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Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema - The Construction of the ‘Western Other’ in Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema Hong Kong has always remained a very unique city, one which is said to have ‘a Western past, an Eastern future’. Since its colonisation by the British in the 1860s, it has maintained to a very large extent its Chinese identity and its connection to its Motherland, while at the same time, has frequent contact with the Western world, politically, economically, and culturally. Hong Kong’s unique position has made the city a vibrant international metropolis that acts as a bridge between East and West....   [tags: Post Colonial Hong Kong Culture Essays] 4677 words
(13.4 pages)
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Post Colonial Literature - Post colonial’ as we define it does not mean ‘post-independence’, or ‘after colonialism’, for this would be falsely ascribe an end to the colonial process. Post-colonialism, rather, begins from the very first moment of colonial contact. It is the discourse of oppositinality which colonialism brings into being” (pL.117) The term post colonial is resonant with all the doubts and complexities of the various cultural experiences it involves. It also addresses all aspects of the colonial process from the beginning of the colonial contact....   [tags: Literary Analysis ] 1020 words
(2.9 pages)
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Orientalism and Post-Colonial Theory - Orientalism and Post-Colonial Theory Fitting Said’s vision of Orientalism into post colonial theory is a fluid meeting of social discourse. As post colonial theory demands a “constant redefinition of both “politics” and “culture” in a rapidly globalizing world,” Said also questions how cultural power and privilege determines modern identity (Nealon and Giroux, 149). Said’s dialogue of “Oritentalism” demands a new look at history and the colonial processes imprinted upon so many peoples. It opens and engages discourses of racism and socio-economic inequality, and intrinsically asks how post-colonial theory translates into our lives today....   [tags: Essays Papers] 358 words
(1 pages)
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post colonial - George, Rosemary Marangoly, and Helen Scott. "An Interview with Tsitsi Dangarembga." Novel (Spring 1993):309-319. [This interview was conducted at the African Writers Festival, Brown Univ., Nov. 1991] Excerpt from Introduction: "Written when the author was twenty-five, Nervous Conditions put Dangarembga at the forefront of the younger generation of African writers producing literature in English today....Nervous Conditions highlights that which is often effaced in postcolonial African literature in English--the representation of young African girls and women as worthy subjects of literature....While the critical reception of this novel has focused mainly on the author's feminist agenda, in [this] interview...Dangarembga stresses that she has moved from a somewhat singular consideration of gender politics to an appreciation of the complexities of the politics of postcolonial subjecthood" (309)....   [tags: essays research papers fc] 7059 words
(20.2 pages)
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A Post-Colonial Liberation Reading of The Epistle to Philemon - To read the texts of the Bible is to immerse oneself in a history, a history of events, and a history of understanding. As we open the pages of the canonical books, we are given a glimpse into the lives and issues of people many thousands of years ago and of the stories that have shaped the development of the church to the current day. At the same time, and following the call of 2 Timothy 3:16 , Christians take seriously what is written and reflect it into their own lives and realities, leading to interpretations and understandings of the text being applied in their own contexts....   [tags: The Bible]
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2109 words
(6 pages)
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Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures - Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures Introduction More than three-quarters of the people living in the world today have had their lives shaped by the experience of colonialism. It is easy to see how important this has been in the political and economic spheres, but its general influence on the perceptual frameworks of contemporary peoples is often less evident. Literature offers one of the most important ways in which these new perceptions are expressed and it is in their writing, and through other arts such as painting, sculpture, music, and dance that the day-to-day realities experienced by colonized peoples have been most powerfully encoded and so profoundly influential....   [tags: English Literature Writing]
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4267 words
(12.2 pages)
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Colonialism and Africa - Introduction Modern African states have several problems ranging from corruption, to armed conflict, to stunted structural development. The effects of colonialism have been offered as a starting point for much of the analysis on African states, but the question of why African states are particularly dysfunctional needs to be examined, given the extent to which they have lagged behind other former European colonies in many aspects. In the first section, I will consider the problems with African states from the level of the state....   [tags: African Countries, Post Colonial Africa] 1698 words
(4.9 pages)
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Louis MacNiece: anomalous displacement and post-colonial identity - Louis MacNiece: anomalous displacement and post-colonial identity I was the rector’s son, born to the anglican order, Banned forever from the candles of the Irish poor (“Carrickfergus”) Ireland inhabits a unique position within the current framework of post-colonial literature and theory. The history of Ireland and it’s relationship to England, from the twelfth century (when Henry II was decreed feudal lord of Ireland by the Pope) to the present day, is the history of a divided colonial nation synonymous with ideas of displacement, identity and culture....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1587 words
(4.5 pages)
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Cry , the Beloved Country: Post-Colonial Literary Theory - Cry , the Beloved Country: Post-Colonial Literary Theory Bibliography w/4 sources Cry , the Beloved Country by Alan Paton is a perfect example of post-colonial literature. South Africa is a colonized country, which is, in many ways, still living under oppression. Though no longer living under apartheid, the indigenous Africans are treated as a minority, as they were when Paton wrote the book. This novel provides the political view of the author in both subtle and evident ways. Looking at the skeleton of the novel, it is extremely evident that relationship of the colonized vs....   [tags: Cry the Beloved Country Essays] 569 words
(1.6 pages)
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Post-Colonial Themes in David Malouf's Remembering Babylon - Post-Colonial Themes in David Malouf's Remembering Babylon It is interesting to note that, although in the context of this MA course we are studying Malouf's novel in terms of a post-colonial response, the author himself has expressed the opinion that it is not, strictly speaking, a post-colonial text. Most would agree with Malouf in that it is certainly not an example of resistance or response from a member of a colonised community in the same vein as, for example, Chinua Achebe or some Native Canadian authors....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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735 words
(2.1 pages)
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Decolonization, Nationalism, Imagining and Representing Communities: A review of Post-Colonial Literature - In the course of Colonization, the world was divided into binary categories of the colonizer and colonized. These binary groups were based on a division of class, gender, race, ethnicity and the oppression of cultural traditions. Traditions of language, religion, labor, and social values were based on theologies of the colonizers, enforced upon the colonized. These binaries can be associated with the Manichean binaries discussed by Frantz Fanon in his book entitled The Wretched of the Earth. In Post-Coloniality, societies gain independence either through diplomatic political transitions or violent revolutions against the occupying force....   [tags: Literature Review]
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1294 words
(3.7 pages)
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Salman Rushdi: Using Magical Realism as a Post-Colonial Device - Salman Rushdie is a meta-fiction writer, composing Midnight’s Children in a way that systematically draws attention to the fact that it’s a fictitious concoction questioning the relationship between fiction and reality. In Midnight’s Children, Rushdie uses historical events as reference points in the lives of his characters. Saleem Sinai’s life, and the lives of his familial predecessors, is defined by historical events. Beyond using historical events to denote the lives of his characters, Rushdie uses magical realism as a post-colonial device....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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1885 words
(5.4 pages)
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Colonialism and Post Colonial Ethnic Conflict in East African Countries - From the end of the nineteenth century until the attainment of independence in the early 1960s, the countries of East Africa were under the colonial administration of European empires. After decades of foreign rule which saw unparalleled transformations within society, the post-colonial states that emerged have been blighted by ethnic conflict. It has been argued that the beliefs of British, Belgian and German administrators led them to completely reorganise the societies they governed based on a fictitious ‘tribal’ model, and in the process they invented ethnicity....   [tags: african history] 2042 words
(5.8 pages)
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Colonialism and Imperialism - Heart of Darkness and Post-Colonial Theory - Post-Colonial Theory and Heart of Darkness "Heart of Darkness" begins and ends in London; on the Nellie on the Thames. The most part, however, takes place in the Congo (now known as the Republic of the Congo). The Kongo, as it was originally known, was inhabited first by pygmy tribes and migratory 'Bantus' and was 'discovered' by the Portuguese in the 14th Century. The Portuguese brought with them Catholocism; European missionaries. The Congo was ruled by King Alfonso I from 1506 - 1540 and Shamba Bolongongo from 1600 - 1620....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays] 830 words
(2.4 pages)
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Colonialism and Imperialism - A Post-colonial Study of Heart of Darkness - A Post-colonial Study of Heart of Darkness       In this paper, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness will be examined by using a recent movement, Post-colonial Study that mainly focuses on the relationship between the Self and the Other, always intertwined together in considering one’ identity.   The Other is commonly identified with the margin, which has been oppressed or ignored by Eurocentric, male-dominated history.   Conrad is also conscious of the Other's interrelated status with the Self, but his main concern is the Self, not the Other, even though he deals with the natives.   As Edward W....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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3283 words
(9.4 pages)
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Post Colonial Interpretations of Shakespeare’s The Tempest - Post Colonial Interpretations of Shakespeare’s The Tempest “…do we really expect, amidst this ruin and undoing of our life, that any is yet left a free and uncorrupted judge of great things and things which reads to eternity; and that we are not downright bribed by our desire to better ourselves?” – Longinus Since the seventeenth century many interpretations and criticisms of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest have been recorded. Yet, since the play is widely symbolical and allegorical Shakespeare’s actual intentions behind the creation of the play can never be revealed....   [tags: Shakespeare Tempest]
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1910 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Meaning of Heart of Darkness in the Post-Colonial Climate - The Meaning of Heart of Darkness in the Post-Colonial Climate Since its publication in 1899, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness has rarely been disputed on the basis of its literary merits; in fact, it was long seen as one of the great novels of the burgeoning modern era, a sort of bridge between the values and storytelling styles of the waning Victorian period and those of the modern era (Gatten), and regarded a high-ranking space amidst the great literature of the century, if not the millennia (Mitchell 20)....   [tags: Heart Darkness essays]
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3729 words
(10.7 pages)
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Comparing the Native Characters in Colonial Literature to the European Characters in Post-Colonial - Comparing the Native Characters in Colonial Literature to the European Characters in Post-Colonial Literature When European colonial authors introduced us to the native, they created the native; the native character became more real to European readers than the actual inhabitants of the new world. The natives' overwhelming otherness eclipsed any individuality that might have been found among them. The native was childish, incapable of reason, and savagely unchristian, or as Lord Cromer described him, a being which "generally acts, speaks and thinks in a manner that is exactly opposite to the European" (qtd....   [tags: Literature Essays Literary Criticism]
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2687 words
(7.7 pages)
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Post-colonial Criticism of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre - A broad focus on Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre reveals multiple perspectives in which postcolonial criticism could be angled. For the most part, this study will explore the representation of a selection of foreign cultures as a foil to Europe’s presumed magnificence. Additionally, focus will be trained on the gender relations as an indicator of patriarchal colonialism. On this second point, the study will attempt to illustrate the various ways in which the character of Jane Eyre is deliberately constructed to counter the male colonialist ego....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Class and Gender Warfare]
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2198 words
(6.3 pages)
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History, Language and Post-colonial Issues in Brian Friel’s Translations - History, Language and Post-colonial Issues in Brian Friel’s Translations Owen: Back to first principles. What are we trying to do. Yolland: Good question. Owen: We are trying to denominate and at the same time describe . . . ” Dun na nGall or Donegal. Muineachain or Monaghan. Same place, same difference. As Owen says about his own name: “Owen - Roland - what the hell. It’s only a name.” ( Translations ) For the student of post-colonial literature, what transpires in Friel’s play as the British army proceed to map this particular corner of the empire is that like language itself, it is not so much the naming and the changing of names but what that signifies and what those names signify in a particular context, coming from a particular mouth....   [tags: Essays Papers] 768 words
(2.2 pages)
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A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives - A post-colonial canonical and cultural revision of Conan Doyle's Holmes narratives Redefining the British literary canon as imperial construct and influence 'A canon,' Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffiin argue, 'is not a body of texts per se, but rather a set of reading practices....' (189). They define 'reading practices' as 'the enactment of innumerable individual and community assumptions, for example about genre, about literature, and even about writing....' (189). The purpose of the following discussion is to investigate the link between the British literary canon and its attendant culture....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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3242 words
(9.3 pages)
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Language Follows Evolution of Jackson and Trewe Relationship Paralleling the Colonization to Post-Colonial Movement in Pantomime - Language Follows Evolution of Jackson and Trewe Relationship Paralleling the Colonization to Post-Colonial Movement in Pantomime The play opens on the edge of a cliff; anything can happen. Derek Walcott, a playwright from the Caribbean, lives his own life on the edge of a cliff. Walcott’s family placed strong emphasis on education and ancestry. His inherent duality, European and African, mirrors that of post-colonialism (Gilbert 131). It is this duality that Walcott tries to reconcile in his work, drawing on his experiences in the theatre and in the Caribbean (King 260)....   [tags: Pantomime Essays]
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3127 words
(8.9 pages)
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Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet - Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet The Italian artist Michelangelo Buonarroti viewed the goal of sculpting as the manipulation of a marble block until the figure within is set free. Just as a carving artist seeks to release its piece from rock, a literary artist desires his art form to be carved from an obscure idea into clear apprehension. The most beautiful of these art pieces are placed in a museum of their own right, the literary canon. A great part of literature’s beauty is the ability of the artist to present his purpose in indiscrete ways, in some degree or another, sliding his message in the literature’s elements during its construction....   [tags: Post Colonialism Out of the Silent Planet Essays]
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4511 words
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Post-Post Critiques of Racism - Carrie Mae Weems and Hank Willis Thomas are two contemporary artists who are defying contemporary social and political categories and taking art photo into an engage era. The essays by Annie E Coombes provide a critical analysis of how the contemporary scene is moving beyond categories of post modern, and post race. Both are efforts to rescue contemporary artists who are dealing with forms of oppression from being described as old fashion or out of date. Carrie Mae Weems is an African American photographer....   [tags: Racism ]
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956 words
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Shakespeare's Caliban and the Colonial Approach to Slaves - Caliban: “Post Colonial Approach” The Shakespearean play, The Tempest, is one of the most controversial in terms of relationships in the play. The play was written in 1611 soon after the English arrived in America in 1607, launching the colonial period. This was the beginning of colonization to America, which lead to the evolution of indentured servants into slaves. Many critics have stated that the relationship between Prospero and Caliban was that of a slave and master and a representation of how the English colonized foreign lands that belonged to the indigenous Americans....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Colonialism]
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1908 words
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The Roots of Apartheid: South Africa’s Colonial Experience - In recent years, there have been efforts to understand the institution of apartheid in South Africa. From the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, to general study into the history of South Africa, much scholarship has been devoted to the study of the effects of apartheid and the atrocities committed in the post-World War II period. However, one topic remains largely un-researched—the origins of the vast apartheid structure instituted by the Herenigde (Reunited) National Party (HNP) in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, different and larger than any other nation’s program ....   [tags: South African Apartheid ]
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1667 words
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Mountains of the Moon: A Re-inscription of the Colonial Master Narrative - Mountains of the Moon: A Re-inscription of the Colonial Master Narrative    If Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke were alive in 1989 to see the release of Bob Rafelson’s Mountains of the Moon, what would their response to the film be?  Would they agree with the way Rafelson’s film depicts their remarkable journey into Africa to find the source of the Nile River?  Would they agree with the way the film dramatizes their relationship with each other?  The answers to these questions would help a great deal in determining whether Rafelson’s film about Burton and Speke’s expedition was accurate, or whether his film was an attempt to sensationalize their story to increase its reception.  Unfortunately, Burton and Speke are not around to answer these questions, which makes an analysis of these issues difficult.  Therefore, rather than analyzing this film from a historical perspective, this critique is concerned with what story Rafelson’s film tells.  How does Rafelson’s movie shape audience’s opinions about Burton and Speke as characters?  Does his story, through visual rhetoric, retell or reinterpret Burton and Speke’s story?  What role does Africa play in Rafelson’s film?  The answers to these questions should help determine whether Rafelson’s film is a re-inscription of the colonial master narrative, or whether it is a post-colonial critique of European colonization....   [tags: Movie Film Essays]
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1583 words
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The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations - The Historical and Colonial Context of Brian Friel’s Translations Regarded by many as Brian Friel’s theatrical masterpiece, Seamus Deane described Translations as “a sequence of events in history which are transformed by his writing into a parable of events in the present day” (Introduction 22). The play was first produced in Derry in 1980. It was the first production by Field Day, a cultural arts group founded by Friel and the actor Stephen Rea, and associated with Deane, Seamus Heaney and Tom Paulin....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1311 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Genesis of a Backcountry Identity - The Genesis of a Backcountry Identity In the North American English[1] colonial experience and in the subsequent post- revolutionary American Republic, the ability to assimilate either individually or collectively into the hierarchy of power represented a continually evolving process. Previously, throughout Europe’s ancient régime, a ridged hierarchy had dominated the social interaction of every facet of life and dictated that social positioning was a product of one’s birth and not open to unwarranted acts of social promotion....   [tags: Colonial America Colonization Essays]
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6005 words
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Post-Colonialism: Trying To Regain Ethnic Individuality - Indeed, the stranger has unusual customs. The white man held the paper like a sacred thing. His hands shook, and we mistrusted him... For how many moons will the stranger be among us. (Vera 43) The stranger still lives among the people of Zimbabwe, though the colonial political authority has left. Yet I wonder if the town elder speaking in the above passage from Yvonne Vera's Nehanda would recognize current Zimbabwean authorities as strangers or countrymen. Could he relate to today's government officials and understand the languages which they speak....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1692 words
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Producing Shakespeare in post-apartheid South Africa - Begging the question: producing Shakespeare in post-apartheid South Africa This paper will examine the role of the school in the construction and dissemination of “Shakespeare” in post-apartheid South Africa. In the context of the history of English in the region, and of Shakespeare’s role in entrenching a particular kind of literacy, the paper aims ultimately to explore some of the implications for the industry of English Literature in post-apartheid South Africa. Shakespeare still has enormous cultural currency in South Africa as elsewhere; English has always been a language of power in the region, a situation whose continuance is unaffected by the recognition of 11 official languages....   [tags: William Shakespeare Play Production]
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606 words
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Magic realism as post-colonialist device in Midnight's Children - Magic realism as post-colonialist device in Midnight's Children Magic realism in relation to the post-colonial and Midnight's Children 'The formal technique of "magic realism,"' Linda Hutcheon writes, '(with its characteristic mixing of the fantastic and the realist) has been singled out by many critics as one of the points of conjunction of post-modernism and post-colonialism' (131). Her tracing the origins of magic realism as a literary style to Latin America and Third World countries is accompanied by a definition of a post-modern text as signifying a change from 'modernism's ahistorical burden of the past': it is a text that 'self-consciously reconstruct[s] its relationship to what came before' (131)....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2650 words
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The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea - The Japanese Colonial Legacy In Korea North and South Korea are nations that while filled with contempt for Japan have used the foundations that Japan laid during the colonial period to further industrialization. Japan's colonization of Korea is critical in understanding what enabled Korea to industrialize in the period since 1961. Japan's program of colonial industrialization is unique in the world. Japan was the only colonizer to locate various heavy industry is in its colonies. By 1945 the industrial plants in Korea accounted for about a quarter of Japan's industrial base....   [tags: essays research papers] 724 words
(2.1 pages)
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Flann O'Brien, Dickens and Joyce: Form, Identity and Colonial Influences - Flann O'Brien, Dickens and Joyce: Form, Identity and Colonial Influences All quotations from The Third Policeman are taken from the 1993 Flamingo Modern Classic edition. In this essay I intend to examine Flann O'Brien's The Third Policeman in the context of the time of its writing, 1940, its relation to certain English novelistic traditions and also the broader Irish literary tradition in which it belongs. Seamus Deane refers to Ireland as a "Strange Country" and indeed O'Brien's own narrator recalls the words of his father: " ....   [tags: Essay] 800 words
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Theories of Post-Coloniality: Edward W. Said and W.B. Yeats - Theories of Post-Coloniality: Edward W. Said and W.B. Yeats (Citations from Said’s essay “Yeats and Decolonization” as published by Bay Press, not the Field Day pamphlet) Post-colonial theory, a mode of thought which accepts European Imperialism as a historical fact and attempts to address nations touched by colonial enterprises, has as yet failed to adequately consider Ireland as a post-colonial nation. Undoubtedly, Ireland is a post-colonial nation (where ‘post-’colonial refers to any consequence of colonial contact) with a body of literary work that may be read productively as post-colonial....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1361 words
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Colonial Representations of India in Prose Fiction - Colonial Representations of India in Prose Fiction As in representations of the other British colonies, India was used by colonial novelists as a tool of displacement of the individual and re-affirmation of the metropolitan whole. There are three methods by which this effect is achieved. The first method displays an unqualified reliance on a culture too remote to be approached except physically: a hero or protagonist in a pre-mutiny novel is at liberty to escape to India at a moment of crisis, rearrange his life to his advantage and return to a happy ending and the establishment of a newly defined metropolitan life....   [tags: Essays Papers] 479 words
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The Structural Ripeness for the Rise and Consolidation of One-party States in Africa Post Colonialism: The Case of Zambia - The rise of many single-party states in Africa came after many nations had attained their independence from the colonial regimes. The governments that were to follow were indirectly a product of their colonial counterparts, seeking legitimacy through the people by drawing on nationalism and creating an image of a government with characteristics opposite in every way to the colonial administrations. The hindrance of democratization in these respective states and the consolidation of single-party states have several reasons that can be attributed to their developments which consist of finding legitimacy in tradition; constructing an image of single-party governments as the solution to the African situation by protesting divisions with a call for national unity; and promoting the development of the states as the prime concern rather than multi-party competition....   [tags: International Government ]
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1389 words
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Liberals and Conservatives in Post Revolutionary Latin America - Liberals and Conservatives in Post Revolutionary Latin America Models for post-revolutionary Latin American government are born of the complex economic and social realities of 17th and 18th century Europe. From the momentum of the Enlightenment came major political rebellions of the elite class against entrenched national monarchies and systems of power. Within this time period of elitist revolt and intensive political restructuring, the fundamental basis for both liberal and conservative ideology was driven deep into Latin American soil....   [tags: Latin American History] 529 words
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The Bourgeoisie -                Karl Marx describes “Society as a whole [as being] more and more [split] up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other-bourgeoisie and proletariat” (Marx 124).  As Marx made his distinction between upper class, bourgeoisie, and lower class, proletariats, it is important to keep in mind the societal structure at the time.  To understand how classes were created and the disparity between the rich and poor, or, bourgeoisie and proletariat, it is necessary to examine how people came to be rich and poor.  Exploring a time before money existed will help us to process and understand reasons why the binary between rich and poor exists and how it is reflective of low and high art distinctions.              To reach a time before money was instituted, the philosophies of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau have each conceptualized human nature by studying man before the development of society and law.  This process of moving into society with laws from a completely natural state, are referred to as stages of the state of nature.            Rousseau’s conception of the state of nature deals with man living simply in nature and how the progression of society ultimately turns man against his fellow man.  Rousseau’s model of the state of nature begins with 1) the happy savage stage, in which man is a free agent with motives of self-preservation, pity, and compassion.  This stage is before the establishment of money and society, and man operates on instincts to survive and does not belong to a diverse group.  This period with regard to time is before art exists or at least before anything can be interpreted as art.  Motives for man at this stage are primarily of biological and physiological needs, such as food, sleep, and reproduction (Rousseau).  This stage is void of any class distinctions, but these natural characteristics and needs based on instinct have been deemed barbaric and “primitive” with regard to art and within society.   The nascent stage is stage 2), which involves emerging society and is characterized by one being born.  There is no dependency upon others and there is no concept of property, and therefore no inequality within this stage (Rousseau).  The breakdown of an emerging society is stage 3), which is signaled by the introduction of the division of labor and the creation of metallurgy and the arts.  During this stage, property comes into the equation as natural resources become utilized in everyday life and people become dependent upon each other as a result of not providing for themselves as they did in the happy savage state.  With the commodification of natural resources, there becomes a dependency between those who control the resources and all those who need to use them.  At this stage of society people are no longer self-sufficient, but rely upon the network of society to provide food, shelter and jobs (Rousseau).  At this level of society, the founders most often control the resources and begin to live in excess compared to the rest of the populace.                   Rousseau’s final stage 4) is the state of war, which is triggered when the rich deceive the poor, and the poor begin to rebel.  This state of war is rooted in the transition from a free, independent mode of living to a regulated lifestyle within the constraints of society.  Someone has to establish any society and as a result, those who establish society through control of the natural resources will monopolize power (Rousseau).              As we see, art does not arrive until all physiological needs or the basic needs are met as is evident by the happy savage stage.  Art arrives with the improvement of manual labor and hunter-gatherer techniques in the division of labor.  The division of labor in turn creates divisions within society, and we can see that evidence in the French colonial enslavement of native peoples and African slave trade throughout history.  The rich and poor binary can be considered synonymous with the civilized and primitive binary because the rich or bourgeoisie need to exist for those in the state of nature to be “primitive” or barbaric.  During this time “The range of colonial debate swung between two poles: (1) Enlightenment principle evoking an image of the black as noble savage, in a state out of which whites had long ago evolved and which could be addressed by assimilation into a superior culture; and (2) racial theory evoking an image of the black as an unregenerate and barbaric savage, which subhuman condition could be mitigated through control of a superior culture but could not be altogether suppressed” (Nelson, 227).  While French and European colonials utilized native and African slave workers as their form of labor, they simultaneously made themselves into the bourgeoisie and the natives into the proletariat.  Especially with slave trade, the workers really had no choice.  John Locke stated that joining a society is not necessarily voluntary.  Locke delved into this concept of tacit agreement, by which one’s presence in the location of society makes one a member (Locke).  We know this to be true in modern society, by which if we are within the jurisdiction of a particular city, we are bound by law to abide by specific rules and regulations.  In the case of the natives and slaves, some were either coerced or sold into societies as menial workers.  Some natives and slaves were taken from a state of nature in which survival instincts were all that were necessary and thrown into Rousseau’s 3rd stage of full-functioning society.  For the natives and slaves to go from a life where one does not own anything and lives off of the earth to one where a white man controls forms of currency, places them at the proletariat end of the bourgeoisie binary.                 As we learned about binaries in class, one cannot exist without the other.  The rich cannot exist without the poor.  So, with the introduction of society man has gone from living from the earth and taking what one needs, to inventing tools and creating a division of labor which places the natural resources and power in the hands of a few.  The hands that hold these resources, then do what they can to maintain and increase this power at the expense of the working class people who rely upon them.  Art cannot exist without an upper class or bourgeoisie who have already eaten, slept, and found shelter.  Art does not exist until there is time to go beyond mere survival....   [tags: Post-Modern Theory 2014]
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Economic Policies in the Interwar Period and the Post-World War Two Period - ... The Great Depression impacted economic policies for stable growth and equitable distribution dramatically. By 1932, all of the leading trading countries had instituted protectionist policies to promote stable economic growth domestically. Protectionism entailed trading blocs, such as the United Kingdom imperial bloc, increased colonial trade, and bilateral trade agreements. Protectionism furthermore facilitated equitable growth distribution, by increasing domestic consumption for domestic industries, small businesses, workers, and farmers (Frieden, 185-6)....   [tags: History, Informative]
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Home Crafts In Colonial America - The community of the American Colonies in the 16th to 17th century shared ideas and ways of life with one another. “The colonist came from many countries—England, France, Holland, Germany, and Spain. They brought with them their different customs and skills” (Corwin 7). Together they learned to formulate and develop items. Home crafts are gender specific; typically women became the ones who wove, sewed, embroidered, and quilted; while the men cleared land, farmed, cut wood, butchered and hunted animals....   [tags: US History Colonial Crafts] 982 words
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Struggles in Post Civil War America - The Civil War split the nation in half. It tore apart families, and Union soldiers against Confederate soldiers for four miserable years. From the first shots fired at Fort Sumter 1861, and ending with a unanimous Confederate victory in 1865. All in all 630,000 people died and many thousands wounded. The deaths in the Civil War totally surpassed the death totals from any other war (1). For those managed to survive the up hill battle just began, they faced many unknowns in a world moving in an uncertain direction....   [tags: Post Civil War] 1034 words
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Are We in a Post-Modern Age? - This paper answers the question: Are We in a Post-Modern Age. Post-Modernism can be described as a particular style of thought. It is a concept that correlates the emergence of new features and types of social life and economic order in a culture; often called modernization, post-industrial, consumer, media, or multinational capitalistic societies. In Modernity, we have the sense or idea that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through a process of social, technological, and cultural change (either through improvement, that is, progress, or through decline) life in the present is fundamentally different from life in the past....   [tags: Post-Modernity] 2824 words
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The Influence of Sor Juana and Catalina de Erauso on Colonial Latin American Society - Colonial Latin American society in the Seventeenth Century was undergoing a tremendous amount of changes. Society was transforming from a conquering phase into a colonizing phase. New institutions were forming and new people and ideas flooded into the new lands freshly claimed for the Spanish Empire. Two remarkable women, radically different from each other, who lived during this period of change are a lenses through which many of the new institutions and changes can be viewed. Sor Juana and Catalina de Erauso are exceptional women who in no way represent the norm but through their extraordinary tales and by discovering what makes them so extraordinary we can deduce what was the norm and how society functioned during this era of Colonial Latin America....   [tags: Colonial Latin American] 1239 words
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Towards a New and Integrated Language: A Rejection of Post-Modernism - The term post-modernism has gradually become popular with music commentaries since the phrase was first coined in the early mid 1960's. It was adopted as a way of explaning the rise of so called 'populist' music in the era of the avant garde. The history of the term can be traced to the upsurge in parodying the past in art and architecture and was thought to be a new aesthetic which would eventually replace modernism. In music, this apparently new aesthetic was first represented by composers like Rochberg who were disaffected with serialism and a so called allienation between the composer and the audience by modernist music....   [tags: language, post-modern,] 1241 words
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Defining Post-Modernism - Defining Post-Modernism In trying to define exactly what post-modernism is I shall firstly briefly consider some of the events and thinking that led up to the development of this particular school of social theory. I shall then consider some of the common strands of thinking in postmodernism concentrating mainly on the writings of Jean-Francois Lyotard and Jean Baudrillard. I shall then consider the view of David Harvey, a Marxist many consider to be writing in the postmodern tradition, who argues that post-modernism is just another form of capitalism....   [tags: Definition post Modernism]
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Veterans - Hundreds of thousands of United States veterans are not able to leave the horrors of war on the battlefield (“Forever at War: Veterans Everyday Battles with PTSD” 1). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the reason why these courageous military service members cannot live a normal life when they are discharged. One out of every five military service members on combat tours—about 300,000 so far—return home with symptoms of PTSD or major depression. According to the Rand Study, almost half of these cases go untreated because of the disgrace that the military and civil society attach to mental disorders (McGirk 1)....   [tags: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, mental health]
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Post Modernism and Architecture - Post Modernism and Architecture If one were to walk around and casually ask five people what post modernism was they would probably get five different answers or none at all. It is one of those indefinable academic terms that applies to many different fields of study. Most people seem to understand what it means individually but few agree collectively. To make matters even more complicated, it is often used in discussions about deconstruction. "To some Post Modernism is an excuse to pile together oodles of wild and crazy decor, to others it is another example of the weakness of standards and values....   [tags: Architecture Post Modernism Architects Essays] 1168 words
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - There are hundreds of different kinds of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV). One of them is called Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the research, post-traumatic disorder usually occurs following the experience or witnessing of life-threatening events such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults like rape (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2005)....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD]
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - Journal According to Sigmund Freud, events and emotions that are particularly disturbing are repressed into the unconscious. Often times this theory is true, but for people suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, they only wish that it were true. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. People with PTSD have persistent frightening thoughts and memories of their ordeal and feel emotionally numb, especially with people they were once close to....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD] 843 words
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Post-traumatic stress disorder in Kuwait - REPAIRING A NATION POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN KUWAIT THESIS: Studies made by experts found after the liberation of Kuwait following the Gulf War of 1991 that most children who were inside the country experienced undesirable emotions simultaneously which brought out more abnormal behaviors. INTRODUCTION In the oppressively hot summer of 1990 the second of August to be exact, people were sleeping peacefully in their homes. It was a Thursday morning and most Kuwaitis had left the country on holiday....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD] 2268 words
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder In Veterans - Post Traumatic Stress in Vietnam Veterans For more than twenty years, Patricia Dietz, a wife of a Vietnam veteran, has suffered along with her husband the effects of post traumatic stress disorder. She has stated that, "It has changed everything; it has affected the rest of his and her life." Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is when a person, in this case a veteran from Vietnam, is haunted by his memories of war and death so badly that it affects not only the rest of his life, but others close to him as well....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD]
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - Epidemiology At least 50% of all adults and children are exposed to a psychologically traumatic event (such as a life-threatening assault or accident, humanmade or natural disaster, or war). As many as 67% of trauma survivors experience lasting psychosocial impairment, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); panic, phobic, or generalized anxiety disorders; depression; or substance abuse.(Van der Kolk, et al, 1994) Symptoms of PTSD include persistent involuntary re-experiencing of traumatic distress, emotional numbing and detachment from other people, and hyperarousal (irritability, insomnia, fearfulness, nervous agitation)....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD] 723 words
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Implications of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for War Veterans - Implications of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for War Veterans War is a complex concept that is increasingly difficult to understand, particularly in an age that allows for live images of combat to be beamed around the world. Many war films depict the brutalities of war and affects war has on participants, but it seems that these representations merely skim the surface. The 20th century is an era that saw a significant amount of military action: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, Vietnam, and the Gulf War - millions of men fought, some survived and live among us today....   [tags: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD]
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Social and Economic Development in Colonial Virginia in the 1600's - The seventeenth century marked the start of great colonization and immigration to the New World that was North America. Mainly in on the eastern coast of what is now the United States, England established colonies on this new land to thrive socially and economically. The English government readily sent its citizens to America to exploit its abundant source of raw materials and the English people exponentially came to the colonies to start a new life for themselves and to thrive socially. In Virginia during the seventeenth century, the geographical attributes in this region allowed the establishment of the cash crop tobacco to rapidly transform the colony socially and economically....   [tags: Sociol development, Economic Development, Colonial] 523 words
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The Colonial Period - The Colonial period is abundant in its source of influential people who help shape present society through questioning past beliefs. Martin Luther leads the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin expands on the idea of predestination. The Puritans live strictly by the word of the Bible, and the Quakers inspire many people to join them in their friendly lifestyle. All of these people contribute to our society today and brave the face of adversity. Martin Luther, born in 1483, comes from a poor upbringing....   [tags: Religious History ]
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Colonial America - (11) Identify Roger Williams, the origins of Rhode Island and his essay: The Bloody Tenents of Persecution. Explain how he contributed to freedom of religion, thought, speech, and conscience. Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island. Before that, he was a bright young man who had been attracted to the land of Plymouth. His religious views contradicted that of the Massachusetts Bay Colony leaders. After numerous disagreements, Williams was expelled and was threatened to be sent back to England....   [tags: American History, Rhode Island] 2722 words
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Angola: Colonial Legacy History of Colonial Rule - Angola: Colonial Legacy History of Colonial Rule The source of problems in some modern African nations lies in the colonial legacy of the past. Imperialistic policies often denied the native populations their political, economic, cultural, and basic human rights. Many imperialistic practices promoted ethnic rivalries, unequal distribution of resources and wealth, and undemocratic governments which prevented local participation in governmental decisions and actions. The impact of colonization on Angola is similar to that of many other African nations....   [tags: African History ]
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Post Reviews - Great post. I definitely agree that the Soft&Tough manufacturer should market their new male skin care product to white collar men because these professionals are very image conscious and they want to present a youthful appearance to be competitive in their career (Anonymous, 2007). Also, professional men tend to spend more money on personal grooming products than blue-collar men (Anonymous, 2007). You make a great point that baby boomer men would be very attracted to the Soft&Tough skin care line because of the allure of products anti-aging and skin protecting components....   [tags: Marketing Reviews]
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Post-Bureaucracy - The Weberian bureaucracy that has emerged in the early 20th century, due to Max Weber’s works on bureaucracy, is now widely spread throughout public and private sectors. However, it is not a perfect structure and has several disadvantages which this essay will cover. This called for a shift to a new, improved way of organizing work. It is widely believed that post-bureaucracy has stepped in now as an organizational structure which eliminates the negative sides of bureaucracy, but we need proof in favour of that argument....   [tags: Business]
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Post Death - There has been much speculation on concept of post death survival. Even though there is no cut and dry straight answer in explaining this, I believe Gretchen Weirob’s argument against the possibility of post-death survival is false. Weirob is persistent in the thinking that once she dies that will be the end for her. That her train stops there and that there is no possibility of being reborn or moving on to the next position in the life cycle. She believes that her physical body is the only thing alive and does not believe that when it dies, a soul will live on in some way....   [tags: After Life] 686 words
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Colonial Times - Colonial Times The colonial period was A time of much change, as is the modern period. Many people viewed things differently in the colonial period than they do today. The people of the colonial period had much more traditional values than the people of today. The people of the colonial period thought of religion much more sternly than I do. John Winthrop believed in a very stern God. John Winthrop writes, "Now if the Lord shall please to hear us, and bring us in peace to the place we desire, then hath he ratified this Covenant and sealed our Commission, [and] will expect a strict performance of the Articles contained in it" (43)....   [tags: American America History] 523 words
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Colonial America - Religious Freedom in colonial America Religion was a very important part of everyday life in colonial America. Sometimes people were not allowed to question what they were taught, and if they did so they were punished accordingly. Before 1700 some colonies had more religious freedom then others. While others colonies only allowed religious freedom to a select group, others allowed religious freedom to all different kinds of religions. In the overall there was quite a bit of religious freedom in colonial America First there is the colony or Rhode Island, which was started by a man, named Roger Williams in (1636)....   [tags: essays research papers] 526 words
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Colonial Democracy? - Did democracy exist in the colonies during the eighteenth century before the American Revolution. Democracy is rule by the people, simply put. This on a large scale is nearly impossible. How could all the people of America, then or now, or even of a decent size town today all come together to vote on issues. We today have a representative Democracy, which in itself is a logistical compromise on a true democracy. In analyzing the government they had in the colonies and comparing it to the “Democracy” that we have today there are enough similarities that I would have to call the form of colonial government Democratic....   [tags: essays research papers] 890 words
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Colonial Jamestown - Colonial Jamestown In 1606 King James I set two companies, the London and the Plymouth, out with three instructions: find gold, find a route to the South Seas, and find the Lost Colony of Roanoke. Five months later, and forty-five men less, the London Company landed on a semi-island along the banks of a river the Indians knew as “Powhatan’s River”. On May 13, 1607, the first permanent British colony had been established in the form of a triangular fort. The men named their fort Jamestown, in honor of their King, and named their land Virginia, in honor or Queen Elizabeth I, the “Virgin Queen”....   [tags: Papers] 895 words
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Colonial Life - Colonial Life In the earlier years of the colonies life was a bit more difficult than it is now in the presant. People led simpeler lives without all the things we take for granted today. Times when our government was merely a puppet of mother England thousands of miles away. It was this government and its actions that brought out the anger in its subjects to the point of rebellion and eventual emancipation from the larger power. So what brought this small country to the boiling point. It seemed to be a serious of pushes from England that led to the eventual split of the colonies and the U.K....   [tags: Papers] 1009 words
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Was Colonial America a Democratic Society? - Between 1607 and 1733, Great Britain established thirteen colonies in the New World along the land’s eastern coast. England’s colonies included Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Georgia. Though the colonies were classified as New England, middle or southern colonies, the colonists developed a unifying culture. With this new American culture, the colonists throughout the colonies began to think differently than their English cousins....   [tags: american colonies, american government] 547 words
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Colonial Oppression of Women - Colonial and Postcolonial debates along with the issues of Feminism have always been challenging discourses. The present day world with the constant cultural encounters and clashes as well as the ideas regarding pluralism and multiculturalism motivates a curiosity on the part of the onlooker to search the answer to the question "who is who" in today's world when there is a continuous struggle between different countries not only politically and militarily but also culturally. In this situation the division of the world to First, Second and Third World countries also provides the opportunity and justifies the movements of some countries against some others while encourages different definitions for words such as tradition, modernity and civilization....   [tags: Gender Studies]
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Religion in Colonial America - Religion was the foundation of the early Colonial American Puritan writings. Many of the early settlements were comprised of men and women who fled Europe in the face of persecution to come to a new land and worship according to their own will. Their beliefs were stalwartly rooted in the fact that God should be involved with all facets of their lives and constantly worshiped. These Puritans writings focused on their religious foundations related to their exodus from Europe and religions role in their life on the new continent....   [tags: Religion ]
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Colonial American Slavery - The study of slavery in the development of early America is an extremely complex, yet vitally important part of American History. There are hundreds of thousands of documents, debates, and historical studies available today. According to Ms. Goetz, the assistant professor of history at Rice University, who states, in The Southern Journal of History, that in addition to geographic and chronological diversity in the America’s, assessment of experiences of colonial slaves is extremely complex, “especially in the context of three European colonial powers, vigorous Indian groups, and free and enslaved blacks”(Goetz, 599)....   [tags: U.S. History]
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The Colonial Incentives for Independence - The Colonial Incentives for Independence July 4th of 1776 is arguably the most significant day in American history. On this day, the thirteen British colonies won their independence from Great Britain, their mother country at the time. The war that allowed the colonies to gain their independence was, of course, the American Revolution. One reason the colonists’ declaration of independence was understandable was because after an extended period of salutary neglect, the British started imposing laws on the colonies....   [tags: American Revolution, Revolutionary War] 818 words
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Children in Colonial America - The various essays comprising Children in Colonial America look at different characteristics of childhood in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Children coming to the American colonies came from many different nations and through these essays, authors analyze children from every range of social class, race, and ability in order to present a broad picture of childhood in these times. While each essay deals with an individual topic pertaining to childhood, they all combine to provide a strong argument that children were extremely valued in society, were not tiny adults, and were active participants in society....   [tags: American History]
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Resistance to the Imposition of Colonial Rule - Resistance to the Imposition of Colonial Rule Africa was seen here to have been a victim of European invasion. The Europeans took advantage of the weapons they had, and the enmities that existed between some African states which made them seek alliances with foreigners as the Europeans. They would have combated the invasion through joined forces and a confederation had they known the European’s intention. Patterns of Resistance There were many resistances that were initiated with the goal of sustaining the sovereignty of many of the African states....   [tags: Colonization of Africa] 672 words
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How to Bake Colonial Bread - Introduction Crisp, brown, delicious -- these all describe the sensation of bread, a food that has managed to survive throughout time. Thought to be created more than 7000 years ago, bread has played a role as a staple food from the Ancient Egyptians to the people of today. Bread is now used as a main food source that is eaten all over the world. Even in the midst of the colonial times, colonists created bread as a main food product in their time....   [tags: Instructional Essay, Process Essay, How-To Essay]
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A Passage with No Door: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder In Graham Greene’s The Power and the Glory - Flashbacks. Depression. Anger. Intense energy directed to one narrow goal. Significant impairment in certain social or occupational situations. These are the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental illness caused by the experience of a violent or disturbing event. One man struggles to cope with the stress and anxiety of reliving the past, and he only barely survives the world as an inferno of pain, guilt, blame, and violence. To survive this, he succumbs to revenge and discovers an outlet: the extermination of priests....   [tags: post-traumatic stress disorder, PSD, mental illnes]
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The French and Indian War - By the year 1754 conflict had erupted between France and Britain over colonial borders in the new world. Britain was expanding her American colonies westward, and France was alarmed by Britain’s aggressive movement into traditionally French or Indian territories. The spur had begun when French soldiers captured a British expedition led by George Washington; he was dispatched by Gov. Robert Dinwiddie on a fruitless mission to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf against further encroachment on territory claimed by Britain....   [tags: Colonial America ] 1006 words
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Comparing Colonial Virginia and Colonial New England's Effect on American Character - I believe colonial New England had more of an effect on the American character than Virginia for several reasons. First they promoted more of the values that have transcended into modern day America such as religious toleration, their educational ideas and their focus on the importance of family. And we shouldn’t forget the fact that the American Revolution began in New England so in essence the America we know today would not exist without New England. First off, colonial New England was more family based, as I believe America is today....   [tags: american history] 639 words
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Missionaries in Pre-Colonial and Early Colonial Nigeria - Missionaries in Pre-Colonial and Early Colonial Nigeria In any study of colonial Nigeria, the groundwork accomplished by the missionaries in pre-colonial days must be a central concern. They were instrumental in setting the scene which would meet the colonists when they started arriving. Missionaries were used by the colonial power as an avant garde, to expand into new regions, a fact keenly displayed by Achebe in Things Fall Apart. For many Nigerians, missionaries were the first Europeans with whom they came into contact....   [tags: Colonialism Africa African History] 1011 words
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Post-Modernism - In recent years, multiculturalism, tolerance and political correctness have been integrated into how American society thinks. America seems to be trying to learn more about the ingredients of her melting pot. These efforts can be best understood by examining post-modernism. Post-modernism is especially important to breaking down stereotypes such as those that exist surrounding the black family. To understand post-modernism we must first understand modernism. Modernism is the philosophy that began with the Enlightenment....   [tags: essays research papers] 1194 words
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european post - THE EUROPEAN POST Islam In Europe Pg188 Islam the religion that the Franks and the other Germanic people brought to Europe. It started in the west of Europe. The powerful force began spreading through the middle east and the Mediterranean world.Islam came from Arabiain 632. People that believe in Islam are called muslims. The Christians in Europe began to worry because the muslim army began to win victories in the mediterranean world. They overran Christian kingdoms in North Africa and Spain.Franish warriors led by Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army.This defeat and others made the muslims go back to Spain....   [tags: essays research papers] 407 words
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