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Malaria - Malaria is regarded as one of the world's deadliest tropical parasitic diseases. It claims more lives than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. In Africa and other developing countries, it also accounts for millions of dollars in medical costs. Malaria, however, is a curable disease if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the parasite plasmodium. In recent years, most cases in the U.S. have been in people who have acquired the disease after travelling to tropical and sub-tropical areas....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1071 words
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Malaria - Malaria There are a great number of diseases that are endemic in many of the poorer, developing nations due to the lack of sanitation and disease prevention programs in these areas. The steady increase of malaria epidemics in many of the African countries is a point of great concern, because this continent is home to 90% of the world’s total cases of this particular disease. Malaria gets its name from “mal aria,” meaning bad air, because patients used to blame the sudden illness on the poor air quality of the nearby swamps....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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962 words
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Malaria - Malaria (also called biduoterian fever, blackwater fever, falciparum malaria, plasmodium, Quartan malaria, and tertian malaria) is one of the most infectious and most common diseases in the world. This serious, sometimes-fatal disease is caused by a parasite that is carried by a certain species of mosquito called the Anopheles. It claims more lives every year than any other transmissible disease except tuberculosis. Every year, five hundred million adults and children (around nine percent of the world’s population) contract the disease and of these, one hundred million people die....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1302 words
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Malaria - The Disease…………… That lead everyone in for a great awaking. Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoon of the genus Plasmodium and the four subspecies, falciparum, vivax, malariae, and ovale. The species that causes the greatest illness and death in Africa is P. falciparum. The disease is transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, of which the Anopheles gambiae complex (the most efficient) is responsible for the transmission of disease in Africa. Fever is the main symptom of malaria....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1679 words
(4.8 pages)
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malaria - It is one of the ten deadliest diseases of all time. It effects men, women, children, and animals. It is in full force in Africa, India, Asia, China, South America, and the Caribbean. This disease is malaria. Nearly 40 percent of the world’s population lives in areas that are effected by the disease. Malaria is a serious, infectious disease spread by certain mosquitoes. It is caused by infection with the Plasmodium genus of the protozoan parasite. More than one hundred species of this parasite exist....   [tags: essays research papers] 688 words
(2 pages)
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Malaria - Malaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first infectious diseases to be treated successfully with a drug, scientist are still looking for a cure or at least a vaccination today (Cann, 1996)....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1189 words
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Malaria - Abstract: Malaria, which has killed more people than those killed by all the war and all the plagues combined, is caused by a small protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium that resides within cells in the bloodstream to mature and avoid detection. There are four main species of Plasmodium that cause malaria. These species of the parasite infect humans and female anopheline mosquitoes at different stages in their life cycle. When an infected female anopheline mosquito feeds upon the blood of the vertebrate, the parasite is transferred through the saliva, into the body of the vertebrate host....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease] 780 words
(2.2 pages)
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Optimizing Chloroquine to Make a Better Drug to Fight Malaria - Optimizing Chloroquine to Make a Better Drug to Fight Malaria Abstract: Malaria has haunted man for centuries. Humanities experiments in drugs allowed for the discovery of chloroquine, perhaps the most successful cure against the parasitic infection. However, a new strain of malaria, plasmodium falciparum, has proven to be resistant against chloroquine and other cures we have for this virulent disease. Should man then cast aside this antique drug. Not before trying to optimize it to once again combat malaria....   [tags: Biology Medical Malaria Disease]
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1415 words
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Understanding Malaria - Understanding Malaria For several years, I have had an interest in virology and the spread and characteristics of various infectious diseases. Though it makes sense not to possibly induce a state of panic by informing individuals of illnesses that are not native to the area they live in and that they are not likely to contract, I have always liked to remain informed out of my own curiosity and interest. Thus, I have decided to write about malaria. Malaria kills more people than any communicable disease except for tuberculosis....   [tags: Research Papers Term Papers]
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732 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Impacts of Malaria - The Impacts of Malaria Approximately 300 million people are affected worldwide by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America having previously been widespread across the world. The problems of controlling malaria in these countries are heightened due to insufficient health structures and poor socioeconomic conditions. The situation has become more complicated over the last few years with the increase in resistance to the drugs normally used to combat the parasite that causes the disease....   [tags: Papers] 1208 words
(3.5 pages)
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Malaria and DDT - Malaria and DDT Malaria has been a huge problem among many developing nations over the past century. The amount of people in the entire world that die from malaria each year is between 700,000 and 2.7 million. 75% of these deaths are African children (Med. Letter on CDC & FDA, 2001). 90% of the malaria cases in the world are located in Sub-Saharan Africa. Once again, the majority of these deaths are of children (Randerson, 2002). The numbers speak for themselves. Malaria is a huge problem and needs to be dealt with immediately....   [tags: Health Biology Essays] 924 words
(2.6 pages)
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Preventing Malaria - ... Impregnation may be by certain networks with up to 3 years for others' network, only approx. havlt a year, and must then re-impregnated. Unfortunately, you cannot buy impregnation product at home, so you will normally have to buy a new network. Preventive medicine: The last few years there has been vigorous debate about the antimalarials used for prevention. The problem is that there is an ideal product, which is both inexpensive, effective, without side effects and safe enough that it can be used by both pregnant women and children or taken for long periods....   [tags: Disease ] 1830 words
(5.2 pages)
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Malaria : Treatment and Prevention - Malaria: Treatment and Prevention Malaria treatment is different for different patients. For severe cases, patients get blood transfusions. Others get various drugs to help get rid of the parasite. Many of these drugs are also used for prevention. Mosquito eradication and nets are also ways of preventing malaria. Unfortunately, there are many difficulties with creating malaria vaccines, so they are currently still under development. Every 30 seconds, at least one person dies of malaria. About 350-500 million people are infected with malaria each year, and about 1.3-3 million of these result in death....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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977 words
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The Causes of Malaria and Treatment Options - Did you know that every 30 seconds a child who is infected with Malaria dies. (Malaria, World Health Organization) Over 20% of the world population is at risk at getting Malaria each day. If you want a better idea on what 20% of the world population is, it’s over 1.3 billion people. Hundreds of millions of people are infected with Malaria right now, and it can lead to millions of deaths each year. (Malaria: Past and Present) However you cannot get this disease in certain places. Some of the countries such as Australia and North America are some of the areas you cannot get Malaria in, unless you travel to areas that have Malaria and come back infected....   [tags: medical] 1756 words
(5 pages)
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Malaria and Global Responsibility - Malaria and Global Responsibility The United Nations has declared 2000-2010 the "decade to roll back malaria." The social, economic and human effects of this disease are dramatic: 40% of the world's population is currently at risk for malaria, and it kills an African child every 30 seconds(7). The presence of malaria, as that of most other endemic tropical diseases, is directly related to the precarious living conditions of people in developing countries, but is also a cause that hinders growth and development, "In Africa today, malaria is understood to be both a disease of poverty and a cause of poverty." (6)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Malaria Eradication Program - ... However, the outrageous statement seems to have the opposite effect or at least confuse some readers in to thinking that maybe malaria isn’t as serious as its been portrayed throughout the years. Therefore, a reader should not read an article, let alone the first paragraph, and question the validity and seriousness of the information being brought forth by a media outlet. In terms of structure, there are too many elements that the reporter is trying to cover. First, there is the mention of malaria rates going down....   [tags: Disease ] 2435 words
(7 pages)
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Roll Back Malaria - ... Impact indicator evaluation considers malaria death rate and the number of malaria cases, both severe and uncomplicated among susceptible population. Evaluation of outcome indicators measures the proportion of households having at least one insecticide-treated mosquito net, the percentage of patients with uncomplicated malaria receiving appropriate treatment within 24 hours of onset of symptoms in line with approved guidelines and percentage of health facilities without a shortfall of approved anti-malarial drugs for more than one week during the previous three months (Remme, Binka & Nabarro 2001)....   [tags: Disease]
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2454 words
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Presentation on Anti-Malaria Mosquitoes - Anti-Malaria Mosquitoes:Killing Malaria before it kills you The Malaria Protozoan parasite, of the genus Plasmodium. There are two main types of Plasmodiumthat infect humans Plasmodium Falciparum Plasmodium Vivax Transmitted by female mosquitoes Develops in mosquito gut Migrates to salivary glands Transfers to other organisms through the saliva of the mosquito. The Mosquito A mosquito is an organism of the family Culicidae. The females require a blood meal to develop eggs. The mosquito vector for malaria is the mosquito genus Anopheles....   [tags: Speech Powerpoint Presentation] 1024 words
(2.9 pages)
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Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance....   [tags: essays research papers] 2213 words
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Deforestation, A Possible Cause of Malaria - ... Additionally, since the forests are not covering the land from the sun, the land can absorb more heat, and with the combination of heat and rain comes more humidity. With all of these factors being compiled together, along with the loss of habitat of many species who once lived in the forests, many animals will either die or find a new home. Malaria is caused by parasites that carry the disease, these of which are usually found in forests near standing water (Herrera NP). The insect that can carry these parasites is the mosquito, and mosquitos thrive around standing water sources; therefore, these create a deadly pair (Herrera NP)....   [tags: Ecology ]
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1038 words
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DDT and Malaria Control - ... Furthermore, applied DDT is long lasting so only small amounts are needed to sustain protection for one house hold. In addition, DDT is a cheap form of pesticide available on the market. This is obvious through detailed calculations and recent price quotes from manufacturers and WHO suppliers for DDT and nine other insecticides commonly used in similar malaria control programmes, it is shown that DDT is still the cheapest insecticide on a cost per house basis (Walker 2000). Combining both facts that the pricing of DDT is cheap and that only small amounts are used each time and at long intervals, DDT has turned out to be a cost effective insecticide to be used to combat malaria in poor countries whose government is unable to afford more expensive alternatives....   [tags: Diseases/Disorders]
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1175 words
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Malaria Life Cycle - Page 1 of 6 Life Cycle of Malaria Page 2 of 6 Malaria is an ancient disease transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that predates recorded history. Historically it was common in the swampy areas around Rome, and was believed that the tainted air in those locations made people very sick, the disease was therefore named malaria for the Latin root words bad air. Malaria is caused by small parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium which infects both humans and mosquitoes in a cyclical process....   [tags: essays research papers] 1484 words
(4.2 pages)
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Studies Pertaining to the Clinical Aspects of Malaria - ... The author found that previous immunity, as indicated by presence of splenomegaly, was associated with better prognosis both in terms of lower mortality and less hemodynamic disturbance which was evident in the older children owing to previous exposure to malarial infection, and therefore development of immunity (Sheiban et al. 1998). It is important to note that malaria was reported to be the cause of 5.9% of chronic renal failure in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis in Hadramout governorate (Badheeb 1998)....   [tags: Health, Diseases] 984 words
(2.8 pages)
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Malaria Parasite Plasmodium and the Epidemiology of the Disease - The Malaria Parasite Plasmodium and the Epidemiology of the Disease Abstract For ages malaria has affected mankind in almost all parts of the world. It has left a deep imprint on people who have been affected with the disease, and even today in countries where epidemics are common, malaria is a constant threat to people's daily lives. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa), and there are four species in the genus that cause the disease in humans. Their primary hosts and transmission vectors are female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles; humans act as intermediate hosts....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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Plasmodium falciparum: The Causative Agent of Malaria - Plasmodium falciparum: The Causative Agent of Malaria Introduction The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for causing 500 million cases of malaria per year as well as 100-200 million deaths per year worldwide (Kuby, p438). The majority of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among malnourished children. Malaria is endemic in 92 countries, where 40% of the world’s population is at risk of the disease (WHO). Documentation of malaria occurs as far back as 4000BC, with mentions of the disease on clay tablets....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1031 words
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AgDscam is a Receptor found in Vectors Correlates to Malaria - Introduction The most dangerous creature in the world is the mosquito. Every year, mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, viral encephalitis, and West Nile virus, cripple and kill millions of people. In fact, malaria, a parasitic mosquito-borne disease, infects more than 400 million people and kills more than two million people each year. It is one of the principal causes of mortality in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The most fatal version of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae....   [tags: Biology Mosquito] 1757 words
(5 pages)
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Parasitic Malaria Prorogation Through Mosquito Host - Introduction Malaria is transmitted through a plasma-based gamete that first infects the vector through which the disease is passed, in this case the Anopheles mosquito. The gametes begin as gametocytes that are rapidly fertilized and soon transformed into zygotes, then to ookinetes (mobile forms of the zygotes) that cross the mosquito’s midgut wall as soon as nineteen and up to thirty-six hours after ingestion. These ookinetes soon convert themselves into oocysts, which are thick-walled structures that make the transfer of the zygotes to new hosts easier, and then settle in the outer lining of the midgut....   [tags: Biology] 1523 words
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Malaria: What Travelers Need to Know in order to Prevent this Life Threatening Disease - The four types of the protozoa species, which is Plasmodium falciparum, Plamodium vivax, Plasmodium Ovale, causes malaria and Plasmodium malariae.Transmission occurs via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito which is bite mainly between dusk and dawn. Types of Malaria is different between regions.For example falciparum is more common in Africa,Haiti,the Dominican Republic and Papua New Guinea.Vivax strain is usually found in India,Pakistan ,Bangladesh and Mexico and Central America.Both vivax and falcifarum are present in South America and South East Asia.Ovale and malariae are uncommon....   [tags: medical] 1972 words
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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium - Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite and transported by the Anopheles mosquito. Fever is the most common symptom of malaria. Other symptoms include arthralgia and vomiting. The most common diagnosis process for this disease is looking at the patient’s blood under a microscope. If microscopy is not available, antigen detection tests can be used. In a year, there can be as many as five hundred million new cases of malaria, and of those five hundred million, 2.7 million die....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Malaria]
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Patterns of Feeding Mosquitos - Patterns of Feeding Mosquitos (1) Mussels [IMAGE]Mussels are a bivalve, which means they have two hinged shells. Mussels attach themselves firmly to rocks and pilings with strong threads, called byssuses; although they can detach and move about using their "foot." Mussels feed by sucking water in through an intake tube (siphon), screening out microscopic food particles (plankton) with their gills, and ejecting the water through a second discharge siphon. This type of feeding is known as "filter feeding." (2) Mosquitoes....   [tags: Papers] 2168 words
(6.2 pages)
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The Global Fund - ... The United Nations Childen’s Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank have joined together to ensure that 33 African countries add the vaccine to its routine vaccination programs. These organizations have shown studies that the vaccine would be cost-effective (Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunizations, 2005). As pointed out, funding for the vaccine is a major problem and concern for these poverty-stricken economies. The WHO (2010) is launching an appeal to raise $30 million dollars to secure the vaccine stockpile for 2011 to 2015 for all 33 African countries....   [tags: Health, Diseases, HIV/AIDS] 833 words
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Sickle Cell Anemia: A Curse and a Blessing - Sickle Cell Anemia: A Curse and a Blessing Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease found right here in America, but in low levels compared to some areas of the world. The rate for this disease is around five times greater in certain places in Africa. That is because the potentially fatal disease Sickle Cell Anemia can also work as a sort of vaccination for another disease called malaria. First the mechanics of Sickle Cell Anemia will be discussed, then its possible benefits. Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherited condition....   [tags: Disease Health Sickness Essays Papers] 585 words
(1.7 pages)
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Colonialism and Imperialism in Africa - Disease and Imperialism in Africa       Diseases were prevalent in Africa during the time of European Imperialism. Disease affected both natives and European peoples in Africa. African diseases affected both natives and European explorers and soldiers as well as diseases brought by the Europeans that affected the Africans.       Numerouks diseases impadcted the Europeans in Africa during the time of Imperialism.  During the time of Imperialism many explorers and soldiers died of disease. "During 1804-25 over 60 per cent of the men sent out by the Church Missionary Society died of disease" (McLynn 228)....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Impact of Global Warming on Human Health - The Impact of Global Warming on Human Health When one hears the phrase “global warming,” what often comes to mind is melting ice caps and warmer winters but most people are horribly unaware of the effects that global warming will have on human health. Food shortages, contaminated water, extreme weather, and deadly heat threaten the world because of the warming temperatures of our earth. The effects of these can be seen today and their influence will be magnified in the not-so-distant future. But the most dangerous threat we face from global warming is the spread of disease....   [tags: Global Warming Climate Change]
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Ethiopia's Medical Dilemma - Ethiopia's Medical Dilemma Living in an industrialized country like America, and especially in a community such as Bryn Mawr, we are well fed and given excellent healthcare. Despite student complaints that they cannot go to the health center for a cough drop without being asked if they could be pregnant, most students are aware that they are very lucky and appreciate that there are parts of the world that are ravaged by diseases such as Malaria, which kills three children every minute. We donate money, we participate in clothing drives, but it is there that our involvement often ends, and we rarely see how effectively organizations such as Doctors without Border or Unicef ameliorate epidemics and other crisis developing countries....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms and recombination rate in humans - Humans have many of the same genes but also a lot of genetic variation. Therefore, gene sequencing is different in everyone. This genetic variation determines a person's eye color, hair color, and other traits. However, this is also why some people get diseases and others don't. In a chromosome, the distance from the centromere dictates the rate of recombination. There is less shuffling in the area around the centromere, so that leads to less variation. However, understanding variation is necessary in order to determine abnormal genes....   [tags: Biology Genetic Diversity] 638 words
(1.8 pages)
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Survival Technology - Survival Technology Arnold Pacey's book, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand Year History argues that survival technology, the technology of production of food and other basic necessities, is dependent on the local environment and requires local solutions rather than solutions dictated by "technologically superior" scientists from other areas. Every culture has had a long experience with the environment they live in and have developed ways to make food and other basic necessities....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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infectious diseases - Illness and death from infectious diseases are particularly tragic because they are preventable and treatable. Not surprisingly, the poorest and most vulnerable are the most severely affected by infectious disease. Infectious diseases are a major cause of death, disability and social and economic turmoil for millions around the world. Poverty stricken countries lack access to health care. Reports show that in nations with the lowest economic status the causes of death are primarily infectious and nutritional diseases....   [tags: essays research papers] 676 words
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Medical Report: Food Poisoning - ... These samples should be taken in the morning as secretions build overnight in the human airways (Harries, Maher, & Graham, 2004, p. 51). For outpatients, they should provide an on-the-spot sample on day one then another two samples on day two-one early in the morning and another on-the-spot. The samples are then examined for mycobacteria using the Ziel-Neelsen stain method and the TB Bacilli using the Fluorochrome stain method and a special fluorescence microscope. The number of Bacilli observed on each sample smear should then be recorded (Harries, Maher, & Graham, 2004, pp....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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Companies Should Research Health Care Products For Use in Developing Nations - Companies Should Research Health Care Products For Use in Developing Nations The industry of medical research and product development is an expensive and risky business in which the rate of failure far outweighs the likelihood of success (Glaxo). Only the largest companies can afford to invest large amounts of time and capital in projects that seem to have little chance of striking research gold--a drug that is effective, safe, and marketable for a profit. This creates an obvious problem: what incentives exist that would encourage companies to make a commitment to the development and distribution of products that are not likely to produce great returns, namely medicines that would be used mainly in third world countries....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
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Human Diseases - Human Diseases The disease causing organisms Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi enter the body through natural openings and wounds/breaks in the skin. Natural openings such as the nose, mouth, urethra, anus and vagina are lined with mucous membranes which are moist providing the perfect environment for microbial growth, and consequently micro-organisms then infect other organs. Wounds and breaks in the skin (which can be caused by a multitude of things including scratches and cuts) enable bacteria to enter and can cause wounds to become septic, alternatively fungi or ringworm could enter and cause their own problems (athlete's foot being one)....   [tags: Papers] 1489 words
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Rachel Carson - The modern environmentalist movement was launched at the beginning of June 1962, when excerpts from what would become Rachel Carson's anti-chemical landmark Silent Spring were published in The New Yorker. "Without this book, the environmental movement might have been long delayed or never have developed at all," declared then-Vice President Albert Gore in his introduction to the 1994 edition. The foreword to the 25th anniversary edition accurately declared, "It led to environmental legislation at every level of government." In 1999 Time named Carson one of the "100 People of the Century." Seven years earlier, a panel of distinguished Americans had selected Silent Spring as the most influential book of the previous 50 years....   [tags: Biography] 1974 words
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Sickle Cell Anemia - ... There are several countries where the prevalence of sickle cell anemia is high. In Ghana, about 1 in every 50 births results in the disease but most in rural Africa don’t live beyond 5 years of age. Although there are nine government sponsored languages, the official language is English. The currency unit in Ghana is the cedi and their capital is Accra. Another country where sickle cell anemia is prevalent is Mali where the national capital is Bamako. While French is the official language of the country most citizens speak Bambara....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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Venezuela - ... Kidnappings are also a threat in Caracas. One type of kidnapping is the “express kidnapping” that can occur at the airport. Victims are taken, usually at gunpoint, to withdraw as much money as possible from ATMs. There is also the “virtual kidnapping” where scam surveys are used to get contact and personal information on minors. The “kidnapper” then calls the parents for ransoms without the child actually being taken. A third type of kidnapping is the “inside kidnapping”, where domestic employees are paid large amounts of money for keys and information to help the kidnappers take children for ransom (US Department of State, 2010)....   [tags: Violence, Murder, Robbery, Kidnapping] 867 words
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Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections - ... The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 or its product (carbon monoxide) can reduce the amount of free heme, opening the way for a new therapeutic approach to this deadly complication (66). It is clear that in other parasitic diseases such as Chagas’ disease there is not a complete understanding of immunopathology that follows infection. During acute infection some parasite molecules can activate macrophages and this provokes nitric oxide synthesis, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and as a consequence there is a control of parasitemia and reduction in the number of deaths (54,67,68)....   [tags: Biology, Parasites] 2267 words
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Refuge Camps - “Refuge Camps” There is a foreboding and ongoing crisis facing several third world countries today. This crisis is the rising amount of famine and health ailments that affect hundreds of thousands of individuals that face malnutrition, poverty, and several other serious problems that you will find in developing countries. Countless diseases plague today’s world and the people who are most vulnerable to these diseases are also the ones that need the most help. Despite the lack of funds and limited aid available to these people, there is hope....   [tags: essays research papers] 602 words
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Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism - The Relationship between Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism During the era of European Imperialism, from approximately 1880 to 1930, an increasing number of Europeans began to colonize West Africa. Because of this colonization many African natives migrated eastward, inadvertently transporting diseases to which the East Africans were not immune (Ransford 76). This phenomenon can be explained through examining the implications of geographical isolation, the effects of large-scale migration, and alluding to a specific example of disease transference in Africa from the west to the east....   [tags: European History]
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Cinchona and its Product--Quinine - Cinchona and its Product--Quinine The bark of cinchona produces several alkaloids. The most important alkaloid, quinine, has certain febrifuge properties. Quinine was used in the battle against malaria since the 1630's. Of 38 species of cinchona, four species have economic value for the production of quinine: C. calisaya, C. legeriana, C. officianalis and C. succirubra. Cinchona, of the family Rubiaceae, is native to the South American Andes. It thrives best on steep mountain slopes in rich volcanic soils and an annual rainfall of 1,500 cm.(9) The cinchonas flower in 3-4 years....   [tags: Botany]
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Early History of South Africa: A Climatological Case Study - Early History of South Africa: A Climatological Case Study The early history of Cape Town shares little with the experience of the rest of Africa. The patterns of colonization and the relationship between black Africans and nationalized Europeans are unique to the area. The timing and speed of settlement were possible only because of the local disease environment. The system of racial interaction, a system of Aparthide unique to the area, acted differently than other systems because of farming patterns dictated by the fertility of the land....   [tags: Climate Africa Essays Papers]
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The Plasmodium Paradox - ... So a low number of gametocytes would increase transmission as they would not be remove via an immune (Mideo & Day, 2008). A high asexual to low sexual stage density ratio may allow gametocytes to be masked from non specific immune responses. So the non specific immune response will be ‘too busy’ targeting asexual stages that the gametocytes will still be able to transmitted by avoiding the immune response (Mideo & Day, 2008). Competition between different strains of the same species of Plasmodium could lead to low conversion rates....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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Global Public Health - ... First, the community at large was left out of the program entirely leaving them nowhere near the assertive action. Second, a military style campaign was run taking no consideration for the different regional contexts for the disease---the battlefield in Sub-Saharan Africa might be slightly different than that of Northeast India. Lastly, the malaria campaign was ran believing all the technology was available for the task at hand and the programs effectiveness relied solely on meticulous attention to administrative detail....   [tags: Health]
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Sickle Cell Disease - Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell Disease is an illness that affects people all across the globe. This paper will give a description of the sickness through the discussion of the causes, symptoms, and possible cures. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a "group of inherited red blood cell disorders."(1) These disorders can have various afflictions, such as pain, damage and a low blood count--Sickle Cell Anemia. The overall incidence of SCD is eight out of 100,000 people. However, it is much more widespread in some people....   [tags: Diseases Health Medical Medicine Essays]
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dynamics of founder effect - dynamics of founder effect Populations are divided by geographic boundaries, confining a specific region/group of people to share and distribute its genetic traits within themselves without outward influence. The size of these populations is dependant upon whether certain mountains, rivers, deserts, oceans, or other extreme geographical, cultural, or technological conditions determine the tendency for isolation or migration. Most modern populations were originally settled by a relatively small handful of people that for whatever reason migrated to a new uninhabited area, and then multiplied....   [tags: essays papers] 754 words
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Rice - Rice "…Finally, because South Carolina, from her climate, situation, and peculiar institutions, is, and must ever continue to be, wholly dependent on agriculture and commerce, not only for prosperity , but for her existence as a state…" (Boller, pg.110) -John C Calhoun: South Carolina explosion and Protest (1828)  While the north was undergoing an "industrial revolution," the south remained agriculturally based....   [tags: Papers] 1027 words
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Affect of Low Literacy Rates on Standard of Living in Africa - ... Thus, it is unsurprising that the bottom ten countries ranked in the 1998 U.N. Human Development Index are all in Africa. The U.N. Human Development Index measures living standards based on life expectancy, literacy, education, and economic output per capita. Unquestionably, there is a relationship between literacy rate and quality of living. As the adult literacy rate is so low, developing African countries will continue to struggle to improve their living standards. Another factor that influences African’s quality of life is debts of developing countries....   [tags: Literacy] 924 words
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The Effects of Diseases Among Tourist and the Indigenous People of the Amazon Region - ... The Journal of Medicine featured a study conducted by The Berlin Institute of Tropical Medicine that gathered information from 794 tourists traveling to tropical regions concluded 42.9% of all travelers reported illness and that when traveling to a malaria-ridden area, 20% of travelers did not carry anti-malarial medication putting them at a risk of contracting the disease (Wichman, Rack 250). According to the Center for Disease Control, Malaria is a parasitic disease contracted through a mosquito bite which leads to flu-like symptoms and is responsible for over 1 million deaths each year (Pub Med Health)....   [tags: Disease ]
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The Effect of Infectious Diseases on Humanity - ... These haemoglobinopathies included glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), thalassemia, and haemoglobin C, E and F disease, as well as the lack of the Duffy antigen on the surface of RBCs (Inhorn & Brown, 1990). This shows a behavioural, environmental and genetic linkage between infectious disease and evolution. There are other examples that link changes in genes and societal responses to infectious agents. Geneticists hypothesize that the P2 allele in the P blood group system provides resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis in populations that have a strong affiliation with animal husbandry (Inhorn & Brown, 1990)....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Millennium Development Goals and Jamaica - ... In 1995 Jamaica’s poverty rate was 27.5% and improved to 18.7% in 2000. The improvement in poverty level is based on the fact that there are increased employments in the informal sector and the underground economy. The hike in migration and the increase in remittances have also led to the reduction in poverty. The cases of malnutrition (children 0-5 years old) have also improved from 6.4% in 2001 to 4% in 2004. Under-nourished population accounted for 5% in 2002 and remained the same for 2004....   [tags: International Development]
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An Internship and My Interest in Medicine - Admissions Essay - An Internship and My Interest in Medicine How does a hospital run without adequate water to develop X-ray films. What are the signs and symptoms of malaria. What is the most common cause of infant mortality worldwide. These are all questions to which I learned answers during my six-week clerkship in rural South Africa. That a well-rounded education is the mark of a true scholar is a belief I acquired from my high-school education, and in that spirit I flew off to try and understand some of the important issues in the changing South African health care system....   [tags: Medicine College Admissions Essays] 865 words
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The Absurdity of Scientific Creationism - The Absurdity of Scientific Creationism We humans have always thought of ourselves as being unique, whether by divine sanction or by a self-established belief in superiority. For some, this understanding is intimately tied to the traditional tenets that have long been held as fact, having only recently been challenged. For modern Christians, the literal interpretation of the Bible=s account of creation has come under attack by the development and widespread acceptance of Darwinian evolution. To some, undermining the credibility of Biblical creation directly calls into question the Bible=s authority on its moral teachings....   [tags: Science Religion Essays]
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The Dual Nature of Disease - The Dual Nature of Disease The technologies and abilities encouraging human mobility have been an essential force in the shaping of global history. Ranging from footwear to airplanes, advancements in travel have resulted in both positive and negative consequences. A pioneering human spirit has led to extensive voyages seeking new lands, which explorers have found beneficial and detrimental. One of the most important components influencing the success or failure of exploration has been the effect of disease....   [tags: Disease Humanity Health Essays]
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The Marburg Virus - The Marburg Virus Why did I decide to choose to study Kongolese Art. Why didn't I just decide to study something safe, like British watercolours. If I had, I would have never had to spend the past three days in isolation in a hospital in Germany to ensure that I wasn't harbouring the Marburg virus. My experience with Marburg started about three weeks ago in early April--April 1, 2005 to be exact. I had been in Angola for the past seven weeks conducting an intense study of Kongolese art in the rural villages of Uige Province....   [tags: Personal Narrative Essays]
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Global Warming - Today, scientist argue over the consequences of global warming. Scientist say that the heating of the atmosphere can influence many health problems. Some of the related problems due to global warming are death to heat waves and other climate changes, and infectious diseases. With the atmosphere temperature rising, we all will be at risk. The climate not only harms our bodies, it can also harm our crops and waters.      Floods and droughts associated with global warming can undermine our health in other ways....   [tags: Environmental Global Climate Change] 691 words
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Medicine During the Civil War - Medicine During the Civil War 1861-1865 When Walt Whitman wrote that he believed the “real war” would never get into the books, this is the side he was talking about (Belferman 1996). Yet, it is important that we remember and recall the medical side of the conflict too, as horrible and terrifying as it was (Adams 1952). Long before doctors and people knew anything about bacteria and what caused disease was the time of Civil War medicine. Doctors during the Civil War (always referred to as “surgeons”) were incredibly unprepared....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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socio-economic development and health - Question One There are a number of ways in which the increasing socio-economic development of a nation can help improve the health of the population. 1. There is a correlation between mortality rates in the developing countries, especially amongst children, and the level of education of the parents of the children. For example, in Morocco, a mother who has completed 4-6 years of schooling, their child is 45% less likely to have died by the age of 2, compared with child’s mother who has had no school (Book 3, Page 54)....   [tags: essays research papers] 1900 words
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Cholera - Cholera Cholera is an infectious disease cause by bacteria that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine. Sever cases cause violent diarrhoea. It is the huge amount of fluid loss, which makes cholera so dangerous. If the fluid is not replaced the body becomes dehydrated and you could die within twenty-four hours. Treatment of cholera is simple; replace the fluid lost with the right mixture of sugar and salts. Water alone is not very well absorbed. If it is a server case of the disease then admission to hospital may be suggest; they can then replace the fluids straight into the bloodstream via a drip....   [tags: Papers] 1849 words
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Diseases in Third World Countries - Diseases in Third World Countries Nowadays, infectious diseases are responsible for more than 13 million deaths a year; over the next hour alone, 1 500 people will die from an infectious disease, and over half of them will be children under five. In developing countries, one over two deaths is caused by an infectious disease. In this essay I will talk about the main diseases responsible for deaths in third world countries, what helps to eradicate them and what are the obstacles to this eradication....   [tags: Papers] 1749 words
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Conditions in Japanese Prisoner of War Camps In World War II - Conditions in Japanese Prisoner of War Camps In World War II The Japanese viewed those who surrendered as inferior and subject to the mercy of their captures. Tojo, the Japanese war minister, informed the commandants of prisoners of war camps the Japanese government had not signed the Geneva Convention and they were not bound to it. The Japanese field code for soldiers required soldiers to commit suicide rather than surrender. Because of the time schedule set for conquest by Japanese high command, Japanese soldiers slaughtered surrendering Allied soldiers routinely....   [tags: Papers] 1601 words
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The Problem of Global Warming - The Problem of Global Warming "The climate of the Earth is changing" (Melillo 1999:183). These words sum up exactly what is happening to the environment today; it is changing. Yet, what has brought on this change. There are many factors that contribute to climate change, however, the most important one that has become a very relevant issue to humans today is global warming. Global warming is the increase in the Earth's average surface temperature from an increase of greenhouse gases (primarily Carbon Dioxide) in the atmosphere....   [tags: Environment Ecology Carbon Essays Climate Change]
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Climate Change Affecting Africa - ... Most of the African population directly depends on rain-fed agriculture for income and food security. Where rainfall will be reduced, these people are faced with an immediate threat to their livelihoods. This makes the continent extremely vulnerable to climate change (Mendelsohn, 2001). The problem doesn't stop with altered rainfall. There may be a change in the seasons. Lengthening or shortening a growing season can seriously alter the crop in quantity as well as quality. In places where the rainfall increases, flooding can wipe out an entire crop or make the soil unsuitable for planting....   [tags: global warming, pollution, expository, informative]
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The Implications of Rapid Urbanization - ... These conditions are conducive for the growth of diseases such as malaria and cholera (WHO estimates that about 3000 children die of malaria daily and about 3-5 million lives are lost through cholera annually) (Knudsen & Slooff, 1992). Nigeria, Africa has experienced an increase in the mortality rate of young children with the rapid urbanization. This is so because a large number of the disadvantaged society in urban areas is socioeconomic disadvantaged thus increasing the risks to children....   [tags: Urbanization]
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Africa's Health Care Crisis - ... For instance, lack of clean water and waste disposal facilities can cause health abnormalities such as cholera or typhoid fever which can cause devastating deaths. This is a healthcare problem because of the lack of funding. The lack of funding prevents antibiotics from being used to prevent death, and prevents African’s from being vaccinated against typhoid fever. Another example of how poverty affects woman’s health is unintended pregnancy, which is because they are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior....   [tags: Inefficient Health Care, Apartheid] 1523 words
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George B. McClellan: The Disposable Patriot - There were really no very interesting characters in this book. I was never one to be interested in history. There were some interesting parts though, for instance, the chapter about the railroad man was pretty good, and it was kind of cool that he got promoted to vice-president of the railroad he work on within a year after he started the job. Some of the wars he was in were ok as well. It sometimes amazes me that there were so many unnamed heroes. As you know, the book talks about his life, the wars he was in and a little behind the scenes....   [tags: essays research papers] 503 words
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The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire - The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The primary reason for the Roman Empires decline and eventual fall was the dwindling of the Roman Empire's economic might. This affected nearly every aspect of Roman life, from the decline of the population to the lack of maintenance of foundation. There were also some military aspects that led to there demise and because people became disinterested in joining the Roman army Rome was left unprotected against all of their enemies. The primary cause of the deterioration of the economy was the lack of circulating currency in the Western Empire....   [tags: Papers] 570 words
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Silent Spring: The Future or the Past? - What would happen if pesticides had never been invented. Would the world be a prettier place. Could the world function without pesticides. Rachel Carson does her best to show how pesticides have destroyed the world in her novel, Silent Spring. Carson does a fantastic job displaying the ups and downs of pesticide use, however her side is very clear. She does not like any type of pesticide: whether it is organic or non-organic. In most chapters, she begins with descriptive writing to draw the reader in and then states facts in the rest....   [tags: Literary Review]
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Water Pollution - ... “More than 3.5 million people die each year from water-related disease; 84 percent are children. Nearly all deaths, 98 percent, occur in the developing world” (Water, 2011, p.1). There are many waterborne diseases that contribute to poor health conditions. For example, “Diarrhoeal disease alone amounts to an estimated 4.1 % of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year (WHO, 2004)”(WHO 2011, p.1). Cholera is also a waterborne disease that is affecting more people every day....   [tags: Environment, Clean Water] 633 words
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The Benefits of Medicinal Marijuana Usage - The Benefits of Medicinal Marijuana Usage All ears were listening intently at what the professor had to say on the subject. Many viewers were in shock and disbelief at what some of the potential medical uses of marijuana are. At the conclusion of the lecture, many whispers filled the courtroom and the judge entered from behind his desk and sat down. Richard Johnson sat in silence waiting in anticipation to hear what he had to say. Johnson and his wife Ellen, were arrested August 24 and charged with numerous drug-related offenses....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Colonial South Carolina Report - Colonial South Carolina Report George the Second, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, King, Defender of the Faith, I write to thee from the heart of South Carolina, Charleston to impart my knowledge of the region. My travels have been long and arduous. I arrived by way of a freight ship bearing finished goods for the colony on the twenty-eighth day of March, in the twenty-third year of thy reign. All that province, territory, or tract of ground, called South Carolina, lying and being within our dominions of America is well....   [tags: American America History] 1245 words
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The History of the Panama Canal - The History of the Panama Canal The Panama Canal has been called the big ditch, the bridge between two continents, and the greatest shortcut in the world. When it was finally finished in 1914, the 51-mile waterway cut off over 7,900 miles of the distance between New York and San Francisco, and changed the face of the industrialized world ("Panama Canal"). This Canal is not the longest, the widest, the deepest, or the oldest canal in the world, but it is the only canal to connect two oceans, and still today is the greatest man-made waterway in the world ("Panama Canal Connects)....   [tags: American America History] 1703 words
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The Place of Morality and Government in Low Value Product Development - The Place of Morality and Government in Low Value Product Development A company is fundamentally in business to make money. There are many so called "low value products" that could prove extremely beneficial to a large number of people, but are not likely to be profitable from an economic point of view. This situation creates a complex problem that incorporates economics, morality, private industry, individuals and government. It is always interesting and difficult when big business, government and ethics are thrown together, and this problem is no exception....   [tags: Economics Economy Business Papers] 1101 words
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