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Understanding Polymers - Polymers are always been around everywhere we go and have been increasing as time goes on. From its inception until today, polymers have enhanced our quality of life. The common questions asked here are usually what they are, where can I find them, where did they come from, how they are made, and what are some future possibilities. The first thing you might want to know about polymers is what they are. Polymers can be very complicated and you can do into great depth to what they are. “Polymers are molecules which consist of a long, repeating chain of smaller units called monomers.” The next question would be what monomers are....   [tags: Polymers]
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1066 words
(3 pages)
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polymers - Cornstarch is an example of a polymer. Polymers are long strains of molecules that keep repeating and have different properties of the original single molecule group. A single section of a polymer is called a monomer. It resembles the simplest form of the repeating portion of the entire polymer. These polymers may get stretched when you make a mixture such as cornstarch and water. This mixture behaves a certain way. There are many theories on why this may occur. One theory is because the strands get tangled, making it hard for them to slide against each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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Aspects of Polymers - Aspects of Polymers Plastics are polymers. A simple definition of a polymer is something made of many units. Each link of the chain is the -mer or basic unit that is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and or silicon. To make the chain, many links or -mers are polymerized together. Many of the common class of polymers are composed of hydrocarbons. Examples of polymers made up of only hydrogen and carbon are polypropylene, polybutylene, polystyrene and polymethylpentene. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains chlorine....   [tags: Papers] 641 words
(1.8 pages)
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Electro-Active Polymers in Finite Deformation - Characterization and Analysis - Abstract This work deals with electroactive polymers (EAP), materials that can undergo large deformations when subjected to electric field. This property attracted in the last decade the academic and the industrial communities, who try to utilize these materials as actuators and sensors. Electroactive materials are elastic, can undergo large deformations and possess fast response time. However, their wide-spread use was hindered by their limitations: the need for large electric field, small forces and low energy density....   [tags: Engineering] 2064 words
(5.9 pages)
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Using Polymers to Replace Absorption Glass Mats - This report outlines the evaluation for replacing an absorption glass mat (AGM) with a polymer mat to be used in a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. AGMs are expensive and exhibit low tensile strength, so polymers were investigated to both decrease cost and improve the properties of the mat. Initially the important properties of the mat were assumed to be chemical inertness in aqueous acid, stability towards oxidation and heat, wettability and contact angle, porosity, and tensile strength....   [tags: Materials Engineering] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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Polyethylene and Polyterephthalate are Outdated - Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Outdated: Is the World Ready for a New Plastic. Abstract: This paper explains the structure of polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) also known as PET. It states the properties of the plastic as well recycling methods. My goal was to find out what makes PET the number one plastic, both in consumption as well as the most recycled. I also searched for new polymers that are being created by scientists and compare them to PET to see if there was a plastic out there that is better for the environment....   [tags: Polymer PET Plastic]
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1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Polyethylene - German Chemist Hans von Pechmann first synthesized Polyethylene by accident in 1898 by heating diazomethane. His colleagues characterized the waxy substance polyethylene due to the fact that they recognized that it consisted of long ethene chains. It was then first industrially synthesized by accident in 1933 by applying extremely high pressure to ethylene and benzaldehyde. Over the years, development of polyethylene has increased due to the additions of catalyst. This makes ethylene polymerization possible at lower temperatures and pressures.1 Polyethylene is a polymer that is made of a long chain of CH2 monomers bonded together....   [tags: Polymer Plastic]
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1414 words
(4 pages)
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Polylactide - Polylactide: A New Perspective In the past decades, many polymers are non-biodegradable and require an excessive and strenuous recycling process. However one polymer, polylactide, is renovating the roles of commonly known polymers as time passes by. Polylactide has led to the introduction of other possible ways to create plastics that are more environmental friendly to the community. With this sole introduction, polymers in petrochemical-derived products are greatly affected in that they are no longer an extreme threat to the atmosphere, which is something very crucial for a future healthy planet environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1613 words
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Plastics - I want to say one word to you. Yes sir. Are you listening . Yes sir, I am. PLASTICS . - The Graduate (1967) 1. Definition of Plastics Plastics can be defined as used materials which are primarily based on two materials, polymers and prepolymers (Elias, 1993). However, the previously mentioned definition suffers from a serious weakness as it does not explain the basic method of how plastics are made. A better definition of plastics is that they are “synthetic materials composed of a series or chain of molecules which, when heat or pressure is applied, can be formed into desired shapes” (Lincoln et al....   [tags: Conservation ] 2461 words
(7 pages)
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Flubber - The movie Flubber was about a “crazy” chemist who had many inventions, some by the way I would like to have. But the main invention was a rubber “thing” that he named Flubber. There were a few scientific terms that he noted during the movie when inventing Flubber which I will describe below. The words in bold are the scientific terms that were noted in the movie. The first term that I noted during the movie was Conductive Polymers. Conductive polymers are almost always organic meaning a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon....   [tags: essays research papers] 481 words
(1.4 pages)
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Industrial Production of PTFE - ... The monomer droplets are the source of the reactive monomers as it will continuously diffuse in to the micelles by small parts, thus polymerization will progress with the continuous addition of micelles and terminates when termination happens. This process is called micellar nucleation; the final polymers products with the surfactants still disperse in the water solution which is called dispersion or latex. (Emulsion polymerization. Art. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.) Another process will take place simultaneously, as very small amounts of TFE is surrounded by the water molecules, the initiator will react directly with those monomers to precipitate out oligometric polymers which are not desired products for its extremely small size....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
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1984 words
(5.7 pages)
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Plastics - Plastics Plastics are often frowned upon. This is because people often think of them as cheap and not aesthetically pleasing. However they come in many different forms and often look very nice. Obviously there are types that do give the product a bad name. Mainly the cheap toys that are produced in the far east. This is not right and plastics should be seen as a real alternative and be able offer a huge amount of uses for this product. Polymers Polymers such as rubber, plastics and adhesives are organic structures....   [tags: Papers] 560 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Chemistry of Painting Cars - The Chemistry of Painting Cars It is necessary to paint cars because the paint protects the steel of the car from corrosion, paint fills and smooths out any imperfections in the steel surface and it provides a durable, decorative, glossy appearance. If rusting continually takes place the car becomes unsafe. When water and oxygen come in contact with the metal of the car surface, several redox reactions happen. The oxygen is reduced to hydroxide ions and iron is oxidized to Fe2+ ions which pass into solution....   [tags: Papers] 1045 words
(3 pages)
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Organic Polymeric Materials Used in Implants - Polymers are made of large molecules that consist of a many monomers fused together through chemical bonds to make a strong material. Certain polymers are made of different chemical compositions of different molecular weights, crystallization, different degrees of hydrophobic characteristics, and heating transformations. Polymer materials are utilized for their slow degradable capabilities, ability to influence new formation of bone tissue, and contain porosity for cells to latch onto and utilize....   [tags: Physics ]
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2362 words
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons - Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular weights, such as propane (C3H8) are in a gaseous form....   [tags: Environment, fossil fuels]
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1127 words
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Bisphenol A - ... This was mixed with phosgene which is a chemical and colorless gas and other compounds were included. How was Bisphenol A discovered. It was discovered in the 1891 as a synthetic estrogen, the estrogen properties where not as strong as other estrogens so, in 1930 Bisphenol A was investigated, because Bisphenol A was acting like an estrogen in your body and was messing up your organs and your body thinks it’s important to the body, so it takes it in just like HIV, your body doesn’t know that it’s harmful to you, it takes it in any way making your body weak.....   [tags: Chemistry, Polycarbonate Plastics] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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Replacing Synthetic Plastic With Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanote - Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanote (PHA) is a good candidate to replace synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. The main factor that hampered the commercialization of PHA is the high production cost with the recovery processes accounting for the most. The present study suggests a novel biological recovery method of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Cupriavidus necator H16. The PHA granules have been extracted without the help of any solvent or chemicals. The lyophilized cells were used protein source for the laboratory rats and simultaneously recovered the PHB granules excreted in the faeces....   [tags: Biotechnology] 2359 words
(6.7 pages)
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Utilizing Supramolecular Interactions Toward the Design of New Stimuli-Responsive Materials - The ability to utilize supramolecular interactions1 toward the design of new stimuli-responsive materials has gained a great amount of interest in recent years.2 For example, main-chain supramolecular polymers, whose polymer backbone consists of both covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions, can result in large (e.g. mechanical) responses to small changes in the environment. 3 Reversible metal–ligand coordination is one class of non-covalent interaction that has been widely utilized to access main-chain supramolecular polymers.4 Most of these metallosupramolecular polymers rely on ligand coordination with transition metal ions....   [tags: Engineering] 1159 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates - The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Large biological molecules are called macromolecules, there are giant molecules (polymers) made up of repeating units (monomers). Carbohydrates are one of the main classes of biological molecules. Macromolecule units (monomers) are joined together by condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions split macromolecules down into their individual units. Carbohydrates are molecules that contain elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have a 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio, there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms (the same proportion as in water)....   [tags: Papers] 590 words
(1.7 pages)
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Polystyrene - The Present and Future of Polystyrene Last year, the curbside recycling in my hometown made several changes to their program. Such changes included an increase in the amount of recycled materials each household could put every week, as well an increase in the frequency of collections. Perhaps the most welcome change for my family was the new ability to recycle all plastics. Although we had never produced a titanic amount of plastic waste, we still felt as though this allowed us to better do our part for the environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1350 words
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
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1435 words
(4.1 pages)
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Carbohydrates - There are three principal kinds of carbohydrates and each are classified according to the number of sugar molecules they contain. Monosaccharides, such as ribose, glucose, and fructose, contain only one sugar molecule. Disaccharides consist of two sugar molecules linked covalently. Familiar examples are sucrose (table sugar), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar). Polysaccharides, such as cellulose and starch, contain many sugar molecules linked together. Monosaccharides are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen....   [tags: essays research papers] 384 words
(1.1 pages)
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Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty - ... Histopathologic studies additionally revealed that these non-erodable polymers can abruptly trigger in stent thrombosis by inducing localized vascular inflammation, hypereosinophilia, thrombogenic reactions and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells [5]. As a result of these findings, in recent years, clinical research has been directed to improve stent platforms, develop unique anti-proliferative agents requiring a lower dosage of current antimitotic agents, and original carrier systems including absorbable polymers....   [tags: Anatomy, Coronary Arteries] 2255 words
(6.4 pages)
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Artificial Olfactory Enhancement - Artificial Olfactory Enhancement The human olfactory system is responsible for perceiving the chemical world around us. By sampling the environment, we can determine the presence of other individuals, possible danger, or distinguish acceptable food. Consisting of our sense of taste and smell, the olfactory system is a highly interrelated coordination of chemical and nerve responses. Yet as we have all experienced, human olfaction has limits. The popular image of a bloodhound leading hunters through the woods is one example of these limits....   [tags: Olfactory Enhancement Essays]
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1644 words
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ft.lauderdale high AP bio project - 2) LEVEL 1 - Cells Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.May serve a specific function within the organism Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc. tissue LEVEL 2 - Tissues Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve. LEVEL 3 - Organs Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 2086 words
(6 pages)
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Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites - Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites The objective of this work is to characterize the influence of clay loading and dispersion effects on the rheological properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Toughened unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were synthesized by the blending of delaminated clay with unsaturated polyester. Rheological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by clay loading and the extent of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix....   [tags: essays research papers] 2008 words
(5.7 pages)
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Hydrogels - ... Patterning of cell or biological molecule loaded hydrogels have been widely performed by computer controlled printing strategies (35). In these approaches, cells are resuspended in the prepolymer solution and dispensed by a printing mechanism on predetermined positions on a solid surface. The resulting droplets are subsequently crosslinked to form individual building blocks and this process is repeated to form layers for the final tissue construct. Computer based printing techniques enable deposition of multiple cell types or aggregates of cells encapsulated in hydrogels (36)....   [tags: Ethics, Bioprinting, Artificial Tissues] 566 words
(1.6 pages)
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Biology Notes - 1. The ability of ice to float because of the expansion of water as it solidifies is an important factor in the fitness of the environment. If ice sank, then eventually all ponds, lakes, and even oceans would freeze solid, making life as we know it impossible on earth. During the summer, only the upper few inches of the ocean would thaw. Instead, when a deep body of water cools, the floating ice insulates the liquid water below, preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface....   [tags: Biology Study Tests] 3489 words
(10 pages)
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The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens - The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens "A quite extraordinary experience, slightly unnerving, but I do feel an enormous respect now for our bodies and the way they function. Thank you!" "I am now able to understand my body in a much better way. Congratulations on such a sensational exhibition and a very enlightening tour. I hope that this exhibition will gain more acceptance." These are two opinions about the Body Worlds exhibition, which is currently in London....   [tags: Papers] 1303 words
(3.7 pages)
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Chemistry and Carbohydrates - The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The chemistry of carbohydrates most closely resembles that of alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone functional groups. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The chemistry of carbohydrates is complicated by the fact that there is a functional group (alcohol) on almost every carbon. In addition, the carbohydrate may exist in either a straight chain or a ring structure. Ring structures incorporate two additional functional groups: the hemiacetal and acetal....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Leps : Revolution in the Field of Imaging Appliances - In 1897, German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and it has become an indispensable part of our lives ever since. It has remained ubiquitous till date inspite of being bulky, power hungry and expensive. Researchers came up with an alternative called Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). LCD had been projected as the saviour of the display industry and they have been quite a success in the computer applications industry. However, even today LCDs are far from pervasive. This is due to the fact that apart from being thinner than the CRT it has little advantage over it and hence, fail to meet the broad demands of the imaging appliance industry....   [tags: Physics] 490 words
(1.4 pages)
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Natural Rubber - Natural Rubber I’m going to talk to you about rubber, I’ll talk about natural rubber first and then go on to talk about the way in which its natural state can be modified and manipulated so its advantageous properties can be used. (slide 2) Natural rubber is an excellent engineering material and is used as the main material in many everyday items the most prevalent being car tires which I’ll discuss later also. (slide 3) Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex, found in many plants however synthetic rubbers are produced from unsaturated hydrocarbons (basically this means that there are carbon atoms in the rubber molecule that have a potential to be bonded to more hydrogen....   [tags: Papers] 739 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Role of Carbohydrates - The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain 3 elements, Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O), at a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are found in three main forms, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates supply the body with the energy it needs to function. They are found almost exclusively in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, peas, and beans. Milk and milk products are the only foods derived from animals that contain a significant amount of carbohydrates....   [tags: Papers] 530 words
(1.5 pages)
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What Is the Role of a Macromolecule? - What is the role of Macromolecules. Macromolecules have a major role in everyday life, we might not notice this because we don't exactly know what we use them for and why they are so important to us, mainly because we can see them therefore we are not aware that they exist. The term macromolecules is sometimes used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather then by chemical bonds. Another common macromolecule property that does not characterize smaller molecules is the need for assistance in dissolving into solution....   [tags: Biology] 1239 words
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Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates and lipids/fats are a very important part of our lives. They have many similarities and differences among each other, which distinguish them from other macromolecules. Carbohydrates, which include sugar and their polymers, are used by organisms for fuel and building material. They come in many various forms going from simplicity to complexity. The simplest, monosaccharides, compose of single sugars whose parts are arranged around asymmetric carbons. They generally have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH2O....   [tags: essays research papers] 589 words
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Lipids and Carbohydrates - Lipids and Carbohydrates Lipids are a group of substances, which include fats, oils and waxes. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. They are stored in plants as starches and in animals as glycogen. There are many differences between carbohydrates and lipids. For example lipids are insoluble in water whereas carbohydrates are soluble in water. This is because lipids contain non - polar hydrocarbon units whereas water contains polar hydrocarbon units. So when the two are mixed together there is no attraction between particles so no breakdown is possible....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
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Protein Thermal Stability - ... Because of its ability to absorb large amounts of water, casein is used to modify the texture of baked goods and it is used extensively in the processing of cheeses (Southward). Temperature and pH play important roles in the dissociation of casein from the micelles that are formed in milk. Singh and others (1996), found that acidification at 5°C increased the yield of protein four-fold over acidification at 22°C. The applied heat weakens the interaction between the casein protein and the minerals it binds with to form micelles resulting in the precipitation of the casein protein....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]
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Recycling Laws: Eco-Unfriendly? - ... So why can’t these miraculous new processers fully eliminate the need for landfills. Well, there are three major issues when asking why this doesn’t work all by itself: companies have to produce recyclable goods that don’t contain hazardous chemicals or elements, citizens have to contribute equally to the recycling, and processing plants have to maintain the operational capacity required for processing of the waste materials. All of these considerations gravitate around one extremely powerful binding force, money....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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Polysaccharides - Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are polymers composed of multiple subunits of monosaccharides (simple sugars). They are formed by condensation reaction, in the same way as disaccharides are formed, the difference stands in the larger number of monomer units which they are composed from . The number of monosacchardies composing the chain is variable, and there are two types of chains that can be formed: branched or unbranched. The chains may be folded, thus making them compact and therefore ideal for storage....   [tags: Papers] 934 words
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Staphylococcus aureas versus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureas - From Staphylococcus aureus to MRSA Abstract I investigated the difference between Staphylococcus aureas and its super bacteria form of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas. I used books, websites, and scholarly projects to understand the topic at a molecular level. After researching penicillin, Staphylococcus aureas, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas, I found that both the drug and the bacteria use enzymes as their defense and attack mechanism. Penicillin uses a ß-lactam ring as a substrate to clog the active site of transpeptidase, and in defense, the bacteria uses ß-lactamase to break down the ß-lactam ring....   [tags: Biology Bacteria Comparison Essays]
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
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Fiber optics - Fiber optics Thesis: Some of the important features of the fiber optics that we are interested are discussed below. Now a days we are using copper wires as they are the most cost effective and reliable interconnect in parallel machines. However as machines grow more powerful, wire density becomes critical making fiber possible alternatives because of their small wire size. Fiber optics are used mainly to use effectively its high bandwidth. On a single fiber lots of information/data can be transmitted concurrently and in parallel....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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bio notes - REVIEW UNIT 1-THE CELL LIFE *There is no def. for life *Life can be characterized by a list of things that we might agree living thing have in common-organized and contain complex chemical substances, Made up of one or more cells, Use Energy, Have a definite form& Limited size, Have a limited life Span, Grow, Respond to changes in the environment, Reproduce, Evolve over time.*Metabolism is all the chemical reaction occuring in the cell of an organism*All Living things must carry out processes to maitain life and homeostasis- Nutrition, Transport, Respiration, Synthesis and Assimilation, Growth, Excretion, Regulation, Reproduction, Metabolism.CHEMISTRY BASICS *Atoms of the elements are the basic unit of mattter and are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.*Atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and nuetrons in an atom.*The number of protons and electrons is the same as the atomic number.*Isotopes of an element differ in the number of nuetrons,*The outer most electrons of an atom are called valence electrons and are evolved in chemical bonding.*Covalent bonds between elements involve the sharing of a pair of electrons....   [tags: essays research papers] 916 words
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Organic Molecules Challenge - Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers] 2517 words
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Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs - Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs     When one thinks of cloning, what comes to mind?  Movies such as "Multiplicity" can give the lay person a very distorted image of cloning.  In this particular movie, actor Michael Keaton plays a father who cannot handle his crazily busy lifestyle.  In an effort to be the perfect father, husband and employee, he has himself cloned fairly easily at a nearby medical center.  The three clones each have their own personality: one is sarcastic and bitter, one is sweet and sensitive and one is a half-wit- but all are identical.  This cloning process is completely false.  At this time, scientists have cloned animals including Rhesus monkeys, mice and probably the biggest breakthrough: sheep.  Cloning could mean hope for so many different diseases.  The advancement of cloning in a medical laboratory should be encouraged.  Cloning could save transplant candidates.  According to Larry Reibstein and Gregory Beals, companies such as Alexion Pharmaceutical are already beginning to experiment with ways to grow hearts and kidneys in pigs that will not be rejected in transplants (58).  Perhaps another reason to encourage cloning is for the treatment of spinal cord injuries.  Cloning could give hope to couples unable to have children of their own.  By advocating cloning, doctors may find a way to cure or even prevent genetic diseases.  Perhaps, though, the most important reason to advance cloning in the laboratory is to treat leukemia's and cancers.  Very possibly, through cloning and genetic engineering, the growth of poorly formed cells could be stopped immediately....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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The Origins of Life - The Origins of Life Before any speculation toward the origin of biotic forms, what was present at the formation of the earth that could result in inorganic, then organic, and later biotic creatures. Early atmospheric conditions have been theorized to be present due to planetesimal collisions releasing gases present in the Earth, after the initial atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium escaped Earth’s gravity assisted by heat energy. The earlier atmosphere is believed to have consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen (bonded to other elements) in such forms as CO2/CO, N2, and H20....   [tags: Science Scientific Essays Research]
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Human Resource Mangement in Solvay - Human Resource Mangement in Solvay In the last decades, small national companies have grown in amazing scale all around the world. Companies that once were family owned have become huge multinational corporations. Corporations, which by the side of globalization, have expanded all around the world. International business has become one of the most important areas of business due to the need for companies to expand to markets outside their borders. Companies have had the need to adapt to another cultures and business systems....   [tags: Personnel Management]
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Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape - Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape For the major Science Investigation this year I have decided to test a very commonly used household and office tool. The sticky tape or pressure-sensitive tape. In this specific investigation the different types of sticky tape being tested and investigated are all 18-19mm in length. There is the Scotch 600 clear and transparent tape which is expensive, then an 18mm wide, black electrical tape. A yellowish coloured masking tape, a brown cellophane tape which is 19mm wide and then cheap Officeworks sticky tape which was only 78c which 18mm wide....   [tags: Papers] 1649 words
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Evolution and Charles Darwin - Evolution and Charles Darwin In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, which proposed the theory of evolution. This book, along with others that followed, began the long debated dispute between evolutionist and creationist. Were we created by a supernatural Supreme Being, or did our creation occur purely by chance. First, lets look at the two conflicting theories. Common usage of the term “evolution” is that living things in our world have come into existence through unguided naturalistic processes beginning from a primeval mass of subatomic particles and radiation, over 20 billion years ago....   [tags: Papers] 1317 words
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Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Solids, liquids, and gases are the three main, or fundamental phases of matter. Each one has a different density and a different level of stability. What determines the stability of each phase is the bond between it's atoms. The tighter the bond between it's atoms the more stable that phase of matter is. Solids are the most stable form of matter, followed by liquids, and then gases. Solids have a definite shape and do not take the shape of their container. Liquids do not have any definite shape and do take the shape of their container, the same is true with gases....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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Autoclave Processing - Autoclaves can be an essential part for the curing process of both thermoset and thermoplastic composites. An autoclave is defined in the aerospace industry as large pressure vessel that also has a heating ability and can be very large in order to accommodate parts that would need to be cured within it. The material used to make an autoclave would need to be able to withstand high pressures and temperatures that can be in high range of 300-400 °C and over 1 MPa. The purpose of the autoclave is to reach a high enough temperature to lower the viscosity of the resin and start the chemical curing reaction as well as reach a pressure to eliminate voids, remove excess resin, and press the plies of composite together....   [tags: Physics]
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Geosynthetics - ... For example, there are many developments in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls and slopes and in basal stabilization. The MSE concept is essentially a uniaxial force problem and is served by the insertion of tensile members whose principal strength is uniaxial and that property is oriented to the expected forces of failure in the design. In 1993 a textile geogrid was employed using an ultra high strength polymer to construct a road over karst terrain, as schematically shown in Figure 3....   [tags: Environmental Engineering] 2378 words
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Immobilisation of Enzimes - ... Jaeger, T. Eggert, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13 (2002) 390-397. [2] P.J. Worsfold, Pure & Appl. Chem. 67 (1995) 597-600. [3] E.J. Vandamme, Enzyme Microb. Technol. 5 (1983) 403-415 [4] B. Schulze, M.G. Wubbolts, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 10 (1999) 609-615 [5] I.H. Silma, E. Katchalski, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 35 (1966) 837-877 [6] L.C. Clark Jr, C. Lysons, Ann. NY Acad. Sci 4 (1962) 29-45 [7] L.J. Kircka, G.H.G. Thorpe, Trends Biotechnol. 4 (1986) 253-258. [8] B.R. Dunlap, Immobilised chemicals and affinity chromatography, Plenum Press, New York, 1974....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modified concrete, superplasticizers, silica-fume admixture for high-strength concrete, corrosion inhibitors, etc)....   [tags: Construction] 1659 words
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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate - Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis] 1046 words
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Summary of Riordan Manufacturing - Summary of Riordan Manufacturing Riordan Manufacturing Inc. is in the field of plastic injection molding. A leader in plastics designs in many different areas, with state of the art capabilities in developing innovative products for their customers. The company was founded by Dr. Riordan, a professor of chemistry, working with processing polymers into high strength plastic articles. Dr. Riordan obtained patents and licensing to start manufacturing plastic fans in the plant at Pontiac, Michigan in 1992....   [tags: Business Analysis]
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A Study of the Impact of Human Encroachment on Coastal Microbial Concentrations - ... According to Campbell Reece about half of all prokaryotes are capable of directional movement, including enterococci. Some species can move at speeds exceeding 50 μm/sec—up to 50 times their body length per second. Of the various structures that enable prokaryotes to move, the most common are flagella, which may be scattered over the entire cell surface or concentrated at one or both ends of the cell. Campbell Reece describes flagella of prokaryotes to differ from those of eukaryotes in both structure and mechanism of propulsion....   [tags: Ecology]
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Plastics - ... Plasticizers a specific type of additive is used to increase flexibility, and is sued in film wraps and flexible tubing. There are four main methods of processing plastics, extrusion, injection molding, blow molding, and rotational molding (American Chemistry Council, Inc, 2005). In extrusion plastic pellets are heated and then forced out through a small opening to shape the product. As it exits the opening it is cooled using air or water. This process makes plastic bags or films. Injection Molding is a process by which plastic pellets are melted and is forced at high pressure into a mold....   [tags: Environment, Waste, Trash Bags] 917 words
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The Structure of Proteins - ... The heads and legs just like the side chains and hydrogens, do not take part in the linking. In most instances, protein molecules are usually embedded from hundreds to thousands of amino acids. A repertoire of twenty different amino acids, joined in any possible sequence allows the existence of an inconceivably large number of proteins that is infinite in nature. 2. Secondary Structure of Proteins Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell and Farrell assert that polypeptide chains do not extend in straight lines but rather they fold in various ways and give rise to a large number of three-dimensional structures (594)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Kevlar Aramid Fiber - STRUCTURE Kevlar Aramid Fiber is a synthetic (man-made) material known as a Polymer. A polymer is a chain that is made up of many similar molecular groups, better known as ‘monomers’ that are bonded together. ‘Monomers’ are made up of fourteen Carbon atoms, two Nitrogen atoms, two Oxygen atoms and ten Hydrogen atoms. A single Kevlar polymer chain could possibly have anywhere from one to five million monomers bonded together. A group of polymer chains can be organised together in a fiber. How the polymer chains are put together is important, as it improves the properties of the material....   [tags: essays research papers] 736 words
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cells - The life Process of a cell In my report you will learn about the life process of a cell based on the two main functions, metabolism and mitosis. You will learn about the four stages of metabolism: ingestion, digestion, respiration, and excretion, and how the cell completes them. You also will acquire information about the four stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and how the cell completes them. Mitosis is the process in which cells reproduce. These two processes are interdependent on each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
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Prosthetics - Introduction Prosthetics is the branch of surgery dealing with mechanical devices used to reproduce the form and function of missing body parts. Prosthetics is the replacement of faulty or amputated body parts with artificial body parts. Artificial limbs have been in use since at least 300 BC. In AD 1509 German knight, Götz von Berlichingen, called Götz of the Iron Hand, wore an artificial hand with jointed fingers. Early in the 19th century a German prosthesist built a hand with fingers that could be flexed or extended and that could hold light objects, such as a pen or a hat....   [tags: essays research papers] 652 words
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Synthetic and Natural Rubber - Synthetic and Natural Rubber Abstract Rubber is an important resource with a wide variety of applications. It can be obtained naturally from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It can also be synthesized from petroleum and natural gas. Both natural and synthetic rubbers have their own advantages and disadvantages. Natural rubber is made up the linear chain polymer, cis-l,4-polyisoprene. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is the most common synthetic rubber. It is a random copolymer of styrene and butadiene and has good physical properties once it has been strengthened through vulcanization....   [tags: Comparison Material Rubber]
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The Industrial Application of Enzymes - The Industrial Application of Enzymes Enzymes are naturally occurring biological molecules found in all living organisms, plant, animal and microorganisms such as bacteria. All enzymes are proteins and, as with all proteins, are made up of a chain or polymer of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. This chain coils to form a specific three-dimensional globular shape, which, typically, means an enzyme will only work with one specific substrate. The purpose of an enzyme is to lower the activation energy required for biochemical reactions to take place....   [tags: Papers] 1386 words
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Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells - Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells Large biological molecules are found in all cells, in plant and animals cells too. There are many different large biological molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids which are all extremely important to the functioning and structure of living cells. We would not be alive if any of these groups were missing. This signifies their importance. Carbohydrates contain three elements. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) Carbohydrates are found in three forms....   [tags: Papers] 855 words
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Biological Warfare - Biological Warfare I believe that biological warfare should not be option in war because it is expensive, it could cause a major death toll, and could cause major contamination to anything that is left over after biological weapons are used. Others believe that biological warfare should be an option because it is quick and kills off a lot of area all at once and may be more potent than the most lethal chemical warfare agents. At a time in history when such unique situations are effecting our government, our nation, our foreign policy, and our world, it is important that we, as a nation do all that we can to aide in the dramatic diplomatic decisions that pertain to the welfare of this great nation....   [tags: War Weapons Essays]
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Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae - Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae Algae are a "group of plants" that dominate the aquatic environment (Raymount, 1984). Organisms that make up the algae include representatives from three kingdoms and seven divisions: cyanochloranta and prochorophyta (from Kingdom Monera), pyrrhophyta, chrysophyta, phaeophyta, and rhodophyta (from Kingdom Protista), and chlorophyta (from Kingdom Plantae). All seven divisions are called algae because of a lack of roots, stems, and leaves; and most algal cells are fertile....   [tags: Botany]
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How the World-Wide-Web Impacts the way of Doing Business - How the World-Wide-Web Impacts the way of Doing Business Since its comet-like boom in the nineties the internet has attracted myriads of companies to do business on this boundaryless media. And the boom does not seem to stop. eCommerceis a catchword, which stands for a whole branch of new types of businesses that mushroomed up in the last couple of years. Retailers, all sorts of companies, even law offices are using the web for their daily business. There seems to be no comparable other way to develop and exploit global markets....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Quantum Cumputers - Quantum Cumputers By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely powerful computer based on this peculiar reality....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1412 words
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Car Wax - ALL ABOUT CAR WAX A waxed painted surface protects the paint from many contaminants including minor abrasions, along with protection from UV rays and infra-red light. Waxes which supposedly clean and wax in one application compromise both processes. Brazilian Carnauba (car-NOW-ba) wax is wax of choice for automotive paints. Wax provides an invisible barrier to protect the paint. Since carnauba is hydroscopic, meaning that it naturally absorbs water, it expands upon application to a car's painted surface and protects it from the elements....   [tags: essays research papers] 2864 words
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How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out - How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained. This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified chemically in four groups: carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins (Which do not require digestion) and fats....   [tags: essays research papers] 1884 words
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Manmade and Natural Materials - Manmade and Natural Materials Students like myself need to know what materials are available, how they behave in use and how they can be worked or processed during manufacture and construction. Having a good understanding of these will help me to select suitable materials for my products. In choosing materials for a particular project, I will need to consider their physical and working properties, so that I am able to decide which material is best and which method of processing is required in order to turn raw materials into finished products....   [tags: Papers] 1801 words
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Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid - Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid Introduction to report ---------------------- This report contains 5 practical experiments to produce ethanoic acid from ethanol. The first practical is the preparation of ethanol from glucose using yeast during the process of fermentation; this has been demonstrated in class. In this practical the glucose is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide by respiratory enzymes from the yeast. The ethanol solution will be between 5-15% and the ethanol will be separated from the yeast by filtering....   [tags: Papers] 3009 words
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The Science Behind Human Genome Technology - The Science Behind Human Genome Technology Missing Works Cited and Graphs Life as we know it is specified by genomes. Every organism posseses a genome that contains the biological information needed to construct and maintain a living example of that organism. Most genomes, including those for all cellular lifeforms, are made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) but a few viruses have RNA (ribonucleic acid) genomes. DNA and RNA are polymeric molecules made up of linear, unbranched chains of monomeric substances called nucleotides....   [tags: Papers] 4460 words
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Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase - Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase Aim: Investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. Using amylase and starch as my example. Introduction: I am investigating the effect of the concentration of the enzyme, amylase on the time taken for the enzyme to fully breakdown the substrate, starch to a sugar solution. The varied variable will be the concentration and all other variables are going to be fixed....   [tags: Papers] 4181 words
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Spider Silk is the Material of the Future - Spider Silk - the Material of the Future Abstract: Spider silk is well known for its strength yet elastic nature, and for this reason scientists and engineers from a wide variety of fields have begun researching its structure and the possibility and methods of synthesizing spider silk for industrial use. However, extraction of silk from spiders is not cost effective, so most research is focused on synthesis of spider silk either chemically or using DNA recombinant technology. Although research is still at an early stage and ongoing, it is only a matter of time before spider silk can be successfully synthesized for industrial use....   [tags: Material Silk]
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Nanotechnology - Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and controlling of matter at sizes of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. Using nanoscale science, phenomenal engineering, technological, medical, chemical, and informational feats are possible (1). However, the applications of nanotechnology do not stop there. As a Finance major, I feel it is extremely important to understand the current and immense future economical possibilities this technology presents. Although it will cause a bang in the market, the more important role it plays is the facilitation and miniaturization of the tasks we perform daily and rely on to survive. Nanotechnology is essentially “an extension of existing sciences”, only at a much smaller, nano, scale....   [tags: Technology Nanotechnology] 1036 words
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Technology - Bright Future of Molecular Nanotechnology - The Bright Future of Molecular Nanotechnology       On a cellular level, the biomedical technologies of today are crude and destructive.  Even the most delicate surgery does not repair medical problems.  Surgical methods tear away huge swatches of both damaged and healthy cells, and rely upon the body's own ability to heal itself.  The drugs of today are developed by trial and error at a cost of millions of dollars, and disperse throughout the entire body, causing numerous side effects in tissues unaffected by the initial physiological insult the drug was intended to correct.  Today's genetic screening can determine if a patient's genome contains specific aberrant genes, but can neither determine if these genes will cause real disease, nor effectively treat these genetic diseases.  Current experimental attempts at gene therapy involve weakened virus strains or poorly understood biological mechanisms to get the corrected DNA into the body and fix the problem.  All of these biomedical difficulties are caused by one simple problem: scale.  Human beings are simply too large to work effectively at the cellular scale of life.  The tools we have developed to work in this domain were either developed by trial and error as with most pharmaceuticals, or stolen from nature.  Nature contains numerous wonderful tools for working on this scale, but nature is the product of billions of years of random, thoughtless evolution, and the tools available exist because they work well enough for the systems in which they evolved, not because they are the optimal tools for the jobs humans would have them do.  But this deficiency in the human tool chest may soon be challenged by a controversial new ideal known as molecular nanotechnology....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Fear of Terrorism - Fear of Terrorism Since the events of 9/11, we in the Western World have finally gotten ourselves in tune with the most basic and vital of human instincts: fear. From the beginning of time, as we cocooned ourselves in our cave dwellings (early precursor of the gated community), and trembled at the prospect of roving sabre toothed tigers, passing storms, and even clouds crossing the face of the moon, fear has been our constant companion. It has been fear of one kind and another that has been responsible for all of the wars, laws and technological developments that have shaped and guided our great civilizations....   [tags: Personal Narrative Writing] 726 words
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Living Machines, Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources - Living Machines, Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources Thesis: Conventional waste treatment plants, Living Machines and constructed wetlands can all be used for water purification, but only living machines and constructed wetlands will provide the human race with a sustainable future. Introduction Our liquid planet glows like a soft blue sapphire in the hard edged darkness of space. There is nothing else like it in the solar system. It is because of water (Miller 311). - John Todd Water is the most important resource on the planet....   [tags: Ecology Environment Environmental Essays]
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