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Optimizing Chloroquine to Make a Better Drug to Fight Malaria - Optimizing Chloroquine to Make a Better Drug to Fight Malaria Abstract: Malaria has haunted man for centuries. Humanities experiments in drugs allowed for the discovery of chloroquine, perhaps the most successful cure against the parasitic infection. However, a new strain of malaria, plasmodium falciparum, has proven to be resistant against chloroquine and other cures we have for this virulent disease. Should man then cast aside this antique drug. Not before trying to optimize it to once again combat malaria....   [tags: Biology Medical Malaria Disease]
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1415 words
(4 pages)
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Malaria - Malaria is regarded as one of the world's deadliest tropical parasitic diseases. It claims more lives than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. In Africa and other developing countries, it also accounts for millions of dollars in medical costs. Malaria, however, is a curable disease if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the parasite plasmodium. In recent years, most cases in the U.S. have been in people who have acquired the disease after travelling to tropical and sub-tropical areas....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1071 words
(3.1 pages)
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Malaria - The Disease…………… That lead everyone in for a great awaking. Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoon of the genus Plasmodium and the four subspecies, falciparum, vivax, malariae, and ovale. The species that causes the greatest illness and death in Africa is P. falciparum. The disease is transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, of which the Anopheles gambiae complex (the most efficient) is responsible for the transmission of disease in Africa. Fever is the main symptom of malaria....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1679 words
(4.8 pages)
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Malaria - Malaria (also called biduoterian fever, blackwater fever, falciparum malaria, plasmodium, Quartan malaria, and tertian malaria) is one of the most infectious and most common diseases in the world. This serious, sometimes-fatal disease is caused by a parasite that is carried by a certain species of mosquito called the Anopheles. It claims more lives every year than any other transmissible disease except tuberculosis. Every year, five hundred million adults and children (around nine percent of the world’s population) contract the disease and of these, one hundred million people die....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1302 words
(3.7 pages)
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Malaria - Malaria There are a great number of diseases that are endemic in many of the poorer, developing nations due to the lack of sanitation and disease prevention programs in these areas. The steady increase of malaria epidemics in many of the African countries is a point of great concern, because this continent is home to 90% of the world’s total cases of this particular disease. Malaria gets its name from “mal aria,” meaning bad air, because patients used to blame the sudden illness on the poor air quality of the nearby swamps....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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962 words
(2.7 pages)
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Malaria - Malaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first infectious diseases to be treated successfully with a drug, scientist are still looking for a cure or at least a vaccination today (Cann, 1996)....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1189 words
(3.4 pages)
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malaria - It is one of the ten deadliest diseases of all time. It effects men, women, children, and animals. It is in full force in Africa, India, Asia, China, South America, and the Caribbean. This disease is malaria. Nearly 40 percent of the world’s population lives in areas that are effected by the disease. Malaria is a serious, infectious disease spread by certain mosquitoes. It is caused by infection with the Plasmodium genus of the protozoan parasite. More than one hundred species of this parasite exist....   [tags: essays research papers] 688 words
(2 pages)
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Malaria - Abstract: Malaria, which has killed more people than those killed by all the war and all the plagues combined, is caused by a small protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium that resides within cells in the bloodstream to mature and avoid detection. There are four main species of Plasmodium that cause malaria. These species of the parasite infect humans and female anopheline mosquitoes at different stages in their life cycle. When an infected female anopheline mosquito feeds upon the blood of the vertebrate, the parasite is transferred through the saliva, into the body of the vertebrate host....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease] 780 words
(2.2 pages)
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Analysis of Malaria - ... Falciparum transcends across two habitats (the cold-blooded mosquito vector and the warm-blooded human host), it is thought that the production of chaperones by the parasite is survival strategy used in response to stress against temperature and physiological changes (3,6). There is evidence that suggests heat shock proteins help the parasite to adapt leading to drug resistance, and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been viewed as the primary protein involved (3,7). During the development of febrile malaria, body temperature rises to 41°C because of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (3,8), and the development of this fever is known to promote the pathogenesis of malaria by enhancing the ability of the parasite-infected erythrocytes to adhere to blood vessels(3,9)....   [tags: Vaccines, Affected Areas, WHO]
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754 words
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Preventing Malaria - Preventing Malaria Updated by Søren Thybo, Consultant and specialist in infectious diseases: What is malaria. Malaria is a serious tropical disease that in the extreme can be fatal. It is widespread across the globe in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, malaria is a huge health problem with 300 million new cases per year. In Denmark, turning around, 100 people returned from abroad every year with the disease. Deaths among Danes have fortunately been rare some years, but in 2008, was a Danish woman infected in the Gambia and died in Denmark untreated....   [tags: Disease ] 1830 words
(5.2 pages)
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Understanding Malaria - Understanding Malaria For several years, I have had an interest in virology and the spread and characteristics of various infectious diseases. Though it makes sense not to possibly induce a state of panic by informing individuals of illnesses that are not native to the area they live in and that they are not likely to contract, I have always liked to remain informed out of my own curiosity and interest. Thus, I have decided to write about malaria. Malaria kills more people than any communicable disease except for tuberculosis....   [tags: Research Papers Term Papers]
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732 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Impacts of Malaria - The Impacts of Malaria Approximately 300 million people are affected worldwide by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America having previously been widespread across the world. The problems of controlling malaria in these countries are heightened due to insufficient health structures and poor socioeconomic conditions. The situation has become more complicated over the last few years with the increase in resistance to the drugs normally used to combat the parasite that causes the disease....   [tags: Papers] 1208 words
(3.5 pages)
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Malaria and DDT - Malaria and DDT Malaria has been a huge problem among many developing nations over the past century. The amount of people in the entire world that die from malaria each year is between 700,000 and 2.7 million. 75% of these deaths are African children (Med. Letter on CDC & FDA, 2001). 90% of the malaria cases in the world are located in Sub-Saharan Africa. Once again, the majority of these deaths are of children (Randerson, 2002). The numbers speak for themselves. Malaria is a huge problem and needs to be dealt with immediately....   [tags: Health Biology Essays] 924 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Causes of Malaria and Treatment Options - Did you know that every 30 seconds a child who is infected with Malaria dies. (Malaria, World Health Organization) Over 20% of the world population is at risk at getting Malaria each day. If you want a better idea on what 20% of the world population is, it’s over 1.3 billion people. Hundreds of millions of people are infected with Malaria right now, and it can lead to millions of deaths each year. (Malaria: Past and Present) However you cannot get this disease in certain places. Some of the countries such as Australia and North America are some of the areas you cannot get Malaria in, unless you travel to areas that have Malaria and come back infected....   [tags: medical] 1756 words
(5 pages)
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Malaria Eradication Program - Malaria is one of the most dangerous diseases rooming this planet. The disease—carried by mosquitoes infected by a parasite—affects half the world's population (3.3 billion people) who live in sectors at risk of the transmission. In Africa, Malaria comes in 2nd as one of the leading causes of death, right after HIV and AIDS. In the United States, there are on average 1500 cases reported each year since The National Malaria Eradication program successfully eradicated malaria in the country, in the 1950's....   [tags: Disease ] 2435 words
(7 pages)
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Roll Back Malaria - Malaria is an important public health disease endemic in over a hundred countries globally. About 90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa with a child dying every forty five seconds. Malaria accounts for 16% of child deaths in the Africa (Remme, Binka & Nabarro 2001) and 7% of deaths in children worldwide (WHO 2010). It is a disease of poverty, causing significant constraint to the economic growth of susceptible nations (WHO 2010; Sachs, Malaney 2002). Globally, numerous malaria control programmes have been initiated to eliminate and eradicate the disease....   [tags: Disease]
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2454 words
(7 pages)
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Deforestation, A Possible Cause of Malaria - A common fact that reminds people everyday of how important the rain-forests are to the world is that they provide about three-fourths of the world’s oxygen. So what if this source of life to the planet is removed or even destroyed by Earth’s inhabitants. The obvious answer is that species won’t be able to survive without an oxygen source, but the less obvious is what is happening now with deforestation of the forests, and specifically rain-forests. In these rain-forest regions, such as Vietnam, the Amazon, and Sub-Saharan Africa, the effects of deforestation can be seen dramatically....   [tags: Ecology ]
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1038 words
(3 pages)
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DDT and Malaria Control - Introduction Nearly half a billion people are infected with malaria each year and more than a million people die from this disease. Malaria is transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito infected with malaria parasites. When the parasites enter the human body, it slowly destroys the body’s red blood cells, eventually killing the patient if left without undergoing immediate treatment (Stanmeyer 2007). One of the means employed to counter the spread of malaria is through the use of DDT as an insecticide to kill the mosquitoes before they are able to infect more people....   [tags: Diseases/Disorders]
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1175 words
(3.4 pages)
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Studies Pertaining to the Clinical Aspects of Malaria - STUDIES PERTAINING TO THE CLINICAL ASPECTS OF MALARIA Malaria is a complex condition exhibiting different manifestations in different parts of the world depending on a few variables (Bin Mohanna et al. 2007). It was found that anemia and splenomegaly are significantly associated with malaria among asymptomatic schoolchildren in Hajr valley, Hadramout (Bin Mohanna et al. 2007). Agina and Abd-Allah (1999) conducted a case control study for the association of nitric oxide levels to the severity and outcomes of cerebral malaria in Yemeni in-patients....   [tags: Health, Diseases] 984 words
(2.8 pages)
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Malaria : Treatment and Prevention - Malaria: Treatment and Prevention Malaria treatment is different for different patients. For severe cases, patients get blood transfusions. Others get various drugs to help get rid of the parasite. Many of these drugs are also used for prevention. Mosquito eradication and nets are also ways of preventing malaria. Unfortunately, there are many difficulties with creating malaria vaccines, so they are currently still under development. Every 30 seconds, at least one person dies of malaria. About 350-500 million people are infected with malaria each year, and about 1.3-3 million of these result in death....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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977 words
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Malaria and Global Responsibility - Malaria and Global Responsibility The United Nations has declared 2000-2010 the "decade to roll back malaria." The social, economic and human effects of this disease are dramatic: 40% of the world's population is currently at risk for malaria, and it kills an African child every 30 seconds(7). The presence of malaria, as that of most other endemic tropical diseases, is directly related to the precarious living conditions of people in developing countries, but is also a cause that hinders growth and development, "In Africa today, malaria is understood to be both a disease of poverty and a cause of poverty." (6)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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1177 words
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Presentation on Anti-Malaria Mosquitoes - The Malaria Protozoan parasite, of the genus Plasmodium. There are two main types of Plasmodiumthat infect humans Plasmodium Falciparum Plasmodium Vivax Transmitted by female mosquitoes Develops in mosquito gut Migrates to salivary glands Transfers to other organisms through the saliva of the mosquito. The Mosquito A mosquito is an organism of the family Culicidae. The females require a blood meal to develop eggs. The mosquito vector for malaria is the mosquito genus Anopheles. Transfers Plasmodiumthrough saliva while feeding on blood....   [tags: Powerpoint Presentation] 1024 words
(2.9 pages)
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Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance....   [tags: essays research papers] 2213 words
(6.3 pages)
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Malaria Life Cycle - Page 1 of 6 Life Cycle of Malaria Page 2 of 6 Malaria is an ancient disease transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that predates recorded history. Historically it was common in the swampy areas around Rome, and was believed that the tainted air in those locations made people very sick, the disease was therefore named malaria for the Latin root words bad air. Malaria is caused by small parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium which infects both humans and mosquitoes in a cyclical process....   [tags: essays research papers] 1484 words
(4.2 pages)
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Malaria and The Problem of Global Justice by Thomas Nagel - ... My argument for cosmopolitanism against pure statist ideology is grounded within the belief that active agreements and contracts are those that are made between those who are able to knowingly consent to the terms. For example, a citizen contracting a plumber to clean out his or her pipes would fall under this category. The citizen in this case would be given a contract to sign by the plumber, which specifically outlines the responsibilities for the plumber, the price of service, and the guarantee of quality....   [tags: public health, CDC, epidemiology]
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2701 words
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Malaria Parasite Plasmodium and the Epidemiology of the Disease - The Malaria Parasite Plasmodium and the Epidemiology of the Disease Abstract For ages malaria has affected mankind in almost all parts of the world. It has left a deep imprint on people who have been affected with the disease, and even today in countries where epidemics are common, malaria is a constant threat to people's daily lives. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa), and there are four species in the genus that cause the disease in humans. Their primary hosts and transmission vectors are female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles; humans act as intermediate hosts....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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2087 words
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Plasmodium falciparum: The Causative Agent of Malaria - Plasmodium falciparum: The Causative Agent of Malaria Introduction The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for causing 500 million cases of malaria per year as well as 100-200 million deaths per year worldwide (Kuby, p438). The majority of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among malnourished children. Malaria is endemic in 92 countries, where 40% of the world’s population is at risk of the disease (WHO). Documentation of malaria occurs as far back as 4000BC, with mentions of the disease on clay tablets....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1031 words
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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium - Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite and transported by the Anopheles mosquito. Fever is the most common symptom of malaria. Other symptoms include arthralgia and vomiting. The most common diagnosis process for this disease is looking at the patient’s blood under a microscope. If microscopy is not available, antigen detection tests can be used. In a year, there can be as many as five hundred million new cases of malaria, and of those five hundred million, 2.7 million die....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Malaria]
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715 words
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Malaria: What Travelers Need to Know in order to Prevent this Life Threatening Disease - The four types of the protozoa species, which is Plasmodium falciparum, Plamodium vivax, Plasmodium Ovale, causes malaria and Plasmodium malariae.Transmission occurs via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito which is bite mainly between dusk and dawn. Types of Malaria is different between regions.For example falciparum is more common in Africa,Haiti,the Dominican Republic and Papua New Guinea.Vivax strain is usually found in India,Pakistan ,Bangladesh and Mexico and Central America.Both vivax and falcifarum are present in South America and South East Asia.Ovale and malariae are uncommon....   [tags: medical] 1972 words
(5.6 pages)
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AgDscam is a Receptor found in Vectors Correlates to Malaria - Introduction The most dangerous creature in the world is the mosquito. Every year, mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, viral encephalitis, and West Nile virus, cripple and kill millions of people. In fact, malaria, a parasitic mosquito-borne disease, infects more than 400 million people and kills more than two million people each year. It is one of the principal causes of mortality in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The most fatal version of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae....   [tags: Biology Mosquito] 1757 words
(5 pages)
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Parasitic Malaria Prorogation Through Mosquito Host - Introduction Malaria is transmitted through a plasma-based gamete that first infects the vector through which the disease is passed, in this case the Anopheles mosquito. The gametes begin as gametocytes that are rapidly fertilized and soon transformed into zygotes, then to ookinetes (mobile forms of the zygotes) that cross the mosquito’s midgut wall as soon as nineteen and up to thirty-six hours after ingestion. These ookinetes soon convert themselves into oocysts, which are thick-walled structures that make the transfer of the zygotes to new hosts easier, and then settle in the outer lining of the midgut....   [tags: Biology] 1523 words
(4.4 pages)
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Macaria’s Daughter - Macaria’s Daughter, by Americo Paredes, is a murderous tale of male dominance and female virtue where there is a sacrifice between an altar of the Virgin of Guadalupe and the marriage bed of two distinct cultures. This story is set in south Texas and surprises the reader with the murder of a beautiful young woman named Marcela. She is found in the bedroom, lying on the floor in a pool of blood, 30 to 40 knife stabs decorate her breasts, while the local men gaze indifferently on her lifeless body....   [tags: Literature] 1636 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Global Fund - The threaded discussions have demonstrated that communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in the African continent. In this regard, the economic costs in terms of prevention, treatment, and loss of productivity are undeniably enormous. Most, if not all of the human and financial resources allocated to Africa have focused on disease-specific intervention programs, such as prevention or treatment of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Yellow fever, like malaria, is transmitted by mosquitoes and share similar symptoms....   [tags: Health, Diseases, HIV/AIDS] 833 words
(2.4 pages)
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Sickle Cell Anemia: A Curse and a Blessing - Sickle Cell Anemia: A Curse and a Blessing Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease found right here in America, but in low levels compared to some areas of the world. The rate for this disease is around five times greater in certain places in Africa. That is because the potentially fatal disease Sickle Cell Anemia can also work as a sort of vaccination for another disease called malaria. First the mechanics of Sickle Cell Anemia will be discussed, then its possible benefits. Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherited condition....   [tags: Disease Health Sickness Essays Papers] 585 words
(1.7 pages)
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Colonialism and Imperialism in Africa - Disease and Imperialism in Africa       Diseases were prevalent in Africa during the time of European Imperialism. Disease affected both natives and European peoples in Africa. African diseases affected both natives and European explorers and soldiers as well as diseases brought by the Europeans that affected the Africans.       Numerouks diseases impadcted the Europeans in Africa during the time of Imperialism.  During the time of Imperialism many explorers and soldiers died of disease. "During 1804-25 over 60 per cent of the men sent out by the Church Missionary Society died of disease" (McLynn 228)....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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1146 words
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Medical Report: Food Poisoning - The patient has experienced fever, chills on body, headaches and anorexia as well as sweating especially during the night. The patient has also been feeling fatigued, muscle aches and nausea as well as vomiting especially after eating (WHO, 2010, p. 117). These symptoms started forty eight hours ago, and the patient has not taken any medication except for some aspirin. The patient has also been suffering from frequent fevers in the past two months. He has also suffered from frequent headaches but has always taken painkillers (Bloland & Williams, 2003, p....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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1184 words
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The Impact of Global Warming on Human Health - The Impact of Global Warming on Human Health When one hears the phrase “global warming,” what often comes to mind is melting ice caps and warmer winters but most people are horribly unaware of the effects that global warming will have on human health. Food shortages, contaminated water, extreme weather, and deadly heat threaten the world because of the warming temperatures of our earth. The effects of these can be seen today and their influence will be magnified in the not-so-distant future. But the most dangerous threat we face from global warming is the spread of disease....   [tags: Global Warming Climate Change]
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1980 words
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Sickle Cell Anemia - Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobin defect that occurs in people of African and Mediterranean decent. “First identified in 1904 by a hospital intern, sickle cell disease became, more than forty years later, the first disease found to be a genetic disease” (Harris 83). This disorder is caused by a recessive allele that changes the structure of hemoglobin. Sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) differs from normal hemoglobin (HbA) in that of all the 574 amino acids it is made of, just one is different....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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1183 words
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Venezuela - Venezuela is a dangerous country, and its capital, Caracas is an extremely dangerous city. Venezuela is a deadlier place then Iraq, with about four times the number of deaths from violence in Venezuela then in Iraq. In 2008 the homicide rate for Venezuela was 48 for every 100,000 people. In the United States the rate was 5.6 per 100,000 (Llana, 2008). A 2010 report puts the murder rate at 75 per 100,000 (Shooting gallery, 2010). Caracas has become the deadliest city in the world, with approximately 200 murders per 100,000 people (Romero, 2010; US Department of State, 2010)....   [tags: Violence, Murder, Robbery, Kidnapping] 867 words
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Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections - Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections Once parasites start an infection, they can effectively resist the lethal effects of macrophages and produce chronic infection that can lead to inflammation. Parasites can induce granulomatous inflammation that serves to insulate the pathogens that resist destruction (58). These granulomas are regulated by T cells that recognize parasite-released antigens. In the tissues macrophages accumulate and secrete chemicals that induce fibrosis and stimulate the formation of granulomatous tissue and provoke fibrosis....   [tags: Biology, Parasites] 2267 words
(6.5 pages)
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The Effect of Infectious Diseases on Humanity - In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, a work of literature that not only provided a working framework for the theory of evolution, “descent with modification” by means of natural selection, but also explained how the cumulative impact of natural selection influenced an organism and its environment. Darwin, however, neglected to mention how infectious diseases have served as a pivotal selective force in natural selection (Lederberg, 1999). Since animals first walked the earth, they have had to live with microscopic organism, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites....   [tags: Medical Research]
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1882 words
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Ethiopia's Medical Dilemma - Ethiopia's Medical Dilemma Living in an industrialized country like America, and especially in a community such as Bryn Mawr, we are well fed and given excellent healthcare. Despite student complaints that they cannot go to the health center for a cough drop without being asked if they could be pregnant, most students are aware that they are very lucky and appreciate that there are parts of the world that are ravaged by diseases such as Malaria, which kills three children every minute. We donate money, we participate in clothing drives, but it is there that our involvement often ends, and we rarely see how effectively organizations such as Doctors without Border or Unicef ameliorate epidemics and other crisis developing countries....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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1002 words
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Refuge Camps - “Refuge Camps” There is a foreboding and ongoing crisis facing several third world countries today. This crisis is the rising amount of famine and health ailments that affect hundreds of thousands of individuals that face malnutrition, poverty, and several other serious problems that you will find in developing countries. Countless diseases plague today’s world and the people who are most vulnerable to these diseases are also the ones that need the most help. Despite the lack of funds and limited aid available to these people, there is hope....   [tags: essays research papers] 602 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Global Warming Debate - "Global warming is not a conqueror to kneel before - but a challenge to rise to. A challenge we must rise to." -- Joe Lieberman INTRODUCTION Global warming is a controversial environmental topic in today’s society. Global warming is when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide) act as a blanket that insulates the earth and prevents heat from escaping into space, which in turn causes the global temperature to rise....   [tags: Climate Change Debate, 2015] 1423 words
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The Effects of Diseases Among Tourist and the Indigenous People of the Amazon Region - Throughout history, diseases have caused devastating epidemics amongst communities. Today, infectious diseases are still spread among groups of people and have had the greatest impact in areas such as the Amazon region where interactions between tourists and the indigenous people have introduced new diseases. By examining first-hand accounts and studies, one may be able to determine the results of this danger, and formulate a key to preventing it. A potential solution may lie in the improvement of healthcare in these geographical areas such as providing a nurse practitioner and health clinics, as well as requiring travelers to receive vaccinations prior to interacting with indigenous people....   [tags: Disease ]
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1461 words
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The Plasmodium Paradox - Malaria rather paradoxically seems to invest few resources in gametocyte (the reproductive and transmissible stage) production. Mathematical modeling is used to explore how this reproductive restraint can be evolutionarily adaptive. Where in-host strain competition appears to be the key driving force. Malaria cases a vast amount of mortality and morbidity, claiming in the order of one million lives every year mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. As such it is perhaps one of the most deadly of infectious diseases plaguing populations today....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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1677 words
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Global Public Health - After 150 years of public health research and intervention, there are bound to be many lessons to draw upon which can provide the insight to guide public health professionals and institutions as they design and implement specific strategies, policies, and measures to increase global resilience for “complex health emergencies”. Identifying both the modifications to public health systems and looking closely from the history of managing environmental and other threats to the public health sector increases the world’s adaptive capacity to more effectively cope and manage with public health emergencies....   [tags: Health]
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms and recombination rate in humans - Humans have many of the same genes but also a lot of genetic variation. Therefore, gene sequencing is different in everyone. This genetic variation determines a person's eye color, hair color, and other traits. However, this is also why some people get diseases and others don't. In a chromosome, the distance from the centromere dictates the rate of recombination. There is less shuffling in the area around the centromere, so that leads to less variation. However, understanding variation is necessary in order to determine abnormal genes....   [tags: Biology Genetic Diversity] 638 words
(1.8 pages)
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Early History of South Africa: A Climatological Case Study - Early History of South Africa: A Climatological Case Study The early history of Cape Town shares little with the experience of the rest of Africa. The patterns of colonization and the relationship between black Africans and nationalized Europeans are unique to the area. The timing and speed of settlement were possible only because of the local disease environment. The system of racial interaction, a system of Aparthide unique to the area, acted differently than other systems because of farming patterns dictated by the fertility of the land....   [tags: Climate Africa Essays Papers]
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985 words
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Survival Technology - Survival Technology Arnold Pacey's book, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand Year History argues that survival technology, the technology of production of food and other basic necessities, is dependent on the local environment and requires local solutions rather than solutions dictated by "technologically superior" scientists from other areas. Every culture has had a long experience with the environment they live in and have developed ways to make food and other basic necessities....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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1556 words
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infectious diseases - Illness and death from infectious diseases are particularly tragic because they are preventable and treatable. Not surprisingly, the poorest and most vulnerable are the most severely affected by infectious disease. Infectious diseases are a major cause of death, disability and social and economic turmoil for millions around the world. Poverty stricken countries lack access to health care. Reports show that in nations with the lowest economic status the causes of death are primarily infectious and nutritional diseases....   [tags: essays research papers] 676 words
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Companies Should Research Health Care Products For Use in Developing Nations - Companies Should Research Health Care Products For Use in Developing Nations The industry of medical research and product development is an expensive and risky business in which the rate of failure far outweighs the likelihood of success (Glaxo). Only the largest companies can afford to invest large amounts of time and capital in projects that seem to have little chance of striking research gold--a drug that is effective, safe, and marketable for a profit. This creates an obvious problem: what incentives exist that would encourage companies to make a commitment to the development and distribution of products that are not likely to produce great returns, namely medicines that would be used mainly in third world countries....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
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Rachel Carson - The modern environmentalist movement was launched at the beginning of June 1962, when excerpts from what would become Rachel Carson's anti-chemical landmark Silent Spring were published in The New Yorker. "Without this book, the environmental movement might have been long delayed or never have developed at all," declared then-Vice President Albert Gore in his introduction to the 1994 edition. The foreword to the 25th anniversary edition accurately declared, "It led to environmental legislation at every level of government." In 1999 Time named Carson one of the "100 People of the Century." Seven years earlier, a panel of distinguished Americans had selected Silent Spring as the most influential book of the previous 50 years....   [tags: Biography] 1974 words
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The Impact of Climate Change on Africa - Scientists, economists, and policy makers all agree the world is facing threat from climate warming. Climate warming is caused by excess greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide which are heat trapping gasses. Human use of fossil fuels is a significant source of these gasses. When we drive our cars, heat our homes with oil or natural gas, or use electricity from coal fired power plants, we contribute to global warming....   [tags: global warming, pollution, expository, informative]
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Affect of Low Literacy Rates on Standard of Living in Africa - The rich prosper and the poor struggle to survive. Citizens in developed nations, such as Canada, do not usually think about developing African nations and their problems. Those fortunate enough to have a steady income cannot imagine how other developing countries or other people have so little when they possess so much. Thus, the question arises, what challenges are developing African countries experiencing as they struggle to improve their standards of living. In order, to answer this question, it is essential to consider the adult literacy rates, the population infected with diseases, and the debts of developing countries....   [tags: Literacy] 924 words
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Millennium Development Goals and Jamaica - The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) represents the basic necessities and rights that any human would want to enjoy. It is a nationwide commitment made in September 2000 at a United Nations Millennium Summit meeting by 189 countries including Jamaica (Sweetman, 2005, p.2). Its emergence came as a major objective in an effort toward global development within a fifteen (15) year period. These objectives are targeted at the poorest sets of people in the world and are geared towards eliminating severe poverty and improving the provisions of good health and well-being....   [tags: International Development]
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Water Pollution - Many people take for granted the access to having clean water on a daily basis and are not aware of the true effect on those who do not have the same access. Clean water is becoming a necessity to survive more than ever before. If we all imagined waking up one day and not being able to get clean water, there would be more of an understanding in the need for solutions to creating clean water access for all. “With 87% of the world’s population or approximately 5.9 billion people using safe drinking-water sources, the world is on track to meet or even exceed the drinking-water target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)” (World Health Organization, 2010, p.1)....   [tags: informative essay]
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Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism - The Relationship between Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism During the era of European Imperialism, from approximately 1880 to 1930, an increasing number of Europeans began to colonize West Africa. Because of this colonization many African natives migrated eastward, inadvertently transporting diseases to which the East Africans were not immune (Ransford 76). This phenomenon can be explained through examining the implications of geographical isolation, the effects of large-scale migration, and alluding to a specific example of disease transference in Africa from the west to the east....   [tags: European History]
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Cinchona and its Product--Quinine - Cinchona and its Product--Quinine The bark of cinchona produces several alkaloids. The most important alkaloid, quinine, has certain febrifuge properties. Quinine was used in the battle against malaria since the 1630's. Of 38 species of cinchona, four species have economic value for the production of quinine: C. calisaya, C. legeriana, C. officianalis and C. succirubra. Cinchona, of the family Rubiaceae, is native to the South American Andes. It thrives best on steep mountain slopes in rich volcanic soils and an annual rainfall of 1,500 cm.(9) The cinchonas flower in 3-4 years....   [tags: Botany]
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The Implications of Rapid Urbanization - Urbanization is the process of human migration from rural areas to towns and cities, thus rapid urbanization means that the rate at which the migration from rural to urban takes place is hurried that a country has no time to plan for their existence at the cities. The situation differs from country to country as the number of cities and rural areas in the countries are different. Another possible reason for the difference is the development nature of the countries; some countries are developed, others are developing while others are considered least developed....   [tags: Urbanization]
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Africa's Health Care Crisis - The residents of Africa are suffering from preventable, treatable, and fatal diseases everyday at a higher rate compared to developed countries. The healthcare crisis in Africa is the primary cause of all these deaths, and includes inefficient healthcare systems. Consequently, African's inefficient healthcare systems results in poor delivery of care and a shortage of health professionals. The healthcare crisis in Africa is a current issue impacting the lives of many African's who don't have the same access to resources as developed countries such as the United States....   [tags: Inefficient Health Care, Apartheid] 1523 words
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Homeopathic Remedies And Allopathic Medicines - ... For example, a treatment for Parkinson’s disease is L-dopa, which can be found in velvet beans. Similarly, homeopaths often use diluted poison ivy mixtures to treat irritations or rashes (Ehrlich). Although homeopathic and allopathic medicines sometimes come from botanical sources, constituents often vary greatly. Markedly , the difference is because allopathic medicine’s basis is created from pharmacology, which uses biology, physics, and medicine in order to cure symptoms. On the other hand, homeopathy is based on the “law of similars”, which entails that one type of symptom can be cured by mixtures of similar symptoms....   [tags: Compare&Contrast, Alternative Medicine] 1625 words
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Sustainable Development: Food, Natural Resources, and Gender - ... For global health and development to succeed people in the western world have to sit up and realise the importance of eradicating diseases which may not be an immediate concern in the country they are living. From a more positive perspective in the last decade, there has been a reduction in the child mortality rate, average life expectancy has increased and there has been notable progression towards the elimination and eradication of various infectious diseases. For example, the annual incidence of polio has fallen from 350,000 cases in 1988 to just 20,000 in 1999....   [tags: survival, sustainability, environment, economy]
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Silent Spring: The Future or the Past? - What would happen if pesticides had never been invented. Would the world be a prettier place. Could the world function without pesticides. Rachel Carson does her best to show how pesticides have destroyed the world in her novel, Silent Spring. Carson does a fantastic job displaying the ups and downs of pesticide use, however her side is very clear. She does not like any type of pesticide: whether it is organic or non-organic. In most chapters, she begins with descriptive writing to draw the reader in and then states facts in the rest....   [tags: Literary Review]
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Sickle Cell Disease - Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell Disease is an illness that affects people all across the globe. This paper will give a description of the sickness through the discussion of the causes, symptoms, and possible cures. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a "group of inherited red blood cell disorders."(1) These disorders can have various afflictions, such as pain, damage and a low blood count--Sickle Cell Anemia. The overall incidence of SCD is eight out of 100,000 people. However, it is much more widespread in some people....   [tags: Diseases Health Medical Medicine Essays]
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dynamics of founder effect - dynamics of founder effect Populations are divided by geographic boundaries, confining a specific region/group of people to share and distribute its genetic traits within themselves without outward influence. The size of these populations is dependant upon whether certain mountains, rivers, deserts, oceans, or other extreme geographical, cultural, or technological conditions determine the tendency for isolation or migration. Most modern populations were originally settled by a relatively small handful of people that for whatever reason migrated to a new uninhabited area, and then multiplied....   [tags: essays papers] 754 words
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Rice - Rice "…Finally, because South Carolina, from her climate, situation, and peculiar institutions, is, and must ever continue to be, wholly dependent on agriculture and commerce, not only for prosperity , but for her existence as a state…" (Boller, pg.110) -John C Calhoun: South Carolina explosion and Protest (1828)  While the north was undergoing an "industrial revolution," the south remained agriculturally based....   [tags: Papers] 1027 words
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The Need to Vaccinate Infants and Travellers - The Need to Vaccinate Infants and Travellers Vaccinations are given in infancy and to travellers against various diseases that can kill but are preventable due to the modernisation of medicine. I have put together a brief over view of the need to administer such vaccines. The disease's that are vaccinated against in infancy are: diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, hib, measles, mumps, rubella and tuberculosis. Diphtheria is a serious disease that begins with a sore throat and can quickly cause breathing problems....   [tags: Free Essays] 422 words
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An Internship and My Interest in Medicine - Admissions Essay - An Internship and My Interest in Medicine How does a hospital run without adequate water to develop X-ray films. What are the signs and symptoms of malaria. What is the most common cause of infant mortality worldwide. These are all questions to which I learned answers during my six-week clerkship in rural South Africa. That a well-rounded education is the mark of a true scholar is a belief I acquired from my high-school education, and in that spirit I flew off to try and understand some of the important issues in the changing South African health care system....   [tags: Medicine College Admissions Essays] 865 words
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The Absurdity of Scientific Creationism - The Absurdity of Scientific Creationism We humans have always thought of ourselves as being unique, whether by divine sanction or by a self-established belief in superiority. For some, this understanding is intimately tied to the traditional tenets that have long been held as fact, having only recently been challenged. For modern Christians, the literal interpretation of the Bible=s account of creation has come under attack by the development and widespread acceptance of Darwinian evolution. To some, undermining the credibility of Biblical creation directly calls into question the Bible=s authority on its moral teachings....   [tags: Science Religion Essays]
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Health and Disease in Human History - The technologies and abilities encouraging human mobility have been an essential force in the shaping of global history. Ranging from footwear to airplanes, advancements in travel have resulted in both positive and negative consequences. A pioneering human spirit has led to extensive voyages seeking new lands, which explorers have found beneficial and detrimental. One of the most important components influencing the success or failure of exploration has been the effect of disease. It has acted as an important tool of conquest, as well as a useful deterrent against it....   [tags: Disease Humanity Health Essays]
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The Marburg Virus - The Marburg Virus Why did I decide to choose to study Kongolese Art. Why didn't I just decide to study something safe, like British watercolours. If I had, I would have never had to spend the past three days in isolation in a hospital in Germany to ensure that I wasn't harbouring the Marburg virus. My experience with Marburg started about three weeks ago in early April--April 1, 2005 to be exact. I had been in Angola for the past seven weeks conducting an intense study of Kongolese art in the rural villages of Uige Province....   [tags: Personal Narrative Essays]
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Global Warming - Today, scientist argue over the consequences of global warming. Scientist say that the heating of the atmosphere can influence many health problems. Some of the related problems due to global warming are death to heat waves and other climate changes, and infectious diseases. With the atmosphere temperature rising, we all will be at risk. The climate not only harms our bodies, it can also harm our crops and waters.      Floods and droughts associated with global warming can undermine our health in other ways....   [tags: Environmental Global Climate Change] 691 words
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Medicine During the Civil War - Medicine During the Civil War 1861-1865 When Walt Whitman wrote that he believed the “real war” would never get into the books, this is the side he was talking about (Belferman 1996). Yet, it is important that we remember and recall the medical side of the conflict too, as horrible and terrifying as it was (Adams 1952). Long before doctors and people knew anything about bacteria and what caused disease was the time of Civil War medicine. Doctors during the Civil War (always referred to as “surgeons”) were incredibly unprepared....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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socio-economic development and health - Question One There are a number of ways in which the increasing socio-economic development of a nation can help improve the health of the population. 1. There is a correlation between mortality rates in the developing countries, especially amongst children, and the level of education of the parents of the children. For example, in Morocco, a mother who has completed 4-6 years of schooling, their child is 45% less likely to have died by the age of 2, compared with child’s mother who has had no school (Book 3, Page 54)....   [tags: essays research papers] 1900 words
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Cholera - Cholera Cholera is an infectious disease cause by bacteria that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine. Sever cases cause violent diarrhoea. It is the huge amount of fluid loss, which makes cholera so dangerous. If the fluid is not replaced the body becomes dehydrated and you could die within twenty-four hours. Treatment of cholera is simple; replace the fluid lost with the right mixture of sugar and salts. Water alone is not very well absorbed. If it is a server case of the disease then admission to hospital may be suggest; they can then replace the fluids straight into the bloodstream via a drip....   [tags: Papers] 1849 words
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Diseases in Third World Countries - Diseases in Third World Countries Nowadays, infectious diseases are responsible for more than 13 million deaths a year; over the next hour alone, 1 500 people will die from an infectious disease, and over half of them will be children under five. In developing countries, one over two deaths is caused by an infectious disease. In this essay I will talk about the main diseases responsible for deaths in third world countries, what helps to eradicate them and what are the obstacles to this eradication....   [tags: Papers] 1749 words
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Conditions in Japanese Prisoner of War Camps In World War II - Conditions in Japanese Prisoner of War Camps In World War II The Japanese viewed those who surrendered as inferior and subject to the mercy of their captures. Tojo, the Japanese war minister, informed the commandants of prisoners of war camps the Japanese government had not signed the Geneva Convention and they were not bound to it. The Japanese field code for soldiers required soldiers to commit suicide rather than surrender. Because of the time schedule set for conquest by Japanese high command, Japanese soldiers slaughtered surrendering Allied soldiers routinely....   [tags: Papers] 1601 words
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The Problem of Global Warming - The Problem of Global Warming "The climate of the Earth is changing" (Melillo 1999:183). These words sum up exactly what is happening to the environment today; it is changing. Yet, what has brought on this change. There are many factors that contribute to climate change, however, the most important one that has become a very relevant issue to humans today is global warming. Global warming is the increase in the Earth's average surface temperature from an increase of greenhouse gases (primarily Carbon Dioxide) in the atmosphere....   [tags: Environment Ecology Carbon Essays Climate Change]
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Gunfire - 1 Nord-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo The town of Kimemi seemed a far cry from the popular perception of an African village. Built of cinderblocks, sheet metal, and scrap, dozens of buildings in the same drab stains of brown and gray sat clustered around a grid pattern of mud roads. In the rainy season, the packed earth roads of the city transformed into an impassable morass of mud. Like most of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s smaller towns, Kimemi lacked electricity, running water, or even regular garbage pickup....   [tags: Creative Writing Essays] 2119 words
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