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Your search returned 253 essays for "polymers":
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Understanding Polymers - Polymers are always been around everywhere we go and have been increasing as time goes on. From its inception until today, polymers have enhanced our quality of life. The common questions asked here are usually what they are, where can I find them, where did they come from, how they are made, and what are some future possibilities. The first thing you might want to know about polymers is what they are. Polymers can be very complicated and you can do into great depth to what they are. “Polymers are molecules which consist of a long, repeating chain of smaller units called monomers.” The next question would be what monomers are....   [tags: Polymers]
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1066 words
(3 pages)
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polymers - Cornstarch is an example of a polymer. Polymers are long strains of molecules that keep repeating and have different properties of the original single molecule group. A single section of a polymer is called a monomer. It resembles the simplest form of the repeating portion of the entire polymer. These polymers may get stretched when you make a mixture such as cornstarch and water. This mixture behaves a certain way. There are many theories on why this may occur. One theory is because the strands get tangled, making it hard for them to slide against each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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Aspects of Polymers - Aspects of Polymers Plastics are polymers. A simple definition of a polymer is something made of many units. Each link of the chain is the -mer or basic unit that is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and or silicon. To make the chain, many links or -mers are polymerized together. Many of the common class of polymers are composed of hydrocarbons. Examples of polymers made up of only hydrogen and carbon are polypropylene, polybutylene, polystyrene and polymethylpentene. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains chlorine....   [tags: Papers] 641 words
(1.8 pages)
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Electro-Active Polymers in Finite Deformation - Characterization and Analysis - Abstract This work deals with electroactive polymers (EAP), materials that can undergo large deformations when subjected to electric field. This property attracted in the last decade the academic and the industrial communities, who try to utilize these materials as actuators and sensors. Electroactive materials are elastic, can undergo large deformations and possess fast response time. However, their wide-spread use was hindered by their limitations: the need for large electric field, small forces and low energy density....   [tags: Engineering] 2064 words
(5.9 pages)
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Using Polymers to Replace Absorption Glass Mats - This report outlines the evaluation for replacing an absorption glass mat (AGM) with a polymer mat to be used in a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. AGMs are expensive and exhibit low tensile strength, so polymers were investigated to both decrease cost and improve the properties of the mat. Initially the important properties of the mat were assumed to be chemical inertness in aqueous acid, stability towards oxidation and heat, wettability and contact angle, porosity, and tensile strength....   [tags: Materials Engineering] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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Space Travelling - ... There are other types of self healing composites, one using optical fibers and ultra violet light curing resin to automatically begin to cure once it is hit by the ultra violet light of a hole or crack. The ultra violet light acts is the trigger and the ultra violet curing resin is the sensor. When both of them come together it is a self healing system that doesn't require any human interaction. Morphing composites is one of the newest abilities of composites. The term "smart" material means some type of material that can change in shape or form....   [tags: polymers, space shuttle, NASA, discovery]
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2168 words
(6.2 pages)
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A Brief Look into Polymer Processing - ... There are two main forms of polymerization: addition and condensation polymerization. Addition polymerization is the simplest form of polymer synthesis. The process starts with short monomeric chains. A catalyst (R*) is added to the mixture of monomers, which ionizes the end of the given polymer chain, in the first step, initialization (see Figure 7). This ionized polymer chain will then attach itself to another chain. This phenomenon will continue (propagation), but the growth rate will deteriorate over time, as it will require more energy and time to transport monomers to the active end of the chain....   [tags: polymeric materials, chemistry, bonds]
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2553 words
(7.3 pages)
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Practical Applications of Polymer Electrospinning Technology - ... The MTT assay results showed a significant increase in the number of viable cells over the control and PU alone [5]. Figure 2: MTT Cell Growth Assay Results [5] These PU-Dextran CipHCl mats also showed excellent antibacterial activity. Figure 3 shows the results of the effects of the control, PU-Dextran and PU- Dextran CipHCl labeled as A, B and C respectively on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus shown on the right and Bacillus subtilis on the left were both evaluated in Figure 3 [5]....   [tags: science, nanofibers]
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1390 words
(4 pages)
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Polyethylene - German Chemist Hans von Pechmann first synthesized Polyethylene by accident in 1898 by heating diazomethane. His colleagues characterized the waxy substance polyethylene due to the fact that they recognized that it consisted of long ethene chains. It was then first industrially synthesized by accident in 1933 by applying extremely high pressure to ethylene and benzaldehyde. Over the years, development of polyethylene has increased due to the additions of catalyst. This makes ethylene polymerization possible at lower temperatures and pressures.1 Polyethylene is a polymer that is made of a long chain of CH2 monomers bonded together....   [tags: Polymer Plastic]
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1414 words
(4 pages)
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Polyethylene and Polyterephthalate are Outdated - Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Outdated: Is the World Ready for a New Plastic. Abstract: This paper explains the structure of polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) also known as PET. It states the properties of the plastic as well recycling methods. My goal was to find out what makes PET the number one plastic, both in consumption as well as the most recycled. I also searched for new polymers that are being created by scientists and compare them to PET to see if there was a plastic out there that is better for the environment....   [tags: Polymer PET Plastic]
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1462 words
(4.2 pages)
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Polylactide - Polylactide: A New Perspective In the past decades, many polymers are non-biodegradable and require an excessive and strenuous recycling process. However one polymer, polylactide, is renovating the roles of commonly known polymers as time passes by. Polylactide has led to the introduction of other possible ways to create plastics that are more environmental friendly to the community. With this sole introduction, polymers in petrochemical-derived products are greatly affected in that they are no longer an extreme threat to the atmosphere, which is something very crucial for a future healthy planet environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid - Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]
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1435 words
(4.1 pages)
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Polystyrene - The Present and Future of Polystyrene Last year, the curbside recycling in my hometown made several changes to their program. Such changes included an increase in the amount of recycled materials each household could put every week, as well an increase in the frequency of collections. Perhaps the most welcome change for my family was the new ability to recycle all plastics. Although we had never produced a titanic amount of plastic waste, we still felt as though this allowed us to better do our part for the environment....   [tags: Polymer Plastic Environment Biodegradable]
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1350 words
(3.9 pages)
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Plastics - I want to say one word to you. Yes sir. Are you listening . Yes sir, I am. PLASTICS . - The Graduate (1967) 1. Definition of Plastics Plastics can be defined as used materials which are primarily based on two materials, polymers and prepolymers (Elias, 1993). However, the previously mentioned definition suffers from a serious weakness as it does not explain the basic method of how plastics are made. A better definition of plastics is that they are “synthetic materials composed of a series or chain of molecules which, when heat or pressure is applied, can be formed into desired shapes” (Lincoln et al....   [tags: Conservation ] 2461 words
(7 pages)
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Flubber - The movie Flubber was about a “crazy” chemist who had many inventions, some by the way I would like to have. But the main invention was a rubber “thing” that he named Flubber. There were a few scientific terms that he noted during the movie when inventing Flubber which I will describe below. The words in bold are the scientific terms that were noted in the movie. The first term that I noted during the movie was Conductive Polymers. Conductive polymers are almost always organic meaning a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon....   [tags: essays research papers] 481 words
(1.4 pages)
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Plastics - Plastics Plastics are often frowned upon. This is because people often think of them as cheap and not aesthetically pleasing. However they come in many different forms and often look very nice. Obviously there are types that do give the product a bad name. Mainly the cheap toys that are produced in the far east. This is not right and plastics should be seen as a real alternative and be able offer a huge amount of uses for this product. Polymers Polymers such as rubber, plastics and adhesives are organic structures....   [tags: Papers] 560 words
(1.6 pages)
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Industrial Production of PTFE - PTFE or Telfron is a common commercial organic fluoropolymer which is obtained by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. It was first synthesized by Roy Plunkett accidentally in New Jersey in 1938 (Plunkett, R. J., 1987). It gradually becomes as an important industrial material for its extraordinary properties of high corrosion resistance, good electrical insulation, good heat insulation and low frictional coefficient. Due to those properties it is widely used as seals in chemical processing sector, and tubing or piping for laboratory uses....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
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1984 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Chemistry of Painting Cars - The Chemistry of Painting Cars It is necessary to paint cars because the paint protects the steel of the car from corrosion, paint fills and smooths out any imperfections in the steel surface and it provides a durable, decorative, glossy appearance. If rusting continually takes place the car becomes unsafe. When water and oxygen come in contact with the metal of the car surface, several redox reactions happen. The oxygen is reduced to hydroxide ions and iron is oxidized to Fe2+ ions which pass into solution....   [tags: Papers] 1045 words
(3 pages)
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Organic Polymeric Materials Used in Implants - Polymers are made of large molecules that consist of a many monomers fused together through chemical bonds to make a strong material. Certain polymers are made of different chemical compositions of different molecular weights, crystallization, different degrees of hydrophobic characteristics, and heating transformations. Polymer materials are utilized for their slow degradable capabilities, ability to influence new formation of bone tissue, and contain porosity for cells to latch onto and utilize....   [tags: Physics ]
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2362 words
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons - Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular weights, such as propane (C3H8) are in a gaseous form....   [tags: Environment, fossil fuels]
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1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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Bisphenol A - In society, Bisphenol A is also known as BPA it’s important and relevant in some areas like in cars and medical equipments and not so important for the human body. BPA is mostly link to metal cans. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the molecular process, the real world applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of Bisphenol A. Bisphenol A has deep connection in the can making industry, in the NACAR business and the history of Bisphenol A. Bisphenol A is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins....   [tags: Chemistry, Polycarbonate Plastics] 1986 words
(5.7 pages)
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Replacing Synthetic Plastic With Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanote - Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanote (PHA) is a good candidate to replace synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. The main factor that hampered the commercialization of PHA is the high production cost with the recovery processes accounting for the most. The present study suggests a novel biological recovery method of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Cupriavidus necator H16. The PHA granules have been extracted without the help of any solvent or chemicals. The lyophilized cells were used protein source for the laboratory rats and simultaneously recovered the PHB granules excreted in the faeces....   [tags: Biotechnology] 2359 words
(6.7 pages)
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Utilizing Supramolecular Interactions Toward the Design of New Stimuli-Responsive Materials - The ability to utilize supramolecular interactions1 toward the design of new stimuli-responsive materials has gained a great amount of interest in recent years.2 For example, main-chain supramolecular polymers, whose polymer backbone consists of both covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions, can result in large (e.g. mechanical) responses to small changes in the environment. 3 Reversible metal–ligand coordination is one class of non-covalent interaction that has been widely utilized to access main-chain supramolecular polymers.4 Most of these metallosupramolecular polymers rely on ligand coordination with transition metal ions....   [tags: Engineering] 1159 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates - The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates Large biological molecules are called macromolecules, there are giant molecules (polymers) made up of repeating units (monomers). Carbohydrates are one of the main classes of biological molecules. Macromolecule units (monomers) are joined together by condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions split macromolecules down into their individual units. Carbohydrates are molecules that contain elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have a 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio, there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms (the same proportion as in water)....   [tags: Papers] 590 words
(1.7 pages)
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Carbohydrates - There are three principal kinds of carbohydrates and each are classified according to the number of sugar molecules they contain. Monosaccharides, such as ribose, glucose, and fructose, contain only one sugar molecule. Disaccharides consist of two sugar molecules linked covalently. Familiar examples are sucrose (table sugar), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar). Polysaccharides, such as cellulose and starch, contain many sugar molecules linked together. Monosaccharides are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen....   [tags: essays research papers] 384 words
(1.1 pages)
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Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty - Introduction In 1977, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was introduced to dilate narrow coronary arteries. Over the years, the development of the procedure knocked down major anatomical obstacles. Typically the procedure involves a small incision into the leg, a catheter is inserted through the groin vein and is then steered to the blocked coronary vessel via a guide wire. On the tip of the catheter is a deflated balloon. Once at the congested region of the artery the balloon is inflated, causing plaque to compress against the artery wall, dilating the artery and restoring blood to flow [1]....   [tags: Anatomy, Coronary Arteries] 2255 words
(6.4 pages)
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Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites - Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites The objective of this work is to characterize the influence of clay loading and dispersion effects on the rheological properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Toughened unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were synthesized by the blending of delaminated clay with unsaturated polyester. Rheological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by clay loading and the extent of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix....   [tags: essays research papers] 2008 words
(5.7 pages)
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Artificial Olfactory Enhancement - Artificial Olfactory Enhancement The human olfactory system is responsible for perceiving the chemical world around us. By sampling the environment, we can determine the presence of other individuals, possible danger, or distinguish acceptable food. Consisting of our sense of taste and smell, the olfactory system is a highly interrelated coordination of chemical and nerve responses. Yet as we have all experienced, human olfaction has limits. The popular image of a bloodhound leading hunters through the woods is one example of these limits....   [tags: Olfactory Enhancement Essays]
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ft.lauderdale high AP bio project - 2) LEVEL 1 - Cells Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.May serve a specific function within the organism Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc. tissue LEVEL 2 - Tissues Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve. LEVEL 3 - Organs Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc....   [tags: essays research papers] 2086 words
(6 pages)
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Transvaginal Mesh - ... For women, a prolapse could be painless depending on the seriousness of the condition, though it could show signs of urinary or bowel symptoms. The second women’s health condition that can be treated through transvaginal mesh surgery is regarding physiological incontinence. One may ask, what is incontinence. It is a medical term used to describe an involuntary response of the body’s functions when it is meant to be a voluntary. An example of a voluntary action of the body is urination and defecation....   [tags: Women's Health] 1908 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens - The Body Worlds Exhibition by Gunther von Hagens "A quite extraordinary experience, slightly unnerving, but I do feel an enormous respect now for our bodies and the way they function. Thank you!" "I am now able to understand my body in a much better way. Congratulations on such a sensational exhibition and a very enlightening tour. I hope that this exhibition will gain more acceptance." These are two opinions about the Body Worlds exhibition, which is currently in London....   [tags: Papers] 1303 words
(3.7 pages)
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Hydrogels - Tissue or organ printing approaches became popular due to lack of organ donors. To address this need, cells or biological molecules are embedded within hydrogels and these mixtures are printed with computer controlled rapid prototyping systems to yield printed organs (9). Bioprinting approaches are promising high-throughput techniques to create artificial tissues and organs for tissue engineering. Gels with or without cells/biological factors are printed on predefined positions layer by layer fashion (Figure 1) with the final goal of fixing damaged or diseases tissues (8, 9)....   [tags: Ethics, Bioprinting, Artificial Tissues] 566 words
(1.6 pages)
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Chemistry and Carbohydrates - The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The chemistry of carbohydrates most closely resembles that of alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone functional groups. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. The chemistry of carbohydrates is complicated by the fact that there is a functional group (alcohol) on almost every carbon. In addition, the carbohydrate may exist in either a straight chain or a ring structure. Ring structures incorporate two additional functional groups: the hemiacetal and acetal....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1070 words
(3.1 pages)
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Biology Notes - 1. The ability of ice to float because of the expansion of water as it solidifies is an important factor in the fitness of the environment. If ice sank, then eventually all ponds, lakes, and even oceans would freeze solid, making life as we know it impossible on earth. During the summer, only the upper few inches of the ocean would thaw. Instead, when a deep body of water cools, the floating ice insulates the liquid water below, preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface....   [tags: Biology Study Tests] 3489 words
(10 pages)
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Leps : Revolution in the Field of Imaging Appliances - In 1897, German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and it has become an indispensable part of our lives ever since. It has remained ubiquitous till date inspite of being bulky, power hungry and expensive. Researchers came up with an alternative called Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). LCD had been projected as the saviour of the display industry and they have been quite a success in the computer applications industry. However, even today LCDs are far from pervasive. This is due to the fact that apart from being thinner than the CRT it has little advantage over it and hence, fail to meet the broad demands of the imaging appliance industry....   [tags: Physics] 490 words
(1.4 pages)
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Natural Rubber - Natural Rubber I’m going to talk to you about rubber, I’ll talk about natural rubber first and then go on to talk about the way in which its natural state can be modified and manipulated so its advantageous properties can be used. (slide 2) Natural rubber is an excellent engineering material and is used as the main material in many everyday items the most prevalent being car tires which I’ll discuss later also. (slide 3) Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex, found in many plants however synthetic rubbers are produced from unsaturated hydrocarbons (basically this means that there are carbon atoms in the rubber molecule that have a potential to be bonded to more hydrogen....   [tags: Papers] 739 words
(2.1 pages)
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Cefuroxime Axetil - ... (Chennai, India). Methocel K4M was provided by Strides arcolab (Bangalore, India). All other reagents and chemicals were analytical grade. 2.2. Experimental design Formulation is designed by Box-behnken design. The minimum and maximum specifications of the processing variables are entered into the software (Design Expert) to obtain a suitable design. In this three formulation variables were evaluated each at three levels and experimental trials were performed at all 17 possible combination including 5 replicate points (Chin Yoong et al., 2010)....   [tags: buoyancy, box behnken, drug release]
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1169 words
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The Role of Carbohydrates - The Role of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain 3 elements, Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O), at a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are found in three main forms, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates supply the body with the energy it needs to function. They are found almost exclusively in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, peas, and beans. Milk and milk products are the only foods derived from animals that contain a significant amount of carbohydrates....   [tags: Papers] 530 words
(1.5 pages)
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What Is the Role of a Macromolecule? - What is the role of Macromolecules. Macromolecules have a major role in everyday life, we might not notice this because we don't exactly know what we use them for and why they are so important to us, mainly because we can see them therefore we are not aware that they exist. The term macromolecules is sometimes used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather then by chemical bonds. Another common macromolecule property that does not characterize smaller molecules is the need for assistance in dissolving into solution....   [tags: Biology] 1239 words
(3.5 pages)
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Protein Thermal Stability - Proteins are amazing chemical polymers. They serve a myriad of functions such as providing nutrition in the form of their constitutive amino acids as well as energy. They serve as reactants and enzymes in chemical reactions. Proteins contribute to the texture, viscosity and water holding capacity of foods that contain them. Proteins can be toxins or allergens or hormones, and they serve as transporters for vital molecules such as oxygen in the blood stream (Coultate 1984). These polymers have evolved to play a role in very specific physiological functions and this chemical reactivity can be used for very unique applications beyond a proteins evolutionary scope....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]
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Recycling Laws: Eco-Unfriendly? - Out of all the growing problems in the world, the massive accumulation of garbage seems to be the least of the people’s worries. Countless landfills are being satiated by trash of all shapes, sizes and composition; many now being paved over to serve as foundation for housing, airports, businesses, etc. If the situation were as simple to resolve as paving over the putrescent landfills, then there wouldn’t be debates or research about the environmental effects of pollution associated with improper discarding of waste materials....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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carbs - ... Maltose is very similar to lactose but is 2 units of glucose, alpha-D-glucopyranose-(1->4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose. This is a breakdown product of starch and glycogen during hydrolysis, which itself is hydrolysed into glucose. The enzymes that breakdown these sugars are sucrase, lactase and maltase. (Tymoczko et al, 2012 p. 138) The body can lack the lactase enzyme to develop what is known as lactose intolerance. There are 4 types of lactose intolerance primary, secondary, neonatal and congenital....   [tags: health, monosaccharides]
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Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates and lipids/fats are a very important part of our lives. They have many similarities and differences among each other, which distinguish them from other macromolecules. Carbohydrates, which include sugar and their polymers, are used by organisms for fuel and building material. They come in many various forms going from simplicity to complexity. The simplest, monosaccharides, compose of single sugars whose parts are arranged around asymmetric carbons. They generally have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH2O....   [tags: essays research papers] 589 words
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Lipids and Carbohydrates - Lipids and Carbohydrates Lipids are a group of substances, which include fats, oils and waxes. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. They are stored in plants as starches and in animals as glycogen. There are many differences between carbohydrates and lipids. For example lipids are insoluble in water whereas carbohydrates are soluble in water. This is because lipids contain non - polar hydrocarbon units whereas water contains polar hydrocarbon units. So when the two are mixed together there is no attraction between particles so no breakdown is possible....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
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Polysaccharides - Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are polymers composed of multiple subunits of monosaccharides (simple sugars). They are formed by condensation reaction, in the same way as disaccharides are formed, the difference stands in the larger number of monomer units which they are composed from . The number of monosacchardies composing the chain is variable, and there are two types of chains that can be formed: branched or unbranched. The chains may be folded, thus making them compact and therefore ideal for storage....   [tags: Papers] 934 words
(2.7 pages)
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Staphylococcus aureas versus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureas - From Staphylococcus aureus to MRSA Abstract I investigated the difference between Staphylococcus aureas and its super bacteria form of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas. I used books, websites, and scholarly projects to understand the topic at a molecular level. After researching penicillin, Staphylococcus aureas, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas, I found that both the drug and the bacteria use enzymes as their defense and attack mechanism. Penicillin uses a ß-lactam ring as a substrate to clog the active site of transpeptidase, and in defense, the bacteria uses ß-lactamase to break down the ß-lactam ring....   [tags: Biology Bacteria Comparison Essays]
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Polyethylene - ... For the purpose of this analysis HDPE (high density polyethylene) and LDPE (low frequency) have been selected. Due to the marked difference between these two types of PE resins a range is believed to provide a good representation of the overall environmental impact of polyethylene (See Appendix, Table 1). HDPE is produced mainly is slurry and gas-phase polymerization processes, while LDPE is produced mainly on high-pressure polymerization processes (Siemens, 2007). Frischknecht and Suter (1996) performed a cradle to gate, life cycle inventory of high and low-density polyethylene....   [tags: Manufactutring Cycle, Environmental Impact]
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
(3.5 pages)
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Fiber optics - Fiber optics Thesis: Some of the important features of the fiber optics that we are interested are discussed below. Now a days we are using copper wires as they are the most cost effective and reliable interconnect in parallel machines. However as machines grow more powerful, wire density becomes critical making fiber possible alternatives because of their small wire size. Fiber optics are used mainly to use effectively its high bandwidth. On a single fiber lots of information/data can be transmitted concurrently and in parallel....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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bio notes - REVIEW UNIT 1-THE CELL LIFE *There is no def. for life *Life can be characterized by a list of things that we might agree living thing have in common-organized and contain complex chemical substances, Made up of one or more cells, Use Energy, Have a definite form& Limited size, Have a limited life Span, Grow, Respond to changes in the environment, Reproduce, Evolve over time.*Metabolism is all the chemical reaction occuring in the cell of an organism*All Living things must carry out processes to maitain life and homeostasis- Nutrition, Transport, Respiration, Synthesis and Assimilation, Growth, Excretion, Regulation, Reproduction, Metabolism.CHEMISTRY BASICS *Atoms of the elements are the basic unit of mattter and are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.*Atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and nuetrons in an atom.*The number of protons and electrons is the same as the atomic number.*Isotopes of an element differ in the number of nuetrons,*The outer most electrons of an atom are called valence electrons and are evolved in chemical bonding.*Covalent bonds between elements involve the sharing of a pair of electrons....   [tags: essays research papers] 916 words
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Organic Molecules Challenge - Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers] 2517 words
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Autoclave Processing - Autoclaves can be an essential part for the curing process of both thermoset and thermoplastic composites. An autoclave is defined in the aerospace industry as large pressure vessel that also has a heating ability and can be very large in order to accommodate parts that would need to be cured within it. The material used to make an autoclave would need to be able to withstand high pressures and temperatures that can be in high range of 300-400 °C and over 1 MPa. The purpose of the autoclave is to reach a high enough temperature to lower the viscosity of the resin and start the chemical curing reaction as well as reach a pressure to eliminate voids, remove excess resin, and press the plies of composite together....   [tags: Physics]
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2023 words
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Geosynthetics - Introduction Geosynthetics have been widely used in geotechnical and environmental engineering for the last 4 centuries ,these products helped in construction engineering field specially in the construction of conventional construction materials that were restricted or very expensive. The advances on the use of geosynthetics materials in reinforcement and in environmental protection: there are common types of geosynthetics used for soil reinforcement include geotextiles ,geogrids and geocells. Geotextiles are continous sheets of woven, nonwoven, knitted or stich-bonded fibers or yarns....   [tags: Environmental Engineering] 2378 words
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Immobilisation of Enzimes - Immobilization of enzymes is one of promising methods in enzymes performances enhancement, such as stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still the one of problems to prevent the reduction of enzymes activity. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES (PES-NH2) as novel materials for the immobilization were successfully synthesized. Structure of synthesized polymers were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF. The membranes based on PES and PES-NH2 with various pore sizes (from 10 to 600 nm) was fabricated to be applied as bioreactor to increase the immobilized lipase performances....   [tags: Chemistry]
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1437 words
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Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs - Benefits of Cloning vs. Antiquated Religious Beliefs     When one thinks of cloning, what comes to mind?  Movies such as "Multiplicity" can give the lay person a very distorted image of cloning.  In this particular movie, actor Michael Keaton plays a father who cannot handle his crazily busy lifestyle.  In an effort to be the perfect father, husband and employee, he has himself cloned fairly easily at a nearby medical center.  The three clones each have their own personality: one is sarcastic and bitter, one is sweet and sensitive and one is a half-wit- but all are identical.  This cloning process is completely false.  At this time, scientists have cloned animals including Rhesus monkeys, mice and probably the biggest breakthrough: sheep.  Cloning could mean hope for so many different diseases.  The advancement of cloning in a medical laboratory should be encouraged.  Cloning could save transplant candidates.  According to Larry Reibstein and Gregory Beals, companies such as Alexion Pharmaceutical are already beginning to experiment with ways to grow hearts and kidneys in pigs that will not be rejected in transplants (58).  Perhaps another reason to encourage cloning is for the treatment of spinal cord injuries.  Cloning could give hope to couples unable to have children of their own.  By advocating cloning, doctors may find a way to cure or even prevent genetic diseases.  Perhaps, though, the most important reason to advance cloning in the laboratory is to treat leukemia's and cancers.  Very possibly, through cloning and genetic engineering, the growth of poorly formed cells could be stopped immediately....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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2552 words
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The Origins of Life - The Origins of Life Before any speculation toward the origin of biotic forms, what was present at the formation of the earth that could result in inorganic, then organic, and later biotic creatures. Early atmospheric conditions have been theorized to be present due to planetesimal collisions releasing gases present in the Earth, after the initial atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium escaped Earth’s gravity assisted by heat energy. The earlier atmosphere is believed to have consisted mainly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen (bonded to other elements) in such forms as CO2/CO, N2, and H20....   [tags: Science Scientific Essays Research]
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Human Resource Mangement in Solvay - Human Resource Mangement in Solvay In the last decades, small national companies have grown in amazing scale all around the world. Companies that once were family owned have become huge multinational corporations. Corporations, which by the side of globalization, have expanded all around the world. International business has become one of the most important areas of business due to the need for companies to expand to markets outside their borders. Companies have had the need to adapt to another cultures and business systems....   [tags: Personnel Management]
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Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape - Investigating the Best Type of 19mm Sticky Tape For the major Science Investigation this year I have decided to test a very commonly used household and office tool. The sticky tape or pressure-sensitive tape. In this specific investigation the different types of sticky tape being tested and investigated are all 18-19mm in length. There is the Scotch 600 clear and transparent tape which is expensive, then an 18mm wide, black electrical tape. A yellowish coloured masking tape, a brown cellophane tape which is 19mm wide and then cheap Officeworks sticky tape which was only 78c which 18mm wide....   [tags: Papers] 1649 words
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Evolution and Charles Darwin - Evolution and Charles Darwin In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, which proposed the theory of evolution. This book, along with others that followed, began the long debated dispute between evolutionist and creationist. Were we created by a supernatural Supreme Being, or did our creation occur purely by chance. First, lets look at the two conflicting theories. Common usage of the term “evolution” is that living things in our world have come into existence through unguided naturalistic processes beginning from a primeval mass of subatomic particles and radiation, over 20 billion years ago....   [tags: Papers] 1317 words
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Kevlar Aramid Fiber - STRUCTURE Kevlar Aramid Fiber is a synthetic (man-made) material known as a Polymer. A polymer is a chain that is made up of many similar molecular groups, better known as ‘monomers’ that are bonded together. ‘Monomers’ are made up of fourteen Carbon atoms, two Nitrogen atoms, two Oxygen atoms and ten Hydrogen atoms. A single Kevlar polymer chain could possibly have anywhere from one to five million monomers bonded together. A group of polymer chains can be organised together in a fiber. How the polymer chains are put together is important, as it improves the properties of the material....   [tags: essays research papers] 736 words
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Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Solids, liquids, and gases are the three main, or fundamental phases of matter. Each one has a different density and a different level of stability. What determines the stability of each phase is the bond between it's atoms. The tighter the bond between it's atoms the more stable that phase of matter is. Solids are the most stable form of matter, followed by liquids, and then gases. Solids have a definite shape and do not take the shape of their container. Liquids do not have any definite shape and do take the shape of their container, the same is true with gases....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modified concrete, superplasticizers, silica-fume admixture for high-strength concrete, corrosion inhibitors, etc)....   [tags: Construction] 1659 words
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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate - Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis] 1046 words
(3 pages)
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Summary of Riordan Manufacturing - Summary of Riordan Manufacturing Riordan Manufacturing Inc. is in the field of plastic injection molding. A leader in plastics designs in many different areas, with state of the art capabilities in developing innovative products for their customers. The company was founded by Dr. Riordan, a professor of chemistry, working with processing polymers into high strength plastic articles. Dr. Riordan obtained patents and licensing to start manufacturing plastic fans in the plant at Pontiac, Michigan in 1992....   [tags: Business Analysis]
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A Study of the Impact of Human Encroachment on Coastal Microbial Concentrations - Introduction: The intent of the study was to analyze the impact of human encroachment on concentrations of the bacterium known as enteroccocus in coastal waters. In order to evaluate impact of human encroachment, the research question, to what extent does the level of human activity and development in proximity to a saltwater source affect the levels of the bacterium enteroccocus present, was posed. This study is was undertaken because the United States recently changed the federal standard of water quality at state beaches from fecal coliform to enterococcus....   [tags: Ecology]
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Plastics - A. Extraction Plastics encompass most disposable items that American use daily, such as plastic water bottles, food containers, and trash bags. Plastics are cheap, lightweight, strong, tough, and corrosion resistant and have high thermal and electrical insulation properties (Thompson et al, 2009). 3-4% of world oil and gas usage is used to manufacture plastics and 4% is used as a component of plastics. Plastics are mostly derived from petrochemicals produced from fossil oil and gas (Thompson et al, 2009)....   [tags: Environment, Waste, Trash Bags] 917 words
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The Structure of Proteins - The Structure of Proteins Introduction Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61)....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Synthetic and Natural Rubber - Synthetic and Natural Rubber Abstract Rubber is an important resource with a wide variety of applications. It can be obtained naturally from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. It can also be synthesized from petroleum and natural gas. Both natural and synthetic rubbers have their own advantages and disadvantages. Natural rubber is made up the linear chain polymer, cis-l,4-polyisoprene. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is the most common synthetic rubber. It is a random copolymer of styrene and butadiene and has good physical properties once it has been strengthened through vulcanization....   [tags: Comparison Material Rubber]
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The Industrial Application of Enzymes - The Industrial Application of Enzymes Enzymes are naturally occurring biological molecules found in all living organisms, plant, animal and microorganisms such as bacteria. All enzymes are proteins and, as with all proteins, are made up of a chain or polymer of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. This chain coils to form a specific three-dimensional globular shape, which, typically, means an enzyme will only work with one specific substrate. The purpose of an enzyme is to lower the activation energy required for biochemical reactions to take place....   [tags: Papers] 1386 words
(4 pages)
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Disposing Large Amounts of Waste - In present-day society,plastic packing are pervasive around the street ,causing a lot of problems . A study from Department of Enviroment,Food and Rural Affairs Annual Report(2008) shown that the amount of packaging waste reached approximately 10.7 million tonnes in the UK ,which has been deal with. It is obvious that the problems of waste are serious. In this essay I will analysis some problems caused by this phenomenon ,then propose some solutions and criticized them as well . Some problems come out due to people produce a large amounts of waste....   [tags: waste, recycling, ] 1086 words
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Thermophilic Fungi - Thermophilic fungi are known to produce thermostable enzymes which have a number of applications, mainly in biotechnological processes. In this work, we report the characterization of a protease produced in state-solid (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentations by a newly isolated thermophilic fungus identified as a putative new species in the genus My-celiophthora. Enzyme-production rate was evaluated for both fermentation processes, and in SSF, using a media composed by a mixture of wheat bran and casein, the proteolytic output was 4.5-fold larger than that obtained in SmF....   [tags: biology, science, experiments,] 1881 words
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Safe and Effective Pharmaceuticals - 8. Quality, safety and efficacy of drugs Safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals are two fundamental issues of importance in drug therapy. The safety of a drug is determined by its pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the adverse effects caused by the impurities in bulk and dosage forms. The impurities in drugs often possess unwanted pharmacological or toxicological effects by which any benefit from their administration may be outweighed (Nageswara at el., 2003). Therefore, it is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption must be characterized as completely as possible....   [tags: Safety, Pharmaceuticals, drugs, Safe and Effective] 956 words
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Sickle Cell Disease - 1.1. Background on Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is a disease that is most prevalent in people of African descent along with people of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern origin. This disease is known to affect about 70, 000 Americans and about 2 million people carry the trait (meaning that, they carry a single gene mutation). Sickle Cell Disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs due to a mutation in the β-globin gene of hemoglobin. Autosomal meaning that it is not linked to a sex chromosome, so either parent can pass on the gene to their child....   [tags: Disease] 894 words
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The Great Pacific Garbage Patch - While a beautiful sunset on the beach can be astounding, a spectacular scene is not the only benefit oceans provide. Without the oceans, we would not have adequate amounts of oxygen to breathe or enough protein to eat. The Earth's climate would not be inhabitable for human beings and many animals. The oceans supply medicines, food and drinking water which arise from ocean processes. Out of the five oceans, the Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest and deepest ocean. It spreads over an area of 165.2 million square kilometers....   [tags: Environment, Ocean, Plastic Pollution]
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Publix Phase II - Publix Phase II There are things that all companies have to take into consideration. Publix has worked hard in order to make sure that they are offering the best quality food to their customers and the best customer service. In Phase II the team research will indicate some minor things that Publix can consider. The following points will be discussed are: Activities, products, or services that Publix could engage in that may have potentially negative effects on the environment, it’s also going to be described how these products or services....   [tags: Business Analysis]
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Environmental Problems Created by Plastic Bags - A plastic shopping bag, the most known used product discovered by man. Data released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency shows that somewhere between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year (National Geographic News, 2006). As the number of usage increases, the rate of plastic pollution grows eventually to be an immeasurable environmental obstacle that is difficult to control. This essay will unfold the case of plastic bags to identify the outcomes and impacts that are caused, and justify clarifications to this dilemma....   [tags: Environment ]
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Sickle Cell Anemia - Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobin defect that occurs in people of African and Mediterranean decent. “First identified in 1904 by a hospital intern, sickle cell disease became, more than forty years later, the first disease found to be a genetic disease” (Harris 83). This disorder is caused by a recessive allele that changes the structure of hemoglobin. Sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) differs from normal hemoglobin (HbA) in that of all the 574 amino acids it is made of, just one is different....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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Artificial Intelligence - The three necessary things of every substance are the type of atoms that created it, the method the atoms are positioned, and the method that the atoms are fused to each other (Trefil, J., & Hazen, R. 2010). The atom is the fundamental structure of chemistry; atoms are comprised of the three essential elements, protons, neutrons, and electrons (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Protons transmit a positive charge and neutrons do not transmit any charge, while electrons transmit a negative charge (Encyclopedia Britannica....   [tags: Intelligence]
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What is Bio-fuel? - What is Bio-fuel. Bio-fuels are fuels derived from sustainable and renewable biological sources (ABC’s). These sources, commonly referred to as Biomass, usually consists of either food crops (corn, sugar cane, wheat, and potato’s), various biological oils (peanut, sunflower, algae, and soy oil), or biological waste (waste vegetable oil, wood-chips, corn leaves and stalks, and yard waste) (Biofuels)(Biomass). Bio-fuels are often touted as a viable carbon-neutral replacement for carbon based fossil fuels....   [tags: Energy ]
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Fungi and apoptosis - Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and according to the WHO it accounted for approximately 7.6 million deaths in 2008 (WHO, 2011). The most prevalent forms of cancer present in the United States are breast and prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2011). Over the past decade anticancer drugs and cancer treatment have made inadequate progress. However today, there is a greater understanding of the molecular basis behind the formations of tumorigenesis. This knowledge combined with the molecular diversity of natural compounds such as those found in mushrooms have paved the way for the discovery of new drugs....   [tags: Medical Research]
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