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Your search returned 292 essays for "polymers":
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Understanding Polymers - Polymers are always been around everywhere we go and have been increasing as time goes on. From its inception until today, polymers have enhanced our quality of life. The common questions asked here are usually what they are, where can I find them, where did they come from, how they are made, and what are some future possibilities. The first thing you might want to know about polymers is what they are. Polymers can be very complicated and you can do into great depth to what they are. “Polymers are molecules which consist of a long, repeating chain of smaller units called monomers.” The next question would be what monomers are....   [tags: Polymers]
:: 7 Works Cited
1066 words
(3 pages)
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Aspects of Polymers - Aspects of Polymers Plastics are polymers. A simple definition of a polymer is something made of many units. Each link of the chain is the -mer or basic unit that is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and or silicon. To make the chain, many links or -mers are polymerized together. Many of the common class of polymers are composed of hydrocarbons. Examples of polymers made up of only hydrogen and carbon are polypropylene, polybutylene, polystyrene and polymethylpentene. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains chlorine....   [tags: Papers] 641 words
(1.8 pages)
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Electro-Active Polymers in Finite Deformation - Characterization and Analysis - Abstract This work deals with electroactive polymers (EAP), materials that can undergo large deformations when subjected to electric field. This property attracted in the last decade the academic and the industrial communities, who try to utilize these materials as actuators and sensors. Electroactive materials are elastic, can undergo large deformations and possess fast response time. However, their wide-spread use was hindered by their limitations: the need for large electric field, small forces and low energy density....   [tags: Engineering] 2064 words
(5.9 pages)
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polymers - Cornstarch is an example of a polymer. Polymers are long strains of molecules that keep repeating and have different properties of the original single molecule group. A single section of a polymer is called a monomer. It resembles the simplest form of the repeating portion of the entire polymer. These polymers may get stretched when you make a mixture such as cornstarch and water. This mixture behaves a certain way. There are many theories on why this may occur. One theory is because the strands get tangled, making it hard for them to slide against each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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Using Polymers to Replace Absorption Glass Mats - This report outlines the evaluation for replacing an absorption glass mat (AGM) with a polymer mat to be used in a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. AGMs are expensive and exhibit low tensile strength, so polymers were investigated to both decrease cost and improve the properties of the mat. Initially the important properties of the mat were assumed to be chemical inertness in aqueous acid, stability towards oxidation and heat, wettability and contact angle, porosity, and tensile strength....   [tags: Materials Engineering] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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3D-Printing Polymer Research and Development - ... However, neither of these would be sufficient enough by themselves. As each prosthetic device is unique, a combination of polymers would be necessary to produce a stable and durable device for the client. This is especially true if different models of prosthetics, such as different leg prostheses become marketable. For example, using current manufacturing strategies, an athlete who has their leg amputated at the knee after a traffic accident, will require a higher-grade titanium alloy than say a lazier peer....   [tags: innovations, renovations, printing revolution]
:: 18 Works Cited
1406 words
(4 pages)
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A Brief Look into Polymer Processing - 1. Introduction Polymeric materials play a functional role in every aspect of daily life, from clothing to infrastructure. Polymers differ greatly from other materials, such as ceramics or metals, based upon the types of bonding. Metals bond metallically, creating a sea of electrons, and ceramics generally bond ionically, strongly tying electrons to lattice points. Polymers bond covalently in carbon chains, which (in general) make their properties more variable due to the possibilities of arrangement in bond length, angle, and molecular configuration....   [tags: polymeric materials, chemistry, bonds]
:: 6 Works Cited
2553 words
(7.3 pages)
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Practical Applications of Polymer Electrospinning Technology - Electrospinning is a method for the generation of nanofibers. It uses an electrical charge to produce fibers from a polymer solution or melt. It’s a process that has been around for some time. The first recordable observation of electrospraying, a similar process, was made by William Gilbert in the late 1500s. Electrospinning as we know it today was described in a 1902 patent (US 62631) by J. F. Cooley [1]. His patent was entitled “Apparatus for Electrically Dispersing Fibers”. Since the early 1990s interest in Electrospinning has increased substantially as evident by the rapidly increasing number of publications [2]....   [tags: science, nanofibers]
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1390 words
(4 pages)
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Polyethylene and Polyterephthalate are Outdated - Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Outdated: Is the World Ready for a New Plastic. Abstract: This paper explains the structure of polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) also known as PET. It states the properties of the plastic as well recycling methods. My goal was to find out what makes PET the number one plastic, both in consumption as well as the most recycled. I also searched for new polymers that are being created by scientists and compare them to PET to see if there was a plastic out there that is better for the environment....   [tags: Polymer PET Plastic]
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1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Polyethylene - German Chemist Hans von Pechmann first synthesized Polyethylene by accident in 1898 by heating diazomethane. His colleagues characterized the waxy substance polyethylene due to the fact that they recognized that it consisted of long ethene chains. It was then first industrially synthesized by accident in 1933 by applying extremely high pressure to ethylene and benzaldehyde. Over the years, development of polyethylene has increased due to the additions of catalyst. This makes ethylene polymerization possible at lower temperatures and pressures.1 Polyethylene is a polymer that is made of a long chain of CH2 monomers bonded together....   [tags: Polymer Plastic]
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1414 words
(4 pages)
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Polylactide - Polylactide: A New Perspective In the past decades, many polymers are non-biodegradable and require an excessive and strenuous recycling process. However one polymer, polylactide, is renovating the roles of commonly known polymers as time passes by. Polylactide has led to the introduction of other possible ways to create plastics that are more environmental friendly to the community. With this sole introduction, polymers in petrochemical-derived products are greatly affected in that they are no longer an extreme threat to the atmosphere, which is something very crucial for a future healthy planet environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
:: 9 Works Cited :: 9 Sources Cited
1435 words
(4.1 pages)
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Polystyrene - The Present and Future of Polystyrene Last year, the curbside recycling in my hometown made several changes to their program. Such changes included an increase in the amount of recycled materials each household could put every week, as well an increase in the frequency of collections. Perhaps the most welcome change for my family was the new ability to recycle all plastics. Although we had never produced a titanic amount of plastic waste, we still felt as though this allowed us to better do our part for the environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1350 words
(3.9 pages)
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Radiation Pressure Effect on Polymerization Reactions - A laser trap, or an optical trap, is created by tightly focusing a laser beam with an objective lens of high numerical aperture (NA).1 The trap is formed at the focal point of the objective, which is able to hold a small particle at its center. In other words, a dielectric particle near the focus will experience a force due to the transfer of momentum from the scattering of incident photons. The resulting optical force has two components: a scattering force in the direction of light propagation and a gradient force in the direction of the spatial light gradient....   [tags: Laser Beams, Chemistry, Molecules]
:: 16 Works Cited
2123 words
(6.1 pages)
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Drying Paint: Latex Paint - ... In the past, people used egg-white, mucilage, or even blood as a binder. Nowadays, both synthetic and natural polymers are used. Examples of binders include, alkyds, acrylates, vinyl acrylates, vinyl acetate / ethylene, polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, and various oils[1]. The solvent in paint usually has two functions. First of all, diluting the paint, making it easier to apply. Secondly, the volatility of the solvent ensures that when it is evaporated, the binder of the paint is left in place and cannot flow away[2]....   [tags: physical, chemical drying]
:: 5 Works Cited
1106 words
(3.2 pages)
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Industrial Production of PTFE - PTFE or Telfron is a common commercial organic fluoropolymer which is obtained by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. It was first synthesized by Roy Plunkett accidentally in New Jersey in 1938 (Plunkett, R. J., 1987). It gradually becomes as an important industrial material for its extraordinary properties of high corrosion resistance, good electrical insulation, good heat insulation and low frictional coefficient. Due to those properties it is widely used as seals in chemical processing sector, and tubing or piping for laboratory uses....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
:: 21 Works Cited
1984 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Chemistry of Painting Cars - The Chemistry of Painting Cars It is necessary to paint cars because the paint protects the steel of the car from corrosion, paint fills and smooths out any imperfections in the steel surface and it provides a durable, decorative, glossy appearance. If rusting continually takes place the car becomes unsafe. When water and oxygen come in contact with the metal of the car surface, several redox reactions happen. The oxygen is reduced to hydroxide ions and iron is oxidized to Fe2+ ions which pass into solution....   [tags: Papers] 1045 words
(3 pages)
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Organic Polymeric Materials Used in Implants - Polymers are made of large molecules that consist of a many monomers fused together through chemical bonds to make a strong material. Certain polymers are made of different chemical compositions of different molecular weights, crystallization, different degrees of hydrophobic characteristics, and heating transformations. Polymer materials are utilized for their slow degradable capabilities, ability to influence new formation of bone tissue, and contain porosity for cells to latch onto and utilize....   [tags: Physics ]
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2362 words
(6.7 pages)
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Replacing Synthetic Plastic With Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanote - Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanote (PHA) is a good candidate to replace synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. The main factor that hampered the commercialization of PHA is the high production cost with the recovery processes accounting for the most. The present study suggests a novel biological recovery method of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Cupriavidus necator H16. The PHA granules have been extracted without the help of any solvent or chemicals. The lyophilized cells were used protein source for the laboratory rats and simultaneously recovered the PHB granules excreted in the faeces....   [tags: Biotechnology] 2359 words
(6.7 pages)
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Utilizing Supramolecular Interactions Toward the Design of New Stimuli-Responsive Materials - The ability to utilize supramolecular interactions1 toward the design of new stimuli-responsive materials has gained a great amount of interest in recent years.2 For example, main-chain supramolecular polymers, whose polymer backbone consists of both covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions, can result in large (e.g. mechanical) responses to small changes in the environment. 3 Reversible metal–ligand coordination is one class of non-covalent interaction that has been widely utilized to access main-chain supramolecular polymers.4 Most of these metallosupramolecular polymers rely on ligand coordination with transition metal ions....   [tags: Engineering] 1159 words
(3.3 pages)
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons - Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular weights, such as propane (C3H8) are in a gaseous form....   [tags: Environment, fossil fuels]
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1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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Oil & Plastics and Sustainability - ... Biodegradable plastics are created from materials that are fully biodegradable. This means that they can break down much faster and recycling them takes less energy. They can be reused more efficiently, which gives them a clear advantage. Biodegradable plastics are made from biomass, which is a utterly renewable resource. Biomass includes trees, plants, grass, and all organic materials that decompose. This may even include animal fats, meats, and other tissues. Biodegradable plastics take much less time to break down after being used, if they haven’t been recycled, of course....   [tags: biodegradable plastic,PVC,fractional distillation]
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1567 words
(4.5 pages)
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Plastics - I want to say one word to you. Yes sir. Are you listening . Yes sir, I am. PLASTICS . - The Graduate (1967) 1. Definition of Plastics Plastics can be defined as used materials which are primarily based on two materials, polymers and prepolymers (Elias, 1993). However, the previously mentioned definition suffers from a serious weakness as it does not explain the basic method of how plastics are made. A better definition of plastics is that they are “synthetic materials composed of a series or chain of molecules which, when heat or pressure is applied, can be formed into desired shapes” (Lincoln et al....   [tags: Conservation ] 2461 words
(7 pages)
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The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates - The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Large biological molecules are called macromolecules, there are giant molecules (polymers) made up of repeating units (monomers). Carbohydrates are one of the main classes of biological molecules. Macromolecule units (monomers) are joined together by condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions split macromolecules down into their individual units. Carbohydrates are molecules that contain elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have a 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio, there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms (the same proportion as in water)....   [tags: Papers] 590 words
(1.7 pages)
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Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty - Introduction In 1977, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was introduced to dilate narrow coronary arteries. Over the years, the development of the procedure knocked down major anatomical obstacles. Typically the procedure involves a small incision into the leg, a catheter is inserted through the groin vein and is then steered to the blocked coronary vessel via a guide wire. On the tip of the catheter is a deflated balloon. Once at the congested region of the artery the balloon is inflated, causing plaque to compress against the artery wall, dilating the artery and restoring blood to flow [1]....   [tags: Anatomy, Coronary Arteries] 2255 words
(6.4 pages)
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Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites - Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites The objective of this work is to characterize the influence of clay loading and dispersion effects on the rheological properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Toughened unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were synthesized by the blending of delaminated clay with unsaturated polyester. Rheological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by clay loading and the extent of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix....   [tags: essays research papers] 2008 words
(5.7 pages)
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Malnutrition is Caused by an Unbalanced Diet - A balanced diet is when you eat a range of food and drinks from all the different groups but at the same time maintaining and taking care of what you eat. Especially staying away as much as possible from salt, trans fats etc. Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet due to having too much or too little nutrients (PubMedHealth.com). Under nutrition is when the body isn’t given enough calories, due to the person’s diet, and because they don’t utilize the food properly as they should. Over nutrition, is when the person consumes a lot more proteins and calories then they should....   [tags: energy, body mass index]
:: 15 Works Cited
940 words
(2.7 pages)
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The Progession of Man-Made Organs - Beginning in 1980, scientists have been trying to find a solution to the progressing problem of organ transplants. Many concerns come with transplanting an organ into the body; the two major issues are a lack of donors and a high rejection rate. A proposed solution to the rising issue is growing artificial organs in a lab. As technology advances, researchers are becoming increasingly closer to successfully growing a functioning organ that can be transplanted into a human body. When researchers first began the climb to successfully grow internal organs in a lab, many barriers needed to be overcome; the first being growing ticker tissues....   [tags: Medical Innovation, 3D Printing]
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1042 words
(3 pages)
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Bisphenol A - In society, Bisphenol A is also known as BPA it’s important and relevant in some areas like in cars and medical equipments and not so important for the human body. BPA is mostly link to metal cans. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the molecular process, the real world applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of Bisphenol A. Bisphenol A has deep connection in the can making industry, in the NACAR business and the history of Bisphenol A. Bisphenol A is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins....   [tags: Chemistry, Polycarbonate Plastics] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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ft.lauderdale high AP bio project - 2) LEVEL 1 - Cells Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.May serve a specific function within the organism Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc. tissue LEVEL 2 - Tissues Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve. LEVEL 3 - Organs Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 2086 words
(6 pages)
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Characteristic of Organic Compounds - ... Amino acids are linked together in proteins by a special kind of bond, the peptide bond. Also, they are the most important type of macromolecule. The makeup of proteins: Some examples of proteins are amino acids, enzymes, dipedtides, polypeptides and glycine. For example, enzymes are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. Also polypeptides are polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids. The functions of proteins are; structural support, storage, movement, cellular communications, and defense against foreign substances....   [tags: Carbon Atoms, Chemical Compounds]
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1017 words
(2.9 pages)
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An Exploration of Molding - ... None of these part are desired, but these are un avoidable due to nature of process. Gate marks open at the gate cavity. Parting line and ejector pin marks result from minute misalignments, wear, gaseous and or dimensional differences of mating surfaces contacting the injecting polymer . Dimensional differences can be attributed to non-uniform, pressure induced deformation during injection process. Mold components are designed with material of thermal expansion. The skillful mode and part designer will position these aesthetic detriments....   [tags: Injection molding process]
:: 14 Works Cited
2577 words
(7.4 pages)
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The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens - The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens "A quite extraordinary experience, slightly unnerving, but I do feel an enormous respect now for our bodies and the way they function. Thank you!" "I am now able to understand my body in a much better way. Congratulations on such a sensational exhibition and a very enlightening tour. I hope that this exhibition will gain more acceptance." These are two opinions about the Body Worlds exhibition, which is currently in London....   [tags: Papers] 1303 words
(3.7 pages)
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Biology Notes regarding Cells and Related topics - 1. The ability of ice to float because of the expansion of water as it solidifies is an important factor in the fitness of the environment. If ice sank, then eventually all ponds, lakes, and even oceans would freeze solid, making life as we know it impossible on earth. During the summer, only the upper few inches of the ocean would thaw. Instead, when a deep body of water cools, the floating ice insulates the liquid water below, preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface....   [tags: Biology Study Tests] 3489 words
(10 pages)
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Wasteform for Low Level Waste - ... Alternative encapsulant, an organic polymeric material, is introduced to avoid such reactions by maintaining a dry environment within the wasteform. This condition is also advantageous for the container to prevent corrosion. Polymeric encapsulants are generally resistant to acid, alkali and other organic solvent, which allow the design to be durable. However, many organic polymers degrade with ionising radiation. This could be a big drawback and might influence its primary safety function. Therefore, if polymeric encapsulants were to be used, the main design or formulation factors should be the resistivity to radiolytic degradation....   [tags: radiation, radionuclide, encapsulant]
:: 27 Works Cited
1728 words
(4.9 pages)
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Artificial Olfactory Enhancement - Artificial Olfactory Enhancement The human olfactory system is responsible for perceiving the chemical world around us. By sampling the environment, we can determine the presence of other individuals, possible danger, or distinguish acceptable food. Consisting of our sense of taste and smell, the olfactory system is a highly interrelated coordination of chemical and nerve responses. Yet as we have all experienced, human olfaction has limits. The popular image of a bloodhound leading hunters through the woods is one example of these limits....   [tags: Olfactory Enhancement Essays]
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1644 words
(4.7 pages)
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Leps : Revolution in the Field of Imaging Appliances - In 1897, German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and it has become an indispensable part of our lives ever since. It has remained ubiquitous till date inspite of being bulky, power hungry and expensive. Researchers came up with an alternative called Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). LCD had been projected as the saviour of the display industry and they have been quite a success in the computer applications industry. However, even today LCDs are far from pervasive. This is due to the fact that apart from being thinner than the CRT it has little advantage over it and hence, fail to meet the broad demands of the imaging appliance industry....   [tags: Physics] 490 words
(1.4 pages)
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Flubber - The movie Flubber was about a “crazy” chemist who had many inventions, some by the way I would like to have. But the main invention was a rubber “thing” that he named Flubber. There were a few scientific terms that he noted during the movie when inventing Flubber which I will describe below. The words in bold are the scientific terms that were noted in the movie. The first term that I noted during the movie was Conductive Polymers. Conductive polymers are almost always organic meaning a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon....   [tags: essays research papers] 481 words
(1.4 pages)
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Regulating Air Pollution - 1. Introduction 2. Background study 3. Proposed research 4. Project plan and time management 5. CPM diagram 6. References 7. Appendix INTRODUCTION: Air pollution is presently a large concern all over the planet. According to NOAA (National Oceanic’s and Atmospheric Agency) 50,000 deaths happening only in United States of America every year with respiratory diseases caused due to air pollution and estimates that it costs around $150billion per annum in order to regulate air pollution [1]....   [tags: air filter, electret, filtration]
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2497 words
(7.1 pages)
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The Therapeutic Potential of Gene Therapy - A novel therapeutic modality, gene therapy is the transfer of nucleic acids – DNA or RNA – into select somatic (body) cells to correct genetic defects or produce therapeutic proteins. It can be performed ex vivo (“out of the living”) or in vivo (“within the living”). In the ex vivo method, the target cells are removed from the patient, genetically modified, and reintroduced into the patient's body. This approach is efficient but limited to easily accessible cells such as epithelial cells (cells covering internal and external surfaces of the body), muscle cells, blood cells, and stem cells....   [tags: Vivo Method, DNA Vaccines]
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1343 words
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Particles in Stabilizing Food Emulsions - Particles in stabilizing food emulsions: a literature review Introduction Emulsions are practically important to, and widely used in, food science and agricultural products fields. Investigations about food emulsion into the stability, interaction and structural relationships. (Tambe et al., 1993, Lissant, 1974) Food systems commonly contain particulate material that accumulates at oil–water, water-oil and air–water interfaces and contributes to the colloidal stabilization of emulsions. (Dickinson, 2006)After emulsification, sizes of particles in systems structure could vary widely from nanometers to micrometers, As emulsion droplets coated by a layer of adsorbed solid particles at the oil...   [tags: food science, solid particles]
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1701 words
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The Role of Carbohydrates - The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain 3 elements, Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O), at a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are found in three main forms, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates supply the body with the energy it needs to function. They are found almost exclusively in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, peas, and beans. Milk and milk products are the only foods derived from animals that contain a significant amount of carbohydrates....   [tags: Papers] 530 words
(1.5 pages)
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Chemistry and Carbohydrates - The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The chemistry of carbohydrates most closely resembles that of alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone functional groups. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The chemistry of carbohydrates is complicated by the fact that there is a functional group (alcohol) on almost every carbon. In addition, the carbohydrate may exist in either a straight chain or a ring structure. Ring structures incorporate two additional functional groups: the hemiacetal and acetal....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1070 words
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Carbohydrates: Structure and Function - Introduction Carbohydrates are more than just fuels for the body and have other uses. Carbohydrates are hydrocarbons containing a carbonyl group and many alcohol groups. Their polymers can complex or they be simple and contain just one repeating monosaccharide, the roles of polymers can be many such as structural, storage or even signalling. (Tymoczko et al, 2012 p. 131) Monosaccharides Monosaccharides come in 2 forms, aldoses and ketoses. There can be up to seven carbons in the chain however most monosaccharides contain six called hexoses....   [tags: health, diet, carbs]
:: 7 Works Cited
1996 words
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What is Dielectric Testing? - ... Due to this, it is an ideal material to withstand loads and can make it very hard to conduct electricity. A new class of polyurethane polymers are currently being manufactured using non-isocyanate based polyurethanes. This is due to the fact that isocyanate is a toxic material and may cause serious health and safety issues. However, once polyurethane has been formed the toxicity becomes very low or nonexistent. Sustainability of Polyurethane Polyurethanes also help to save energy. Some products are coated with polyurethane which increases their lifetime well beyond what would be achieved without the coating....   [tags: insulation, chemical composition]
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2910 words
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What Is the Role of a Macromolecule? - What is the role of Macromolecules. Macromolecules have a major role in everyday life, we might not notice this because we don't exactly know what we use them for and why they are so important to us, mainly because we can see them therefore we are not aware that they exist. The term macromolecules is sometimes used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather then by chemical bonds. Another common macromolecule property that does not characterize smaller molecules is the need for assistance in dissolving into solution....   [tags: Biology] 1239 words
(3.5 pages)
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Heavy oil transportation: can it be made easier by magnetism? - Introduction Transportation of heavy crude represents a competitive situation, as it is energy exhaustive and capital intensive. Due to low API gravity (20° to 10°) and high viscosity (200 to 10,000 CP), the flow of oil through pipelines is very difficult. According to Chevron – Phillips, the heaviness of crude oil is due to large proportion of high molecular weight non paraffinic compounds and less percentage of paraffin. Geological origin of heavy crude oil is at the shallower depths and is the result of improper degradation of kerogen via thermal gradient....   [tags: oil industry, cheveron]
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1423 words
(4.1 pages)
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Polyethylene: Manufacturing Cycle and Environmental Impact - Manufacturing Cycle and Environmental Impact The most common form of polyethylene is petroleum based or olefins based; as before mentioned polyethylene compounds have a wide commercial applicability and are made from non-renewable resources (Harding, Dennis, von Blottnitz, Harrison, & S.T.L., 2007). Its manufacturing processes are regarded as energy intensive and release significant amount of CO2 and heat into the atmosphere (Broderick, 2008). Next a little more detailed description of polyethylene’s production processes will be presented, with a focus on the way the material inputs are extracted and synthesized....   [tags: Manufactutring Cycle, Environmental Impact]
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885 words
(2.5 pages)
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Plastics - Plastics Plastics are often frowned upon. This is because people often think of them as cheap and not aesthetically pleasing. However they come in many different forms and often look very nice. Obviously there are types that do give the product a bad name. Mainly the cheap toys that are produced in the far east. This is not right and plastics should be seen as a real alternative and be able offer a huge amount of uses for this product. Polymers Polymers such as rubber, plastics and adhesives are organic structures....   [tags: Papers] 560 words
(1.6 pages)
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Transvaginal Mesh - A transvaginal mesh is a device in the form of a stretchable patch that is implanted on the vaginal wall (or pelvic wall) of a woman in a surgical procedure in order to support and strengthen the tissues within the internal body part due to several complications. In the succeeding paragraphs, the focus will be three-fold; the comprehensive information about it, its side effects, and the well-known legal aspects of it. More Information about the Transvaginal Mesh Since it has been mentioned above that the transvaginal mesh is used surgically on the vaginal wall or pelvic wall of a woman for supporting internal organs, it is important to begin the discussion on what this surgical mesh is made...   [tags: Women's Health] 1908 words
(5.5 pages)
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Protein Thermal Stability - Proteins are amazing chemical polymers. They serve a myriad of functions such as providing nutrition in the form of their constitutive amino acids as well as energy. They serve as reactants and enzymes in chemical reactions. Proteins contribute to the texture, viscosity and water holding capacity of foods that contain them. Proteins can be toxins or allergens or hormones, and they serve as transporters for vital molecules such as oxygen in the blood stream (Coultate 1984). These polymers have evolved to play a role in very specific physiological functions and this chemical reactivity can be used for very unique applications beyond a proteins evolutionary scope....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]
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2322 words
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Recycling Laws: Eco-Unfriendly? - Out of all the growing problems in the world, the massive accumulation of garbage seems to be the least of the people’s worries. Countless landfills are being satiated by trash of all shapes, sizes and composition; many now being paved over to serve as foundation for housing, airports, businesses, etc. If the situation were as simple to resolve as paving over the putrescent landfills, then there wouldn’t be debates or research about the environmental effects of pollution associated with improper discarding of waste materials....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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1038 words
(3 pages)
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Staphylococcus aureas versus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureas - From Staphylococcus aureus to MRSA Abstract I investigated the difference between Staphylococcus aureas and its super bacteria form of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas. I used books, websites, and scholarly projects to understand the topic at a molecular level. After researching penicillin, Staphylococcus aureas, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas, I found that both the drug and the bacteria use enzymes as their defense and attack mechanism. Penicillin uses a ß-lactam ring as a substrate to clog the active site of transpeptidase, and in defense, the bacteria uses ß-lactamase to break down the ß-lactam ring....   [tags: Biology Bacteria Comparison Essays]
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
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Notes on Biology, Cells and Chemistry - REVIEW UNIT 1-THE CELL LIFE *There is no def. for life *Life can be characterized by a list of things that we might agree living thing have in common-organized and contain complex chemical substances, Made up of one or more cells, Use Energy, Have a definite form& Limited size, Have a limited life Span, Grow, Respond to changes in the environment, Reproduce, Evolve over time.*Metabolism is all the chemical reaction occuring in the cell of an organism*All Living things must carry out processes to maitain life and homeostasis- Nutrition, Transport, Respiration, Synthesis and Assimilation, Growth, Excretion, Regulation, Reproduction, Metabolism.CHEMISTRY BASICS *Atoms of the elements are t...   [tags: essays research papers] 916 words
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Lipids and Carbohydrates - Lipids and Carbohydrates Lipids are a group of substances, which include fats, oils and waxes. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. They are stored in plants as starches and in animals as glycogen. There are many differences between carbohydrates and lipids. For example lipids are insoluble in water whereas carbohydrates are soluble in water. This is because lipids contain non - polar hydrocarbon units whereas water contains polar hydrocarbon units. So when the two are mixed together there is no attraction between particles so no breakdown is possible....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
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A Study of the Impact of Human Encroachment on Coastal Microbial Concentrations - Introduction: The intent of the study was to analyze the impact of human encroachment on concentrations of the bacterium known as enteroccocus in coastal waters. In order to evaluate impact of human encroachment, the research question, to what extent does the level of human activity and development in proximity to a saltwater source affect the levels of the bacterium enteroccocus present, was posed. This study is was undertaken because the United States recently changed the federal standard of water quality at state beaches from fecal coliform to enterococcus....   [tags: Ecology]
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Biotechnology: Nanoparticles and Delibery of siRNA Into The Cell - ... A particular advantage of the peptide-siRNA conjugate is that these complexes are able to be linked to small molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, hormones, and ligands, and self assemble via non-covalent bonding which provides enough protection from RNAses [4,7,9]. Another well tested set of peptides used for siRNA conjugation are phage fusion proteins. These proteins are coat proteins isolated from different mammalian cell phages which already have associated cationic charge for packing genetic materials....   [tags: liposomes, siRNA, lipids]
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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate - Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis] 1046 words
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Cefuroxime Axetil - The cephalosporin antibiotic cefuroxime axetil is a prodrug primarily absorbed from the upper part of the GIT and degraded in presence of intestinal esterases. The purpose of this investigation was to apply Box behnken response surface methodology for the development of a gastro retentive floating tablets of cefuroxime axetil and to inspect the effect of formulation variables on drug release and the buoyancy properties of the delivery system. The amount of methocel K4M, cetyl alcohol and sodium bicarbonate were taken as independent variables and floating lag time, Q12h and t50% were taken as dependent variables....   [tags: buoyancy, box behnken, drug release]
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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modif...   [tags: Construction] 1659 words
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Thermo-oxidative Resistance of Cross Linked Polyethylene - ... As it appears, the hybrid coating without GO (XL-SiO2) increases XLPE surface conductivity on account of the presence of residuals ions (deriving from sol-gel coating preparation) and of the hydrophilic nature of hydroxysilane groups that increases the amount of water molecules on the film surface. The resistivity of the XL-SiO2-GO samples is further reduced, decreasing on increasing the GO content. This feature is not surprising considering the semi-conductive character of GO [24]. A further significant decrease of the resistivity was observed after exposition of the films to hydrazine vapours (more than 2 orders of magnitude for 0.8 wt% of GO)....   [tags: insulating materials, graphene, degradation]
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Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape - Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape For the major Science Investigation this year I have decided to test a very commonly used household and office tool. The sticky tape or pressure-sensitive tape. In this specific investigation the different types of sticky tape being tested and investigated are all 18-19mm in length. There is the Scotch 600 clear and transparent tape which is expensive, then an 18mm wide, black electrical tape. A yellowish coloured masking tape, a brown cellophane tape which is 19mm wide and then cheap Officeworks sticky tape which was only 78c which 18mm wide....   [tags: Papers] 1649 words
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Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs - Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs     When one thinks of cloning, what comes to mind?  Movies such as "Multiplicity" can give the lay person a very distorted image of cloning.  In this particular movie, actor Michael Keaton plays a father who cannot handle his crazily busy lifestyle.  In an effort to be the perfect father, husband and employee, he has himself cloned fairly easily at a nearby medical center.  The three clones each have their own personality: one is sarcastic and bitter, one is sweet and sensitive and one is a half-wit- but all are identical.  This cloning process is completely false.  At this time, scientists have cloned animals including Rhesus monkeys,...   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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Summary of Riordan Manufacturing - Summary of Riordan Manufacturing Riordan Manufacturing Inc. is in the field of plastic injection molding. A leader in plastics designs in many different areas, with state of the art capabilities in developing innovative products for their customers. The company was founded by Dr. Riordan, a professor of chemistry, working with processing polymers into high strength plastic articles. Dr. Riordan obtained patents and licensing to start manufacturing plastic fans in the plant at Pontiac, Michigan in 1992....   [tags: Business Analysis]
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The Structure of Proteins - The Structure of Proteins Introduction Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Human Resource Mangement in Solvay - Human Resource Mangement in Solvay In the last decades, small national companies have grown in amazing scale all around the world. Companies that once were family owned have become huge multinational corporations. Corporations, which by the side of globalization, have expanded all around the world. International business has become one of the most important areas of business due to the need for companies to expand to markets outside their borders. Companies have had the need to adapt to another cultures and business systems....   [tags: Personnel Management]
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Immobilisation of Enzimes - Immobilization of enzymes is one of promising methods in enzymes performances enhancement, such as stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still the one of problems to prevent the reduction of enzymes activity. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES (PES-NH2) as novel materials for the immobilization were successfully synthesized. Structure of synthesized polymers were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF. The membranes based on PES and PES-NH2 with various pore sizes (from 10 to 600 nm) was fabricated to be applied as bioreactor to increase the immobilized lipase performances....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Natural Rubber - Natural Rubber I’m going to talk to you about rubber, I’ll talk about natural rubber first and then go on to talk about the way in which its natural state can be modified and manipulated so its advantageous properties can be used. (slide 2) Natural rubber is an excellent engineering material and is used as the main material in many everyday items the most prevalent being car tires which I’ll discuss later also. (slide 3) Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex, found in many plants however synthetic rubbers are produced from unsaturated hydrocarbons (basically this means that there are carbon atoms in the rubber molecule that ha...   [tags: Papers] 739 words
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Organic Molecules Challenge - Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers] 2517 words
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The Origins of Life - The Origins of Life Before any speculation toward the origin of biotic forms, what was present at the formation of the earth that could result in inorganic, then organic, and later biotic creatures. Early atmospheric conditions have been theorized to be present due to planetesimal collisions releasing gases present in the Earth, after the initial atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium escaped Earth’s gravity assisted by heat energy. The earlier atmosphere is believed to have consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen (bonded to other elements) in such forms as CO2/CO, N2, and H20....   [tags: Science Scientific Essays Research]
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ColorForm Technology - ... Paint or lacquer is applied to a composite part much the same as its metal counterpart. Metals, however, are generally painted to inhibit corrosion. Composites, with the exception of some metal reinforced/metal matrix composites do not corrode but the composite matrix materials may absorb water when directly exposed. This can cause damage to the part upon freeze and thaw cycles. Damage can also occur to the matrix material if exposed to chemicals. This is especially true in the aviation and automotive sectors as many components are exposed to aircraft/automotive fuels, hydraulic fluid and de-icing chemicals....   [tags: ColorForm, FRP, flammability]
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Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Solids, liquids, and gases are the three main, or fundamental phases of matter. Each one has a different density and a different level of stability. What determines the stability of each phase is the bond between it's atoms. The tighter the bond between it's atoms the more stable that phase of matter is. Solids are the most stable form of matter, followed by liquids, and then gases. Solids have a definite shape and do not take the shape of their container. Liquids do not have any definite shape and do take the shape of their container, the same is true with gases....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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10 Years Beyond: The Role of Biomedical Computing in Future Health Care - By convention, the field of healthcare research was entirely occupied by physicians and doctors. They were the ones who came up with new methods to treat diseases and get better results from diagnostic tests. Technology, on the other hand, was always looked at as a way to solve problems that we faced that didn’t pertain to the medical sector. It was employed to enhance the quality of life and make day to day work easier. But as technology progressed, so did the areas of application. The structural balancing techniques which were previously used to hold a building steady were now being used to develop near-perfect artificial joints and prosthetic limbs....   [tags: Healthcare Research, Biomedical Computing] 833 words
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CASE STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION - The biosorption of invertase onto three wood sawdust species Meranti wood sawdust (MWS), Keruing wood sawdust (KRWS) and Kempas wood sawdust (KPWS) in immobilization system was studied and equilibrium isotherm was determined. The experimental data have been analyzing by using the Langmuir and Freundlich linear and nonlinear regression form. The maximum loading calculation study revealed MWS (16.2614 ɥgg-1) as the most potential biosorbent and KPWS showed as least significant with only (10.2978 ɥgg-1)....   [tags: case study, physiochemical process]
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Is The Worldwide Improvement to Our Lifestyle Damaging The Environment? - ... Improvements are not only done for human beings. They can be beneficial for nature; they can protect even nature. Firstly, nature can be stored in cities, even in a metropolis. People and nature are strictly linked to each other, actually. People always have a desire to see green. In today’s world, for example in New York, we can see a huge natural park at the middle of a metropolitan. The important point in this example is that if people store nature carefully, both nature and their lives can be getting better....   [tags: biodegradable materials, population, pollution]
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Plastic Pollution and the Effects on Human Health - Where does all the plastic go. Every bit of plastic that has been created is still here. This is because plastic is one-hundred percent non-biodegradable. Even the most degraded plastic down to polymers cannot be digested by bacteria (Laist, 1997). If global issues like starvation and climate change are not enough to stress on, the weight of an issue literally churning in the Pacific Ocean is startling. For decades the majority of the world’s population has not been properly educated on the nature of plastic and the potential harm it can do to our environment and our physical health....   [tags: Ecology ]
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(7 pages)
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Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment - The treatment of surface wastewater is aimed at bringing contaminated water back to its previous state for domestic use or otherwise. Some of the sources of wastewater include industrial effluents from manufactures, agricultural effluents, agro-industrial as well as domestic wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, toilets, and so on. Particles in the water from the various sources include bacteria, organic matters, and sand which cause the water to be turbid or discoloured in appearance and have an unpleasant odour....   [tags: wastewater, flocculation, alkalinity, flocs]
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1053 words
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Synthetic and Natural Rubber - Synthetic and Natural Rubber Abstract Rubber is an important resource with a wide variety of applications. It can be obtained naturally from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It can also be synthesized from petroleum and natural gas. Both natural and synthetic rubbers have their own advantages and disadvantages. Natural rubber is made up the linear chain polymer, cis-l,4-polyisoprene. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is the most common synthetic rubber. It is a random copolymer of styrene and butadiene and has good physical properties once it has been strengthened through vulcanization....   [tags: Comparison Material Rubber]
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Description of Three Types of MEMS Devices - 1. Three MEMS devices described below are: I. Eco Scan MEMS resonant mirror: MEMS resonant mirror devices have the potential to miniaturize optical systems, such as sensors, displays and printing devices. They integrate the driving actuator into the mirror structure, a small, low power consumption and inexpensive device. The Eco scan MEMS resonant mirror uses the electromagnetic drive method. On a single crystal silicon substrate, a mirror, torsion bars and coils are formed and permanent magnets are placed on the periphery of those parts....   [tags: eco scan mems, sensors, gyro sensor]
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