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Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema - The Construction of the ‘Western Other’ in Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema Hong Kong has always remained a very unique city, one which is said to have ‘a Western past, an Eastern future’. Since its colonisation by the British in the 1860s, it has maintained to a very large extent its Chinese identity and its connection to its Motherland, while at the same time, has frequent contact with the Western world, politically, economically, and culturally. Hong Kong’s unique position has made the city a vibrant international metropolis that acts as a bridge between East and West....   [tags: Post Colonial Hong Kong Culture Essays] 4677 words
(13.4 pages)
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Orientalism and Post-Colonial Theory - Orientalism and Post-Colonial Theory Fitting Said’s vision of Orientalism into post colonial theory is a fluid meeting of social discourse. As post colonial theory demands a “constant redefinition of both “politics” and “culture” in a rapidly globalizing world,” Said also questions how cultural power and privilege determines modern identity (Nealon and Giroux, 149). Said’s dialogue of “Oritentalism” demands a new look at history and the colonial processes imprinted upon so many peoples. It opens and engages discourses of racism and socio-economic inequality, and intrinsically asks how post-colonial theory translates into our lives today....   [tags: Essays Papers] 358 words
(1 pages)
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Post Colonial Literature - ... No Sugar by Jack Davis’ is a play that shows Aboriginal family’s experience from an Aboriginal point of view. Being a part of an Aboriginal family Davis knows the problems and sufferings of Aboriginal families. No Sugar is based on Millimurra family’s stand against government pseudo-protection and their struggle to survive during the late 1920’s and early 1930’s depression in Australia. Davis locates his play during the Moore River Native Settlement, where four hundred people, whose only crime was to be Aborigine, were forced into a compound suitable for two hundred people....   [tags: Literary Analysis ] 1020 words
(2.9 pages)
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Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures - Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures Introduction More than three-quarters of the people living in the world today have had their lives shaped by the experience of colonialism. It is easy to see how important this has been in the political and economic spheres, but its general influence on the perceptual frameworks of contemporary peoples is often less evident. Literature offers one of the most important ways in which these new perceptions are expressed and it is in their writing, and through other arts such as painting, sculpture, music, and dance that the day-to-day realities experienced by colonized peoples have been most powerfully encoded and so profoundly influential....   [tags: English Literature Writing]
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4267 words
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Comparing the Native Characters in Colonial Literature to the European Characters in Post-Colonial - Comparing the Native Characters in Colonial Literature to the European Characters in Post-Colonial Literature When European colonial authors introduced us to the native, they created the native; the native character became more real to European readers than the actual inhabitants of the new world. The natives' overwhelming otherness eclipsed any individuality that might have been found among them. The native was childish, incapable of reason, and savagely unchristian, or as Lord Cromer described him, a being which "generally acts, speaks and thinks in a manner that is exactly opposite to the European" (qtd....   [tags: Literature Essays Literary Criticism]
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2687 words
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Louis MacNiece: anomalous displacement and post-colonial identity - Louis MacNiece: anomalous displacement and post-colonial identity I was the rector’s son, born to the anglican order, Banned forever from the candles of the Irish poor (“Carrickfergus”) Ireland inhabits a unique position within the current framework of post-colonial literature and theory. The history of Ireland and it’s relationship to England, from the twelfth century (when Henry II was decreed feudal lord of Ireland by the Pope) to the present day, is the history of a divided colonial nation synonymous with ideas of displacement, identity and culture....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1587 words
(4.5 pages)
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Post-Colonial Themes in David Malouf's Remembering Babylon - Post-Colonial Themes in David Malouf's Remembering Babylon It is interesting to note that, although in the context of this MA course we are studying Malouf's novel in terms of a post-colonial response, the author himself has expressed the opinion that it is not, strictly speaking, a post-colonial text. Most would agree with Malouf in that it is certainly not an example of resistance or response from a member of a colonised community in the same vein as, for example, Chinua Achebe or some Native Canadian authors....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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735 words
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Cry , the Beloved Country: Post-Colonial Literary Theory - Cry , the Beloved Country: Post-Colonial Literary Theory Bibliography w/4 sources Cry , the Beloved Country by Alan Paton is a perfect example of post-colonial literature. South Africa is a colonized country, which is, in many ways, still living under oppression. Though no longer living under apartheid, the indigenous Africans are treated as a minority, as they were when Paton wrote the book. This novel provides the political view of the author in both subtle and evident ways. Looking at the skeleton of the novel, it is extremely evident that relationship of the colonized vs....   [tags: Cry the Beloved Country Essays] 569 words
(1.6 pages)
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A Post-Colonial Liberation Reading of The Epistle to Philemon - ... Traditionally, the letter has been read as espousing an accepting attitude toward the practice of slavery and as legitimizing its existence, even within the context of Christian Community. This understanding was especially prevalent within British and American slave owning groups who often used Philemon as a defense of the status quo and as a tool to undermine any religious and therefore ethical or moral grounds anti-slavery groups professed to hold. While this specific example of historical interpretation is an extreme case, the reading of this letter as, at very least, complicity allowing for the practice of slavery by Christians is very well attested to in history....   [tags: The Bible]
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2109 words
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Colonialism and Imperialism - A Post-colonial Study of Heart of Darkness - A Post-colonial Study of Heart of Darkness       In this paper, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness will be examined by using a recent movement, Post-colonial Study that mainly focuses on the relationship between the Self and the Other, always intertwined together in considering one’ identity.   The Other is commonly identified with the margin, which has been oppressed or ignored by Eurocentric, male-dominated history.   Conrad is also conscious of the Other's interrelated status with the Self, but his main concern is the Self, not the Other, even though he deals with the natives.   As Edward W....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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3283 words
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Post Colonial Interpretations of Shakespeare’s The Tempest - Post Colonial Interpretations of Shakespeare’s The Tempest “…do we really expect, amidst this ruin and undoing of our life, that any is yet left a free and uncorrupted judge of great things and things which reads to eternity; and that we are not downright bribed by our desire to better ourselves?” – Longinus Since the seventeenth century many interpretations and criticisms of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest have been recorded. Yet, since the play is widely symbolical and allegorical Shakespeare’s actual intentions behind the creation of the play can never be revealed....   [tags: Shakespeare Tempest]
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1910 words
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Colonialism and Imperialism - Heart of Darkness and Post-Colonial Theory - Post-Colonial Theory and Heart of Darkness "Heart of Darkness" begins and ends in London; on the Nellie on the Thames. The most part, however, takes place in the Congo (now known as the Republic of the Congo). The Kongo, as it was originally known, was inhabited first by pygmy tribes and migratory 'Bantus' and was 'discovered' by the Portuguese in the 14th Century. The Portuguese brought with them Catholocism; European missionaries. The Congo was ruled by King Alfonso I from 1506 - 1540 and Shamba Bolongongo from 1600 - 1620....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays] 830 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Meaning of Heart of Darkness in the Post-Colonial Climate - The Meaning of Heart of Darkness in the Post-Colonial Climate Since its publication in 1899, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness has rarely been disputed on the basis of its literary merits; in fact, it was long seen as one of the great novels of the burgeoning modern era, a sort of bridge between the values and storytelling styles of the waning Victorian period and those of the modern era (Gatten), and regarded a high-ranking space amidst the great literature of the century, if not the millennia (Mitchell 20)....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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3729 words
(10.7 pages)
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Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet - Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet The Italian artist Michelangelo Buonarroti viewed the goal of sculpting as the manipulation of a marble block until the figure within is set free. Just as a carving artist seeks to release its piece from rock, a literary artist desires his art form to be carved from an obscure idea into clear apprehension. The most beautiful of these art pieces are placed in a museum of their own right, the literary canon. A great part of literature’s beauty is the ability of the artist to present his purpose in indiscrete ways, in some degree or another, sliding his message in the literature’s elements during its construction....   [tags: Post Colonialism Out of the Silent Planet Essays]
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4511 words
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Post-Post Critiques of Racism - ... The Coombes article on Weems contrasts the artist work against the political popularity of Obama (among Whites at least). Coombes is arguing that Weems is still relevant and that a critique of racism is still vital in American art. Weems draws on historical views of race but looks at it from a new and distinct way. She finds hidden racist themes in anthropological photographic styles that become very obvious when seen through Weems’ lens. Weems’s work is not the presentation of racism or oppression of an earlier generation, but her post-racism vision is not the imaginary world of a non-racist societies....   [tags: Racism ]
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956 words
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History, Language and Post-colonial Issues in Brian Friel’s Translations - History, Language and Post-colonial Issues in Brian Friel’s Translations Owen: Back to first principles. What are we trying to do. Yolland: Good question. Owen: We are trying to denominate and at the same time describe . . . ” Dun na nGall or Donegal. Muineachain or Monaghan. Same place, same difference. As Owen says about his own name: “Owen - Roland - what the hell. It’s only a name.” ( Translations ) For the student of post-colonial literature, what transpires in Friel’s play as the British army proceed to map this particular corner of the empire is that like language itself, it is not so much the naming and the changing of names but what that signifies and what those names signify in a particular context, coming from a particular mouth....   [tags: Essays Papers] 768 words
(2.2 pages)
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Decolonization, Nationalism, Imagining and Representing Communities: A review of Post-Colonial Literature - ... There are two methods of colonial practice described by Fanon, the direct and the indirect. The direct or centripetal method would be the destruction of indigenous cultural aspects and traditions through assimilation of the colonizing culture, while the indirect or centrifugal would allow for the colonized populations to maintain their cultural identities. Kelly and Kaplan argue that, “Anderson’s nations as ‘imagined communities’ are actually historicizations of Enlightenment political philosophies” (Kelly et....   [tags: Literature Review]
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1294 words
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Colonialism and Post Colonial Ethnic Conflict in East African Countries - ... We must not destroy... the African atmosphere, the African mind, the whole foundation of his race, and we shall certainly do this if we sweep away all his tribal organisations.’ Cameron’s views undoubtedly reflected those of much of the British colonial administration in East Africa, believing that the identity of an entire continent was shaped around a segmentary ‘tribal’ model. Such a conviction came to prominence, as David Cohen and E.S. Atieno Odhiambo point out, due to the fact that much of the early colonial policy was based on the self-confident yet generalising ‘first studies’ that emerged in the late nineteenth century from European explorers; right from the start ethnicities were compartmentalised and portrayed as unchanging forces that dominated everyday life....   [tags: african history] 2042 words
(5.8 pages)
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A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives - A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives Redefining the British literary canon as imperial construct and influence 'A canon,' Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffiin argue, 'is not a body of texts per se, but rather a set of reading practices....' (189). They define 'reading practices' as 'the enactment of innumerable individual and community assumptions, for example about genre, about literature, and even about writing....' (189). The purpose of the following discussion is to investigate the link between the British literary canon and its attendant culture....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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3242 words
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Salman Rushdi: Using Magical Realism as a Post-Colonial Device - ... As with The Arabian Nights, Saleem Sinai in Midnight's Children knows that if he loses the interest of the reader then he will cease to exist. In his narration, he seems almost paranoid about keeping the reader's interest and “fidelity” through his fantastical tales. Padma, who is seemingly reading the text with us, is the acting metaphor for the reader who wants the story exciting but believable. Through her interventions (and nagging), she plays the role akin to King Schahriah in shaping the story, right along with us, the readers....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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1885 words
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Post-colonial Criticism of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre - ... Rochester also displays the same character in his love affair with Celine Varens. In both cases, the two women use their sexual qualities to attract material resources from Mr. Rochester. Therefore, it might be argued that the two women are postcolonial heroes in the sense in which they use their physical beauties to challenge on of the fair sons of the patriarchal society. Mr. Rochester exemplifies the archetypical Victorian man who regards women in terms of their class and gender against his own....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Class and Gender Warfare]
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2198 words
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post colonial - George, Rosemary Marangoly, and Helen Scott. "An Interview with Tsitsi Dangarembga." Novel (Spring 1993):309-319. [This interview was conducted at the African Writers Festival, Brown Univ., Nov. 1991] Excerpt from Introduction: "Written when the author was twenty-five, Nervous Conditions put Dangarembga at the forefront of the younger generation of African writers producing literature in English today....Nervous Conditions highlights that which is often effaced in postcolonial African literature in English--the representation of young African girls and women as worthy subjects of literature....While the critical reception of this novel has focused mainly on the author's feminist agenda, in [this] interview...Dangarembga stresses that she has moved from a somewhat singular consideration of gender politics to an appreciation of the complexities of the politics of postcolonial subjecthood" (309)....   [tags: essays research papers fc] 7059 words
(20.2 pages)
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The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea - The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea North and South Korea are nations that while filled with contempt for Japan have used the foundations that Japan laid during the colonial period to further industrialization. Japan's colonization of Korea is critical in understanding what enabled Korea to industrialize in the period since 1961. Japan's program of colonial industrialization is unique in the world. Japan was the only colonizer to locate various heavy industry is in its colonies. By 1945 the industrial plants in Korea accounted for about a quarter of Japan's industrial base....   [tags: essays research papers] 724 words
(2.1 pages)
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INDEPENDECE TO FREEDOM: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF SRI LANKA’S POST COLONIAL ETHNIC SEPARATISM AND ITS LEADERSHIP - ... Quote from : Reaping the WhirlWind. In Q. Ismail, Abiding by Sri Lanka: on peace, place, and postcoloniality (p. 54). Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Dealtry, W. (1870). A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese Literary Works of Ceylon (Vol. I). Colombo: William Skeen Government Printer of Ceylon. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1285 words
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INDEPENDECE TO FREEDOM: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF SRI LANKA’S POST COLONIAL ETHNIC SEPARATISM AND ITS LEADERSHIP - ... London: C.Hurst & Co.Ltd.,. De Silva, R. K., & Beumer, W. G. (1988). Illustrations and Views of Dutch Ceylon, 1602-1796:. London: Serendib Publications. De Sivla, K. (2005). Quote from : Reaping the WhirlWind. In Q. Ismail, Abiding by Sri Lanka: on peace, place, and postcoloniality (p. 54). Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Dealtry, W. (1870). A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese Literary Works of Ceylon (Vol. I). Colombo: William Skeen Government Printer of Ceylon....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1227 words
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Language Follows Evolution of Jackson and Trewe Relationship Paralleling the Colonization to Post-Colonial Movement in Pantomime - Language Follows Evolution of Jackson and Trewe Relationship Paralleling the Colonization to Post-Colonial Movement in Pantomime The play opens on the edge of a cliff; anything can happen. Derek Walcott, a playwright from the Caribbean, lives his own life on the edge of a cliff. Walcott’s family placed strong emphasis on education and ancestry. His inherent duality, European and African, mirrors that of post-colonialism (Gilbert 131). It is this duality that Walcott tries to reconcile in his work, drawing on his experiences in the theatre and in the Caribbean (King 260)....   [tags: Pantomime Essays]
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3127 words
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Colonial Representations of India in Prose Fiction - Colonial Representations of India in Prose Fiction As in representations of the other British colonies, India was used by colonial novelists as a tool of displacement of the individual and re-affirmation of the metropolitan whole. There are three methods by which this effect is achieved. The first method displays an unqualified reliance on a culture too remote to be approached except physically: a hero or protagonist in a pre-mutiny novel is at liberty to escape to India at a moment of crisis, rearrange his life to his advantage and return to a happy ending and the establishment of a newly defined metropolitan life....   [tags: Essays Papers] 479 words
(1.4 pages)
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Shakespeare's Caliban and the Colonial Approach to Slaves - ... George Lamming wrote, A Monster, a Child, a Slave, in which he looked in depth at the relationship between Caliban and Prospero. In this essay, he makes in it known Shakespeare made Caliban black intentionally, “It is not by accident that his [Caliban] skin is black; for black, too, is the colour of his loss; the absence of any soul.” (Lamming 160). However, in the play it is never stated specifically that Caliban is black but it is inferred by, “This damned witch Sycorax / For mischiefs manifold, and sorceries terrible / To enter human hearing, from Algiers, / Thou know’st, was banished.” (1.2.263-266)....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Colonialism]
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1908 words
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The Roots of Apartheid: South Africa’s Colonial Experience - ... Although many African nations would not be decolonized until well into the 1970’s, only South Africa and its white population were truly devoted to the success of South Africa, as a nation, because they were not tethered to a larger Empire. Whereas most Europeans living in Africa identified themselves as members of a larger nation, only the Afrikaners cut ties with the Netherlands, and over time, the British colonists in South Africa also began to turn away from the United Kingdom. While it is true that Rhodesia, Kenya and Nambia all had large numbers of white settlers as well, only South Africa had a culture (the Afrikaners) that was completely separate and did not identify with any other colonial power ....   [tags: Racial Issues]
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1667 words
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Mountains of the Moon: A Re-inscription of the Colonial Master Narrative - Mountains of the Moon: A Re-inscription of the Colonial Master Narrative    If Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke were alive in 1989 to see the release of Bob Rafelson’s Mountains of the Moon, what would their response to the film be?  Would they agree with the way Rafelson’s film depicts their remarkable journey into Africa to find the source of the Nile River?  Would they agree with the way the film dramatizes their relationship with each other?  The answers to these questions would help a great deal in determining whether Rafelson’s film about Burton and Speke’s expedition was accurate, or whether his film was an attempt to sensationalize their story to increase its reception.  Unfortunately, Burton and Speke are not around to answer these questions, which makes an analysis of these issues difficult.  Therefore, rather than analyzing this film from a historical perspective, this critique is concerned with what story Rafelson’s film tells.  How does Rafelson’s movie shape audience’s opinions about Burton and Speke as characters?  Does his story, through visual rhetoric, retell or reinterpret Burton and Speke’s story?  What role does Africa play in Rafelson’s film?  The answers to these questions should help determine whether Rafelson’s film is a re-inscription of the colonial master narrative, or whether it is a post-colonial critique of European colonization....   [tags: Movie Film Essays]
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1583 words
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The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations - The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations Regarded by many as Brian Friel’s theatrical masterpiece, Seamus Deane described Translations as “a sequence of events in history which are transformed by his writing into a parable of events in the present day” (Introduction 22). The play was first produced in Derry in 1980. It was the first production by Field Day, a cultural arts group founded by Friel and the actor Stephen Rea, and associated with Deane, Seamus Heaney and Tom Paulin....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1311 words
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INDEPENDECE TO FREEDOM: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF SRI LANKA’S POST COLONIAL ETHNIC SEPARATISM AND ITS LEADERSHIP - ... I). Colombo: William Skeen Government Printer of Ceylon. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Denzin, N. (2009). The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers. Department, E. (2009). Sri Lankan History Part I: Anuradhapura Era (4th Edition ed., Vol....   [tags: World History ]
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1203 words
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Post-Colonialism: Trying To Regain Ethnic Individuality - Indeed, the stranger has unusual customs. The white man held the paper like a sacred thing. His hands shook, and we mistrusted him... For how many moons will the stranger be among us. (Vera 43) The stranger still lives among the people of Zimbabwe, though the colonial political authority has left. Yet I wonder if the town elder speaking in the above passage from Yvonne Vera's Nehanda would recognize current Zimbabwean authorities as strangers or countrymen. Could he relate to today's government officials and understand the languages which they speak....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1692 words
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Producing Shakespeare in post-apartheid South Africa - Begging the question: producing Shakespeare in post-apartheid South Africa This paper will examine the role of the school in the construction and dissemination of “Shakespeare” in post-apartheid South Africa. In the context of the history of English in the region, and of Shakespeare’s role in entrenching a particular kind of literacy, the paper aims ultimately to explore some of the implications for the industry of English Literature in post-apartheid South Africa. Shakespeare still has enormous cultural currency in South Africa as elsewhere; English has always been a language of power in the region, a situation whose continuance is unaffected by the recognition of 11 official languages....   [tags: William Shakespeare Play Production]
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606 words
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Magic realism as post-colonialist device in Midnight's Children - Magic realism as post-colonialist device in Midnight's Children Magic realism in relation to the post-colonial and Midnight's Children 'The formal technique of "magic realism,"' Linda Hutcheon writes, '(with its characteristic mixing of the fantastic and the realist) has been singled out by many critics as one of the points of conjunction of post-modernism and post-colonialism' (131). Her tracing the origins of magic realism as a literary style to Latin America and Third World countries is accompanied by a definition of a post-modern text as signifying a change from 'modernism's ahistorical burden of the past': it is a text that 'self-consciously reconstruct[s] its relationship to what came before' (131)....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2650 words
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Colonialism and Africa - ... As migrants flowed within the British empire, Asians who arrived in Kenya were given greater access to social, educational and capitalist opportunities by the colonials, as a result of higher 'racial' status(also Bennell 1982, p131). This expanding community naturally reinforced itself, in part due to the issues of trust and networking, in the absence of openly available commercial institutions(Vandenberg 2003, p450). Another consequence of inheriting the colonial state is the diversion of resources to maintaining the integrity of these states post-independence....   [tags: African Countries, Post Colonial Africa] 1698 words
(4.9 pages)
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Liberals and Conservatives in Post Revolutionary Latin America - Liberals and Conservatives in Post Revolutionary Latin America Models for post-revolutionary Latin American government are born of the complex economic and social realities of 17th and 18th century Europe. From the momentum of the Enlightenment came major political rebellions of the elite class against entrenched national monarchies and systems of power. Within this time period of elitist revolt and intensive political restructuring, the fundamental basis for both liberal and conservative ideology was driven deep into Latin American soil....   [tags: Latin American History] 529 words
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Flann O'Brien, Dickens and Joyce: Form, Identity and Colonial Influences - Flann O'Brien, Dickens and Joyce: Form, Identity and Colonial Influences All quotations from The Third Policeman are taken from the 1993 Flamingo Modern Classic edition. In this essay I intend to examine Flann O'Brien's The Third Policeman in the context of the time of its writing, 1940, its relation to certain English novelistic traditions and also the broader Irish literary tradition in which it belongs. Seamus Deane refers to Ireland as a "Strange Country" and indeed O'Brien's own narrator recalls the words of his father: " ....   [tags: Essay] 800 words
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Theories of Post-Coloniality: Edward W. Said and W.B. Yeats - Theories of Post-Coloniality: Edward W. Said and W.B. Yeats (Citations from Said’s essay “Yeats and Decolonization” as published by Bay Press, not the Field Day pamphlet) Post-colonial theory, a mode of thought which accepts European Imperialism as a historical fact and attempts to address nations touched by colonial enterprises, has as yet failed to adequately consider Ireland as a post-colonial nation. Undoubtedly, Ireland is a post-colonial nation (where ‘post-’colonial refers to any consequence of colonial contact) with a body of literary work that may be read productively as post-colonial....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1361 words
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INDEPENDECE TO FREEDOM: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF SRI LANKA’S POST COLONIAL ETHNIC SEPARATISM AND ITS LEADERSHIP - ... Research Design: Qualitative,Quantitative and Mixed methods Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Cross, M. (2000). The Sociology of Race and Ethnicity (Vol. I). Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Dana, R. H. (2005). Multicultural assessment: principles, applications, and examples. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. De Silva, C. R. (2009). Portuguese Encounters with Sri Lanka and Maldives : Translated Texts from the Age of the Discoveries. Surrey, Wey Court East, England: Ashgate publishing Limited....   [tags: World History ]
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1856 words
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INDEPENDECE TO FREEDOM: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF SRI LANKA’S POST COLONIAL ETHNIC SEPARATISM AND ITS LEADERSHIP - ... London: Serendib Publications. De Sivla, K. (2005). Quote from : Reaping the WhirlWind. In Q. Ismail, Abiding by Sri Lanka: on peace, place, and postcoloniality (p. 54). Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Dealtry, W. (1870). A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese Literary Works of Ceylon (Vol. I). Colombo: William Skeen Government Printer of Ceylon. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Denzin, N....   [tags: World History ]
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1302 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Structural Ripeness for the Rise and Consolidation of One-party States in Africa Post Colonialism: The Case of Zambia - ... The support for the single-party state was popular among the people because of its rational behind the way to unity. It was argued that in order for the African states to move on from the ethnical divisions imposed on them and focus on the developmental aspects that needed much attention, they could not waste time competing with different interest groups. The reasoning behind the “elimination of political competition” was exaggerated to the masses among many politicians who asserted that it was a “necessary device for the management of ethnicity”....   [tags: International Government ]
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1389 words
(4 pages)
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The Genesis of a Backcountry Identity - The Genesis of a Backcountry Identity In the North American English[1] colonial experience and in the subsequent post- revolutionary American Republic, the ability to assimilate either individually or collectively into the hierarchy of power represented a continually evolving process. Previously, throughout Europe’s ancient régime, a ridged hierarchy had dominated the social interaction of every facet of life and dictated that social positioning was a product of one’s birth and not open to unwarranted acts of social promotion....   [tags: Colonial America Colonization Essays]
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6005 words
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Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart - Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart My interest in Joseph Conrad is centered around understanding what brought him to the Congo and how the events that transpired there influenced his attitudes in Heart of Darkness. I also wanted to gain a greater understanding of the historical events that led to the colonization of the Congo. This interest is basically grounded in the fact that prior to my exposure to Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart, I knew virtually nothing about what actually led to the colonization of the area....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays] 3512 words
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Empowered or Victimized? Addressed or Ignored? - Empowered or Victimized. Addressed or Ignored. The battle for women’s liberation crosses cultures and often makes a very good focus by which an outsider might scrutinize a society. While pointing out similarities may give a sense of solidarity, it is important to note that, the battle for women’s liberation changes forms in different contexts: “whereas Western feminists discuss the relative importance of feminist versus class emancipation, the African discussion is between feminist emancipation versus the fight against neo-colonialism, particularly in its cultural aspect” (Peterson 251-2)....   [tags: Patals of Blood]
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The Misunderstood Message of Aime Cesaire's A Tempest - The Misunderstood Message of Aime Cesaire's A Tempest         A Tempest, by Aime Cesaire, has been the center of controversy for over twenty years now.  The argument is not concerning whether the play has substance, or whether its themes are too racy; the criticism is about its parallel to another work.  The work in question is that of The Tempest by William Shakespeare.  Cesaire has been bluntly accused of mirroring, misrepresenting, and misinterpreting Shakespeare's last play.  I challenge these critics to research Cesaire and his works, rather than pick apart this most insightful play.  It is pertinent to understand a few key ideas when examining A Tempest because Cesaire was not attempting to mirror Shakespeare; he was merely using him as a reference.  Cesaire, who understood that Shakespeare is an icon of the Western world, himself is iconoclastic.  He knew by adapting The Tempest to his own voice, he would draw attention from the West and raise awareness of his intended audience, the oppressed blacks of the world.  But valuing this idea requires the reader to be aware of who Aime Cesaire is, what ideas he embraces, and the message he wishes to convey to his readers....   [tags: Tempest essays Cesaire ]
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Prejudice and Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A small place - The Literary Response to Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A small place        Racism and prejudice can be regarded as both societal and individual phenomena, developed and manifested at all levels of society; from government policy through organizational structures, inter-group and interpersonal interactions to intra-personal attitudes and feelings. Media and literature react to these perceptions and have taken part in shaping the attitudes and feelings of society. The novels "Heart of Darkness" by Joseph Conrad, "A Grain of Wheat" by Ngugi wa Thiong'o, and Jamaica Kincaid's essay "A small place" represent a literary response to the insidious tool of racism in colonial and postcolonial history....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]
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Visual Codes and Conventions in the Painting: George Robinson Welcomes Natives to Wybalenna - Visual texts can be seen to be an attempt by their creators to represent particular ideologies to their viewers. It is the viewer's attitudes and values however, that determine the contemporary meaning of the image. The painting George Robinson welcomes Natives to Wybalenna, is a Colonial document portraying the Christianizing of indigenous people on Flinders Island. Visual codes and conventions employed in the image, such as positioning and framing depict the entwined values of white, patriarchal and Christian ideologies of the 19th Century....   [tags: Art Christian Religion] 568 words
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Lumumba: Race and Revolution - Lumumba: Race and Revolution In the French film entitled Lumumba, director Raoul Peck recreates the revolutionary struggle of Patrice Lumumba, the newly elected Prime Minister of The Congolese Republic. In the movie, we do not see much of the independence struggle against the Belgian government, but we begin to see the reconstruction of the African state in African hands. While no one ever claimed that decolonization was easy, maybe this particular example can best be explained by Fanon’s simplified little quip “decolonization is always a violent phenomenon....   [tags: essays papers] 3724 words
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London's Economy - King (1990, page x) argues that the dissolution of empire has been critical to the growth of world cities. How far does this apply to London. Modern patterns of development and growth have been shaped and influenced by the historical context of colonialism. Within this context relationships between capitalist and pre-capitalist states or colonies helped forge a world economy, which would later lead to processes of globalisation and the current economic world order. Expansion in the world economy has been exacerbated by the freer flow of labour, goods, services and capital, which are features of the post-war, post-colonial world....   [tags: Economics]
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Home vs. The Exotic in Shakespeare's The Tempest - Home vs. The Exotic in Shakespeare's The Tempest Home. Just the word conjures up feelings of familiarity and comfort, a place that is welcoming and memorable. Does home necessarily have to represent a place. Rather, can it encompass a multitude of feelings and objects that represent comfort and ease. The post-colonial novel often strives to strike a balance, whether it be uneven, between what is considered foreign and exotic and that which is homely and familiar. Post-colonial literature frequently is representative of the interplay between characters' experiences in an exotic environment versus those at home....   [tags: Shakespeare Temptest William Essays] 2283 words
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Age of Revolutions - ... Another symbolic event that drove the Age of Revolution was the French Revolution due to its new reforms introduced that began to place the needs of the state before the needs of the absolute monarchies. The removal of the monarchy, significantly the public execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette provided religious freedom, expansion of educational institutions and civil liberties to a wide degree. Religious freedom to preach Protestantism under the theology of Martin Luther and away to the dominating Catholic Church and the Vatican began the first stepping stones to having a wider religious diversity in Christianity....   [tags: World History ]
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The Notions of Cultural Identity, Mimicry, and Uncanny on V. S. Naipaul’s Half A Life and Magic Seeds - ... (Half A Life 61) Even after what he went through in his eighteen years of passivity in Africa, when he eventually makes a firm decision to put an end to hiding his true self and living others lives, he confesses to her sister, Sarojini, that “I was always someone on the outside. I still am.” He is reminded of such an atrocious fact by her that “You were on the outside because you wanted to be. You’ve always preferred to hide. It’s the colonial psychosis, the caste psychosis. You inherited it from your father” (Magic Seeds 6)....   [tags: Literature]
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Rushdie, Postmodernism & Postcolonialism - Rushdie, Postmodernism & Postcolonialism Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, published in 1980, was perhaps the seminal text in conceiving opinions as to interplay of post-modern and post-colonial theory. The title of the novel refers to the birth of Saleem Sinai, the novel’s principal narrator, who is born at midnight August 15th 1947, the precise date of Indian independence. From this remarkable coincidence we are immediately drawn to the conclusion that the novel’s concerns are of the new India, and how someone born into this new state of the ‘Midnight’s child’, if you will, interacts with this post-colonial state....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Postcolonial Indian Literature in English: Narayan, Jhabvala, Rushdie - Postcolonial Indian Literature in English: Narayan, Jhabvala, Rushdie Indian literature in English which is accessible to us in the West, still has its roots in colonial literature and the tensions between East and West. A European naturalism is often present; a concern to posit India as an arena within which Western readers can identify realities is inherent within much of this writing. The following are three examples of the progression of post-Independence literature. Twenty years after Independence, R.K.Narayan was still tackling issues of colonialism....   [tags: Essays Papers] 426 words
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Culture Conflict in Sudan - ... As a result, Sudanese has seen an increase in the corruption and oppression practiced in Khartoum. On the other hand, oil-rich Sudan is plagued with water scarcity and very minimal arable land. Unfortunately, Sudan’s string of ineffectual leaders with poor management skills and distribution policies of these limited precious resources have created mass poverty (World Savvy 2008). Sudan’s persistent poverty is both a cause and a consequence of instability and fans the flames of conflict (The Economist 1999).  Huntington meticulously details out historical poignant struggles between the West and Islam in his “Clash of the Civilizations” piece....   [tags: Culture ]
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Colonialism and Beyond Things Fall Apart and Heart of Darkness - Colonialism and Beyond Things Fall Apart and Heart of Darkness My entire education has taken place in the United States of America. It has consisted of public school, college, and graduate school. I only had one teacher during my public school career who wasn't white. I had a female African-American English teacher when I was in Junior High School. The student body of my junior high school was over ninety-percent black, yet our faculty was entirely white with the exception of two black teachers....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays] 3189 words
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Colonialism and Beyond - Colonialism and Beyond in Chinua Achebe's An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness, No Longer at Ease, Things Fall Apart, Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Emmanuel Nelson's Chinua Achebe, Postcolonial African Writers, Willene Taylor's A Search for Values in Things Fall Apart, Colin Turnbull's he Lonely African This course on colonial and post-colonial literature satisfies my cravings for thought and literature that falls outside of the mainstream of the Eurocentric view of things....   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays] 2811 words
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Colonialism and Independence: Nigeria as a Case Study - Colonialism and Independence: Nigeria as a Case Study During the colonial period in Nigeria (from about 1850 to 1960), the British, like any other colonial power, asserted their dominance through a variety of media. The colonial experience of Nigeria and Britain, and Nigeria's early post-colonial history can be described, roughly chronologically, in three phases or periods: the formation of a ‘captured' colony, the education and inculcation of ‘proper,' British ways (i.e., the ‘taming' of the colony), and the immediate aftermath of colonialism (i.e., the ‘independence' of the colony)....   [tags: Research Papers]
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Imperial Resistance in Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone - Imperial Resistance in Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone All quotations taken from Wilkie Collins, The Moonstone. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1986. Wilkie Collins’s The Moonstone has been read as an archetypal piece of imperial propaganda, and yet it seems to lend itself to an alternate reading in which it represents a distinct challenge to the colonial mindset. The majority of the tale is set in England but the Indian location of the prologue and epilogue explicitly root The Moonstone within the context of the colonial experience in India....   [tags: Essays Papers] 789 words
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Negative Affects of Imperialism in Africa in the 19th Century - ... Centralized and decentralized city-states of pre-colonial Africa were replaced by colonial governments. Institutions of direct and indirect rule were established. Traditional rulers were defeated and local systems of governments were destroyed. As well, colonial governments denied Africa the right to any self-governance. This destroyed Africa’s tribal structure and previous successful forms of government. Colonial powers then came to the realization that they needed the assistance of traditional leaders to govern effectively.6 However, it was very difficult to establish these authorities, leaving Africa’s political structure weak and corrupt....   [tags: Africa ]
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Michael Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion - "Any critical reading of a text will be strengthened by a knowledge of how a text is valued by readers in differing contexts." Discuss this statement and show how your critical understanding of the text has been strengthened by at least two different readings. Michael Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion is a text that is given new meaning when viewed from differing perspectives. Readers approach the text with their own unique past and experience, which influences their perception and interpretation of the novel....   [tags: Ondaatje Skin Lion Context] 1140 words
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The Effects of Caribbean Colonization on the Family: Through the Eyes of Caribbean Women Writers - ... Bill has managed to build a comfortable life for himself and his family in a poverty stricken country. He is afraid to loose what he has struggled so hard for and accepts British involvement in Belize affairs as the price one has to pay for security and ultimately survival. What makes the differing world view of these characters so unique is that both Bill and Grama Ivy's opinions are equally valid, which emphasizes the complexities of the struggles individuals face in a post-colonial society....   [tags: Caribbean Literature]
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The Travellers: Ireland’s Ethnic Minority - The Travellers: Ireland’s Ethnic Minority Who are the Travellers. The Travellers, a minority community indigenous to Ireland, have existed on the margins of Irish society for centuries. They share common descent, and have distinct cultural practices - early marriage, desire to be mobile, a tradition of self-employment, and so on. They have distinct rituals of death and cleansing, and a language they only speak among their own. Travellers are not overtly conscious of a sense of group history. Concern with ancestry is an obsession of those who value permanence of place....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2596 words
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Colonialism in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing - Colonialism in Margaret Atwood's 'Surfacing' Margaret Atwood's novel 'Surfacing' demonstrates the complex question of identity for an English-speaking Canadian female. Identity, for the protagonist has become problematic because of her role as a victim of colonial forces. She has been colonized by men in the patriarchal society in which she grew up, by Americans and their cultural imperialism, or neo-colonialism as it has come to be known as, and the Euro-centric legacy that remains in her country although the physical presence of English and French rulers have gone....   [tags: Margaret Atwood Surfacing]
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The Colonization of the Philippines - ... This shows that the United States took control of the Philippines by military force, which is how a colonial power must take its colony according to the definition of colonization. Did the U.S. do this out of self-interest. Many Americans were appalled at the brutal invasion upon the Philippines’ right to independence and demanded an explanation. President McKinley assured the U.S. of its altruistic interests by saying, “We could not leave them to themselves—they were unfit for self government, and they would soon have anarchy and misrule worse than Spain’s was…” (Cayton 593)....   [tags: Politics, External and Internal Colonialism] 1412 words
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‘Who am I when I am transported?’ Postcolonialism and Peter Carey’s Jack Maggs - ‘Who am I when I am transported?’ Postcolonialism and Peter Carey’s Jack Maggs In Decolonising Fictions, theorists Diana Brydon and Helen Tiffin claim that postcolonial writers create texts that ‘write back’ against imperial fictions and question the values once taken for granted by the once dominant Anglocentric discourse of the imperial epicentre. In Jack Maggs the process of ‘writing back’ is well illustrated. As in Jean Rhy’s Wide Sargasso Sea , the colonial ‘other’ character from a canonised Victorian novel becomes the principal figure in a modern 'decolonising' text, and the peripheral reaches of empire become of central importance....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Canadian writing and the language of the colonizer - Canadian writing and the language of the colonizer During the latter part of the twentieth century, Canadian writers have looked at the effects of colonialism on the original native population. The culture of the indigenous peoples and the oral tradition used, was for a long time on the verge of being eradicated, as the enforced language of the colonizer became the accepted norm. As many contemporary authors believe that they have been marginalized, they argue that they are similar to the tribal inhabitants, becoming “...spectators, not elements in what goes on” (Weibe, Rudy....   [tags: Essays Papers] 703 words
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American Temperance Movement - The desire to control alcohol consumption, or advocate temperance, has been a goal of humanity throughout countless periods of history. Many countries have had organized temperance movements, including Australia, Canada, Britain, Denmark, Poland, and of course, the United States. The American temperance movement was the most widespread reform movement of the 19th century, culminating in laws that completely banned the sale of all alcoholic beverages. The movement progressed from its humble local roots to nationwide organizations with millions of members and large amounts of political power....   [tags: American History] 1817 words
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Rwandan Genocide - ... The legal frameworks in which humanitarian intervention attempts to exert influence within are numerous, an overlapping abundance of charters, conventions, and other forms of international law in which actors, in cases such as Rwanda, can choose to subscribe to or deny. Such fundamental pieces of legislation such as the United Nations Charter (1945) and the United Nations Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of Genocide (1948) operate in tandem with resolutions and agreements from the Cold War era, allowing for the weaknesses in assessing genocides, and taking appropriate measures as such....   [tags: Human Rights]
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states and power in africa - We must understand the differences in the African and European political experience in order to understand the difficulties faced by African leaders. In Herbst’s book States and Power in Africa, First I will give an overview of the differences between the African and European advances toward becoming a nation state. Next the reasons why these differences are important to understanding the difficulties faced by African leaders will be discussed. Finally I will give an overview of possible alternatives to the current system of states in Africa....   [tags: essays research papers] 462 words
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Jane Champion 'The Piano' - The release of the Jane Champion's The Piano in 1993 was almost a shocking event and till today is thought to be provoking. The movie has become the focus of the intensive debates about the postcolonial New Zealand and its neocolonial present. It is about the feminine desire and institutional moderation with in the marriage. It is about the psychological complexity of the human relations and love. The issues raised in the movie remain vital in the contemporary cultural studies. They include the possibility of the alternative forms of desire and human intercourse, the impediment of the aspirations to the postcolonial citizenship that does not put into the morass of the racial and identity politics....   [tags: American Literature] 1826 words
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State Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 - State Mass Killings in Indonesia 1965 to 1966 In order to develop a general framework with which to understand collective political violence, I examine state mass killings in Indonesia 1965-66. While acknowledging the importance of historical/cultural factors, I identify elements within the sociopolitical sphere that influence actors of collective political violence at national, local, and event- specific levels. Elements discussed are elite interests, justification for violence, formal organizations, and mobilization factors....   [tags: Papers] 3119 words
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17th Century English Mercantilism - Mercantilism Essay England in the 17th century adopted the policy of mercantilism, exercising control over the trade of the colonies, thus greatly affecting their political and economical development. Mercantilism was the policy in Europe throughout the 1500's to the 1700's where the government of the mother country controlled the industry and trade of other, weaker settlements with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than what is imported. Possession of colonies provided the countries with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods....   [tags: European History] 938 words
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New Economic Imperialism - New Economic Imperialism Those in power define national interests as the preservation of the existing set of economic, social, and political relationships. Therefore, the national interest of the supranational capitalist society is the interests of the upper class, allied throughout the globe. The United States capitalist class has proposed to preserve and extend U.S. capitalism by a policy of empire building to satisfy the need for large export markets that could supply cheap inputs and guarantee consumption....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Western Education in Nineteenth-Century India - Western Education in Nineteenth-Century India This page proposes to examine the history of English language and literature in colonial India in order to highlight why they should retain high cultural status in the post independence years. Inevitably this was an ongoing process when results of which reflect the fusion of a wide range of social, political, and cultural influences. However, it can be seen that certain policies and publications had a particular potency and effect. Through outlining the most influential of these it will be possible to register how their reverberations continue to impinge upon the social and cultural milieu of post independence India today....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1131 words
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United States Policy toward Southeast Asia - United States Policy toward Southeast Asia In 1943, Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a trusteeship principle, in which the subjugated nations of Asia would prepare themselves for self-government, under the supervision of the imperial nations. FDR had ‘genuine humanitarian principles’[1] and was aware of the conditions under which colonial people sometimes lived. He also realised that the colonial system was detrimental to US interests. According to Robert McMahon, FDR altered his thinking in late 1944....   [tags: Papers] 3629 words
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Literary Theory And African Am - “Race is defined as one group of the populations constituting humanity.” (Coon 62) Since the 1970’s, the conclusion has been stated that race is a social, cultural and political concept based largely on superficial appearances. The notion of ‘race’ is so emotionally charged that objective discussion of its significance in relation to social problems is extremely difficult. There are three theories that have been very significant in re-defining the term “race” throughout their composition....   [tags: essays research papers] 1238 words
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“Citizens of a kind” - “Citizens of a kind” The following clippings from regional Irish newspapers begin in 1923, soon after the founding of the state, and continue to the present day in chronological order. The premise informing the selection is that Travellers are caught in a dynamic of colonialism – misunderstood by the majority they live amongst, and disadvantaged by their difference. Their situation is comparable, in many instances, to that of gypsies throughout Europe and the indigenous minorities of many ex-colonies....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2683 words
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Non-interventionism in Hong Kong - Non-interventionism in Hong Kong Hong Kong had not been as non-interventionist as some economists assumed it to be under British colonial rule. Non-interventionism existed both as a myth and rhetoric. There was rapid growth in post-War spending in social services, transport and public works, gradually enabling the colonial government to depart from its previous law-and-order regime to become some kind of ‘provider’ state. By the 1980s, the colonial government was to admit, in the words of then Financial Secretary Philip Haddon-Cave (1984), that the government stance was one of ‘positive non-interventionism’ rather than laissez-faire....   [tags: Economics] 1235 words
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