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Mitosis and Meiosis - Cell division may happen by either mitosis or meiosis, depending on what type of cell is invovled. Mitosis is a process by which a cell divides to form two daughter cells. They each have the same exact number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell. Meiosis occurs in the primary sex cells leading to the formation of viable egg and sperm cells. They reduce the number of chromosomes to half in each gamete so that when they are getting furtilized, the species chromosome number is kept even. Mitosis happens in the reproduction of unicellular organisms and in the addition of cells to a tissue or organ in a multicellular organism....   [tags: essays research papers] 930 words
(2.7 pages)
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Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis - Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis and mitosis describes the process by which cells divide, either by asexual or sexual reproduction to produce a new organism. Meiosis is a form of cell division that produces gametes in humans these are egg cells and sperms, each with reduced or halved number of chromosomes. The number of chromosomes is restored when two gametes fuse together to form a zygote. A cell with two copies of each chromosome is called diploid cell and a cell with one copy of each chromosome is called a haploid cell....   [tags: Biology] 493 words
(1.4 pages)
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Mitosis and Meiosis: Two Different Forms of Reproduction - In order for ecosystem to continue growing, reproduction has to occur whether it is sexually, asexually, or both. “Reproduction, one of the basic characteristics of all life forms, may be accomplished by two forms of cell division, Mitosis or Meiosis” (Freeman). A cell can occur sexually by the process of Meiosis. The cell must have a stage that is diploid to be able to undergo meiosis. A cell can also occur by the process of Mitosis. Some species in our ecosystem have the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually at different times in its lifecycle, such as the bread slime mold called Rhizopus....   [tags: biology, microbiology]
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1100 words
(3.1 pages)
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Mitosis - Mitosis July 21, 2005 Summary In the lab exercise related to Mitosis, we view various slides containing cells undergoing Mitosis. We viewed 2 different specimens; a slide of an onion root tip and a slide of Ascaris eggs. Some of the cells are at different phases of Mitosis (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase). We viewed it under HPO and LPO. Chromosomes were visible in both the LPO and the HPO although the spindle fibers were not very visible because of limitations in the light microscope....   [tags: Biology] 1116 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Link Between Cancer and Mitosis - The Link Between Cancer and Mitosis Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed countries, accounting for around one in four deaths. In Britain it caused about 25% of the deaths h in 1991 and is the most common cause of death following cardiovascular disease. There are, in fact, over 200 different forms of cancer, which is why it is not necessarily thought of as a single disease. For example, breast cancer is the most common form in women and lung cancer in men....   [tags: Papers] 562 words
(1.6 pages)
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Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis - Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis with reference to i. Chromosomesii. Biological significance i. Chromosomes ii. Biological significance Modern cell theory states that all cells are derived from other cells. This means cells must have a way of copying themselves. This is cell division; two types of cell division are Meiosis and Mitosis. The comparison will be between Meiosis 1 and Mitosis, because Meiosis 2 is much the same as Mitosis. Dividing cells have a regular pattern of events, known as the cell cycle....   [tags: Biology] 1215 words
(3.5 pages)
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Meiosis Vs. Mitosis - More than one celled organisms grow by way of mitosis and the cytoplasmic division of body cells. On the other hand, meiosis occurs only in germ cells, which are put aside for the formation of gametes (sperm and egg). Reproduction by meiosis allows for species survival and it increases genetic variability. The process, during which the germ cells are generated is called meiosis. It represents nature's solution to the problem of chromosome doubling that would occur, if two diploid cells, i.e....   [tags: essays research papers] 1549 words
(4.4 pages)
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Review of Research Paper on the Interphase of Mitosis - Introduction The eukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis, is a succession of events that occur for the reproduction and growth of these multi-cellular organisms. Characteristic events in mitosis can divide the cell cycle into different stages, or phases. This paper focuses on the interphase of cell cycle, which is when DNA replication occurs, and the cell is engaged in metabolic activities to prepare itself for cell division. The idea that these two processes are related arises much controversy in what their relation is exactly....   [tags: Biology Eukaryotic Cell Cycle] 1278 words
(3.7 pages)
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Describing Cell Division - ... It then divides to form two new respective cells during cytokinesis. Mitosis occurs solely in eukaryotic cells and the process differs in various groups (Raikov, 1994). Mitosis is split into distinct stages. Cells spend a minor part of their time involved in cell division. Somatic cells spend the bulk of their functional lives in a state known as Interphase. While in interphase, a cell carries out all its normal functions and when necessary readies for cell division. A cell preparing to divide in interphase, can be divided into three phases G1, S and G2.When a cell is ready to divide it enters the G1 phase....   [tags: dna, mitosis] 793 words
(2.3 pages)
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Various Phases that Make Up the Cell Cycle - The two main phases that occur during a cell cycle are interphase and mitosis. During most of a cell cycle, the cell spends a majority of its time in interphase resting in the cell cycle. Within interphase, the cell goes through 3 phases; 2 growth phases and DNA replication. During Interphase the cell goes through its first gap phase (G1). During G1 protein and RNA synthesis occurs so that the cell can grow and mature. (Cooper, Geoffrey M) G1 is very important because it controls the rate at which the cell grows and develops....   [tags: chromosomes, mitosis, interphase]
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1298 words
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The Phases of the Cell Cycle - ... Through this stage, cells will prepare for the process of DNA replication. In order for DNA to replicate it has to go through G1 phase to see if it will be able to move forward to the S stage. About halfway through the G1 stage if the cell is not completely prepared to support DNA replication, there is a stage called G0 which the cell will enter so it can continue to grow larger and be entered back into the G1 phase to finish the process and move to the S stage of the interphase. SparkNotes As the cell enters the S stage it will continue to grow and develop....   [tags: mitosis, interphase, chromasomes] 573 words
(1.6 pages)
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Biology: Cell Division Cycle - Change is constant throughout all living things and that is particularly true when it comes to biology and in particular cell-division cycle. All organisms are constantly dividing and growing throughout their life time. The cell-division cycle in eukaryotes is a complex process that involves cyclins, cdks and multiple checkpoints that eventually lead to cell division. There are two different types of cell division which are Meiosis and Mitosis. Meiosis is the type of cell division which involves gametes or sex cells that are involved in sexual reproduction....   [tags: mitosis, tumor, chromosomes]
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1568 words
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How is Cancer created and Breast Cancer Analysis - Our Bodies seem to amaze us with what they are capable of. Birth till death, our lives are a continuous cycle. The life of a cancer cell amazes me from where it begins and where it ends off. In breast cancer, the cancer cell is much more fascinating.What causes the cells to start their cancerous cycle.The factors that cause the activation of dormant cancer cells are, radiation, health, lifestyle and genetics. Our bodies are the holders of over 60-90 trillion cells. Once a cells dies out, a new one is born; using the process of mitosis....   [tags: cancer cells, cancerous cycle, mitosis]
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Meiosis - Hi, Joe Bob’s here. I’m pretty sure I last left you in the study of mitosis. Mitosis is very similar to our study today, Meiosis. Now, In Meiosis there is only one more phase for each stage of Meiosis, then Mitosis. Let’s see where I’m heading first in my Magical Meiosis journey. Let Maryann tell you about the back round of Meiosis. “Well, Joe Bob. As you and me both know, Meiosis is used for producing Gametes and sex cells. Gametes are basically sex cells; egg cells are gametes, and sperm cells as well, when they meet up, there is fertilization happening....   [tags: Mitosis] 1161 words
(3.3 pages)
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Cell Division & Cell Cycle Study Guide - CELL DIVISION Cell division involves 2 phases: 1- MITOSIS The process by which nuclear material is divided 2 identical daughter cells result 2- CYTOKINESIS the process by which the cytoplasm and its contents (organelles) separate into equal parts. cytokinesis begins before mitosis is complete cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells ANIMAL CELLS the cell membrane pinches near the middle of the cell, dividing the cytoplasm into equal parts(2 new cells) PLANT CELLS a cell plate develops across the centre of the cell, creating a new cell wall between the 2 new cells Cells alternate between stages (phases) of dividing and not dividing....   [tags: essays research papers] 428 words
(1.2 pages)
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Taking a Look at Cell Functions - Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Analysis Questions 1. During interphase, the cell is carrying out its function as a cell. It continues to grow. The DNA is replicated in preparation for the mitotic phase. During prophase, the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear. The spindle apparatus appears. Then, in metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate. Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres. In anaphase, the sister chromatids are pulled toward opposite poles....   [tags: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase] 667 words
(1.9 pages)
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Biology- Cell Division - A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. A cell is typically microscopic and consists of cytoplasm, a nucleus and enclosed in a membrane. For the information, a cell also has reproduction same like human, animal and plant. Due to Rudolf Virchow (1855), a German physician said that “Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell, just as the animal arises only from an animal and the plant only from a plant”. He can be concluded that this concept with the Latin axiom “Omnis cellula e cellula,” that means “Every cell from a cell”....   [tags: Organism, Microscopic, Cytoplasm, Membrane]
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What´s the Exact Cause of Cancer? - ... Here the cell must determine whether the conditions are appropriate for continued proliferation. An absolute condition for cell growth is the copying of its genetic material, which results during S phase. Once the DNA has been replicated, the cell makes certain that this procedure has been executed correctly during the second checkpoint in the G2 phase, and provided that it has, the cell progresses into mitosis. The ordered growth process seen in normal cells is mainly controlled by components of cell cycle machinery which is under large amounts of negative regulatory control mechanisms....   [tags: cell division, mutation, metastasis] 2217 words
(6.3 pages)
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Cellular Reproduction - Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This has to happen because if a species were not able to reproduce, that species would quickly become extinct. Reproduction consists of a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring. The reproductive process, whether asexual or sexual always involves an exchange in hereditary material from the parents so that the new organism may also be able to reproduce....   [tags: science] 509 words
(1.5 pages)
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Research on the Cell Cycle of an Onion Root Tip - ... During anaphase, microtubules contract and pull sister chromatids (half of chromosome) apart towards opposite poles. During telophase, nuclear membrane reforms around the new daughter nuclei and chromosomes become uncondensed. And the final step of cell cycle is cytokinesis, where the new cell is completely divided. The cell-division cycle relates to our lab because we were identifying the stages of cell cycle of an onion root tip. The purpose of our lab was to determine the amount of time the cells of an onion root tip (Allium p.) spent in each part of the cell cycle....   [tags: division, interphase, organelles] 712 words
(2 pages)
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Kinesin-12 Exhibits Non-redundant Role in Spindle Assembly - During mitosis both kinesin-12 (Kif15) and kinesin-5 (Eg5) protein motors play important roles in assembling the bipolar spindle, a structure made up of microtubules (MTs) that drives chromosome separation. In mammals, the predominant motor Eg5 functions by sliding two antiparallel MTs apart (1, 2). However, previous research has revealed the presence of cell cycle mechanisms that do not require Eg5 (1). In both Dictyostelium and C. elegans, for instance, spindle assembly does not involve any motor from the kinesin-5 family; instead, a kinesin-12 acts predominantly (1)....   [tags: protein motors]
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836 words
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Structure of Nucleotides and DNA - ... 1. The double helix is untwisted and the corresponding stands are unzipped. 2. The hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken freeing the floating nucleotides join with nitrogenous bases forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the reason for complementary base pairing. 3. Once the new nucleotide are bonded together by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which form complete strands opposite the original strands. 4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase....   [tags: deoxyribonucleic, molecule, bond] 1142 words
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Appearance and Locomotion of Animal - ... At waters with good nutrition algae will spread over it like a wild fire. This causes red tide because of algae blooms. Defense of Animal Small fangs and extremely potent poison are what the beaked sea snake use to ward off anything that threatens it. The poison is so potent that it can kill groups of people with just a couple drops. It’s fangs are sometimes not long enough to pierce through some diving suits though. The snake is not aggressive but if you provoke it will attack. Defense of Algae Algae has very little functionality in defense or offense....   [tags: the beaked sea snake] 983 words
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Cellular Reproduction - Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This is essential in that if a species were not able to reproduce, that species would quickly become extinct. Always, reproduction consists of a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring. (Encarta, 2) In almost all animal organisms, reproduction occurs during or after the period of maximum growth....   [tags: Biology]
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Utilizing OER in an University Elective Course: Opportunites and Challenges - Open educational resources (OER) are learning platforms that has the potential to bridge knowledge gap. OERs are ubiquitous and available 24/7 but the utilization and reutilization of these platforms are generally still at infancy. A recent survey among academics in Malaysia on the Malaysian Higher Education landscape with respect to digital resources and OER showed that 70 % of respondents have utilized OER in their teaching, 13 % had not used OER and 17 % were unsure whether they had used OER (Abeywardena et al, 2013)....   [tags: Open Educational Resources, Knowledge]
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cells - The life Process of a cell In my report you will learn about the life process of a cell based on the two main functions, metabolism and mitosis. You will learn about the four stages of metabolism: ingestion, digestion, respiration, and excretion, and how the cell completes them. You also will acquire information about the four stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase, and how the cell completes them. Mitosis is the process in which cells reproduce. These two processes are interdependent on each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Development and Types on Cancer - ... Cancer does not develop suddenly. It tends to be caused by the cumulative effects of an agent on the body over a period of time however in many cases, the causes of cancer are not clearly defined. The accumulation of these mutations in cells over time is the main reason as to why there is an increased prevalence of cancer in the ageing population. [red book] Approximately, over 50% of all newly diagnosed individuals with cancer in the UK, are over 70 years old.[macmillian Ultimately, a cancer cell is formed when a normal cell possesses one or more genetic mutations in its DNA, which can be inherited or acquired [rang]....   [tags: cells, tumor, mutation] 725 words
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Down Syndrome - To all parents, a newborn child is a small miracle, perfect and beautiful in every way. However, in many situations the parents of these miracles learn that their children are “not normal.” Every year 6,000 parents across the country are informed that their child has a genetic disorder called Down Syndrome (“National Down Syndrome Society,” n.d.). Within a matter of minutes parents learn that children with Down Syndrome can also have a variety of other conditions and disorders, will not develop in the same way that other children do, and may even have a shorter life span....   [tags: Chromosomal Level, Trisomy 21]
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945 words
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Cell Cycles and Proliferation - Cell cycle is a complex mechanism that governs the cell growth and proliferation. Cell proliferation contributes to the continuity of life by producing cells, replenishing cells which undergone to cellular differentiation to acquired specialized phenotypes (function and morphology) to carry out living mechanism and towards the end-point-cell-death. Cell proliferation is determined by both extracellular signals such as cytokines and mitogen, and intrinsic cellular factors. Interactions of extracellular signals with intrinsic cellular factors trigger the biochemical events of cell proliferation....   [tags: Cell cycles, biology, ] 574 words
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Nuclear Division - Cells are able to grow and reproduce. Cells reproduce by splitting and passing on their genes (hereditary information) to Daughter cells. The nucleus always divides before the rest of the cell divides. Therefore each daughter cell contains their own nucleus. The nucleus controls the cells activities through the genetic material DNA. The cells in a body are all the same except the gametes they were all made from one cell, the Zygote. This is the cell that was formed when two gametes from your parents fused....   [tags: Biology] 911 words
(2.6 pages)
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Elucidating the role of adhesion factors in circulating tumor cell clustering for breast cancer metastasis and venous thromboembolism - A. Background: Breast cancer has now become a disease which, in most cases, is easily treatable if detected early or non-aggressive. However, the major cause of death for patients with breast cancer is metastasis of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondary sites throughout the body. Determining the hallmarks to differentiate aggressive tumors versus non-aggressive tumors will not only in how clinicians choose to initially treat the patients, but also could potentially be used as therapeutic targets to specifically target metastatic tumor cells....   [tags: Health] 736 words
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Can Two Y Genes Replace the Y Chromosome in Mice? - Can Two Y Genes Replace the Y chromosome in Mice. The Y chromosome is important in any kind of reproduction because it determines if you’re going to be a male or female. The article claims that live mouse descendants can be created using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome to two genes. The SRY gene is called the sex determining region because it has instructions to make a transcription factor and develops as a male. The Y chromosome gene is required to drive mouse sperm cells to cause mitosis in a cell allowing formation of haploid germ cells assisted in reproduction....   [tags: animal test, dna] 994 words
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Overview of the Formation of Babies During Pregnancy - Table of Contents Introduction Page 3 Cleavage and blastulation Page 5 Morula and blastocyst Page 6 Implantation and placentation Page 7 Placentation Page 8 Formation of the three primary germ layers Page 9 Embryonic acquisition of external form Page 11   Introduction Initiation of pregnancy: another new individual is made when the components of a powerful sperm combine with those of a fruitful ovum, or egg. Various motile sperms are saved in the vagina, pass through the uterus, and attack the uterine (fallopian) tube, where they encompass the ovum....   [tags: Maternal Blood, Developmental Progressions]
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2972 words
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Structure of the Cell and Bio Molecules - The cell, what is a cell means and what is the structure of it. Everyone knows that it’s the smallest particle in any living organism and it’s responsible for anything that happens in our bodies. As there’s no one know what it functions, what is the structure of the cell and what it is consisted from and what does every part in it functions. So, first of all the theory of a cell is that all organisms are formed from cells which is the structural unit of life and they are raised by division of pre-existing cells, as they can be cultured to produce more cells....   [tags: genetic blueprints] 651 words
(1.9 pages)
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Influence of Genetically Modified Foods on Infertility - ... The process of meiosis http://www.picstopin.com (2014, February 17) Meiosis 2: The two chromatids that make up each chromosome separate. The haploid cells now divide by mitosis. At the end of meiosis, four new, varied haploid cells are produced from one parent cell. Each cell contains half the number of the original chromosome composition and is not identical to the parent cell. Gametogenesis Gametogenesis is the formation of mature gametes (sperm and ova) by the reproductive glands through the process of meiosis....   [tags: fertility decrease, biological processes] 2441 words
(7 pages)
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Effects of Progeria on Immune System - ... If cells get too large, osmosis and diffusion can't efficiently transport materials in and out. Cell division can also serve as a repairing agent for when part of an organism is damaged. Cell division can then create new cells to replace those located in the damaged area in order to close the wound and heal. If the loss of nucleoplasmic foci contributes to the dysfunction of genome replication in the S phase, then cell division is affected as well, resulting in arrested growth. In response to accumulated DNA damage, ATM and ATR checkpoints are highly activated in progeroid, causing replicative arrest....   [tags: genetic disorders, premature aging]
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The Drawbacks to Antibacterial Soap Use - It starts with a single case that makes headlines in the news. An unknown superbug virus with alarming symptoms breaks out not in some small village in India or Africa, but in a small American town in Kansas. Many citizens of first world countries may be especially alarmed at this news because most breakouts occur in third world countries where people are assumed dirty and malnourished. Additionally, developed countries practice good hygiene and use antibacterial products so that should be enough to keep the virus away right....   [tags: resistance, virus, effective] 2511 words
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The Male and Female Reproductive Systems - ... As it is traveling through the tube, it is susceptible to being fertilized by a sperm cell through coitus. If it is fertilized, the egg will adhere to the façade of the uterus and eventually create a follicle and then a zygote. The sperm cell is created by the male reproductive system once they reach puberty as well. Sperm is devised in the testes by a hormone. Once the sperm leaves the testes it goes through several ducts. When a male and female are experiencing sexual stimulation, the sperm transforms into semen and is then placed in the urethra, which allows the semen to be transferred into the vagina....   [tags: egg, sperm, zygote] 900 words
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Childhood Development Observation and Analysis - Children are complex, and the way a child develops differs from individual to individual. The study of children is a field that researchers, scientists, theorists and educators have been exploring for decades. CHYS 1F90 studies the foundations of childhood development and allows the students to look at the way children develop through multiple lenses. Many conclusions have been drawn, observing how, when and why children develop the way they do. Jerry and Samantha are both grade one students who are unrelated....   [tags: Child Observation Essay]
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Division and Fusion in Mitochondria - Division and Fusion in Mitochondria Mitochondria are essential organelles in many cells. Each component of mitochondria have distinct roles that they must partake in for the sake of the cell’s survival. Mitochondria have their own genetic system that encodes directions for the mitochondria’s different processes. Oxidative phosphorylation, an activity that is necessary to the cell takes place within the mitochondria, along with electron transport. Mitochondria also take part in processes that benefit themselves, including fusion and division (Hales, 2010)....   [tags: cellular biology, parkinson's disease]
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Heredity: A Vital Biological Process - ... “Asexual reproduction involves a single parent, either male or female, passing all of its genes to its offspring, these results in an offspring that is genetically a copy of the parent except in occasional cases where mutations occur during the process of reproduction” (campbell, 2010). However in sexual reproduction, “egg and sperm cells are continuously made in the haploid form” (reece, 2000). When these gametes fuse during fertilisation, in the nucleus of the egg cell, they form a diploid zygote that consists of genetic information from both parents this is all due to meiosis....   [tags: DNA, genetic lineage] 951 words
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Cancer and Cell Cycle Project - ... This gives the child one of the mutated genes. Later in life, the second copy of the gene can become mutated in the somatic cell, causing uncontrollable cell growth that could lead to cancer. However, not all cancers caused by tumor suppressor genes are hereditary. Sometimes two copies of the gene can both become mutated in the somatic cell. DNA repair genes are responsible for the repairing DNA and maintaining the structure of chromosomes. When a person is exposed to UV light, radiation, or certain chemicals or when there is a problem in the DNA replication, the DNA can become damaged....   [tags: genetic research and oncology] 1131 words
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Understanding the Y Chromosome - Y chromosome, the smallest chromosome of the karyotpe, is one of the two sex chromosomes. In 1905, Nettie Stevens identified that Y chromosome is a sex-determining chromosome, while conducting one study of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. He also proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs. In 1890 Hermann Henking discovered that Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome. All chromosomes normally appear to take on a well defined shape during mitosis when seen under microscope. This shape is vaguely X-shaped for all chromosomes....   [tags: science, DNA, gender, biology]
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction - The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction In order to avoid extinction species must reproduce and pass their genes on to the next generation, thus ensuring the survival of the population. For reproduction to occur cell division is necessary and this can be divided into two categories according to the behaviour of the chromosomes, they are known as mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is when the daughter cells finish up containing exactly the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, typically two of each type, known as the diploid state....   [tags: Pro Con Essays] 1021 words
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Bryophyte And Pteropyte Life Cycles - Although Bryophytes and Pterophytes are both plant divisions with a common ancestor, they have little in common. While Bryophytes (mosses) are generally nonvascular and very short in height, Pterophytes (ferns) are vascular plants that usually grow much taller than mosses. While the dominant generation in mosses is the gametophyte, ferns exhibit the sporophyte generation. The details of their alternations of generation vary as well, although both have diploid and haploid stages. Alteration of generations is defined as a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte....   [tags: essays research papers] 834 words
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Death of a Tumor - Cell Background Animal cells are eukaryotic and have a very complex structure. A eukaryotic cell is composed of many membrane-enclosed organelles. Organelles are compartments that perform different functions inside the cell. An organelle called the nucleus contains the genetic material, or DNA, and is the most vital organelle of the cell because it is responsible for carrying the genes that make up the body. A cell's membrane is composed of two layers that regulate the flow of materials in and out of the cell....   [tags: Biology Cancer] 2081 words
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Purpose Driven Life - A Purpose Driven Life Dr. Seuss wrote in his book Happy Birthday to You, “Today you are You, that is truer than true. There is no one alive who is Youer than You.” Every essence of our being, from our personalities to our DNA is different from everyone else in this world. Many of these distinctions are apparent in the classroom setting and at times can prove challenging for a teacher. Some students may learn the lessons very quickly while others may take extra time and may need out-of-class help....   [tags: Special Needs, Cerebral Palsy]
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Hybridization and Polyploidy - The beginning of life on earth is unclear. However, scientists have made great progress in discovering aspects that help explain our existence today. Charles Darwin, for example, made profound changes in human thinking when he published On the Origin of Species in 1859. Through research, experimentation, and dedication, he successfully laid the ground work for the theory of evolution (Quammen, 2006). According to Darwin, the theory of evolution entails the belief that populations, by means of natural selection, change from one generation to the next....   [tags: Origin of Species, Charles Darwin]
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Embryonic Stem cells - Introduction Stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in multi-cellular organisms that can proliferate by mitosis to produce either more stem cells or specialized cells that differentiate into the different organs and tissues. In scientific research, stem cells have been obtained and developed from different sources which include: Embryonic Stem cells Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells that have the potential of proliferating indefinitely into any of the 3 germ layers of cells - endoderm (which differentiate further to specialized cells of the interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (which differentiate further to specialized cells of the muscle...   [tags: bone marrow, mammary gland]
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1487 words
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Cancerous Bone Tumors - Introduction: Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells in the body. The Mayo Clinic in Minnesota defines bone cancer as an “uncommon cancer that begins in a bone. Bone cancer can begin in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the long bones that make up the arms and legs.” Bone tumors can be either classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors “exhibit slow growth, are non-metastasis and non-invasive, highly differentiated, and show a low amount of mitosis....   [tags: uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells] 2513 words
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Characteristics of Cells - For many year, scientists have been researching and experimenting to understand how life on earth began and what was the turning point. Many studies and research were done in order to answer this question. After many years of research, scientists finally discovered the essence of life to be the cell. In order to consider something alive, the cells in the organism should be able to grow, reproduce, have the ability to process information, and carry out chemical reactions (Freeman 1). Even though cells are small, they are very complex and they are the functional unit in the human body....   [tags: structure, DNA, life] 621 words
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Azacitidine are DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors - ... This betters the bone marrow production of normal blood cells. Discovery: Azacitidine was first synthesized by Piskala and Sorm in 1964 [Piskala A, Sorm F. (1964). Collect Czech Chem. Commun., 29: 2060-2076]. It was developed as a nucleoside antimetabolite specifically used for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (Cihak, 1974;Sorm et al., 1964). But studies later revealed that this drug inhibited cell mitosis with high dosage which meant the inhibition of DNA synthesis. The drug was lethal to cells in the S-phase causing considerable chromosomal damage http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/30/11/2770 PMID: 5487064 resulting in the formation of heritably demethylated DNA http...   [tags: chemotherapeutic drug, cancer, blood cells] 632 words
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Biology Cell Parts - Nucleus- “the brain” or control center of the cell. The Nucleus, a membrane-bound structure of a cell, plays two crucial roles in controlling the cell. The nucleus carries the cell's genetic information that determines if the organism will develop, for instance, into a tree or a human; and it directs most cell activities including growth, metabolism, and reproduction by controlling protein synthesis. The presence of a nucleus distinguishes the more complex eukaryotic cells of plants and animals from the simpler prokaryotic cells of bacteria and cyanobacteria that lack a nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 2776 words
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Biology: The Endosymbiotic Theory - ... A cell’s plasma membrane to come together and joins to combine the material inside and then an intracellular vesicle is then formed. The origin of Eukaryotes is still Under Investigation but the most popular theories involves a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In 1883 this theory began with Andreas schimper. Schimper hypothesized that cells had an endosymbiotic nature. Konstantin Merezhkovsky proposed in 1905, the reason that the plastids were endosymbionts, suggesting that symbiosis is the force behind evolution....   [tags: lynn margulis, eukaryotes] 575 words
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An Analysis on the Future Cloning - An Analysis on the Future Cloning Cloning has been going on in the natural world for thousands of years. A clone is simply one living thing made from another, leading to two organisms with the same set of genes. In that sense, identical twins are clones, because they have identical DNA. Sometimes, plants are self-pollinated, producing seeds and eventually more plants with the same genetic code. Techniques have improved rapidly, making it possible to clone cattle, sheep and other farm animals....   [tags: Papers] 1048 words
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Gene Doping - Gene Doping is the practice of using gene therapy to improve athletic ability by altering the effectively of genes utilized in athleticism. Gene Doping is defined as “the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance." (Light). Gene Doping is considered highly illegal in most sports even though there has never been any known incident of an athlete using it. There are two kinds of gene doping: Somatic gene doping and Germline gene doping....   [tags: athletic ability, athletic performance]
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A magnesium deficient diet inhibits tumor cell proliferation by altering the activity of cell cycle regulatory proteins. - Magnesium is a vital mineral involved with many cellular and metabolic functions. As the most abundant cation in the human body, magnesium is essential to cell proliferation, protein synthesis and energy production (Wolf, et al 2007). Among its many functions, magnesium plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth (Ruben, 1975). As such, the relationship between magnesium and the proliferation and growth of tumor cells has been the subject of numerous studies. Cellular growth, cell cycle proteins and the role of magnesium....   [tags: Mg Concentration, Neoplasticity]
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Analysis of Common Enzymatic Pathways in Gambierdiscus toxicus and Symbiodinium in the TCA Cycle - Background: Dinoflagellates are one of the four main types of phytoplankton, which are photosynthetic, single celled and free living organisms in the ocean. Dinoflagellates cause the Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) also known as the red tide effect (Hackett et al 2004). Toxicity persisting at upper levels of the food chain is detected in them from the ones which are toxic, but not all such blooms are toxic. Enhanced detection capabilities may in part contribute to observed high frequency and severity of toxic blooms....   [tags: The TCA Cycle]
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Allelic Variation in BRCA Genes Could Be the Key to Understanding Familial Breast Cancer - ... With this discovery, it is hypothesized that women with a family history of cancer, but with non-mutated BRCA1/2 genes, will demonstrate a increased chance of developing breast cancer. This allelic imbalance (AI) can be quantitated through molecular methods to learn more about the genes involved in familial breast cancer cases. Experimental Methods and Results Three populations of women were experimentally used during this study: women who were negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, but had a family history of breast cancer; women diagnosed with breast cancer without a family history; and cancer-free women who were matched in age as controls....   [tags: division of cells, genes, genome] 801 words
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In-silico analysis of phytocompounds for inhibition of nAChRs receptor mediated lung cancer - Lung cancer is mostly found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine Acetyl-CoA receptor (nAChR) is found to be responsible for this cancerous activity. When cigarette containing nicotine binds with this receptor of lung cells the carcinogenic activity is initiated. Hence, there is a possibility for the prevention of lung cancer formation when the nicotine is competitively inhibited by an interfering molecule preferably from natural products. Natural products from plants have benefits like anti tumor, anti-inflammatory, and so on....   [tags: Lung Cancer, Cigarette Smoking]
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How Inorganic Compounds Impact the Functionality of Signaling Pathways in Mammalian Cells - Signals are an object present in everyday life. Signals don’t just come in forms of traffic lights and signs. Signals happen on the molecular level every second. Signals can tell organisms’ cells to grow, feed, expel waste, move, undergo mitosis, or even die. These signals mystified people for the longest time. However, Earl W. Sutherland’s experiment gave humanity clarity on the matter (Urry 109). Sutherland was investigating the process by which the hormone epinephrine, or adrenaline, causes the breakdown of glycogen, a sugar, in liver and skeletal muscle cells (Urry 109)....   [tags: signals at a molecular level]
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Stem Cells and Clones: Good Medicine or Wrong Ethically and Morally? - Introduction- Since the first mammal was cloned nearly 2 decades ago, the imagination and the sheer possibility of new opportunities had people dreaming. However since then there has been little done other than clone other animals. Much of it has to do with a wider political, ethical and moral debate. Earlier this year scientists found a way to clone a human cell. This has huge implications on how medicine can be done using cloning techniques. The methodology of the technique scientist used is interesting and incorporates much of what fuels the debate....   [tags: clone, polticial, ethical, moral, debate] 592 words
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Human Genetic Engineering: Destroying Humans One Gene at a Time - Genetic engineering is a practice commonly used in the food industry to produce yields of superior size or quality, but recently this technology has been tested on humans. In human genetic engineering (HGE) the genes are manipulated within a living person or zygote, a baby in its earliest form. With this technology not only can disease can be prevented, but average humans can also modify themselves with enhanced traits. This is hazardous and unnecessary. Genetic engineering should not be used in humans, unless it is done to prevent or treat disease, since the consequences are not worthy and are potentially devastating for the human race....   [tags: Enhaancing Human Traits, Disease, Food Industry]
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The Debate Over Stem Cell Research in the United States - Some people believe that stem cell research should be allowed in the United States because over sixty percent of scientists think that ES (embryonic) cells (pluripotent stem cells that come from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst; an early stage embryo) could be the solution to curing a multitude of diseases, others believe that experimenting with these cells could destroy an embryo and kill a possible human fetus (a developing body after the embryonic stage and before birth). Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that may differentiate into specialized cells which, through mitosis (the usual procedure of cell division where one cell forms into two or more separate chromosomes) c...   [tags: disease, embryo, cure] 1327 words
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Tranformation of the Medical Industry Due to Advances in Technology - ... In 1929 a scientist by the name of Phoebus Levene identified the three components that make up a DNA molecule. There have been thousands of other scientist who have done research and found important details about DNA, and there will be many new discoveries in the future. Cloning for medical purposes has benefited large amounts of people. As of just recently, scientist have been able to clone stem cells and replace organs. With this, they could close and build a perfect human. The embryo cloned can be used as a stem cell and made into a cell needed by the patient....   [tags: stem cell research, cloning] 854 words
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The Affects of Stress on the Human Aging Process - Have you ever heard the saying, too much stress can cause a person to go gray. Well it turns out there is more fact to this than fiction. The past couple of months have been hard for you at your new job. The job requires you to work with unfamiliar people, in an unfamiliar place, and to top it all off you are incredibly far behind on your monthly report, which can cost you your job if not done correctly and on time. It is apparent to all your family and friends that this job is causing heightened anxiety in you, and they are worried....   [tags: telomere, early aging, cells, health, biology]
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DNA Sequences Occurs at Many Scales within Genomes Discussion - Today it is widely believed that there are two fundamental ways in which genomes evolve; namely evolution by (1) duplication of pre-existing regions of DNA within the genome and (2) lateral gene transfer. (Brown, 2002), (Zhaxybayeva & Doolittle, 2011). The focus of this essay will be on DNA duplication, its occurrence, and it’s consequences in genomes at a molecular and organismal level. DNA duplication refers to the process by which a region of DNA already present in an organism’s genome is duplicated in that organism....   [tags: chromosomes, dna duplication, genome evolution]
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The Stem Cell: The Source For All of Them - lMy Favorite Cell: The Stem Cell Stem cells are amazing cells that all humans possess throughout their bodies. In today’s world of science, stem cells have become important factors in scientific research. Research with stem cells has been increasing exponentially over the last decade. Around the world, stem cells have been studied to help treat various health problems. The extent to what stem cell research can do is very wide reaching. The existence of stem cells was theorized by Alexander Maximow in the late 1800s....   [tags: medical research implications]
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Antibacterial Agents in the Therapy of Urinary Tract Infection - ... These individuals are allergic to the beta-lactam structure common in both drugs (Bullock & Manias, 2011). SECTION THREE 1. Describe the mechanism of action of the corticosteroids and indicate the adverse effects that require monitoring during treatment with these drugs. Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid agonist. The anti-inflammatory actions of dexamethasone are assumed to be comprise of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which regulates the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes....   [tags: pharmacology, cephalexin, gentamicin]
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The Main Fuctions and Features of The Integumentary System - ... The third function of the integumentary system is sensation. Just like the regulation of body temperature, the nervous system plays a big role in sensation too. This is because there are millions of nerve endings in the skin that act as sensory receptors. There are many different sensations you can experience, including pain, hot, cold, pressure, traction, and many more. Each nerve ending will give you a different sensational experience when the nerve sends the individual impulse to the brain....   [tags: absorbtion, layers, disorders] 1222 words
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The War on Cancer and Its Oncolytic Viral Cells - Besides being able to seize an entire continent in the panicked grips of an epidemic, viruses also have the potential to do good. Such is the purpose of virotherapy – using viruses to selectively target and kill cancer cells, effectively stopping tumour growth in one fell swoop. In the war on cancer, the 200 types of cancer collectively claim almost half a million deaths yearly. The traditional tag team of radiation therapy and chemotherapy undoubtedly have their limits, and now more than ever are new developments needed....   [tags: virotherapy, metastatic, apoptosis] 933 words
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Sexual Orientation: Is it Innate or a Learned Behavior? - ... Religion has corrupted the minds of the people of the world forcing them to believe what should be right and what is wrong. Organizations like NOH8 and #ItGetsBetter have raised money to pay for scientific research on the “gay-gene”. Studies have shown that sexual orientations have some biological factors which have proven that sexuality can be innate and not a learned behavior. Sexuality Development Sexuality development has several factors that make up the complex process this process are all things associated with the brain and child development....   [tags: homosexuality, gay-gene, twins] 746 words
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Questions and Answers Related to DNA Replication and Polypeptides - ... However if it was not folded into a certain shape, it would not become a protein, rather just a Polypeptide. Although ultimately both polypeptides and proteins are chains of amino acids, in order to form a protein the amino acids have to be in a specific order, contrasting to polypeptides which can have amino acids in any order. Part B Answer the following questions on transgenic species Bt cotton: 1. Identify the name of the gene which is transferred from another species into the cotton plant....   [tags: proteins, survival, species] 1060 words
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The Science of Lung Cancer and its Treatment - 12,800 males and 10,700 females are diagnosed with lung cancer each year.(CancerCa)The lungs are vital organs in our body which are located in the chest. Lungs bring oxygen into our body and release carbon dioxide.( oncologychannelCom) The lungs are respiratory organs that are important because they take in fresh oxygen to your blood which is then carried to your cells. Cancer occurs when mitosis goes “wild”. This means that cell division keeps dividing uncontrollably. This happens because some of the genes in the cell have been damaged or lost....   [tags: Lung Cancer, diseases, medical, ] 1007 words
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Theory of Evolution: The Evolution of Hox Cluster - ... This first type happens when a large population goes through a period when only a small number of individuals survive which causes there to be a smaller amount of genetic variation available to the surviving population. An example of this can be seen in the Northern Elephant Seals because humans had hunted them so much that their numbers had dropped down to maybe as few as 25 individuals. In founders effect is when a few individuals that have managed to migrate and create a new species somewhere else....   [tags: darwin, origin of species] 824 words
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The Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy - What is Gene Therapy and what is it used for. Gene therapy (otherwise known as somatic gene therapy or therapeutic gene therapy) is a process that is used to correct defective genes responsible for development of various diseases. (www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BA/Gene_Therapy_Overview.php) There are two main types of gene therapy; somatic (body) cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy. As it suggests, somatic gene therapy is correcting the faulty genes of normal body cells. Germ line therapy is altering genes in gametes....   [tags: Medical, Genetics, Medicine, DNA] 2363 words
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Generation and Characterization of Mouse Aneuploid Cells - Alterations in a cell's chromosomal content from normal is known as polyploidy or aneuploidy. Polyploidy is a change that is a multiple of the haploid chromosome content while aneuploidy is a change in the chromosome content that is not a multiple of the haploid number. There are many instances demonstrating that polyploidy is reasonably well tolerated at the organismal level, and whole genome duplications likely have served to promote the evolution of species (1). However, this is not the case for aneuploidy where the gain or loss of individual chromosomes has been demonstrated to result in lethality and the development of disease (1)....   [tags: Medical Science]
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The Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organisms - There are three main divisions of living organisms: Prokaryotes, eukaryotes and archaea. This essay will outline the division between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and explore the reasoning behind such differences with regard to general structure, storage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its replication, metabolic processes, protein synthesis and ribonucleic acid (RNA) processing. The cell is the most basic unit of life, defined as “The fundamental ... structural and functional unit of all living organisms” (Oxford University Press, 2008)....   [tags: human anatomy, cell, plasma, membrane]
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Description and Analysis of the Cell Theory - Prokaryotic cells have nucleus that contains genetic material, complex cytoskeleton, and endomembrane system. They lack distict nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. In traditional five kingdom classification system written by Robert Whittaker, prokaryotic organism belongs to kingdom Monera. Prokaryotic organism have been divided into groups Archaea and Bacteria. They are unicellular organism, but one single cell is capable of carrying out all the function necessary for the organism to live and reproduce....   [tags: cell membrane, cytoplasm, prokaryotic cell]
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Analysis and Description of Neurofibromatosis Type One - Neurofibromatosis Type one (NF1) is the most common genetic disease in the world, and it affects one in every 3,000 to 4,000 births worldwide (Children’s Tumor Foundation, 2014). Neurofibromatosis comes in three different types: Schwannomatosis is the most severe, then Neurofibromatosis Type two (NF2), and finally the least severe, Neurofibromatosis Type one. Depending on the severity of NF1 a person could live a perfectly normal life; however, life-debilitating complications are still possible and treatments can be time consuming....   [tags: genetic disease, neurofibromatosis, nf1]
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