in a Solution Background Metals are an order of chemical elements in the periodic table. They are arranged in atomic number. All of them are solid (apart from mercury), good thermal and electrical conductors and are shiny when polished. Metals and non - metals are separated in the table by a diagonal line. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The reactivity series is a table to show which metals are most reactive to the least reactive....   [tags: Papers] 919 words
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Wiring Up Biology - Wiring Up Biology WHEN the commonplaces of one discipline are applied to an unrelated field, they can prove curiously fruitful. In 1952 two British physiologists, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley, managed just such a fruitful crossover, applying textbook physics to living tissue. They were both later knighted, and shared a Nobel prize in 1963. The experimental method they pioneered remains fundamental to research into the behaviour of nerve cells. As anyone who has ever had an electric shock knows, electricity has powerful effects on living matter....   [tags: Papers] 1539 words
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The Validity of Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution - The Validity of Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution Evolution. Is it a fact or fiction. I thought that Evolution, was just a theory, but I was wrong. I believe that Darwin’s theory has had a great impact on the world today. It has caused many debates between religious authorities and those from the scientific community. This theory had prompted individuals to think about the Origin of the Universe, Earth, and how did life really begin. However, what distinguishes Charles Darwin from the others is the fact that he collected and provided substantial evidences and he related various branches of science such as geology, botany and biology, which helped, validate his theories....   [tags: Papers]
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The Effect of a Healthy Lifestyle on Aging - The Effect of a Healthy Lifestyle on Aging Lifestyle is an important predictor of 'How well a person ages'. Important factors such as eating right and exercising regularly are major components of a healthy lifestyle that play an important role on how long a person can live. The focus of this research is to explain the relationship between aging and the food you eat, how often you exercise , and your mental state . Finally it will focus on different ways of maintaining a decent lifestyle in order to live longer and happier....   [tags: Papers Diet Health Exercise Old Essays]
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A Balanced Diet - A Balanced Diet This section contains details on what a healthy diet should consist of and why each vitamin and mineral is an essential part of staying healthy. The majority of people in this country eat too much fat and not enough fibre and for most people a healthy diet is simple and easy to do. The move towards a healthy diet may just mean eating more fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. People in the UK have a 1 in 3 chance of developing cancer at some time in their lives, eating a healthy diet, which includes 5 portions of different fruit and vegetables a day can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease, or cancer....   [tags: Papers] 831 words
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Understanding Oxidation Reactions - Understanding Oxidation Reactions “The process of combining oxygen with some other substance or a chemical change in which and atom loses electrons.” (www.weizmann.ac.il/safety/chgl.html) If there is a sufficient amount of oxygen in a combustion reaction, then oxides will be formed. (See Fig 1) The reaction below shows that with sufficient oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced. However in the second equation when there is limited oxygen, carbon monoxide is produced....   [tags: Papers] 1058 words
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Experiment on Diffusion - Experiment on Diffusion Aim: to determine diffusion (in ordinary tap water). Apparatus: beaker, potassium permanganate and tin foil. Method: I filled the beaker (half) with ordinary tap water and I released the potassium permanganate into it from the thin foil. Results: within a matter of a few seconds to one and half minutes, the whole water turned purple beginning from the area where the potassium permanganate was dropped. Conclusion: this experiment showed the movement of potassium permanganate molecule all around the beaker of ordinary tap water thereby, concluding the fact that molecules would move from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration (diffusion) passively....   [tags: Papers] 6178 words
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Health Problems and Your Food - ... What if you were told the cookie you are about to eat or the soda you are about to drink contains a chemical known to leave slow healing spores on the human skin. Would you still eat or drink what you have in your hand. Most citrus flavored soda and commercially baked goods contain a chemical called Bromine. Not only is Bromine used as an emulsifier in soda and dyes in baked goods it is used in insecticides, fire extinguishers, flame proofing agents, photographic compounds, sanitizers, natural gas and oil production....   [tags: Nutrition ]
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The Importance of Ion Channels - ... In addition, a mutant KCNE1 gene at the LQT5 locus on chromosome 21 has been found to produce faulty beta subunits that bind with the KVLQT1 alpha subunits, which ultimately delays activation and slows repolarization in myocardial cells (Zareba et al., 1998). Recent clinical studies indicate that individuals with the mutated KVLQT1 gene (LQT1 or LQT5), have lower occurrences of cardiac arrest and sudden death, when compared to those who are carriers of HERG or SCN5A mutations (Westenskow et al., 2004)....   [tags: Disease, Disorders]
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The Activation Energy of Bromide ion and Bromate ion - The Activation Energy of Bromide ion and Bromate ion To Determine the Activation Energy of the Reaction between Bromide ion and Bromate (V) ion in Acid Solution Objectives: By reacting Potassium Bromide and Potassium Bromate in the acid solution in varies temperature, we can then determine the Activation Energy of the reaction in different temperature through the equation:[IMAGE]. Questions: 1. Give an equation for the reaction between phenol and bromine. 2. What is the use of methyl orange in this experiment....   [tags: Chemical Reactions Reaction Rates Essays] 447 words
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Bio-report - 1.) Cellular Transport a.Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane from a region where water molecules are more concentrated to one where they are less concentrated. The transport of water is simple the cell being selectively permeable will allow water through it until an equilibrium is reached and at that time water will flow both in and out of the cell maintaining the equilibrium. For example a red blood cell is placed into a isotonic solution which means both the solution and the cell have the same concentration the net movement of water is zero, water however does move freely in and out of the cell to maintain the balance....   [tags: essays research papers] 537 words
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Respiration of Plants - Respiration of Plants Both plants and animals respire, but plants respire at a considerably lower rate than animals. Although in photosynthesis large amounts of gas is exchanged, leaves are adapted to control this situation. All cells in a plant respire, as it is necessary to break down glucose in order to release energy and therefore carbon dioxide. Leaves [IMAGE]In leaves, gas exchange (and loss of water vapour in transpiration) occurs through pores call the stomata, or if a singular pore, a stoma....   [tags: Papers] 342 words
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Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa - Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa Today, both anorexia and bulimia are the most common eating disorders and affect almost 15 percent of American teenagers. Eating disorders are fifteen times more likely to occur in adolescent girls than adolescent boys. They can be fatal and thousands die from every year but this is one mental illness that can be beaten. Anorexia is increasing more rapidly in developed countries than in underdeveloped countries. Bulimia is becoming the more common type of eating disorder among teens....   [tags: Causes of Bulimia, Eating Disorders]
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Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case - Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case Experiments to Provide Evidence in a Prosecution Case with the Pervis Vinegar Company on Unknown Toxins The aim of this experiment is to preform tests on two samples of vinegar, one that is commercially safe and the other not (from the Pervis Company) to determine the unknown toxin contained in the Pervis Vinegar. Materials: * Numerous Beakers/Conical Flasks * Phenolphthalein Indicator * Burette * Numerous Test Tubes * Sticky Tape * Test Tube Rack * Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) * Calculator * Sample of Commercially Safe Vinegar * 2 Surgical Swabs (large cotton bud) * Sample of Pervis Vinegar (Toxic) * 2 Agar Gel Plates * Universal Indicator * Incubator Oven * Incubator * Bunsen Burner * Water * 2 Small Syringes * Potassium Chromate Solution * Hydrochloric Acid Methods To fully determine and identify the unknown toxin present in the Pervis vinegar sample, four tests were needed....   [tags: science] 1002 words
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Acquired Diabetes Insipidus - Acquired NDI Acquired NDI is the consequence of several conditions (Table 2) that are characterized by an increased water output and reduced urine osmolality, despite elevated levels of AVP. In many of these conditions, the kidney is unable to handle water due to an impaired responsiveness to vasopressin. As discussed below, a number of rat models with NDI have been evaluated, and common for all is a reduced expression of AQP2 in the principal cells of the collecting ducts. However, as is discussed, the degree of AQP2 downregulation as well as the intracellular localization of the protein differs significantly among the various conditions, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for AQP2 dysregulation in the various models....   [tags: essays research papers] 2198 words
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Aluminum - Aluminum, symbol Al, the most abundant metallic element in the earth's crust. The atomic number of aluminum is 13; the element is in group 13 (IIIa) of the periodic table. Hans Christian Orstead, Danish chemist, first isolated aluminum in 1825, using a chemical process involving potassium amalgam. Between 1827 and 1845, Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist, improved Oersted's process by using metallic potassium. He was the first to measure the specific gravity of aluminum and show its lightness. In 1854 Henri Sainte-Claire Deville, in France, obtained the metal by reducing aluminum chloride with sodium....   [tags: essays research papers] 1227 words
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The Dandelion - The Dandelion, of the genus Taraxacum and the class Magnoliopsida is a close relative of the Sunflower. The name, Dandelion comes from the French phrase for ¡¥Teeth of Lion¡¦, dent de lion, due to the likeness of the shape of the plant¡¦s leaves and a lion¡¦s canine teeth, whilst its generic name, Taraxacum Officinale was influenced by the plant¡¦s many medical properties. Taraxacum meaning ¡¥disorder-remedy¡¦ and Officinale, stating that the plant has medicinal attributes. Other popular names for this plant include swine snout, priest¡¦s crown and pissabed....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Ventricular Tachycardia - Objectives The objectives of this case study are to evaluate the cause of death for a female patient that presented to the ER with ventricular tachycardia, of which elevated to ventricular fibrillation and was unsuccessfully resuscitated. Furthermore, what genetic presupposition to development of VT did she have, and how was this augmented by the influence of Seldane ® (active ingredient terfenadine), an over the counter anti-histamine allergy season remedy. Clinical History During spring time of 1998, a typically healthy 43 year old deaf woman presented in the ER with cardiac arrhythmia....   [tags: essays research papers] 775 words
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Australopithecines Vs. Homo - Genetic evidence sheds considerable light on the origins of the hominid lineage. An increasing body of fossil data helps us to understand where and when hominids came into existence. The first signs of hominid evolution are the morphological changes associated with bipedality, a locomotor pattern that offered fitness, advantages in a new environment. However, other behaviors remained similar to those of nonhuman primates. Dramatic progress came with the evolution of Homo erectus, who exhibited more "human" morphology and life ways....   [tags: Genetics] 1486 words
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Consequences of the Different Forms of Modern Agriculture - Consequences of the Different Forms of Modern Agriculture Incomplete Essay Until about four decades ago, crop yields in agricultural systems depended on internal resources, recycling of organic matter, built-in biological control mechanisms and rainfall patterns. Agricultural yields were modest, but stable. Production was safeguarded by growing more than one crop or variety in space and time in a field as insurance against pest outbreaks or severe weather. Inputs of nitrogen were gained by rotating major field crops with legumes....   [tags: Papers] 591 words
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Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed - Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed Introduction ============ For healthy growth plants need several substances. Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. Nitrates are essential for making amino acids and for the 'synthesis' of proteins. Phosphates are essential as they have an important role in reactions involved in photosynthesis and respiration. Potassium is also important as it helps the enzymes involved in photosynthesis and respiration to work....   [tags: Papers] 1471 words
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ATP as a Universal Energy Current in the Body - ATP as a Universal Energy Current in the Body Adenosine triphosphate is a phosphorylated nucleotide, where the third, terminal phosphate requires a large amount of energy to bind it to the adenosine diphosphate. Because of this energy required when creating ATP, when it is hydrolysed a large amount of energy is released (30.6 kj/mole of ATP). This molecule is also a small water-soluble molecule which makes is ideal as the chief immediate source of energy in the body. ATP is produced in plants by photo-phosphorylation from sunlight, and in humans by oxidative phosphorylation from glucose....   [tags: Papers] 722 words
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Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach - Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach In this investigation, I am looking to determine the amount of chlorine present in household bleach. However, in order to do this I would have to calculate the mass represented by chlorine in the mass of the household bleach. After doing that, I would then have to represent this as a percentage. In order to calculate the mass represented by the chlorine in the mass of the household bleach, I would have to titrate this solution, along with an excess of potassium iodide and ethanoic acid against sodium thiosulphate from the burette using starch solution as an indicator....   [tags: Papers] 995 words
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The Use of Fertilisers in Farming - The Use of Fertilisers in Farming Plants or in this case crops make their own food through photosynthesis, but in order to do so require nutrients. These come in two main forms: Macronutrients and Micronutrients. The primary nutrients that plants use include nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, of which are usually depleted first in the soil because plants use large amounts of them for their growth. Secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium and sulphur, but there are usually enough of these nutrients in the soil....   [tags: Papers] 2098 words
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The Different Types of Aspirin - The Different Types of Aspirin Introduction In this aspirin course work I will be investigating different types of aspirin and making aspirin. I will be looking at all the process taken to make aspirin and all the ingredients in aspirin. I Will be: Extracting some salicylic acid (2-hyroxy benzoic acid) from willow twigs or bark. [IMAGE] O [IMAGE][IMAGE] C [IMAGE] OH [IMAGE] OH [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] 2- hydroxy benzoic acid structure We will also be learning about TLC (thin layer chromatograph), and its uses to confirm the identity of compounds....   [tags: Papers] 2431 words
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Title Evaluation of Commercial Bleaches - Title Evaluation of Commercial Bleaches Aim The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of sodium hypochlorite, the bleaching agent, present in different bleaching solution by conversion to iodine and titration with standardized sodium thiosulphate. Introduction Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is the most important ingredient of most commercial bleaches. The amount of NaOCl present can be estimated by titration. Sodium hypochlorite solution is allowed to mix with potassium iodide (KI) solution and acid(H2SO4)....   [tags: Papers] 867 words
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Lab Report The Effects of Drugs on Cardiac Physiology - Lab Report The Effects of Drugs on Cardiac Physiology The study of cardio physiology was broken up into five distinct parts all centering on the cardiovascular system. The first lab was utilization of the electrocardiogram (ECG). This studied the electrical activities of the heart by placing electrodes on different parts of the skin. This results in a graph on calibrated paper of these activities. These graphs are useful in the diagnosis of heart disease and heart abnormalities. Alongside natural heart abnormalities are those induced by chemical substances....   [tags: Papers] 1801 words
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