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Mitosis - Mitosis July 21, 2005 Summary In the lab exercise related to Mitosis, we view various slides containing cells undergoing Mitosis. We viewed 2 different specimens; a slide of an onion root tip and a slide of Ascaris eggs. Some of the cells are at different phases of Mitosis (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase). We viewed it under HPO and LPO. Chromosomes were visible in both the LPO and the HPO although the spindle fibers were not very visible because of limitations in the light microscope....   [tags: Biology] 1116 words
(3.2 pages)
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Mitosis and Meiosis - Cell division may happen by either mitosis or meiosis, depending on what type of cell is invovled. Mitosis is a process by which a cell divides to form two daughter cells. They each have the same exact number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell. Meiosis occurs in the primary sex cells leading to the formation of viable egg and sperm cells. They reduce the number of chromosomes to half in each gamete so that when they are getting furtilized, the species chromosome number is kept even. Mitosis happens in the reproduction of unicellular organisms and in the addition of cells to a tissue or organ in a multicellular organism....   [tags: essays research papers] 930 words
(2.7 pages)
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Observing Mitosis - Observing Mitosis Mitosis is the process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes. In This experiment I will observe these four stages as they occur in garlic roots. Safety 1 M Hydrochloric acid is only an irritant but eye protection may be worn when heating it. Orcein Ethanoic stain is corrosive, irritant, causes burns, has an irritating vapour and stains....   [tags: Biology] 705 words
(2 pages)
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Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis - Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis with reference to i. Chromosomesii. Biological significance i. Chromosomes ii. Biological significance Modern cell theory states that all cells are derived from other cells. This means cells must have a way of copying themselves. This is cell division; two types of cell division are Meiosis and Mitosis. The comparison will be between Meiosis 1 and Mitosis, because Meiosis 2 is much the same as Mitosis. Dividing cells have a regular pattern of events, known as the cell cycle....   [tags: Biology] 1215 words
(3.5 pages)
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Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis - Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis and mitosis describes the process by which cells divide, either by asexual or sexual reproduction to produce a new organism. Meiosis is a form of cell division that produces gametes in humans these are egg cells and sperms, each with reduced or halved number of chromosomes. The number of chromosomes is restored when two gametes fuse together to form a zygote. A cell with two copies of each chromosome is called diploid cell and a cell with one copy of each chromosome is called a haploid cell....   [tags: Biology] 493 words
(1.4 pages)
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Meiosis Vs. Mitosis - More than one celled organisms grow by way of mitosis and the cytoplasmic division of body cells. On the other hand, meiosis occurs only in germ cells, which are put aside for the formation of gametes (sperm and egg). Reproduction by meiosis allows for species survival and it increases genetic variability. The process, during which the germ cells are generated is called meiosis. It represents nature's solution to the problem of chromosome doubling that would occur, if two diploid cells, i.e....   [tags: essays research papers] 1549 words
(4.4 pages)
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The Link Between Cancer and Mitosis - The Link Between Cancer and Mitosis Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed countries, accounting for around one in four deaths. In Britain it caused about 25% of the deaths h in 1991 and is the most common cause of death following cardiovascular disease. There are, in fact, over 200 different forms of cancer, which is why it is not necessarily thought of as a single disease. For example, breast cancer is the most common form in women and lung cancer in men....   [tags: Papers] 562 words
(1.6 pages)
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Altering the Stages of Mitosis of a Broad Bean - Altering the Stages of Mitosis of a Broad Bean The demonstration of the main stages of mitosis altered by the growth of broad bean seedlings in varied concentrations. Method There are two stages to the preliminary experiment to this experiment. The first stage is the preparation of the roots used in the second part of the experiment. First stage: * 5 broad bean seedlings – roots intact (soaked and allowed to germinate for 7 days between damp cotton wool) * 5 test tubes * 5 varying concentrations of nutrients and phosphates * A test tube rack * Cotton wool [IMAGE]Arrange like so: Arrange the 5 test tubes in a test tube rack and leave for 24 hours: [IMAGE] Stage 2: * [IMAGE]5 prepared broad bean seedlings * 10cm3 of 50:50 concentrated hydrochloric acid and absolute alcohol * 10cm3 of 45% glacial acetic * 100cm3 of 70% alcohol * Acetic orcein in a dropping bottle * Microscope with a light source * Stop clock * Scissors * Watch glasses with glass covers * Forceps * Mounted needle * Teat pipette * Scalpel * Beaker * Glass rod * Microscope slides * Cover slips * Labels * Lens tissue * Filter paper 1....   [tags: Papers] 384 words
(1.1 pages)
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Review of Research Paper on the Interphase of Mitosis - Introduction The eukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis, is a succession of events that occur for the reproduction and growth of these multi-cellular organisms. Characteristic events in mitosis can divide the cell cycle into different stages, or phases. This paper focuses on the interphase of cell cycle, which is when DNA replication occurs, and the cell is engaged in metabolic activities to prepare itself for cell division. The idea that these two processes are related arises much controversy in what their relation is exactly....   [tags: Biology Eukaryotic Cell Cycle]
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Mitosis and Meiosis: Two Different Forms of Reproduction - ... The chromosomes are tightly condensed and align at the metaphase plate. The third phase is called anaphase. The spindle fibers connect the sister chromatids apart and bring them towards opposite poles. The final phase is called Telophase. The chromosomes clump into chromatin and a nuclear membrane form. This occurs at the cell plate in plants and at the cleave furrow in animals. Meiosis is the most used form of reproduction in species consisting of two divisions producing gametes. Meiosis I and Meiosis II are the two divisions that each contain four cell phases....   [tags: biology, microbiology]
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cells - The life Process of a cell In my report you will learn about the life process of a cell based on the two main functions, metabolism and mitosis. You will learn about the four stages of metabolism: ingestion, digestion, respiration, and excretion, and how the cell completes them. You also will acquire information about the four stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and how the cell completes them. Mitosis is the process in which cells reproduce. These two processes are interdependent on each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
(1.7 pages)
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Cellular Reproduction - Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This has to happen because if a species were not able to reproduce, that species would quickly become extinct. Reproduction consists of a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring. The reproductive process, whether asexual or sexual always involves an exchange in hereditary material from the parents so that the new organism may also be able to reproduce....   [tags: science] 509 words
(1.5 pages)
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Cell Division & Cell Cycle Study Guide - CELL DIVISION Cell division involves 2 phases: 1- MITOSIS The process by which nuclear material is divided 2 identical daughter cells result 2- CYTOKINESIS the process by which the cytoplasm and its contents (organelles) separate into equal parts. cytokinesis begins before mitosis is complete cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells ANIMAL CELLS the cell membrane pinches near the middle of the cell, dividing the cytoplasm into equal parts(2 new cells) PLANT CELLS a cell plate develops across the centre of the cell, creating a new cell wall between the 2 new cells Cells alternate between stages (phases) of dividing and not dividing....   [tags: essays research papers] 428 words
(1.2 pages)
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Cellular Reproduction - Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This is essential in that if a species were not able to reproduce, that species would quickly become extinct. Always, reproduction consists of a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring. (Encarta, 2) In almost all animal organisms, reproduction occurs during or after the period of maximum growth....   [tags: Biology]
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Nuclear Division - Cells are able to grow and reproduce. Cells reproduce by splitting and passing on their genes (hereditary information) to Daughter cells. The nucleus always divides before the rest of the cell divides. Therefore each daughter cell contains their own nucleus. The nucleus controls the cells activities through the genetic material DNA. The cells in a body are all the same except the gametes they were all made from one cell, the Zygote. This is the cell that was formed when two gametes from your parents fused....   [tags: Biology] 911 words
(2.6 pages)
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Love Poem - Hi, Joe Bob’s here. I’m pretty sure I last left you in the study of mitosis. Mitosis is very similar to our study today, Meiosis. Now, In Meiosis there is only one more phase for each stage of Meiosis, then Mitosis. Let’s see where I’m heading first in my Magical Meiosis journey. Let Maryann tell you about the back round of Meiosis. “Well, Joe Bob. As you and me both know, Meiosis is used for producing Gametes and sex cells. Gametes are basically sex cells; egg cells are gametes, and sperm cells as well, when they meet up, there is fertilization happening....   [tags: essays research papers] 1161 words
(3.3 pages)
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Biology Cell Parts - Nucleus- “the brain” or control center of the cell. The Nucleus, a membrane-bound structure of a cell, plays two crucial roles in controlling the cell. The nucleus carries the cell's genetic information that determines if the organism will develop, for instance, into a tree or a human; and it directs most cell activities including growth, metabolism, and reproduction by controlling protein synthesis. The presence of a nucleus distinguishes the more complex eukaryotic cells of plants and animals from the simpler prokaryotic cells of bacteria and cyanobacteria that lack a nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 2776 words
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Bryophyte And Pteropyte Life Cycles - Although Bryophytes and Pterophytes are both plant divisions with a common ancestor, they have little in common. While Bryophytes (mosses) are generally nonvascular and very short in height, Pterophytes (ferns) are vascular plants that usually grow much taller than mosses. While the dominant generation in mosses is the gametophyte, ferns exhibit the sporophyte generation. The details of their alternations of generation vary as well, although both have diploid and haploid stages. Alteration of generations is defined as a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte....   [tags: essays research papers] 834 words
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction - The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction In order to avoid extinction species must reproduce and pass their genes on to the next generation, thus ensuring the survival of the population. For reproduction to occur cell division is necessary and this can be divided into two categories according to the behaviour of the chromosomes, they are known as mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is when the daughter cells finish up containing exactly the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, typically two of each type, known as the diploid state....   [tags: Papers] 1021 words
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Death of a Tumor - Cell Background Animal cells are eukaryotic and have a very complex structure. A eukaryotic cell is composed of many membrane-enclosed organelles. Organelles are compartments that perform different functions inside the cell. An organelle called the nucleus contains the genetic material, or DNA, and is the most vital organelle of the cell because it is responsible for carrying the genes that make up the body. A cell's membrane is composed of two layers that regulate the flow of materials in and out of the cell....   [tags: Biology Cancer] 2081 words
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Cell Cycles and Proliferation - Cell cycle is a complex mechanism that governs the cell growth and proliferation. Cell proliferation contributes to the continuity of life by producing cells, replenishing cells which undergone to cellular differentiation to acquired specialized phenotypes (function and morphology) to carry out living mechanism and towards the end-point-cell-death. Cell proliferation is determined by both extracellular signals such as cytokines and mitogen, and intrinsic cellular factors. Interactions of extracellular signals with intrinsic cellular factors trigger the biochemical events of cell proliferation....   [tags: Cell cycles, biology, ] 574 words
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Cancer - Cancer Fewer than ten percent of most cancers are thought to be due to strong hereditary factors. Many physicians believe that prevention is the best way to effectively tackle cancer. One of those factors in prevention is the individual knowing their family history so that they can develop an awareness of their families' cancer lineage. Other factors are a balanced diet, not smoking, moderate alcohol consumption and exercise. Strong hereditary factors that increase cancer risk are more likely to be found in families that have: • Individuals diagnosed with cancer at a younger than expected age (for example, breast cancer in the 40's or prostate cancer in the 50's) • Three or more cancers on once side of the family • Three or more generations affected with cancer • Individuals diagnosed with two or more cancers (but not a metastasis or spread from a cancer to another part of the body)....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
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An Analysis on the Future Cloning - An Analysis on the Future Cloning Cloning has been going on in the natural world for thousands of years. A clone is simply one living thing made from another, leading to two organisms with the same set of genes. In that sense, identical twins are clones, because they have identical DNA. Sometimes, plants are self-pollinated, producing seeds and eventually more plants with the same genetic code. Techniques have improved rapidly, making it possible to clone cattle, sheep and other farm animals....   [tags: Papers] 1048 words
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Variation and Survival - Variation and Survival ·Petals: collectively form the corolla, and are often coloured and scented. They attract insects that visit the flowers and collect nectar and pollen, pollinating the flowers as they do so. Small grooves or darker lines in the petals called ‘nectar guides’ are thought to direct the insect to the nectarines within the flower. ·Sepals: collectively called the calyx. They are usually green, but sometimes they are the same colour as the petals. They enclose and protect the rest of the flower while it is in bud....   [tags: Papers] 2829 words
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Elucidating the role of adhesion factors in circulating tumor cell clustering for breast cancer metastasis and venous thromboembolism - ... Thus the study of the proteins involved in the initial event of microtubule nucleation and the steps immediately following nucleation and how their interactions deviate from normal cellular activity could reveal crucial molecular biomarkers to treat metastatic breast cancer. B. Rationale: We seek to study the process of microtubule nucleation in various breast tumor cell lines of diverse metastatic potential and understand the role of abnormal microtubule nucleation in breast cancer metastasis....   [tags: Health] 736 words
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Cell Theory - Historical Development – Cell Theory 1. Robert Hooke – In 1662, he observed tiny compartments in the cork of a mature tree and gave them the Latin name cellulae (meaning small rooms). This was the origin of the biological term cell. 2. Anton Von Leeuwenhoek - By the late 1600s, he had observed diverse protistans, sperm, even a bacterium – an organism so small it would not be seen again for another two centuries. 3. R.J.H. Dutrochet – French botanist who prepared plant cells and studied them between 1824 and 1830....   [tags: essays research papers] 481 words
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Chromosome replication - Precise chromosomal DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle is a crucial factor in the proper maintenance of the genome from generation to generation. The current “once-per-cell-cycle” model of eukaryotic chromosome duplication describes a highly coordinated process by which temporally regulated replicon clusters are sequentially activated and subsequently united to form two semi-conserved copies of the genome. Replicon clusters, or replication domains, are comprised of individual replication units that are synchronously activated at predetermined points during S phase....   [tags: essays research papers] 525 words
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A Comparison of Women and Men's Production and Release of Gametes - A Comparison of Women and Men's Production and Release of Gametes 0. Introduction We often accept the idea sexuality without questioning the way in which it is defined. In mammals, we often tend to (incorrectly) relate being male or female to certain characteristics such as the possession of a penis, special milk glands or bearing of the young. In general however, the feature used to determine whether an organism is male or female is universally determined by the type and number of gametes the organism produces....   [tags: Papers] 575 words
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Methods and Effects of Prenatal Genetic Testing - Methods and Effects of Prenatal Genetic Testing I. Introduction Prenatal genetic testing has become one of the largest and most influencial advances in clinical genetics today. "Of the over 4000 genetic traits which have been distinguished to date, more than 300 are identifiable via prenatal genetic testing" (Morris, 1993). Every year, thousands of couples are subjecting their lives to the results of prenatal tests. For some, the information may be a sigh of relief, for others a tear of terror....   [tags: Science Biology Research Papers]
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Phases - Phases Phases Reality is a difficult term to comprehend. The meaning itself is quite simple: What is real. The idea of reality is significantly more complex: What makes something real. This is the sort of question that depends greatly on the individuals interpretation of the reality that surrounds them. In the novel Blood Music, Greg Bear shares his thoughts on how people within a rapidly changing reality are affected. Bear explores several theories that help answer questions like: What if reality as we know it could be altered....   [tags: Real Reality Philosophy Philosophical Essays]
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Gene Therapy and Cancer - Gene Therapy and Cancer In 1997, an estimated 1.38 million Americans will be newly diagnosed with cancer (Blaese, 1997). The treatments available only cure half of them. Many new strategies, including gene therapy are in developmental stages for treating cancer. Nearly half of all gene therapy trials currently under way deal with cancer and experts believe a number of these applications will be in use within the next three to five years (Lyon, 1997). Cancer is considered a genetic disorder. Studies have identified a small number of genes that must be mutated to bring about development of cancer or maintain the growth of malignant cells (Klug, 1996)....   [tags: Genetics Science Technology Medical Essays]
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Symbols of Military Identity - Symbols of Military Identity George Carlin had a routine that investigated the importance of having "your stuff" when you travel. He meant those items that are signs of your identity at times when you are adrift in the world-- the nonutilitarian things that you carry in your pockets and bags and suitcases that make you feel "yourself" in strange surroundings. These things are so essential to helping us remember who we are that this phenomenon can be exploited by the substitution of "stuff" which defines us as members of a group....   [tags: Symbols Symbolism Military Essays] 1156 words
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Biology - RED 1. Chloroplasts are small containers, which hold chlorophyll. 2. Endosymbiosis is the hypothesis which states that mitochondria started as bacteria absorbed by single celled organisms. 3. The cell theory is a theory that tells of information known about cells. 4. When reproducing, to create offspring you must pass on your own DNA. 5. Gamete is the reproductive cell, which contains half the chromosomes to create life. 6. Cytokenesis is the process of cell division, which splits the cytoplasm....   [tags: essays research papers] 663 words
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Cell Organelles - The studies of Robert Hooke 1665 into a plant material would allow the determination of a pore like regular structure surrounded by a wall of which he called ‘cells’ this in itself unbeknownst to him, was the discovery of the fundamental unit of all living things. In 1838 a botanist called Schleiden derived the theory ‘The basic unit of structure and function of all living organisms is the cell.’ Over 150 years later this can be regarded as one of the most familiar and important facts within the biological fields....   [tags: essays research papers] 1709 words
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Diverrsity Of Plants - Diverrsity of Plants Plants evolved more than 430 million years ago from multicellular green algae. By 300 million years ago, trees had evolved and formed forests, within which the diversification of vertebrates, insects, and fungi occurred. Roughly 266,000 species of plants are now living. The two major groups of plants are the bryophytes and the vascular plants; the latter group consists of nine divisions that have living members. Bryophytes and ferns require free water so that sperm can swim between the male and female sex organs; most other plants do not....   [tags: essays research papers] 2874 words
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Early Child Development - Early Child Development There are many key factors that play up to the role of early child development, starting from before the child is nonexistent, until the child is a full grown baby. Bodily Processes of Reproduction There are numerous hormones in the human body that play key factors in allowing a human being to reproduce successfully. Spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis is the 65 to 75 day process in which the human male anatomy produces sperm cells. In the male body, follicle-stimulating hormones, or FSH, and leutinizing hormones, or LH, are very important in the process of spermatogenesis....   [tags: Child Development Psychology Sociology Essays]
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Malaria Life Cycle - Page 1 of 6 Life Cycle of Malaria Page 2 of 6 Malaria is an ancient disease transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that predates recorded history. Historically it was common in the swampy areas around Rome, and was believed that the tainted air in those locations made people very sick, the disease was therefore named malaria for the Latin root words bad air. Malaria is caused by small parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium which infects both humans and mosquitoes in a cyclical process....   [tags: essays research papers] 1484 words
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Progeria Report - Genetics determine the traits an individual will inherit from their parents. In society today, the role of genetics is crucial; they decide ones physical appearance as well as their personality. However, if there is a mutation located in one of the genes that a child receives it is very likely a deformity will be present. A rare yet fatal defect from a gene mutation such as this is Progeria. This disorder is an unfortunate one that may occur in two forms, either Hutchison-Gilford Progeria or Werner syndrome....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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text comparison - I chose to compare the Martini chapter, which I will refer to as “Martini,” to “Human Anatomy” by Kent Van De Graaff, which I will refer to as “Graaff.” The chapter being compared in both texts is the reproductive system. Graaff decided to separate the male and female reproductive systems into two chapters, which didn’t help or hurt the content. Both texts provided very good information, and both had their good and not so good aspects. The opening pages of both texts look very similar and provide a lot of the same material....   [tags: essays research papers] 897 words
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The Science Project - Product Assortment The Science Project’s goal is to provide consumers with all the science related products they want. The goal is to not only provide consumers with what they know they want, but also with what they don’t realize they want. Based on this, our product assortment has to include items that will get consumers into the store and products that consumers will buy impulsively when they see them in the store. It is with this strategy in mind, that has caused the development of four broad product categories 1) science projects 2) science equipment 3) science books and DVD’s 4) science novelty items....   [tags: essays research papers] 1796 words
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Graduation Speech - Good evening, everyone. Now is the time for me to come in front of these 400 students in identical caps and gowns and tell them to go out and be individuals. Looks like I have my work cut out for me. Seriously, though, consider what we've gone through. 13 years of schooling, 18 years of growing up. And reflecting back on these years, what do we have to show for it. We have our memories. Some of you may know the old saying, "Knowledge is not what the pupil remembers but what he cannot forget." What will remain in our minds after tonight....   [tags: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address] 1087 words
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Prokaryotic Cells - Prokaryotic Cells All living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest units that can be alive. Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells, and do not have a nucleus....   [tags: Papers] 794 words
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Investigating Pleurococcus - Investigating Pleurococcus Plan Pleurococcus is a green, single-celled algae that is found on the bark of trees, where it survives better on the north side of the tree and near the ground. It can also be found on stones and fences and usually in moist situations. As it is a green plant, as all green plants do - it photosynthesises. The chemical reaction that is taking place is: [IMAGE] Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen light [IMAGE] Chlorophyll [IMAGE]6CO2 + 6H2O C6H1206 + 6O2 [IMAGE] Variables that affect Pleurococcus: Ø Light: is required for photosynthesis Ø Moisture/humidity: if it is too dry, the Pleurococcus will become too dry and die out, as they are green plants and require humidity/moisture to survive....   [tags: Papers] 1188 words
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Down Syndrome - Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 is caused, as the name suggests, by the triplication of the 21st chromosome. Genes which, simplified, contain the blueprints for our cellular structure, are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes. Normally, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each parent. In Down syndrome (DS), however, the cells usually contain not 46, but 47 chromosomes. This excess genetic material, in the form of additional genes along the 21st chromosome, results in DS....   [tags: Papers] 3121 words
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The Main Theories of How the Process of Aging Works - The Main Theories of How the Process of Aging Works This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming “worn out.” Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals....   [tags: Papers] 2611 words
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Should We Clone - Should We Clone Cloning is a scientific process that has miraculous potential to better humans and other species alike: however, the resounding negative repercussions far outweigh these potential benefits. Cloning is biologically defined as the construction of a special chromosome by somatic cell fusion, cytogenetic manipulation, or organelle introduction into cells by means of genetic microsurgery. (Funk & Wagnall¹s, 1) This process has been completed successfully although the accuracy, precision, and consistency are lacking....   [tags: Papers] 908 words
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Gene-Directed Programmed Cell Death - Gene-Directed Programmed Cell Death Programmed cell death, including apoptosis, is gene-directed. "The word comes from two Greek words, apo- and ptosis-, and the p is silent," declares Jonathan C. Busser, a researcher in the department of neurology and neurosurgery at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. "Apo" means "separate from" and "ptosis" means "fall from"--a description of cells that naturally, and without any inflammatory fanfare, die as part of normal development, he explains....   [tags: Papers] 1262 words
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Genetic Variation - Genetic Variation Species refers to a population of organisms which are potentially capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. Variation can be shown within a species. Variation is the difference between individuals within a species. Variation can be caused by genetic factors, environmental factors or a combination of both. Environmental factors which affect variation include nutrition, climate and pollution. Organisms that reproduce sexually display genetic variation....   [tags: Papers] 627 words
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The Differences and Similarities of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells - The Differences and Similarities of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Introduction Cells are the basic building blocks of life. Cells across all types of organisms can be fundamentally categorised into being either Euraryotic or Prokaryotic cells. Any organism usually only contains type of the given cells but not both. Prokaryotic are very simple cells that have existed since the dawn of life and are generally smaller than the more complex Eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are made up of one or more prokaryotic cells....   [tags: Papers] 831 words
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Social Darwinism in Cyberpunk - Social Darwinism in Cyberpunk In the 1870s, the English sociologist Herbert Spencer applied Charles Darwin's theories of biological evolution to human behavior and institutions. Spencer used the idea of survival of the fittest in biology and theorized human society had evolved the same way (Cooper 15). Social Darwinism, as Spencer's theory is called, pits everyone against each other to survive in the world where humans are soldiers in a war for survival. If a person is poor, it is their fault and no one should help that person rise above the poverty status....   [tags: Science Fiction Literature Essays Papers]
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Both Sides of Stem Cell Research - Stem Cell Research Paper Stem cell research has been quite a controversial topic since its origin in the 1960s by Gopal Das and Joseph Altman. Of course, anything that uses a human embryo would be. Stem cell research could open a vast number of new doors for modern science, it could let us test new drugs, one of which could be the unfound cure for AIDS or Alzheimer’s disease. However, this branch of science comes at a high price, the price of a human life that is only five to six days old (NIH)....   [tags: essays research papers] 903 words
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Response to Article about the Capsaicin Receptor - The Summary of "The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway" Capsaicin is a natural product of capsicum peppers, that is an active ingredient in many hot foods. When nociceptors- neurons that transmit information regarding tissue damage to pain-processing centers in the spinal cord and brain- come in contact with capsaicin, the neuron gets excited, and there is a perception of pain, and the a local release of inflammatory mediators. These nociceptors get excited by increasing permeability of plasma membrane to cations, but the molecular mechanism explaining this phenomenon is unclear....   [tags: Biology Capsicum Pepper] 2123 words
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A Cure for Cancer - For years people have been looking for a cure for the devastating disease of cancer. Cancer is the third highest killer in the US with over 2,500,000 victims per year. Oncologists and scientists around the country are researching all forms of cancer in an effort to understand, treat, and ultimately defeat this disease. Already there have been numerous advances in the field, such as chemotherapy and gene therapy. One advance has been the use of a cell process known as apoptosis. By harnessing this normal cell process, scientists hope to have found an effective way to combat cancer....   [tags: Biology Apoptosis] 3015 words
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The Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy - What is Gene Therapy and what is it used for. Gene therapy (otherwise known as somatic gene therapy or therapeutic gene therapy) is a process that is used to correct defective genes responsible for development of various diseases. (www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BA/Gene_Therapy_Overview.php) There are two main types of gene therapy; somatic (body) cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy. As it suggests, somatic gene therapy is correcting the faulty genes of normal body cells. Germ line therapy is altering genes in gametes....   [tags: Medical, Genetics, Medicine, DNA] 2363 words
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Acute Inflammation of a Wound - ACUTE INFLAMMATION OF A WOUND In this essay in order to get the full benefit of understanding the physiology of acute (meaning sudden onset) inflammation of a wound the author will establish the normal tissue layers of the skin when no injury has occurred through to altered physiology when injury has occurred. Through this process the reader will be able to identify the different stages involved. A wound is associated with an injury to tissue or body structure both internal and external (Martin E.A, 2002)....   [tags: Medicine] 1194 words
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The Science of Lung Cancer and its Treatment - 12,800 males and 10,700 females are diagnosed with lung cancer each year.(CancerCa)The lungs are vital organs in our body which are located in the chest. Lungs bring oxygen into our body and release carbon dioxide.( oncologychannelCom) The lungs are respiratory organs that are important because they take in fresh oxygen to your blood which is then carried to your cells. Cancer occurs when mitosis goes “wild”. This means that cell division keeps dividing uncontrollably. This happens because some of the genes in the cell have been damaged or lost....   [tags: Lung Cancer, diseases, medical, ] 1007 words
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Knowing - ... For our purposes, we must believe this data is useful and meaningful so that we can build a structure of knowledge upon it. Belief is our state of mind in which we believe, or trust in, certain statements, people, and things are true, and is often based on an examination of evidence to support these beliefs (Webster). Without this trust or confidence we place upon this data, we would have no information to create a system of knowledge from. Belief dictates what we accept the universe to be, though it is continuously evolving due to the variety and accuracy of the data and expression of this data....   [tags: Epistemology] 1379 words
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Parkinson’s Disease - ... The reverse rescue, over expression of PINK1 to PARKIN mutants, did not show any improvement in the mutant phenotype and is suggestive that PINK1 is upstream from PARKIN (Dodson and Guo 2007). The Guo lab has also shown that the expression of human PINK1 in Drosophila PINK1 mutants restored mitochondrial defects and fertility; suggesting studies into PINK1 may be relevant to humans. The Guo lab also demonstrated that a downstream effect of the PINK1/PARKIN pathway involves regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in the promotion of mitochondrial fission and/or inhibition of fusion....   [tags: Disease]
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Generation and Characterization of Mouse Aneuploid Cells - ... p19Arf and Nf1) of gene expression. These experiments will help to define the events that allow for the immortalization of aneuploid cells, and how these events may differ from the events that allow for the immortalization of euploid cells. We are also working to establish four additional aneuploid cell lines: Ts3, Ts10, Ts12, and Ts17. These new aneuploid cell lines will provide additional resources to identify and study the effects of aneuploidy at the cellular level. Finally, we are attempting to identify genes that regulate the growth defect observed in aneuploid cells using a cancer gene shRNA library, the Cancer1000, in aneuploid MEFs, to identify genes which cause lethality or rescue the growth defect (7)....   [tags: Medical Science]
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Evolutionary Concepts Activity 6 - ... 250), in other words allopatric speciation. Wegener's theory did not have a supporting geological mechanism. Many years later and advances in technology brought about the plate tectonics theory. Essentially it says: the earth surface is covered by a series of crustal plates the ocean floors are continually moving, spreading from the center, sinking at the edges, and being regenerated. Convection currents beneath the plates move the crustal plates in different directions. The source of heat driving the convection currents is radioactivity deep in the Earths mantle....   [tags: Evolution]
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Biological Research: Global Warming - ... These can be used as weapons biologically generated. They can be used to kill or injure people. Most of the biological weapons are generated from organisms like bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Small pox can be used as a biological weapon since it is fungal and spread very fast since it is airborne. This disease can be used to injure hence is a potential biological weapon (Rebecca Johnson, 2006). Stem cells are derived from the living organisms’ tissues with an aim of research so as to treat diseases....   [tags: Entertainment ]
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Stem Cell Research - ... This process destroys the embryo and so people argue against the process. Another technique used is called therapeutic cloning also called somatic cell nuclear transfer (CSNT). In this technique they take a woman’s egg and then they remove the nucleus. Then you take out a nucleus from a somatic cell of another person. Then they insert the nucleus of the somatic cell into the egg cell from which we took out the nucleus. Then they derive stem cells form that and those are the genetic match. So pretty much they are supplanting the nucleus from a somatic cell to an egg cell....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Crossover Control: Homeostasis - ... But that is not the case. Martini et al. constructed strains carrying heterozygous markers to analyse crossover frequencies in different intervals, and they observed that in spite of reduction in double strand breaks, the crossover numbers are maintained between threshold limits of 80% and 30%. This suggests that there is some other mechanism acting in place for the control of crossover formation. To look into this, Martini et al. tried to analyse the crossover – non crossover ratio. We know that non crossovers lead to gene conversions, and they used this fact to score for crossovers and gene conversions....   [tags: Biology, Chromosome Engeneering] 1651 words
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Congenital Birth Defects - ... 1.2 Model Organism Scientists and geneticists do not use humans for their experiments and investigations because of the risk to life it causes. Due to this problem they use various animal, fungal, bacteria and plants as model organisms for their investigations. When the model organisms are selected for a particular study, they are selected for their similarity to humans genetically, anatomically and physiologically. Moreover these animal models are preferred for experiments and research because of the ease of availability and manipulation....   [tags: Genetic Causes, Chromosomal Abnormalities] 2337 words
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Cancer - ... 1.3 Etiology of cancer The major insights into etiology of cancer can be obtained by epidemiological studies that relate to particular environmental (agents acting on the body from outside), and genetic (acting within the body) factors. Some of the causative factors are as follow: Chemical substances Chemical substances of certain types have a propensity for causing mutations. For instance, various aniline dye derivatives are likely to cause cancer. The greatest number of death in our society is due to the carcinogens present in the cigarette smoke....   [tags: Health, Diseases, The Tumor of Liver] 2308 words
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Autosomal Chromosomal Abnormalities - ... “Meiosis involves two cycles of cell division (Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2) and produces four cells each of which contains 23 individual chromosomes”( Martini, Nath, and Bartholomew, 2012, p.1038). At the end of this cycle, you will have four daughter cells. During Prophase 1, the chromosomes will crossover. This happens to make new combinations of parental Alleles. The more crossing over that takes place the more the child will look like that parent or grandparent. The child will express more of their genes....   [tags: Genetic Disorders]
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Immortality - ... However, Judy Campisi, who has a PhD in biochemistry, said it “would be foolish to attempt to completely reverse senescence in cells because the termination of growth also prevents cancer” (Kahn). Scientists are also hoping to find substances that imitate caloric restrictions, which have been proven to lengthen the lifespan of mice by up to thirty percent (Lucke, and Hall). Nevertheless, caloric restriction had a couple side effects. The animals they tested on had lower body temperature, loss of muscles, were more vulnerable to infections, and damaged the process of wound healing (Gavrilov)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Telomeres: Implications and Current Research - ... Once telomeres become too short , the cell reaches a point where it cannot divide any further called the Hayflick limit. The cell then dies by apoptosis. An implication of chromosomal telomeres in aging is that as telomere length declines in dividing somatic cells, an individual ages. Statistics show that for humans, the length of telomeres at birth is roughly 8,000 base pairs and then declines to 1,500 base pairs in elderly people. This cellular aging is called senescence. There happens to be a relationship with cellular aging and aging of the whole organism....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Transplants - ... Should a doctor get a new organ but a prisoner be refused. Who has the right to decide who gets the organ. These issues may be able to be solved by science, as I shall discuss later on... Another major problem with donated organs is rejection, when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which in turn destroys the tissue. A specific antibody cross reacting with the donor tissue can cause rejection- this is called adaptive immunity. Components of innate immunity include soluble proteins called complement immune cells and phagocytes which inflame and destroy the transplanted tissue....   [tags: Medicine]
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