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The Intake of Potassium - QUESTION 1 The Extracellular concentration of potassium (K) is between 3.5-5.0 mmol/l. 98% of the total potassium in the body is in the Intracellular fluid (approx 3700mmol for a 70kg man) while only 2% is in ECF (approx 65mmol). The typical daily intake of potassium is 50-150mmol which exceeds total amount of potassium in extracellular compartment. The distribution of potassium between Intracellular and Extracellular compartment is determined by the balance between inward and outward movement of potassium....   [tags: Extracellular Concentration, Intracellular Fluid]
:: 3 Works Cited
1138 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Elements and Health Benefits of Potassium - Potassium is an element on the periodic table that is symbolized by the letter K. The atomic number of this element is 19. At room temperature this element is a solid. Potassium can be found in two forms: either pure or compounds. Pure potassium is described as a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive in water However, Potassium forms many compounds such as Potassium chloride, which is the most common potassium compound (Gagnon, 1). This form of Potassium is especially used in fertilizers as a salt substitute....   [tags: atomic number, forms, chemistry]
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972 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Importance of Potassium for the Human Body - ... However if you don’t absorb enough potassium you could develop irregular heart beats, and possible the cirrhosis of the liver. Potassium is found in many foods, but vegetables will give you the highest source of potassium. Potatoes have the highest amount potassium, giving the average human 1,085 milligrams. Another good source of potassium is fruits. The first thing that might come to your mind is a bananas. Bananas are a high source of potassium giving the human body 540 milligrams of potassium....   [tags: cellular and electrical function] 802 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Importance of Potassium in Plants - ... The form of which Potassium is most commonly applied is potassium chloride also known as (0-60-0). 4. Can potassium be applied as a liquid, dry or both Potassium can be applied both as liquid and dry fertilizer. It can be applied as potassium nitrate 13-0-46 otherwise known as water soluble dry fertilizer, which are known as prills or granular form. The liquid is known as potassium sulfate 0-0-50, which is a very important product in a conventional agriculture based cropping system. This potassium sulfate provides 50 units of potassium, and at the same time 17 units of sulfur....   [tags: crops, fertilizing, harvest] 733 words
(2.1 pages)
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Hyperkalemia is an Imbaland of Serum Potassium - ... However, compensatory mechanisms may become overwhelmed, and result in hyperkalemia (Raymond & Wazny, 2010). Potassium plays an important role in nerve and muscle function. As a result of this role, abnormalities in serum potassium may trigger membrane excitability and considerable nerve, muscle and cardiac dysfunction leading to ventricular arrhythmias and subsequently sudden cardiac death. It is estimated that between 1% and 10% of patients admitted to a hospital experience hyperkalemia, with a mortality rate of 1 per 1,000 (Raymond & Wazny,2010)....   [tags: kidney, muscle-function, life-threatening] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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Potassium - Potassium Potassium is a vital element in the human body. Potassium had never been distinguished between sodium until the eighteenth century. Before potassium was recognized as an element, potassium carbonate was mixed with animal fat to make soap. It was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in England, in 1807. Sir Davy was able to isolate potassium using electrolysis. Potassium was the first metal isolated by this procedure. Today, it is still not found free in nature. It is obtained by electrolysis of chloride or hydroxide....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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633 words
(1.8 pages)
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Effect of aggregation status on soil Potassium in Illitic - He title "illite" allocates to a group of mica-type minerals which is widely distributed in marine shales and related sediments. Illite as the consequence of potassium depletion, has less potassium and has more water molecules than true micas resembling muscovite, but anyhow it has micalike sheet structure, moreover, it possesses interlayer micro pores and is poorly crystallized. Product of muscovite weathering is illite which under humid condition this product alters to montmorillonite. Illite, as an expandable 2:1 clay mineral, is known as source of soil potassium as well accounted as a K bearing minerals (Sharma et al., 2010)....   [tags: NaBPh4,minerals, golestan district]
:: 23 Works Cited
1065 words
(3 pages)
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History, Mechanics, and Safety Concerns of Gold Potassium Cyanide - From King Midas’ greed to the treasure of the Incas, gold is easily the most widely treasured metal known throughout history. Nearly every culture or group has placed heavy inherent value on it and includes it in their lore. Even the name for gold was graciously thought out and applied. It is derived from the word “geolo”, the Old English word for “yellow”. The periodic symbol for gold, Au, is from the Latin word aurum, “glowing dawn” . Its uses are both, immeasurable and prehistoric. However, its use in the electrodeposition process, the main discussion in this paper, has only been dated back to roughly 1850....   [tags: Metal, Elements, Electroplating]
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1139 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate - The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Aim To investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature. Background Knowledge Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) is an ionic compound. The strong ionic bonds hold the compound in an ionic lattice which gives KNO3 its crystalline structure. These ionic bonds also have other properties which will affect my investigation, I must be aware of these properties for greater accuracy in my method. The ionic bonds give KNO3 high melting and boiling temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 1245 words
(3.6 pages)
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Solubility of Potassium Chlorate - Solubility of Potassium Chlorate Solubility is the maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in 100g of solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on the type of ionic particles in it. So the solubility of each substance is different. The formula of solubility is: SOLUBILITY(g/100g)= (SOLUTE / SOLVENT) * 100 I did an experiment to prove this and find the solubility of potassium chlorate, an ionic solid. Apparatus: 2g potassium chlorates, some distilled water, a stand, a clamp, two beakers, a thermometer, a test tube, and a measuring cylinder....   [tags: Papers] 686 words
(2 pages)
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Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate - Investigating the Standard Enthalpy of Potassium Nitrate Stability --------- Stable. Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, and strong reducing agents. Toxicology ---------- Harmful if swallowed. May cause reproductive disorders. ------------------------------------------------------- Hazard: oxidizing ----------------- Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine the crystallisation temperature of the solution potassium nitrate at different concentrations and use information to find out the standard enthalpy of potassium nitrate....   [tags: Papers] 1413 words
(4 pages)
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A Stoichiometry Experiment Involving Potassium Chlorate - Introduction In any science that requires computation, specifically in Chemistry, gathering measurements of various physical and chemical properties need to be strictly accurate and precise for it is in this most crucial phase that either make or break the quality and value of science. No matter how good the experiment was performed, without forethought on how to gather and process data correctly, the collected information would not be reliable enough to draw out a conclusion on it. This experiment is divided into two parts, thus having dipartite objectives for the whole experiment....   [tags: Chemistry] 1258 words
(3.6 pages)
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Action Potential and Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential - Take Home Essay 1: Action Potential There is a series of events that leads to action potential. Neurons can send and receive input from other neurons through a chemical that is called a neurotransmitter, which is stored on the postsynaptic membrane. If the input is powerful enough, the neuron will send the message down downstream neurons from dendrite to axon terminals, and this process stimulates other neurons. Action potential is an electrical excitation that travels along the membrane neuron reaching the synaptic terminal (Inlow, 2013)....   [tags: neurons, neurotransmitters, potassium channels] 529 words
(1.5 pages)
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Soil Gives Nutrition to Earth's Plants - ... It can be said that phosphorus plays a very important role in a plant’s growth and its functions helping it grow. (NSW Government, n.d.) After nitrogen, potassium (K) is the second element that is absorbed by plants in large amounts. Potassium is a main component for many plant functions such as, transpiration, respiration, controlling turgor pressure in cells, enzyme activity and nutrient absorption. It is also important in opening and closing the stomata (the breathing hole in plants) which regulates CO2 uptake in photosynthesis....   [tags: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium] 1306 words
(3.7 pages)
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How an Acid (Coke) Can React Together with Potassium to Create a Charger for an iPone - ... The Coke can is used to basically start the chemical reaction by the RCA cables that are put inside it which in return is still connected to the banana. Just like plugging the cables into a television, the red cable is usually used for right analog audio (the red goes in at the top end of the banana which is to the right) and the white cable is usually used for mono analog audio (the white goes in at the end of the fruit which is to the left.) The team used an iPhone because something electronic had to be used in this particular experiment to get the results that we were looking for so an iPhone was the chosen item....   [tags: chemical reactions, chemistry and electricity]
:: 3 Works Cited
1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Your Kidneys during Acute Renal Failure - ... Creatinine result is used in a math formula with the client’s age, race and gender. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts will be visible when conducting a urinalysis. If it’s intra-renal, red cell casts or granular casts may be visible which normally indicate glomerulonephritis or acute tubular necrosis. Both white cells and casts are obvious in the post stage of renal disease. A renal ultrasound can also aid in viewing an obstruction by showing the size of the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney failure are due to the build-up of waste products in the body that may give the afflicted person lack of energy or asthenia....   [tags: plasma potassium, electrolytes, fluids] 1434 words
(4.1 pages)
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Chemistry: Percent Composition Lab Introduction - Percent Composition Lab Introduction The percentage of something is very important in everyday life. For example, a farmer would want to know the percentage of nutrients in a fertilizer they are using. In spring, the farmer may want to use a fertilizer that has a high percentage of nitrogen, because it "greens” plants. In the fall, the farmer may want to use a fertilizer that has a higher percentage of potassium, because it strengthens the root systems of plants. A way to find the percentage of nutrients is by using percent composition....   [tags: fertilizer, potassium, molar mass]
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1206 words
(3.4 pages)
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Percent Composition by Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate - % Composition By Mass of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate Objective: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the percent composition by mass of oxygen in potassium chlorate. Procedure: 1.The mass of the crucible and the cover was measured. 2.KClO3 was added to the crucible. 3.The mass of the crucible, cover and KClO3 was measured. 4.MnO2 was added in the crucible. 5.The mass of the crucible, cover, KClO3 and MnO2 was measured. 6.The Bunsen Burner was lit. 7.The covered crucible was placed over the flame of the Bunsen Burner using a ring stand....   [tags: Chemistry] 359 words
(1 pages)
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Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate - Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate Principle: This experiment consists of titrating the ferrous ion with permanganate ion to study the oxidation-reduction reaction. The ions react in acidic solution to give ferric ion and a reduced ionic form of manganese. All the reactants and products except permanganate ion are weakly colored, whereas permanganate is a very intensely colored ion. Then a solution of permanganate is removed as long as there is a ferrous ion present to react with it....   [tags: Papers] 455 words
(1.3 pages)
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Aggregation Status on Soil Potassium in Illitic Loess Slowly Swelling Soils Possessing High Specific Surface Area - ... The common form of the linear regression stepwise (LRS) function is as follow (one-order equation): Where Yi is the dependent output that is predictable by selecting two autonomous variables as the X1 and X2 inputs. A, B are coefficients of these inputs that can be positive or negative. ε, is the random error of models. Genetic Algorithm (G.A) Solver, a time-honored technique going back to Pearson’s 1908 use of it, was employed here to show a more precise equation than linear regression stepwise....   [tags: physicochemical properties, organic, observation]
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806 words
(2.3 pages)
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Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate - Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrate Background Information Molecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways. The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
(2.8 pages)
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Experiment Proving Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES) Patients Potassium Channels Conduct Electrical Current - In order to understand Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (LES), it is first necessary to have a general understanding of the nervous system. The human nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the neural tissue outside the CNS. PNS is composed of two basic types of neurons (nerve cells): motor neurons and sensory neurons. Motor neurons, the target of LES, are used to send signals from the CNS to the body to stimulate a reaction....   [tags: Biology Central Nervous System Lambert Eaton] 2671 words
(7.6 pages)
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Mullelr and Glial Cells - ... It was hypothesized that the endfoot has the biggest impact on the flow of ions across the membrane, and therefore the cell’s resistance and conductance. So, the resistance of the cell was once again measured, but this time with the endfoot removed from the cell. It was expected that if the endfoot of the Muller cell was the region that had the biggest impact on resistance, with the endfoot removed the resistance of the cell would increase. Scientists also decided to cut a part of the cell above the endfoot, without removing the endfoot....   [tags: Brain, Endfoot, Cells] 609 words
(1.7 pages)
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Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance - Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance If an acid-base disturbance shifts the pH outside of the physiologic range, various control measures are activated to resist the change in pH. Compensatory mechanisms try to preserve the normal 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid to keep the pH at normal range. The body works to maintain normal ratios through a compensation mechanism using renal and respiratory methods (Crowley, 2010). Metabolic Alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis is seen by an increase in the concentration of plasma bicarbonate relative to the concentration of carbonic acid, which shifts the pH to the alkaline side of the physiologic range (case study- pH 7.5)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1098 words
(3.1 pages)
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Analysis and Description of Some Elements of the Periodic Table - The periodic table tells you many things about an element. Essentially it is used as a section divider to elements, each put under a specific row and column to its properties. This includes its mass, number of protons, neutrons and electrons, period, group, valence electrons... Chlorine is a diatomic molecule of Cl2. There are also 24 isotopes of chlorine, 2 of which are stable isotopes. Chlorine 35 and 37 are both stable isotopes of chlorine. The appearance of chlorine is a highly toxic green/yellow gas a room temperature with a pungent odour....   [tags: magnesium, chlorine, titanium] 2052 words
(5.9 pages)
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The Harcourt Essen Experiment - The Harcourt Essen Experiment The aim of this investigation is to: 1) find the rate equation for the reaction between hydrogen peroxide, potassium iodide and sulphuric acid by using the iodine stop clock method and plotting graphs of 1/time against concentration for each variable. Then to find the activation energy by carrying out the experiment at different temperatures using constant amounts of each reactant and then by plotting a graph of in 1/t against I/T, 3) to deduce as much information about the mechanism as possible from the rate equation....   [tags: Chemistry, Science, Experiment] 1470 words
(4.2 pages)
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Taking a Look at Sports Drinks - ... An electrolyte solution is one that commonly contains acids, bases or salts as their ionic solute, an electrolyte solution must contain ions. These types of solutions are commonly found when a solute salt is placed in to a solvent for example water. Due to the thermodynamic interactions between the solute and solvent molecules the individual components will dissociate meaning the ionic compounds will separate into smaller particles or ions. a water molecule for example has a partially positive region which attaches to the anions and takes them away while the partially negative region attaches to the cations and carrys them away....   [tags: electrolytes, rehydration, replacing energy] 784 words
(2.2 pages)
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Anatomy: How the Muscles Work - In order for a skeletal muscle to contract, a signal must be first sent from the primary motor cortex which is located in the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex. This is considered to be an Upper motor neuron. These fibers travel through the brain via the internal capsule until they get to the lower portion of the medulla oblongata. At this point, the neuron crosses over to the other side of the body. This means that if a neuron is to inervate the right bicep muscle, it originated in the left side of the precentral gyrus and crossed over to the right side at the medulla oblongata....   [tags: signals, neurons, membrane] 1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Electrical Activities in the Human Body - ... There are two steps of this phase; the absolute refractory and the relative refractory period. During the absolute refractory period, no action potential is being generated throughout the cell. During the relative refractory period, the cell can generate another action potential but takes larger than the normal signal. The refractory period occurs because of hyperpolarisation of the cell due the entry of high numbers of positive potassium ions after an action potential has passed. Returning to resting potential In order to return to the resting potential, the concentration of potassium ions should be at equilibrium....   [tags: nerve conduction, status epilecticus] 3420 words
(9.8 pages)
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Chemistry: What is Ezogabine or Retigabine? - ... Mechanism of action The mechanism of action of ezogabine was investigated using the electrophysiological measurements of ionic currents in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (transfected with cDNA encoding humanM1 muscarinic receptors,KCNQand CD8cDNAs) and rat ganglion cells, using the amphotericin-B perforatedpatch technique [22]. The effects of ezogabine were tested on ionic currents from both heteromeric KCNQ2/3 and homomeric KCNQ1, KCNQ2, KCNQ3 and KCNQ4 potassium channels. The potassium currents were enhanced by ezogabine through all types of channels, except KCNQ1....   [tags: United States, Europe, chemical name] 1049 words
(3 pages)
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Periodic Paralysis Syndrome - ... This last can be life threatening and require a trip to the emergency room. Episodes of severe weakness in the arms and legs are the major symptom. Typically, these episodes occur during sleep, early morning, or after strenuous activity. Cold, stress, and alcohol may also produce attacks(med.nyu.edu). Some people with certain types of PPS can be at risk for hyperthermia, which is when the body fails to regulate its body temperature and it skyrockets. This can occur during surgery under anesthesia....   [tags: muscular disorder, paralysis]
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564 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Importance of Electrolyte Balance - Maintaining proper levels of anything in your body is important for your body to function appropriately. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals, negative or positive, and run throughout the body’s fluids, blood, and urine. The major electrolytes of the body are Na+ (sodium), K+ (potassium), Cl– (chloride), Ca2+ (calcium), H+ (hydrogen), HCO3– (bicarbonate), and phosphates; these electrolytes can be found in the food and drinks we consume everyday. They are responsible for many body processes such as the transport of water and other fluids within the body, muscle activity, and even metabolism to name a few....   [tags: anatomy, body function]
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966 words
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Low Sodium Intake Prevents Hypertension - Hypertension affects approximately 25% of adults worldwide and 16% of US adults and it is estimated to increase in prevalence by 60% over the next 10 to 15 years (1). Hypertension, or increased systemic blood pressure, is directly correlated with many morbidities, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), congestive heart failure, and chronic renal dysfunction (reference). Essential hypertension, also known as primary hypertension, accounts for 95% of all known cases of hypertension....   [tags: blood pressure, cardiovascular disease]
:: 6 Works Cited
1052 words
(3 pages)
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What is Acute Renal Failure? - ... The urine output during this phase is less than 400 mL/day. BUN levels will start to fall during diuresis. "Renal function will be fully restored during the recovery phase" (Stanbridge College, 2014). Objective signs and symptoms of acute renal failure are measurable. Subjective signs and symptoms are expressed by the patient and cannot be measured. Urine output can determine the severity of ARF. Oliguria, low urine output, will have a urine output of "100-400 mL/day" (Rosdahl, 2012, p.1787)....   [tags: urine, kidney, dialysis ] 1217 words
(3.5 pages)
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Taking a Look at Stevia - ... This artificial sweetener is very attractive to food manufacturers because it lowers the cost of production compared to using normal sugar or fructose corn syrup. Neotame is practically aspartame plus 3 dimethyl butyl, which is found to be on the list of most hazardous chemicals (Yang 1221). The aspartame formula is 50% Phenylalanine, which caused seizures in lab animals, 40% Aspartic Acid which caused seizures in lab animals, then bonded with 10% Methyl Alcohol or Methanol which has potential of causing blindness, liver damage and even death....   [tags: natural sweetners other than sugar] 810 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Distribution and Constituents of Fluids in the Human Body - ... Oxygen, amino acid, water and glucose come out to form tissue fluids; Every tissue cell needs water among many other things in order of it to survive. Once the oxygen, glucose and amino acids have been used by the tissues they will then produce waste products such as carbon dioxide which the body must get rid of, this is removed as it travels through the circulation to the lungs and is then breathed out. Sodium Sodium is used within the body to balance water; it can be found in plasma, tissue fluid, and urine and intracellular....   [tags: water, electrolytes, buffer] 1764 words
(5 pages)
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Seven Essential Nutrients that You're Not Getting Enough of - ... How to get more: Eating a diet rich in Vitamin D and getting enough exposure to the sun are the best ways to obtain more Vitamin D. Foods that are rich in Vitamin D include canned salmon, oysters, caviar, eggs, ham, salami, mushrooms, and sausages. 3. Calcium Calcium is an essential nutrient that our bodies need to function properly. In fact, there is more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium's main job is to make sure that bones and teeth are healthy and strong. Other than strengthening bones, calcium is used to expand and contract blood vessels, send messages throughout the nervous system, and secrete hormones....   [tags: vitamins, diet, human body] 744 words
(2.1 pages)
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Question and Answer of Acute Renal Failure - Acute Renal Failure 1. Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Acute renal failure is when the kidneys suddenly are unable to filter the blood of the waste products. Acute renal failure is alternatively called acute kidney failure or acute kidney injury. The causes of acute renal failure is divided into three categories based on their point of origin: prerenal, intrarenal, and post renal. The most common type of acute renal failure is prerenal, which can be described as a sudden drop in blood pressure or an interruption in blood flow to the kidneys....   [tags: causes, diagnostic, signs, modifications] 1216 words
(3.5 pages)
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BioChemistry - Questons an Answers - 1. Fully explain the role of ATP in the sodium potassium pump. Sodium potassium pump is a primary active type of cell transport where in it pumps ions against the concentration gradient. In the human cell, sodium and potassium are essential ions in maintaining normal fluid volume moreover it is an important ions that maintains the function of excitable cells such as nerve and muscles cells in transmitting impulses or contracting the muscles. The mechanism is that the sodium potassium pump pumps potassium ions from outside the cells to the inside of the cell while at the same time it pumps sodium ions from inside to outside the cell....   [tags: BioChemistry, Queston/Answer] 2055 words
(5.9 pages)
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The Effects of Artificial Sweeteners - With more and more artificial sweeteners being used in food products, people are wondering what kind of effects these can have on the world. One kind of sweetener, acesulfame potassium, receives fire from many organizations and people who claim that it is one of the most dangerous sweeteners. Are artificial sweeteners great products that will promote weight loss and lead to a leaner, fitter world, or do artificial sweeteners cause weight gain and health problems. What other effects can artificial sweeteners have on the environment....   [tags: pollution, environment, disease] 1113 words
(3.2 pages)
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Family Members Should NOT Decide When Life Support is Needed - Should the decision to keep a person on life support be made by family members only. This question has major impact on many people’s lives, their deaths, and their quality of life. Many other questions can be asked in conjunction with this question. How would you like to be kept on life support. Would you want a doctor to make the decision of ‘life or death’. The questions just keep on coming, and every time we seem to find ourselves divided. This issue is relevant because of the recent media coverage over Terri Schiavo’s right to live or die and the fact that any of us could be in her situation....   [tags: Life Support Essays]
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1624 words
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Analysis of the Genetically-Based Autosomal Recessive Disease, Bartter Syndrome, and Possible Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment - Introduction to Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which results from defective proteins in the thick ascending limb (TAL) within the loop of Henle in the kidney. The TAL is an important part of the nephron because it contributes to the ion concentration within the urine. It has impermeability to water and reabsorption abilities specific for sodium chloride [16]. Physical indicators for this syndrome can include dehydration, constipation, weakness, and fatigue [3]....   [tags: Defective Proteins, Cochlear Implants]
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2156 words
(6.2 pages)
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Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings - Bioassays in Relation to the Growth and Colouration of Tomato Seedlings Abstract: The objective of the experimental research was to assess how bioassays affect the plant growth, colouration and overall appearance of the plant. To set the experiment up thirty-nine plants were required. Plants were watered with different concentrations of potassium chloride, manganese chloride and copper chloride and compared to the results of the plants being watered with distilled water. Measurements of the plants were taken almost every day to ensure accuracy....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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2304 words
(6.6 pages)
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Pathophysiology and Treatments of Acute Renal Failure - ... 2 What diagnostic exams would be used to diagnose acute renal failure. How do these change as renal failure progresses through its 3 stages. Discuss compare and contrast the 3 stages. Some diagnostic tests that would help diagnose acute renal failure would include BUN, creatnine, urinalysis, they would check blood levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, CBC, abdominal or kidney ultrasound, xray, CT scan or an MRI of the abdomen. During the prerenal phase it is important to find the cause, so a physical examination would be helpful as well as checking bun and creatnine levels, GFR would also be checked ....   [tags: kidney, symptoms, management] 1105 words
(3.2 pages)
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Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome - Mutations in KCNQ1 Ion Channel May Cause Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome Abstract Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome is a human disorder that causes deafness and an irregular heartbeat. It is caused by a mutation in a protein that is a potassium ion channel. The mutations lead to a protein that does not serve the purpose it was designed to serve. It is difficult to treat, but there are things that can be done for both the cardiac and auditory aspects of it. Implantation of a device used as a sort of bionic ear can be used as treatment for the deafness characteristic of JLNS....   [tags: Biology Mutation]
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1275 words
(3.6 pages)
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Medical Case Study: Cardiac Catheterization - Client Profile: Lane Bronson is a 55 year old male with a history of angina, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, COPD, and sleep apnea. He comes to the physican’s office complaining of worsening shortness of breath. His skin tone is grey, and his angina is worsening. Previously stable, he now does not get relief from rest or nitroglycerin. The physician called 911 and had Mr. Bronson directly admitted to the hospital. Questions: 1. What are the treatment priorities of the registered nurse upon admission....   [tags: Nursing Essays] 2907 words
(8.3 pages)
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Iodide Ions and Peroxodisulphate Ions - Investigating Rate of Reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate ions with respect to Temperature and use of a Catalyst Introduction The aim of this experiment was to investigate the affect of the use of a catalyst and temperature on the rate of reaction while keeping all the other factors that affect the reaction rate constant. In the reaction, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide will be used to provide the peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions respectively. The ionic formula for the reaction is as follows: S2O82- (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 2SO42- (aq) + I2 (aq) However, in order to measure the rates of reaction, sodium thiosulphate and starch are added....   [tags: temperature and Catalysts] 851 words
(2.4 pages)
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Acute Renal Failure - ... 2. What diagnostic exams would be used to diagnose acute renal failure. How do these tests change as renal failure progresses through its 3 stages. Discuss compare and contrast the 3 stages. The diagnostic exams that would be used to diagnose acute renal failure are: serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, glomerulus filtration levels and sodium and potassium. Normal levels for serum creatinine are 0.6-1.2 mg/dL in males and 0.5-1.1 mg/dL in females. Prerenal levels of serum creatinine are less than 1, and are greater than 1 during intrarenal and postrenal....   [tags: diagnosis and treatment] 1053 words
(3 pages)
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Superior Flexor Muscle Cells - Effects of Extracellular Potassium Concentration on Membrane Potentials in Crayfish Superior Flexor Muscle Cells Intracellular measurement of membrane potentials in cells of the crayfish superficial flexor muscle can reveal the effects of varying the extracellular concentrations of potassium ion on the resting potential. Our results suggest that at high extracellular potassium concentrations, the resting potential resembles that of the potassium’s equilibrium potential, and at low potassium concentrations, resting potential is less related to potassium equilibrium potential....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers] 870 words
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Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates - Investigating the Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates Aim: To investigate a range of metal carbonates and see if they thermally decompose. Thermal Decomposition INVESTIGATION [IMAGE] ------- Written By Tauqir Sharif ------------------------ Research: When a metal is thermally decomposed the bond between the metal and its carbonate (carbon and oxygen) is removed and the carbonate is released as carbon dioxide. Metal Carbonate = Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide Malachite is an ore of copper....   [tags: Papers] 2469 words
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Mineral Composition of Seaweed - The mineral composition of three groups of seaweed under study is shown in Table 3. As an illustration, most of the seaweeds showed high value of Potassium, Magnesium and Iron, but low in Copper and Cobalt that is coincided to those estimated by Krishnaiah et al. (2008), but significantly higher with those results reported by Rupérez (2002). Among minerals, Potassium occurred in the highest proportions in all seaweeds (515.6±35.7-876.6±15.9 mg/100g) which are significantly lower than those results obtained by Matanjun et al., (2009) (8371.2±0.0-13155.2±1.1 mg/100g).The highest content of potassium was detected for brown algae and red algae....   [tags: science experiments,] 631 words
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The Importance of Fruit in a Well-Balanced Diet - An apple a day keeps the doctors away. Is that cliché really that far off. Actually, no; that statement holds truth. Everybody knows the importance of fruit as a part of a well-balanced diet, but most people do not know just how good fruit is for health. Not only does fruit aid in good physical health, but it also provides benefits for good mental health. Fruit makes weight loss more efficient and heightens brain functions. Eating a healthy amount of fruit improves the ability for the body to lose weight....   [tags: Nutrition]
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The Importance of Micronutrients in the Diet - The human body requires small amounts of nutrients in microgram or milligram quantities in our diet because it cannot synthesize the necessary amounts on its own. These nutrients are considered micronutrients. Micronutrients are a combination of water, vitamins, and minerals. Vitamins are organic compounds that do not provide energy, but are essential to the body in helping “aid in metabolism, as well as the growth, development and maintenance of body tissues” (Byrd-Bredbenner, Moe and Beshgetoor 402)....   [tags: health, nutrition, vitamins, minerals]
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Food for Health Healthy Carbohydrate Sources - ... Keep in mind also that this type of carbohydrate also provide a stimulus of serotonin in the body, which is a compound that controls emotions and appetite. And what are the food sources of complex carbohydrates for your health. 1. Potato Solanum Tuberosum L is a plant of the Solanaceae tribe that has edible tubers and stems commonly called potato. For European society potato tuber used as a staple food. but initially potato originated in the United States. Potato fruit is naturally low in calories and contains no sodium, fat or cholesterol....   [tags: energy, sugar, potato, carbohydrates] 597 words
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The Functions of Osmosis - The Functions of Osmosis Osmosis is the passive transport of water through a selectively permeable membrane, a membrane that allows certain needed particles to pass through it more easily than others. Pores in this type of membrane are large enough for water to pass effortlessly through it. The flow of water during osmosis depends on the concentration of a solute either within a cell membrane or surrounding the membrane. Water naturally flows from a hypertonic solution, an area of high concentration of solute, to a hypotonic district, a solution containing a lower concentration of solute....   [tags: Papers] 635 words
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Microprogration Method for Tomato Plant - As discussed by Taylor (1986), tomato is a type of plant that has many type and small genus. This plant is from the family of Solanaceae. This family has been found around 90 genera (D’Arcy, 1979). There are many tomato species around the world. At Malaysia, this plant is so important for the citizens even though it is not easy to cultivate tomatoes today (Fruits in Malaysia, 2010). This tomato came from the place which is in dry west coast of tropical south America, which have moderate temperature (minimum 15 degree Celsius during night and average 19 degree Celsius during maximum day) (Cooper, 1972)....   [tags: tomato crops, vegetables, auxin hormone]
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How Does Heroin Cause Addiction? - ... Two more common symptoms are: over abundant usage and difficulty with controlling life away from the substance: relationships can break down and lives can erode away. Addiction makes you drop all awareness of what is happening around you that isn't part of your craving. Therefore, people and things around you that you were formerly very close to (family, school etc.), become secluded. Heroin has many physical and psychological effects. Physically, it can: reduce heart rate, cause nausea and vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, slurred speech, sluggish movement, delayed reaction, and lack of energy....   [tags: drug use, addiction, illegal] 884 words
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Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution - Investigating the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution [IMAGE] Biology Coursework Monique Noel 12T Finding the Optimum pH Bacterial and Mammalian Amylase Digests Starch Solution. Introduction I am investigating the optimum pH bacterial and mammalian amylase digests starch solution. To do this I will conduct an experiment using bacterial and mammalian amylase, subjecting them to varying pH levels and record at which pH level the enzyme digests starch solution most efficiently....   [tags: Papers] 1242 words
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Parsley- Petroselinum Crispum - Introduction Parsley, Petroselinum crispum is an herb used for a large myriad of medical conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, constipations, jaundice, flatulence, indigestion, colic, diabetes, bronchitic cough, asthma, oedema, osteoarthritis, anemia, hypertension prostate and spleen conditions (1, 2). Parsley contains volatile oils, carotenoids, vitamins B1, B2, C and K (1, 2). The volatile oil component could be further broken down into apiole, myristicin, furanocaumarins, phenyl propanoids, phanthalides, tocopherol, ascorbic acid and various terpenoic compounds (1, 3-5)....   [tags: Herb, Large Myriad, Medical Conditions, UTI]
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The Problem of Dehydration - In many ways, any living being is the product of water. The figures are relevant for this assumption: the human body contains 60% water. A newborn has at birth 64% water in his organism while the fetus in the third month of pregnancy has in his tissues, 91% water. As a man ages he starts to dry: around the age of 70, the body contains 46% water. The body is composed of 25% solids and 75% liquid material in which the solvent is water. Furthermore, even the brain tissue is composed of 85% water (Wedro, Conrad Stöppler, 2011)....   [tags: Health ]
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Energetically Synthesizing Solutes - ... It is called the’high-salt-in strategy’. They maintain osmotically equivalent internal concentrations by accumulating high concentrations of potassium chloride. Potassium ions enter the cell passively via a uniporter. Sodium ions are pumped out. Chloride enters the cell against the membrane potential via cotransport with sodium ions. For every three molecules of potassium chloride accumulated, two ATP are hydrolyzed making this strategy more energy efficient than the “compatible solute” strategy....   [tags: halophiles, salt tolerance] 634 words
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A Brief Discussion on the Death Penalty - ... He was charge with raped first-degree and murder and kidnapping and robbery in 1999. In 1999 he was kidnapped beat and shot a girl name Stephanie Neiman while she still alive. An 1999 he was in a murder trial and both of his victim were fingerprints and duct tape and bind the victim .He ask was she going to the police and he decided to bury her alive .In 1996 he was sentenced to prison for four years for commit a felony in Grady County. In 1992 he was nineteen he was pled guilty in Kay County to stolen property....   [tags: capital punishment] 529 words
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The K+ Channel Revisited - The K+ Channel Revisited Many scientists enter the field of neuroscience with a desire to understand how the human brain functions to create our actions. Some take a large approach and study reactions to stimulus in live animals. This approach leaves us still wanting to know about things that aren't a result of an outside stimulus. Other scientists take the minimalist approach and start by studying the exact mechanisms of individual cells of the brain. But, what good does that do us for everyday life....   [tags: Chemical Neuroscience Chemistry Papers]
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Nursing Malpractice - By definition, malpractice is improper, illegal, or negligent professional activity of treatment (Mallen & Smith, 1993). Malpractice happens every day throughout the world and can span from simply not washing hands the proper way to amputating the wrong leg. People usually associate medical malpractice with doctors but medical malpractice claims can be asserted against any healthcare provider, including nurses (“Nurses and Medical,” 2011). The following paper is about a specific nursing malpractice incident published by The Washington Nurse and will describe the situation, the safety measures that were broken, and recommendations that could have improved quality and patient safety....   [tags: healthcare, physician, healthcare]
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There are Three Main Types of Sports Drinks: Isotonic, Hypotonic and Hypertonic - ... Sports drinks should contain 4-8% (4-8g/100ml) carbohydrate and 23-69mg/100ml sodium (American College of Sports 2007) to provide the best amount of fluid and fuel delivery. Studies have shown that sports drinks that contain Proteins and amino acids (in a concentration of 2%) provide a superior recovery in specific exercise scenarios. (Stearns et al. 2010) Carbohydrates make up at most 8%, anymore and it would impact the performance of the gastric emptying process. Carbohydrates provide a source of energy for the brain and micelles....   [tags: carbohydrates and fluids] 779 words
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Sources Of Electrolytes: Which Drink Provides More Electrolytes - In this project, I will investigate which drink provides more electrolytes: Gatorade, orange juice, coconut water, or spring water. Most experts agree that if you are participating in moderate exercise, drinking water should do the trick. But if you are exercising vigorously, you also need to replenish some of the salts that your body loses through sweat. These salts are called electrolytes. Water provides the liquid you need to avoid dehydration, but it does not have electrolytes. Electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, are present in sweat....   [tags: gatorade, orange juice, sport drinks]
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Applications of Fertilisers: Which One Is the Best? - Alina 10D Applications of Fertilisers Plants, like people, need regular feeding. If the balance of essential substances in the body of the plant is broken - it starts to get sick and may die. To maintain this balance at the required level, you can by adding various fertilizers. What is the fertiliser. Fertilizers – are substances used to improve plant nutrition, soil properties, and to increase the harvest. This essay will be about the description of the soils; types of fertilisers and reasons for using them; a description of a specific use of fertilisers to solve a soil quality problem....   [tags: plants, substances, soils, types, reasons]
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Diet Analysis: How Can I Eat Better? - I’m a dancer. I go to school, get on the bus, and get off at the dance studio, where I spend hours doing the thing I love. I know that I need to eat healthy for my sport, and I always thought I did. After doing this diet analysis, I have realized that there are some things I need to change in my diet in order to be the healthiest me I can be. First of all, I need to increase my caloric intake. Secondly, I need to eat less saturated fat and eat more of the healthy fats. Finally, I need to eat more foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals....   [tags: calorie, fats, vitamins, minerals] 619 words
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The Development of a New Spectrophotometric Method - A new spectrophotometric method based on the oxidation reaction between iodide and iodate in the presence of carboxylic acid form of losartan potassium (LP) has been developed for the estimation of LP in pharmaceutical products. HPLC/MS method, kinetic studies and central composite design method was used for formation reactions, equilibration and determination of stability duration and experimental conditions, respectively. Developed spectrophotometric method was validated. The equilibration period was calculated as 10 minutes....   [tags: pharmaceutical, hypertension, reaction] 672 words
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The Impact of Cow's Milk on Society - ... Fortunately, children who drink cow’s milk obtain both calcium and vitamin D. In that case, children really benefit from drinking cow’s milk. Another contributing factor of cow’s milk is potassium. Potassium lowers the blood pressure in humans, which in turn reduces the human body’s chances of getting type 2 diabetes. In other words, drinking cow’s milk could lower the risk of getting diabetes. That could make a large impact on society, mainly people who are diabetics. On the other hand, cow’s milk has a disadvantage when it comes to fat....   [tags: dairy product industry]
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Robert D. Furchgott’s Contribution to Physiology - Robert F. Furchgott’s Prior Work in Pharmacology and Physiology Robert F. Furchgott was awarded a Bachelor of Science from the University of North Carolina in 1937 and a PhD in biochemistry from Northwestern University in 19401,2. During this PhD, he initially examined the physical and chemical changes egg albumin denaturation produced, but after attending a symposium in 1938 he decided to study the effects of unbuffered isotonic solution on mammalian erythrocytes6. He discovered a serum albumin that he coined “anti-sphering factor” that could not be separated from erythrocytes by traditional methods5....   [tags: Nitric Oxide, Cardiovascular Signaling Molecule]
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Renal Failure, its Types and Symptoms - Renal failure comes in two different forms, acute and chronic. Acute is when the signs and symptoms last for less than 3 months, and chronic is when they last for longer than 3-6 months. The pathophysiology of acute renal failure is the sudden stopping or slowing down of renal function that occurs due to blood flow to the kidneys is compromised. There are three phases in which acute renal failure is categorized, prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal. The pathophysiology for the three stages are as followed....   [tags: Kidney, Dialysis, Diet] 1242 words
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Sodium Chloride: Commonly Known as Salt - ... Also herbs and spices can be used as an enhancer, use of fresh herbs provide more flavour than dried. Mixture of the salt forms of various amino acids and peptides such as basic dipeptides ornithyltaurine and ornithyl-beta-lanine can be used to enhance salty taste as well (Tada, M. et al. 1984.) A current trend in the food industry is moving towards health and wellness of consumers. Food industry is aiming at reduction of sodium contents in the foods. However there is a dilemma of retaining the taste and shelf-life of the product....   [tags: additives in the food industry]
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The Nervous Systems - The processes of communication between distinct tissues and organs Among various types of organ systems, the nervous system is one of the most important one in human body. It is responsible for producing, controlling and guiding our thoughts and responses to the world around us according to James W. Pennebaker (2012). During embryological development, the cells that form nervous system are incredibly specialised and work complexly than the cells that form skin or other body parts. Neurosecretory cells are one of the examples of specialised nervous system cells that produce neurosecretions....   [tags: anatomy, nervous system]
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The Anion Gap - Anion gap is the difference of anion level and cation level within organism body fluid. The common cation that being measured are sodium ion and potassium ion, but potassium ion usually not included within the calculation due to very low amount within human body fluid (Emmett and Narins, 1977, pp. 38). The common anions used in the calculation of anion gap are chloride ion and bicarbonate ion. The calculation of anion gap as following: [(Na2+ + K+) − (Cl- + HCO3- )] (Wilson, 2012, p. 907) Usually, potassium ion is not included due to low concentration and stable amount....   [tags: Anion Level, Cation Level, Organism, Body Fluid]
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Health Problems and Your Food - Human bodies are naturally created to break down simple foods. As a growing population we have had to create technology that keeps up with the demand for food. In generating this technology we have created food that our bodies are not fully capable of breaking down without having some sort of negative health effect. The food industry uses thousands of chemicals and additives to preserve our food and our bodies are fighting back. Nitrates and nitrites are used in preserving meats and can cause numerous health problems that most of us are not aware of....   [tags: Nutrition ]
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The Importance of Ion Channels - Oculocutaneous albinism is the lack of color in an individual skin hair and eyes. This is a condition that exists from birth. This a The Importance of Ion Channels: An Analysis of the Long QT Syndrome Inheritance method Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is an uncommon congenital heart condition in which patients affected by this syndrome are at high risks for cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death due to mutations in cardiac ion channels (Crotti et al., 2008). There are two particular variants to the Long QT Syndrome; one is called the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome (J-LN), which is associated with deafness, and the other has been named the Romano-Ward Syndrome (R-W), in which there is no conne...   [tags: Disease, Disorders]
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Caring for An Angina Patient - Nurses play a very important role in managing a patient from the moment of his admission up to making a discharge plan. Each part of the nursing process is vital to the wellbeing of the person he is taking care of. Clinical reasoning is always essential in each part of the nursing process from assessment, setting up goals and intervention. Effective nursing management is done when a nurse looks for the early and right cues at the right patient and implementing it at the right time. This essay will delve deeper into the case of Rob Geis, a patient who was suffering from angina, given his history and the signs and symptoms he experienced up to the time when his condition worsened to Myocardial...   [tags: Nursing Essays]
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Six Superfoods for Your Heart - The heart: a small thing inside your chest that beats to a rhythm and keeps you alive. But, you probably knew this. You want to keep that little red thing healthy, but you don’t know how to do it. Here’s a tip. Eat. But don’t just get up and grab a bag of potato chips just yet. There are certain foods to include in your diet to help you maintain a happy, healthy heart. Who knew that eating could do more than just keep you from starving. Oatmeal Oatmeal is a great way to start your day with a heart healthy breakfast....   [tags: oatmeal, berries, potatoes, salmon]
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Iron Instead of Petrol - The purpose of this report is to provide a background briefing to explain how and why iron might be used instead of petrol as a fuel for the combustion engine of cars. The report will also provide an overview of laboratory tests to see if iron may be used as fuel for a car design. The report will also list the background, hypothesis, method, results, discussion and a conclusion. BACKGROUND Fuel is a combustible matter used to maintain fire, as coal, wood, oil, or gas, in order to create heat or energy....   [tags: Fuel, Combustion Engine, Cars, Energy, Gas]
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