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Understanding Polymers - Polymers are always been around everywhere we go and have been increasing as time goes on. From its inception until today, polymers have enhanced our quality of life. The common questions asked here are usually what they are, where can I find them, where did they come from, how they are made, and what are some future possibilities. The first thing you might want to know about polymers is what they are. Polymers can be very complicated and you can do into great depth to what they are. “Polymers are molecules which consist of a long, repeating chain of smaller units called monomers.” The next question would be what monomers are....   [tags: Polymers]
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polymers - Cornstarch is an example of a polymer. Polymers are long strains of molecules that keep repeating and have different properties of the original single molecule group. A single section of a polymer is called a monomer. It resembles the simplest form of the repeating portion of the entire polymer. These polymers may get stretched when you make a mixture such as cornstarch and water. This mixture behaves a certain way. There are many theories on why this may occur. One theory is because the strands get tangled, making it hard for them to slide against each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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Aspects of Polymers - Aspects of Polymers Plastics are polymers. A simple definition of a polymer is something made of many units. Each link of the chain is the -mer or basic unit that is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and or silicon. To make the chain, many links or -mers are polymerized together. Many of the common class of polymers are composed of hydrocarbons. Examples of polymers made up of only hydrogen and carbon are polypropylene, polybutylene, polystyrene and polymethylpentene. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains chlorine....   [tags: Papers] 641 words
(1.8 pages)
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Electro-Active Polymers in Finite Deformation - Characterization and Analysis - Abstract This work deals with electroactive polymers (EAP), materials that can undergo large deformations when subjected to electric field. This property attracted in the last decade the academic and the industrial communities, who try to utilize these materials as actuators and sensors. Electroactive materials are elastic, can undergo large deformations and possess fast response time. However, their wide-spread use was hindered by their limitations: the need for large electric field, small forces and low energy density....   [tags: Engineering] 2064 words
(5.9 pages)
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Using Polymers to Replace Absorption Glass Mats - This report outlines the evaluation for replacing an absorption glass mat (AGM) with a polymer mat to be used in a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. AGMs are expensive and exhibit low tensile strength, so polymers were investigated to both decrease cost and improve the properties of the mat. Initially the important properties of the mat were assumed to be chemical inertness in aqueous acid, stability towards oxidation and heat, wettability and contact angle, porosity, and tensile strength....   [tags: Materials Engineering] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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Plastics - I want to say one word to you. Yes sir. Are you listening . Yes sir, I am. PLASTICS . - The Graduate (1967) 1. Definition of Plastics Plastics can be defined as used materials which are primarily based on two materials, polymers and prepolymers (Elias, 1993). However, the previously mentioned definition suffers from a serious weakness as it does not explain the basic method of how plastics are made. A better definition of plastics is that they are “synthetic materials composed of a series or chain of molecules which, when heat or pressure is applied, can be formed into desired shapes” (Lincoln et al....   [tags: Conservation ] 2461 words
(7 pages)
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Flubber - The movie Flubber was about a “crazy” chemist who had many inventions, some by the way I would like to have. But the main invention was a rubber “thing” that he named Flubber. There were a few scientific terms that he noted during the movie when inventing Flubber which I will describe below. The words in bold are the scientific terms that were noted in the movie. The first term that I noted during the movie was Conductive Polymers. Conductive polymers are almost always organic meaning a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon....   [tags: essays research papers] 481 words
(1.4 pages)
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Polyethylene and Polyterephthalate are Outdated - Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Outdated: Is the World Ready for a New Plastic. Abstract: This paper explains the structure of polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) also known as PET. It states the properties of the plastic as well recycling methods. My goal was to find out what makes PET the number one plastic, both in consumption as well as the most recycled. I also searched for new polymers that are being created by scientists and compare them to PET to see if there was a plastic out there that is better for the environment....   [tags: Polymer PET Plastic]
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1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Plastics - Plastics Plastics are often frowned upon. This is because people often think of them as cheap and not aesthetically pleasing. However they come in many different forms and often look very nice. Obviously there are types that do give the product a bad name. Mainly the cheap toys that are produced in the far east. This is not right and plastics should be seen as a real alternative and be able offer a huge amount of uses for this product. Polymers Polymers such as rubber, plastics and adhesives are organic structures....   [tags: Papers] 560 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates - The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Large biological molecules are called macromolecules, there are giant molecules (polymers) made up of repeating units (monomers). Carbohydrates are one of the main classes of biological molecules. Macromolecule units (monomers) are joined together by condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions split macromolecules down into their individual units. Carbohydrates are molecules that contain elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have a 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio, there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms (the same proportion as in water)....   [tags: Papers] 590 words
(1.7 pages)
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Carbohydrates - There are three principal kinds of carbohydrates and each are classified according to the number of sugar molecules they contain. Monosaccharides, such as ribose, glucose, and fructose, contain only one sugar molecule. Disaccharides consist of two sugar molecules linked covalently. Familiar examples are sucrose (table sugar), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar). Polysaccharides, such as cellulose and starch, contain many sugar molecules linked together. Monosaccharides are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen....   [tags: essays research papers] 384 words
(1.1 pages)
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The Chemistry of Painting Cars - The Chemistry of Painting Cars It is necessary to paint cars because the paint protects the steel of the car from corrosion, paint fills and smooths out any imperfections in the steel surface and it provides a durable, decorative, glossy appearance. If rusting continually takes place the car becomes unsafe. When water and oxygen come in contact with the metal of the car surface, several redox reactions happen. The oxygen is reduced to hydroxide ions and iron is oxidized to Fe2+ ions which pass into solution....   [tags: Papers] 1045 words
(3 pages)
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Artificial Olfactory Enhancement - Artificial Olfactory Enhancement The human olfactory system is responsible for perceiving the chemical world around us. By sampling the environment, we can determine the presence of other individuals, possible danger, or distinguish acceptable food. Consisting of our sense of taste and smell, the olfactory system is a highly interrelated coordination of chemical and nerve responses. Yet as we have all experienced, human olfaction has limits. The popular image of a bloodhound leading hunters through the woods is one example of these limits....   [tags: Olfactory Enhancement Essays]
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Biology Notes - 1. The ability of ice to float because of the expansion of water as it solidifies is an important factor in the fitness of the environment. If ice sank, then eventually all ponds, lakes, and even oceans would freeze solid, making life as we know it impossible on earth. During the summer, only the upper few inches of the ocean would thaw. Instead, when a deep body of water cools, the floating ice insulates the liquid water below, preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface....   [tags: Biology Study Tests] 3489 words
(10 pages)
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ft.lauderdale high AP bio project - 2) LEVEL 1 - Cells Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.May serve a specific function within the organism Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc. tissue LEVEL 2 - Tissues Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve. LEVEL 3 - Organs Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 2086 words
(6 pages)
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Utilizing Supramolecular Interactions Toward the Design of New Stimuli-Responsive Materials - The ability to utilize supramolecular interactions1 toward the design of new stimuli-responsive materials has gained a great amount of interest in recent years.2 For example, main-chain supramolecular polymers, whose polymer backbone consists of both covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions, can result in large (e.g. mechanical) responses to small changes in the environment. 3 Reversible metal–ligand coordination is one class of non-covalent interaction that has been widely utilized to access main-chain supramolecular polymers.4 Most of these metallosupramolecular polymers rely on ligand coordination with transition metal ions....   [tags: Engineering] 1159 words
(3.3 pages)
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Replacing Synthetic Plastic With Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanote - Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanote (PHA) is a good candidate to replace synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. The main factor that hampered the commercialization of PHA is the high production cost with the recovery processes accounting for the most. The present study suggests a novel biological recovery method of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Cupriavidus necator H16. The PHA granules have been extracted without the help of any solvent or chemicals. The lyophilized cells were used protein source for the laboratory rats and simultaneously recovered the PHB granules excreted in the faeces....   [tags: Biotechnology] 2359 words
(6.7 pages)
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Organic Polymeric Materials Used in Implants - Polymers are made of large molecules that consist of a many monomers fused together through chemical bonds to make a strong material. Certain polymers are made of different chemical compositions of different molecular weights, crystallization, different degrees of hydrophobic characteristics, and heating transformations. Polymer materials are utilized for their slow degradable capabilities, ability to influence new formation of bone tissue, and contain porosity for cells to latch onto and utilize....   [tags: Physics ]
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2362 words
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons - Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular weights, such as propane (C3H8) are in a gaseous form....   [tags: Environment, fossil fuels]
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1127 words
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Bisphenol A - ... This was mixed with phosgene which is a chemical and colorless gas and other compounds were included. How was Bisphenol A discovered. It was discovered in the 1891 as a synthetic estrogen, the estrogen properties where not as strong as other estrogens so, in 1930 Bisphenol A was investigated, because Bisphenol A was acting like an estrogen in your body and was messing up your organs and your body thinks it’s important to the body, so it takes it in just like HIV, your body doesn’t know that it’s harmful to you, it takes it in any way making your body weak.....   [tags: Chemistry, Polycarbonate Plastics] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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Chemistry and Carbohydrates - The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The chemistry of carbohydrates most closely resembles that of alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone functional groups. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The chemistry of carbohydrates is complicated by the fact that there is a functional group (alcohol) on almost every carbon. In addition, the carbohydrate may exist in either a straight chain or a ring structure. Ring structures incorporate two additional functional groups: the hemiacetal and acetal....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites - Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites The objective of this work is to characterize the influence of clay loading and dispersion effects on the rheological properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Toughened unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were synthesized by the blending of delaminated clay with unsaturated polyester. Rheological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by clay loading and the extent of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix....   [tags: essays research papers] 2008 words
(5.7 pages)
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What Is the Role of a Macromolecule? - What is the role of Macromolecules. Macromolecules have a major role in everyday life, we might not notice this because we don't exactly know what we use them for and why they are so important to us, mainly because we can see them therefore we are not aware that they exist. The term macromolecules is sometimes used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather then by chemical bonds. Another common macromolecule property that does not characterize smaller molecules is the need for assistance in dissolving into solution....   [tags: Biology] 1239 words
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The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens - The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens "A quite extraordinary experience, slightly unnerving, but I do feel an enormous respect now for our bodies and the way they function. Thank you!" "I am now able to understand my body in a much better way. Congratulations on such a sensational exhibition and a very enlightening tour. I hope that this exhibition will gain more acceptance." These are two opinions about the Body Worlds exhibition, which is currently in London....   [tags: Papers] 1303 words
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Natural Rubber - Natural Rubber I’m going to talk to you about rubber, I’ll talk about natural rubber first and then go on to talk about the way in which its natural state can be modified and manipulated so its advantageous properties can be used. (slide 2) Natural rubber is an excellent engineering material and is used as the main material in many everyday items the most prevalent being car tires which I’ll discuss later also. (slide 3) Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex, found in many plants however synthetic rubbers are produced from unsaturated hydrocarbons (basically this means that there are carbon atoms in the rubber molecule that have a potential to be bonded to more hydrogen....   [tags: Papers] 739 words
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Polyethylene - German Chemist Hans von Pechmann first synthesized Polyethylene by accident in 1898 by heating diazomethane. His colleagues characterized the waxy substance polyethylene due to the fact that they recognized that it consisted of long ethene chains. It was then first industrially synthesized by accident in 1933 by applying extremely high pressure to ethylene and benzaldehyde. Over the years, development of polyethylene has increased due to the additions of catalyst. This makes ethylene polymerization possible at lower temperatures and pressures.1 Polyethylene is a polymer that is made of a long chain of CH2 monomers bonded together....   [tags: Polymer Plastic]
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Polylactide - Polylactide: A New Perspective In the past decades, many polymers are non-biodegradable and require an excessive and strenuous recycling process. However one polymer, polylactide, is renovating the roles of commonly known polymers as time passes by. Polylactide has led to the introduction of other possible ways to create plastics that are more environmental friendly to the community. With this sole introduction, polymers in petrochemical-derived products are greatly affected in that they are no longer an extreme threat to the atmosphere, which is something very crucial for a future healthy planet environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty - ... Histopathologic studies additionally revealed that these non-erodable polymers can abruptly trigger in stent thrombosis by inducing localized vascular inflammation, hypereosinophilia, thrombogenic reactions and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells [5]. As a result of these findings, in recent years, clinical research has been directed to improve stent platforms, develop unique anti-proliferative agents requiring a lower dosage of current antimitotic agents, and original carrier systems including absorbable polymers....   [tags: Anatomy, Coronary Arteries] 2255 words
(6.4 pages)
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Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates and lipids/fats are a very important part of our lives. They have many similarities and differences among each other, which distinguish them from other macromolecules. Carbohydrates, which include sugar and their polymers, are used by organisms for fuel and building material. They come in many various forms going from simplicity to complexity. The simplest, monosaccharides, compose of single sugars whose parts are arranged around asymmetric carbons. They generally have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH2O....   [tags: essays research papers] 589 words
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Leps : Revolution in the Field of Imaging Appliances - In 1897, German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and it has become an indispensable part of our lives ever since. It has remained ubiquitous till date inspite of being bulky, power hungry and expensive. Researchers came up with an alternative called Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). LCD had been projected as the saviour of the display industry and they have been quite a success in the computer applications industry. However, even today LCDs are far from pervasive. This is due to the fact that apart from being thinner than the CRT it has little advantage over it and hence, fail to meet the broad demands of the imaging appliance industry....   [tags: Physics] 490 words
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Lipids and Carbohydrates - Lipids and Carbohydrates Lipids are a group of substances, which include fats, oils and waxes. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. They are stored in plants as starches and in animals as glycogen. There are many differences between carbohydrates and lipids. For example lipids are insoluble in water whereas carbohydrates are soluble in water. This is because lipids contain non - polar hydrocarbon units whereas water contains polar hydrocarbon units. So when the two are mixed together there is no attraction between particles so no breakdown is possible....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
(1.3 pages)
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The Role of Carbohydrates - The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain 3 elements, Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O), at a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are found in three main forms, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates supply the body with the energy it needs to function. They are found almost exclusively in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, peas, and beans. Milk and milk products are the only foods derived from animals that contain a significant amount of carbohydrates....   [tags: Papers] 530 words
(1.5 pages)
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Hydrogels - ... Patterning of cell or biological molecule loaded hydrogels have been widely performed by computer controlled printing strategies (35). In these approaches, cells are resuspended in the prepolymer solution and dispensed by a printing mechanism on predetermined positions on a solid surface. The resulting droplets are subsequently crosslinked to form individual building blocks and this process is repeated to form layers for the final tissue construct. Computer based printing techniques enable deposition of multiple cell types or aggregates of cells encapsulated in hydrogels (36)....   [tags: Ethics, Bioprinting, Artificial Tissues] 566 words
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Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs - Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs     When one thinks of cloning, what comes to mind?  Movies such as "Multiplicity" can give the lay person a very distorted image of cloning.  In this particular movie, actor Michael Keaton plays a father who cannot handle his crazily busy lifestyle.  In an effort to be the perfect father, husband and employee, he has himself cloned fairly easily at a nearby medical center.  The three clones each have their own personality: one is sarcastic and bitter, one is sweet and sensitive and one is a half-wit- but all are identical.  This cloning process is completely false.  At this time, scientists have cloned animals including Rhesus monkeys, mice and probably the biggest breakthrough: sheep.  Cloning could mean hope for so many different diseases.  The advancement of cloning in a medical laboratory should be encouraged.  Cloning could save transplant candidates.  According to Larry Reibstein and Gregory Beals, companies such as Alexion Pharmaceutical are already beginning to experiment with ways to grow hearts and kidneys in pigs that will not be rejected in transplants (58).  Perhaps another reason to encourage cloning is for the treatment of spinal cord injuries.  Cloning could give hope to couples unable to have children of their own.  By advocating cloning, doctors may find a way to cure or even prevent genetic diseases.  Perhaps, though, the most important reason to advance cloning in the laboratory is to treat leukemia's and cancers.  Very possibly, through cloning and genetic engineering, the growth of poorly formed cells could be stopped immediately....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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The Origins of Life - The Origins of Life Before any speculation toward the origin of biotic forms, what was present at the formation of the earth that could result in inorganic, then organic, and later biotic creatures. Early atmospheric conditions have been theorized to be present due to planetesimal collisions releasing gases present in the Earth, after the initial atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium escaped Earth’s gravity assisted by heat energy. The earlier atmosphere is believed to have consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen (bonded to other elements) in such forms as CO2/CO, N2, and H20....   [tags: Science Scientific Essays Research]
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
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Human Resource Mangement in Solvay - Human Resource Mangement in Solvay In the last decades, small national companies have grown in amazing scale all around the world. Companies that once were family owned have become huge multinational corporations. Corporations, which by the side of globalization, have expanded all around the world. International business has become one of the most important areas of business due to the need for companies to expand to markets outside their borders. Companies have had the need to adapt to another cultures and business systems....   [tags: Personnel Management]
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Fiber optics - Fiber optics Thesis: Some of the important features of the fiber optics that we are interested are discussed below. Now a days we are using copper wires as they are the most cost effective and reliable interconnect in parallel machines. However as machines grow more powerful, wire density becomes critical making fiber possible alternatives because of their small wire size. Fiber optics are used mainly to use effectively its high bandwidth. On a single fiber lots of information/data can be transmitted concurrently and in parallel....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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bio notes - REVIEW UNIT 1-THE CELL LIFE *There is no def. for life *Life can be characterized by a list of things that we might agree living thing have in common-organized and contain complex chemical substances, Made up of one or more cells, Use Energy, Have a definite form& Limited size, Have a limited life Span, Grow, Respond to changes in the environment, Reproduce, Evolve over time.*Metabolism is all the chemical reaction occuring in the cell of an organism*All Living things must carry out processes to maitain life and homeostasis- Nutrition, Transport, Respiration, Synthesis and Assimilation, Growth, Excretion, Regulation, Reproduction, Metabolism.CHEMISTRY BASICS *Atoms of the elements are the basic unit of mattter and are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.*Atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and nuetrons in an atom.*The number of protons and electrons is the same as the atomic number.*Isotopes of an element differ in the number of nuetrons,*The outer most electrons of an atom are called valence electrons and are evolved in chemical bonding.*Covalent bonds between elements involve the sharing of a pair of electrons....   [tags: essays research papers] 916 words
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Organic Molecules Challenge - Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers] 2517 words
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Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape - Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape For the major Science Investigation this year I have decided to test a very commonly used household and office tool. The sticky tape or pressure-sensitive tape. In this specific investigation the different types of sticky tape being tested and investigated are all 18-19mm in length. There is the Scotch 600 clear and transparent tape which is expensive, then an 18mm wide, black electrical tape. A yellowish coloured masking tape, a brown cellophane tape which is 19mm wide and then cheap Officeworks sticky tape which was only 78c which 18mm wide....   [tags: Papers] 1649 words
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Polysaccharides - Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are polymers composed of multiple subunits of monosaccharides (simple sugars). They are formed by condensation reaction, in the same way as disaccharides are formed, the difference stands in the larger number of monomer units which they are composed from . The number of monosacchardies composing the chain is variable, and there are two types of chains that can be formed: branched or unbranched. The chains may be folded, thus making them compact and therefore ideal for storage....   [tags: Papers] 934 words
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Evolution and Charles Darwin - Evolution and Charles Darwin In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, which proposed the theory of evolution. This book, along with others that followed, began the long debated dispute between evolutionist and creationist. Were we created by a supernatural Supreme Being, or did our creation occur purely by chance. First, lets look at the two conflicting theories. Common usage of the term “evolution” is that living things in our world have come into existence through unguided naturalistic processes beginning from a primeval mass of subatomic particles and radiation, over 20 billion years ago....   [tags: Papers] 1317 words
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Staphylococcus aureas versus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureas - From Staphylococcus aureus to MRSA Abstract I investigated the difference between Staphylococcus aureas and its super bacteria form of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas. I used books, websites, and scholarly projects to understand the topic at a molecular level. After researching penicillin, Staphylococcus aureas, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas, I found that both the drug and the bacteria use enzymes as their defense and attack mechanism. Penicillin uses a ß-lactam ring as a substrate to clog the active site of transpeptidase, and in defense, the bacteria uses ß-lactamase to break down the ß-lactam ring....   [tags: Biology Bacteria Comparison Essays]
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Protein Thermal Stability - ... Because of its ability to absorb large amounts of water, casein is used to modify the texture of baked goods and it is used extensively in the processing of cheeses (Southward). Temperature and pH play important roles in the dissociation of casein from the micelles that are formed in milk. Singh and others (1996), found that acidification at 5°C increased the yield of protein four-fold over acidification at 22°C. The applied heat weakens the interaction between the casein protein and the minerals it binds with to form micelles resulting in the precipitation of the casein protein....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]
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Recycling Laws: Eco-Unfriendly? - ... So why can’t these miraculous new processers fully eliminate the need for landfills. Well, there are three major issues when asking why this doesn’t work all by itself: companies have to produce recyclable goods that don’t contain hazardous chemicals or elements, citizens have to contribute equally to the recycling, and processing plants have to maintain the operational capacity required for processing of the waste materials. All of these considerations gravitate around one extremely powerful binding force, money....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Solids, liquids, and gases are the three main, or fundamental phases of matter. Each one has a different density and a different level of stability. What determines the stability of each phase is the bond between it's atoms. The tighter the bond between it's atoms the more stable that phase of matter is. Solids are the most stable form of matter, followed by liquids, and then gases. Solids have a definite shape and do not take the shape of their container. Liquids do not have any definite shape and do take the shape of their container, the same is true with gases....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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cells - The life Process of a cell In my report you will learn about the life process of a cell based on the two main functions, metabolism and mitosis. You will learn about the four stages of metabolism: ingestion, digestion, respiration, and excretion, and how the cell completes them. You also will acquire information about the four stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and how the cell completes them. Mitosis is the process in which cells reproduce. These two processes are interdependent on each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
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Prosthetics - Introduction Prosthetics is the branch of surgery dealing with mechanical devices used to reproduce the form and function of missing body parts. Prosthetics is the replacement of faulty or amputated body parts with artificial body parts. Artificial limbs have been in use since at least 300 BC. In AD 1509 German knight, Götz von Berlichingen, called Götz of the Iron Hand, wore an artificial hand with jointed fingers. Early in the 19th century a German prosthesist built a hand with fingers that could be flexed or extended and that could hold light objects, such as a pen or a hat....   [tags: essays research papers] 652 words
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Technology - Bright Future of Molecular Nanotechnology - The Bright Future of Molecular Nanotechnology       On a cellular level, the biomedical technologies of today are crude and destructive.  Even the most delicate surgery does not repair medical problems.  Surgical methods tear away huge swatches of both damaged and healthy cells, and rely upon the body's own ability to heal itself.  The drugs of today are developed by trial and error at a cost of millions of dollars, and disperse throughout the entire body, causing numerous side effects in tissues unaffected by the initial physiological insult the drug was intended to correct.  Today's genetic screening can determine if a patient's genome contains specific aberrant genes, but can neither determine if these genes will cause real disease, nor effectively treat these genetic diseases.  Current experimental attempts at gene therapy involve weakened virus strains or poorly understood biological mechanisms to get the corrected DNA into the body and fix the problem.  All of these biomedical difficulties are caused by one simple problem: scale.  Human beings are simply too large to work effectively at the cellular scale of life.  The tools we have developed to work in this domain were either developed by trial and error as with most pharmaceuticals, or stolen from nature.  Nature contains numerous wonderful tools for working on this scale, but nature is the product of billions of years of random, thoughtless evolution, and the tools available exist because they work well enough for the systems in which they evolved, not because they are the optimal tools for the jobs humans would have them do.  But this deficiency in the human tool chest may soon be challenged by a controversial new ideal known as molecular nanotechnology....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Fear of Terrorism - Fear of Terrorism Since the events of 9/11, we in the Western World have finally gotten ourselves in tune with the most basic and vital of human instincts: fear. From the beginning of time, as we cocooned ourselves in our cave dwellings (early precursor of the gated community), and trembled at the prospect of roving sabre toothed tigers, passing storms, and even clouds crossing the face of the moon, fear has been our constant companion. It has been fear of one kind and another that has been responsible for all of the wars, laws and technological developments that have shaped and guided our great civilizations....   [tags: Personal Narrative Writing] 726 words
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Living Machines, Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources - Living Machines, Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources Thesis: Conventional waste treatment plants, Living Machines and constructed wetlands can all be used for water purification, but only living machines and constructed wetlands will provide the human race with a sustainable future. Introduction Our liquid planet glows like a soft blue sapphire in the hard edged darkness of space. There is nothing else like it in the solar system. It is because of water (Miller 311). - John Todd Water is the most important resource on the planet....   [tags: Ecology Environment Environmental Essays]
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Energy Bars: An Athlete's Friend or Foe - Energy Bars: An Athlete's Friend or Foe. I. What are "energy bars". Definition and Contents: An energy bar is a convenient, fortified snack-food containing a blend of simple and complex carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber, and vitamins and minerals. The primary source of protein in energy bars usually comes from milk and the fiber comes from grains and oats. Some bars also contain additional herbs, such as ginseng and guarana, "to help provide maximum energy" and to stimulate the central nervous system (http://s2.com.etj/ wn/sportsbars.html)....   [tags: Health Nutrition Athletics Sports Papers]
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Olestra: or WOE? - Olestra: or WOE. Introduction Wouldn’t it be nice if there were a way the diet crazed society of America could get around eating fat, but still enjoy the savory taste that accompanies it. Well, miraculously, it is possible through a product called Olestra. This seemingly perfect product created by Proctor and Gamble was recently approved by the FDA for use as a substitute for fat in snack foods such as potato and corn chips. “Olestra is a zero calorie fat replacement intended to replace 100% of the fat used in the preparation of savory foods and snacks” (http://www.olestra.com)....   [tags: Dieting Diet Fat Argumentative Persuasive Papers]
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Biological Warfare - Biological Warfare I believe that biological warfare should not be option in war because it is expensive, it could cause a major death toll, and could cause major contamination to anything that is left over after biological weapons are used. Others believe that biological warfare should be an option because it is quick and kills off a lot of area all at once and may be more potent than the most lethal chemical warfare agents. At a time in history when such unique situations are effecting our government, our nation, our foreign policy, and our world, it is important that we, as a nation do all that we can to aide in the dramatic diplomatic decisions that pertain to the welfare of this great nation....   [tags: War Weapons Essays]
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Parkinson's Disease - Parkinson's Disease Parkinson’s Disease (PD), "the shaking palsy" first described by James Parkinson in 1817, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which affects in upwards of 1.5 million Americans. The disease begins to occur around age 40 and has incidence with patient age. One survey found that PD may affect 1% of the population over 60. Incidence seems to be more prominent in men, and tends to progress to incapacity and death over one or two decades. Clinical diagnosis of PD is currently solely dependent on the presentation of the symptoms by the patient which reflect a deficiency of striatal dopamine caused by the destruction of the cells in the substantia nigra....   [tags: Medical Medical Medicine Essays Treatment]
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Tissue Engineering - Tissue Engineering Tissue engineering, labeled by Time.com as the number one hottest job for the 21st century, holds great potential for medicine and the treatment of chronic diseases and disorders. With tissue engineering, familiar problems like the rejection of foreign tissue by the body, the severe shortage of organ donors, and the inefficiency of artificial devices may be solved. However, this cutting edge biotechnology has already spurred intense controversy over the ethics and morality of creating spare human body parts....   [tags: Organ Transplant Medical Health Essays]
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Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae - Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae Algae are a "group of plants" that dominate the aquatic environment (Raymount, 1984). Organisms that make up the algae include representatives from three kingdoms and seven divisions: cyanochloranta and prochorophyta (from Kingdom Monera), pyrrhophyta, chrysophyta, phaeophyta, and rhodophyta (from Kingdom Protista), and chlorophyta (from Kingdom Plantae). All seven divisions are called algae because of a lack of roots, stems, and leaves; and most algal cells are fertile....   [tags: Botany]
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Analyzing Radio Frequency Identification - Analyzing Radio Frequency Identification Our team has chosen to explore Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID, because this intriguing technology has recently advanced both technologically and socially. To help you understand the importance and the intricacies of RFID, our team will explain what radio frequency identification is and how it works, how it can and will be used, as well as the impact it is having on the world today. There are differing opinions on how RFID should be used and even whether it should be used at all....   [tags: RFID Digital Technology Essays]
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How the World-Wide-Web Impacts the way of Doing Business - How the World-Wide-Web Impacts the way of Doing Business Since its comet-like boom in the nineties the internet has attracted myriads of companies to do business on this boundaryless media. And the boom does not seem to stop. eCommerceis a catchword, which stands for a whole branch of new types of businesses that mushroomed up in the last couple of years. Retailers, all sorts of companies, even law offices are using the web for their daily business. There seems to be no comparable other way to develop and exploit global markets....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Quantum Cumputers - Quantum Cumputers By the strange laws of quantum mechanics, Folger, a senior editor at Discover, notes, an electron, proton, or other subatomic particle is "in more than one place at a time," because individual particles behave like waves, these different places are different states that an atom can exist in simultaneously. Ten years ago, Folger writes, David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford University, argued that it may be possible to build an extremely powerful computer based on this peculiar reality....   [tags: Essays Papers] 1412 words
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Stragetic Management - Stragetic Management 1. Introductiom --------------- USQ MGT8039 Strategic Leadership S2, 2005 Study Book (p 1.11), sighted that Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2004, p.37) defined strategic leadership as “the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility and empower others to create strategic change as necessary… managing through others, managing an entire enterprise rather that a functional subunit”. 2. Critical Analysis -------------------- Strategic management can be described as a process undertaken by top-level management....   [tags: Business and Management Studies] 3371 words
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An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols - An Investigation into the Enthalpies of the Combustion of Alcohols ================================================================== Planning My aim for this experiment is to see the energy produced from different alcohols. This investigation involves burning alcohol in the air. ‘GCSE Chemistry’ by B.Earl and L.D.R Wilford says that "alcohols form, another homologous series, with the general formula Cn H2n+1OH ". The alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form the products water and carbon dioxide....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3784 words
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
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Car Wax - ALL ABOUT CAR WAX A waxed painted surface protects the paint from many contaminants including minor abrasions, along with protection from UV rays and infra-red light. Waxes which supposedly clean and wax in one application compromise both processes. Brazilian Carnauba (car-NOW-ba) wax is wax of choice for automotive paints. Wax provides an invisible barrier to protect the paint. Since carnauba is hydroscopic, meaning that it naturally absorbs water, it expands upon application to a car's painted surface and protects it from the elements....   [tags: essays research papers] 2864 words
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Detection Of Biological Molecules - Detection of Biological Molecules Introduction: Without carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus, life wouldn't exist. These are the most abundant elements in living organisms. These elements are held together by covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds. Covalent bonds are especially strong, thus, are present in monomers, the building blocks of life. These monomers combine to make polymers, which is a long chain of monomers strung together. Biological molecules can be distinguished by their functional groups....   [tags: essays research papers] 1482 words
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Determination Of An Unknown Amino Acid From Titration - Determination of An Unknown Amino Acid From Titration Abstract Experiment 11 used a titration curve to determine the identity of an unknown amino acid. The initial pH of the solution was 1.96, and the pKa’s found experimentally were 2.0, 4.0, and 9.85. The accepted pKa values were found to be 2.10, 4.07, and 9.47. The molecular weight was calculated to be 176.3 while the accepted value was found to be 183.5. The identity of the unknown amino acid was established to be glutamic acid, hydrochloride....   [tags: essays research papers] 1749 words
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Dna Replication - DNA REPLICATION WHAT IS DNA. DNA is a molecule that has a repeating chain of identical five-carbon sugars (polymers) linked together from head to tail. It is composed of four ring shaped organic bases (nucleotides) which are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). It has a double helix shape and contains the sugar component deoxyribose. THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION How DNA replicates is quite a simple process. First, a DNA molecule is “unzipped”. In other words, it splits into two strands of DNA at one end of the DNA molecule....   [tags: essays research papers] 2181 words
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DuPont An Investment Analysis - DuPont makes a variety of high-value products for industry today, including polymers, chemicals, fibers, and petroleum products...products for agriculture, electronics, transportation, apparel, food, aerospace, construction, and health care. DuPont serves customers in these and other industries every day, offering "better things for better living" as the company prepares to begin its third century of scientific, technological, commercial, and social achievement. DuPont is a research and technology based chemical and energy company with its annual revenue exceeding $39 billion....   [tags: essays research papers] 1108 words
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Evolution From A Molecular Perspective - Evolution From A Molecular Perspective Introduction: Why globular evolution. Evolution has been a heavily debated issue since Charles Darwin first documented the theory in 1859. However, until just recently, adaptation at a molecular level has been overlooked except by the scientific world. Now with the help of modern technology, the protein sequences of nearly every known living thing have either been established or are in the process of establishment, and are widely accessible via the internet....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out - How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained. This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified chemically in four groups: carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins (Which do not require digestion) and fats....   [tags: essays research papers] 1884 words
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Kevlar Aramid Fiber - STRUCTURE Kevlar Aramid Fiber is a synthetic (man-made) material known as a Polymer. A polymer is a chain that is made up of many similar molecular groups, better known as ‘monomers’ that are bonded together. ‘Monomers’ are made up of fourteen Carbon atoms, two Nitrogen atoms, two Oxygen atoms and ten Hydrogen atoms. A single Kevlar polymer chain could possibly have anywhere from one to five million monomers bonded together. A group of polymer chains can be organised together in a fiber. How the polymer chains are put together is important, as it improves the properties of the material....   [tags: essays research papers] 736 words
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Milk and Rennin - Research into Enzymes – For Biology Rennin Rennet, substance found in the gastric juices of young milk-drinking mammals. Rennet contains a milk-coagulating enzyme, called rennin or chymosin, the active principle of rennet preparations used in making cheese and junket. Rennet extracts are commercially prepared from the inner lining of the fourth stomach of calves. Enzymes Enzymes are large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. In their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place....   [tags: essays research papers] 1739 words
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Petrochemical Industry - The Middle East is probably the most important influence on the global petrochemical industry today and will remain so for many years to come. However, prospects of a war in Iraq are raising concerns, and logistical and feedstock challenges could hem in the region's growth. Saudi Basic Industries Corp., or SABIC, the majority of which is owned by the Saudi Arabian government, has grown to 40.6 million metric tons of petrochemical production and sales of $9 billion in 2002 to become the 11th largest petrochemical producer in the world....   [tags: essays research papers] 815 words
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The Industrial Application of Enzymes - The Industrial Application of Enzymes Enzymes are naturally occurring biological molecules found in all living organisms, plant, animal and microorganisms such as bacteria. All enzymes are proteins and, as with all proteins, are made up of a chain or polymer of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. This chain coils to form a specific three-dimensional globular shape, which, typically, means an enzyme will only work with one specific substrate. The purpose of an enzyme is to lower the activation energy required for biochemical reactions to take place....   [tags: Papers] 1386 words
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Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells - Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells Large biological molecules are found in all cells, in plant and animals cells too. There are many different large biological molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids which are all extremely important to the functioning and structure of living cells. We would not be alive if any of these groups were missing. This signifies their importance. Carbohydrates contain three elements. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) Carbohydrates are found in three forms....   [tags: Papers] 855 words
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The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals - The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. When amino acids are linked together, they form polypeptide chains and bonded together by peptide bonds. There are different structures of polypeptides primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The primary structure is a straight chain of polypeptides. Secondary structure is the polypeptide chain coiling to form an α helix or the polypeptide chain linking together to form a β pleated strand....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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Manmade and Natural Materials - Manmade and Natural Materials Students like myself need to know what materials are available, how they behave in use and how they can be worked or processed during manufacture and construction. Having a good understanding of these will help me to select suitable materials for my products. In choosing materials for a particular project, I will need to consider their physical and working properties, so that I am able to decide which material is best and which method of processing is required in order to turn raw materials into finished products....   [tags: Papers] 1801 words
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Factors that Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalysis - Factors that Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalysis Enzymes exist in all living things. They are composed of polymers of amino acids and are produced in living cells. Each cell contains several hundred enzymes, which catalyse a vast number of chemical reactions. Enzymes are known as Biological Catalysts as they dramatically increase the rate at which reactions occur within living organisms, without being 'used up' or effecting the reaction in any other way. Enzymes catalysis saves the need for an increase in temperature in order to speed up reactions within living things....   [tags: Papers] 1307 words
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About Cells - About Cells Cell, smallest unit of an organism that can function independently. All living organisms are made of cells, and it is generally held that nothing less than a cell can truly be said to be alive. Some microscopic organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, are single cells whereas animals and plants are composed of many millions of cells assembled into tissues and organs....   [tags: Papers] 2428 words
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