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Saussure's System For Evaluating Linguistics - In “Course in General Linguistics”, Saussure does two things to develop his system for evaluating linguistics: he chooses language as his linguistic object and he only incorporates factors into his model that can be said to be true of all languages over all time. The net result is a very high level and flexible classification structure, which is more intent on making a developmental framework for evaluating linguistics than necessarily providing tremendous insight into it’s more concrete aspects: rudiments like structure, meaning, morphology, syntax, or phonology....   [tags: Linguistics] 895 words
(2.6 pages)
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Speech Errors as Presented in the Literature of Linguistics - Introduction: Speech errors serve as a window to investigate speech production and arrangement of language elements in the brain. Gary S. Dell and Peter A. Reich (1980) said that one of the best way to find out how a system is constructed is if that system breaks. Speech errors as a linguistic phenomenon has been the topic of many linguistic researches. It can be investigated as an evidence for linguistic change as well. Bussmann and Hadumod (1996) in the Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics defines speech errors as " (Latin: lapsus linguae), is a deviation (conscious or unconscious) from the apparently intended form of an utterance." (449)....   [tags: Linguistics]
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(5.5 pages)
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Linguistics and Its Pioneers - Linguistics, as defined by Edward Finegan, is the systematic inquiry into human language-into its structures and uses and the relationship between hem, as well as into the development and acquisition of language. Language, as defined by the Collegiate Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is a body or system of words and phrases used by a large community or by a people, a nation, or a group of nations. Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken language is more fundamental, and thus more important to study than writing (Linguistics)....   [tags: Linguistics] 855 words
(2.4 pages)
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English Linguistics: Compounding - Compounding belongs to the linguistic discipline of morphology, which is concerned with the study of the creation, structure and form of words and it is the most significant word formation process next to derivation and conversion. Compounds – the products of compounding - are word combinations of at least two free and already existing morphemes. Hence the basic compound structure is F + F, meaning a free morpheme + another free morpheme. Moreover, there are two different methods of categorizing compounds....   [tags: Linguistics Essays]
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909 words
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Understanding Several Concepts on Linguistics - 1. What are the features of human language. Give examples to illustrate them. Re: Through the comparison of human and animal communication, American linguist Charles Hocktett has given the defining properties of human language. The features are generally discussed from the angle of structure: the formation of words and phrases, the function of various forms of language and in what cases language is produced. In the following part, I will choose four of them to illustrate. (1) Arbitrariness By arbitrariness, "we mean that there is no logical connections between meanings and sounds." (4) That is from the very beginning when human tried to use symbols to communicate, the symbols had no rel...   [tags: Linguistics] 1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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Linguistics Assignment - Language is a huge barrier that could potentially limit a person from truly experiencing other parts of the world. Jesus Lopez has Venezuela in his blood. There had always been a cryptic, vague presence of this country in his life, translated by food, pictures framed on his walls, and through a constant stream of communication between his parents and eldest brother that he nearly never understood. When interviewing Mike, it was evident that he went through a transition. When he moved to Villa Marina, it wasn't as simple as letting the country happen to him, he had to change and adjust himself to thoroughly gain admission to the culture and lifestyle of this South American coastal town....   [tags: Linguistics Interview] 1468 words
(4.2 pages)
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Linguistics in Anthropology - ... They try to reconstruct the pre-history of certain languages so that they can group them. In addition, they try to see where certain words came from, develop theories of why or how a language changed. This alone teaches us so much about our past because we can decode where certain stories came from or uncover time periods or major historical events from our past. Historical linguistics can tell us where people came from or how they developed. ​In terms of learning how language affects society, the field of sociolinguistics is used....   [tags: historical, language, behavior] 627 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Pursuit of the Preservation of Linguistic Diversity - Language, the tool by which humans communicate with each other, can be very diverse and is absolutely essential in documenting what it truly means to be a member of any ethnic, political or social group existing in the world today. However, it also follows that with the destruction or decline of a group, so too does the language dwindle in speakers and die. There are many factors responsible for this, such as local attitude shifts towards the language in question, ethnic subjugation/strife, social motivations to push the language to be come moribund; but although it is troubling that with the language death, the “intellectual wealth of the people who use it” (Hale, 1992) is lost as well, it...   [tags: Linguistics] 692 words
(2 pages)
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The Study of Linguistics - The Study of Linguistics Language changes with history and time. Our perception of words changes. Everything changes, from cooking with a fire to cooking with a microwave. Some examples of the ways language changes are through accents, books, slang, influential people, and historical events. Accents show development of culture over time, maybe through a historical event, such as a new country being found. The people living there might adopt the culture of the founders. Language also changes, from using different sounds in words, which are called phonemes or "segments that differentiate words" (Fromkin and Brace 303)....   [tags: Papers] 1449 words
(4.1 pages)
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Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation - Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation ABSTRACT: This paper reports a procedure which I employed with two computational research instruments, the Index Thomisticus and its companion St. Thomas CD-ROM, in order to research the Thomistic axiom, ‘whatever is received is received according to the mode of the receiver.’ My procedure extends to the lexicological methods developed by the pioneering creator of the Index, Roberto Busa, from single terms to a proposition. More importantly, the paper shows how the emerging results of the lexicological searches guided my formation of a philosophical thesis about the axiom’s import for Aquinas’s existential metaphysics....   [tags: Technology Philosophy Essays]
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Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction by James Paul Gee - ... For example at church clean language is used with proper manners that show respect to the church. Gee explains that we acquire discourses by participating in the discourse. We learn and adapt to a discourse by having “ access to the social practice” (7), which is through enculturation from someone who is already in the discourse. We are not in the discourse if we do not have access to it, which will help us learn how to act and talk in that discourse. Gee states primary discourses as something we are born into....   [tags: discourse, enculturation, america] 533 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Analyzing of Arabic: Through Culture, History and Linguistics - The analyzing of Arabic: Through culture, History and Linguistics. Can you name all the languages in the world. If you can its impressive because there are 6,909 different living languages in use today. With such a diverse array of communication techniques one can only wonder about this fascinating concept; language. There are several languages that usually correspond to another culture so one might wonder about their relationship and even the languages operation. So, how does language work and how do language and culture affect each-other....   [tags: Language] 2146 words
(6.1 pages)
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Common Ground's In Linguistics And Communications - 'Two people's common ground is [...] the sum of their mutual, common, or joint knowledge, beliefs, and suppositions' (Clark: 93). With these words, Herbert Clark explains the linguistic notion in a nutshell. Common ground is indispensible to our communicating with other people and performing joint actions, as it provides the basis for the aforesaid and places it in the correct context. If, for example, marine-loving Layla goes on a trip with her boyfriend Eric to swim with dolphins, this experience and every sensation that has to do with it, adds to their shared common ground....   [tags: Herbert Clark, Analysis]
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Computational Linguistics - Computational Linguistics Computational linguistics is a discipline between linguistics and computer science which is concerned with the computational aspects of the human language. This area of computer science overlaps with the field of Artificial Intelligence. Basically, computational linguistics is a series of programs that interprets human speech into words and actions. There are a couple of different areas of computational linguistics and those areas are theoretical computational linguistics and applied computational linguistics....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Are Humans Predisposed To Learn Language? - For a number of years, Noam Chomsky has produced written artefacts relating to the use and acquisition of language. In his works, Chomsky argues that humans have an innate ability to learn how to use language. The question of an innate ability to learn language is a cross-disciplinary one, relating to the fields of psychology, philosophy and linguistics. This essay will review Chomsky’s claim of an innate predisposition to acquire language by first attempting to determine precisely what Chomsky means by this term, before looking at key arguments both supporting and refuting the claim....   [tags: Linguistics]
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A Psycholinguistic Approach to Mental Lexicon - Introduction The study of the mental lexicon deals with how words are acquired, comprehended, organized, stored, retrieved, and produces. The term “mental lexicon” is used interchangeably with what some scholars refer to as “internal lexicon” (Bonin, 2004). It involves the different processes and activations done in the brain in order to store the words and form an internal memory which functions as a mental dictionary. Psychologist and linguists who are concerned with this study believe that words are stored in relation to their phonological, semantic, syntactic and even orthographical features....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Forensic Linguistics Assignment - Speech analysis has a type called the voice stress analysis that detects stress in the form of micro tremors in the speech of a person. It is important to note that the voice stress analysis is equivalent to polygraph. Both polygraph and stress have a common problem of not being able to point out deception. This notwithstanding, the speech analysis is apparently being used by both the Federal Bureau of Investigations and the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States. The fact that each and every person possesses a unique voiceprint makes the identification of a speaker to be theoretically possible....   [tags: Forensic Science ]
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2084 words
(6 pages)
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The Challenge of Linguistics and Cultural Diversity in Education - “Schools are changing in ways that, up until a few years ago, we thought unimaginable. Today, schools are more diverse than ever, and those trends will continue into the future. Unfortunately, teachers and schools have not always met the challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity” (Laureate, 2014). We must take the opportunity to get to know our students in order to recognize and value their uniqueness. “Teachers must work to understand the cultures of their students in a meaningful way, which involves recognizing the beliefs, values, and behaviors that characterize the various cultures of their students....   [tags: Diversity Essays]
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1433 words
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Concordancing O. Henry's The Cop and The Anthem - Concordancing O. Henry's The Cop and The Anthem A concordancer is one of the simplest but, at the same time, most powerful tools to elicit certain types of information-in a quick and effective way- from the diverse corpora available nowadays. Concordancers have been widely used in linguistics, above all in text-type studies which rely on quantitative analysis. There have been significant development in corpus linguistics during recent years. Yet linguistics is not the only field where concordancers may prove useful....   [tags: Linguistics] 3931 words
(11.2 pages)
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Delving Into the Meaning of the Word "Bilingual" - If one were to survey a crowd of 100 people about the meaning of the term “bilingual,” one would likely receive 100 different responses. There does not exist one universally accepted definition for the term “bilingual”—rather, interpretations tend to differ from person to person. Dr. Guadalupe Valdes proposed one definition of bilinguals as those who “can function to some degree in more than one language.” A more restrictive definition was offered by Leonard Bloomfield necessitating “native-like control of two languages” in order to consider a speaker bilingual....   [tags: Linguistics] 2334 words
(6.7 pages)
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Bilingual Aphasia with Parallel Recovery - Bilingualism has been commonly used in scientific and common nomenclature to refer to the knowledge and/or use of two languages, though the specifics of the definition have been widely debated (e.g. Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; De Groot & Kroll, 1997; Grosjean, 2010). In fact, one half (Grosjean, 2010) to two-thirds (Walraff, 2000) of all people in the world have been estimated to routinely use more than one language in everyday communicative contexts. Given this global linguistic profile, it has been suggested that an increasing number of people with communication difficulties post-brain injury are likely to be bilingual (Ansaldo, Marchotte, Scherer, & Raboyeau, 2008; Centeno, 2009)....   [tags: Linguistics] 1881 words
(5.4 pages)
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Language Differences Among Classes - Language variation, whether across different regions or different social groups, is a complex topic with a plethora of factors worthy of investigation. As Figure A and Figure B show, there are some interesting patterns that develop as a result of such factors. The following analysis will consider ways in which a variety of issues can begin to explain the reasons for such correlation in the data. Specifically, ways in which methodological factors, linguistic prestige, and the notion of speech communities and ‘class’, all play a contributory role, will be considered....   [tags: Linguistics] 1934 words
(5.5 pages)
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Linguistics and Dialects in Japanese - ... Other dialects were considered more countryside and less sophisticated. Now the spread of the standard Tokyo dialect is prominent due to the fact that it is heard widely on television, taught in schools for education, and even seen in official signs. In the Northeastern region there’s Tohoku-ben. Tohoku-ben is spoken in the northeastern area of the main island Honshu, encompassing the prefectures of Akita, Aomori, Fukushima, Iwate, Miyagi and Yamagata and goes up all the way up to Hokkaido. Tohoku-ben is well known for its more country sounding tone, and it’s difficult for even Japanese people to understand sometimes....   [tags: language, colloquial, adaptation] 631 words
(1.8 pages)
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Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis in Dickens - The existence of a strict relationship between literature and linguistics has always been a subject of debate within the linguistics community. As time passing by, several academics have stated their opinion about this issue. Thus, from the continuous study of the existing connection between these two areas, a new term was created, that is stylistics. Linguistic stylistics has been defined by Michael A. K. Halliday as “[…] the description of literary texts, by methods derived from general linguistic theory and within the framework of a description of the language in question, and the comparison of such texts with others, by the same and by different authors, in the same and in different genr...   [tags: Linguistic Analysis in Dickens]
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Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Communities - Lavender linguistics is a branch of linguistic studies that analyses speech in gay communities. One of the most used slangs among gay speech was Polari. Polari was prominent in the 1950’s and 1960’s and was principally used by gay men. These men used Polari to communicate among themselves and exclude heterosexual people from their conversations in a time that homosexuality was illegal. In 2010, the World Oral Literature Project labelled Polari as an endangered language. However, some linguists argue that Polari cannot be labelled a language, as it has not constructed its own grammar nor did it construct a comprehensive vocabulary....   [tags: Lavender Linguistics]
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The Use of American and Australian English - ... As a result, the majority of Australian musical artists sing mostly with an American or Australian/American hybrid accent. This article is presenting research about the usage of American English in songs by Australian artists, and also how Australian hip hop artists as a minority in music, adhere to the use of Australian English. In the article, O’Hanlon is asserting that Australian hip-hop artists reject the implementation of an American accent and in some instances are even using the most stereotypically Australian accent, which is the broad accent....   [tags: accent, linguistics] 739 words
(2.1 pages)
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Translation Using Automated and Computerized Means - Machine Translation is the process of translating one natural language into another using automated and computerized means.Based on the mode and direction of translation there are so many translation systems available now.Even though no such translation system can give highly efficient result. The proposed system is a rule based multilingual unidirectional translation system which translate English sentences into corresponding Malayalam and Hindi sentences.During translation it incorporates morphological and syntactic information present in the working pair of languages.And it also performs some word sense disambiguation,semantic analysis and morphological processing on the generated targe...   [tags: Language, Linguistics] 2217 words
(6.3 pages)
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Overview of Authorship Attribution - Authorship attribution is one of the largest areas of Forensic Linguistics. It entails determining who wrote, or more commonly, ruling out who wrote a text when authorship is unclear. Linguists assume that each particular choice the writer makes as a whole will enable identification as authors are consistent in their choices. Linguists have three main problematic scenarios when attempting authorship attribution; there is no candidate set and a profile is required, there are many candidates for a limited sample and verification where one determines whether the suspect is the author or not....   [tags: Forensic Linguistics]
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(6.3 pages)
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Language & Theory : The Differential Theory - In an article in a recent issue of Language (Newmeyer 2003), Frederick Newmeyer argues for a clear separation between what he terms `knowledge of language [i.e. grammar] and use of language [i.e. pragmatics]' (682). In developing his argument, Newmeyer makes frequent reference to linguistic analyses that are corpus-based, that is, centered on information taken from large datasets of actual speech or writing (e.g. transcriptions of conversations, newspaper articles, novels). In Newmeyer's view, grammar is distinct frompragmatics, and because a corpus contains examples of actual language use drawn from a large community of speakers and writers, it can yield only performance data....   [tags: Linguistics] 834 words
(2.4 pages)
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Various Attempts to Translate Dante's Divine Comedy - Throughout the past two hundred years, many linguists have attempted to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy into English. While all have been successful in conveying the general meaning of various passages, diction and wordiness have varied wildly; no two translations are identical. This can be attributed to two factors: normal translational variation and the intent of the linguist. Taking both of these into account, John Ciardi's 1954 translation is far superior to the others. Unlike previous literary works, The Comedy (divine was added to the title some two hundred years after Dante), written between 1307 and 1320, was originally published in vernacular Italian....   [tags: Linguistics] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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Grammatical and Lexical Changes 1550 -1700 - Today, like during the renaissance when it could be said that the English language developed the most, there is no shortage of people who comment and have opinions on the development of the English Language. In an essay entitled English our English John Marenbon (1987) talks of the necessity to include Latin in the national curriculum to aid the English student in their study, he also says that any Englishman who does not have a grasp of Latin is "(A) stranger to his own culture" (note the patriarchal ideological inscription in not including females who speak or study English in his comments!)....   [tags: Linguistics] 949 words
(2.7 pages)
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English Literature Study Program: Which is the Best Major Study? - ... Whereas student who does not like to learn about theory but likes to read, observe, interpret, and tell story is better to take Literature despite of Linguistics. The sort of student is proficient in imagining something, and the student who want to be expert of literature have to have powerful imagination. Literature students are able to create their own world by making stories. Student who likes enriching their vocabulary entries, reading English story in original version and in translated version are good in Translations....   [tags: Linguistics, English Literatures, and Translations] 852 words
(2.4 pages)
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Application Essay for PhD - Statement of Purpose My interest in linguistics began with my undergraduate studies when I majored in linguistics and translation in the department of English and Translation at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. After graduation, I pursued my master’s degree in linguistics at the University of Florida. Having my master’s degree, I have applied to the PhD in Linguistics at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee for the Fall 2014 semester. My academic linguistics background has grown significantly during my undergraduate and graduate studies....   [tags: linguistics, syntaz, studies, research] 730 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - Introduction Semantic Change leads with change on meaning of words, however this change does not occur overnight or all of a sudden. On the contrary, this is a slow process into language evolution and these differences are only realised as time goes by. There are many reasons to transformation and change over a word meaning. They can be adopted thanks to insertion of vocabulary from another language, by borrowing or even through popular usage of a word inside another context, resulting its differentiation to the whole country where English is spoken....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Language Analysis: The Brothers Grimm and Fairy Tales - Every person on earth knows a language, rather it be spoken or signed. According to the Linguistic Society of America’s website, ("Linguistic Society of America," 2012) linguistics is the systematic study of language. The study of linguistics includes the study of the sub-fields of language. These subfields include; phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax. The English language is a Germanic language, which is branch of the Indo-European language family. Other languages on the Germanic language branch include; German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian....   [tags: phonetics, phonology, linguistics]
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Shakespeare’s Use of Language in His Play, King Lear - ... This suggests that language consciousness motivates the language development in terms of grammar and vocabulary. This passage reflects four obvious language features which contain spelling, pronouns, syntax and inflections. Spelling in Shakespeare’s language is not standardized, in terms of capitals, apostrophes and abbreviations, and the use of letter <u> and <v>. These features that represent spelling in Early Modern English period are quite different from Present-day English (OED, 2013). Firstly, capitals such as Daughter and Maid in this passage seem strange for modern readers....   [tags: linguistics, pronouns, syntax] 2282 words
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Who is Leonard Bloomfield? - ... His influence waned after the 1950s, when adherence to logical positivist doctrines lessened and there was a return to more mentalistic attitudes. Today linguists, especially the younger ones, are more concerned with the directly non-observable mental processes by which human beings are uniquely capable of generating language. In his work, the concept of language structure is basicely based on Ferdinand de Saussure theories. Similar to de Saussure, Bloomfield beleived that languages contain systems of correlated elements: lexical, grammatical, and phonological systems....   [tags: American Structuralism Linguistics]
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - In spoken Japanese, subordinate clauses often occur without their main clauses. Ohori (1995; 1997) called them suspended clause constructions (SCCs) and formulated that a SCC occurs when “the intended message is either contextually inferable or conventionalized.” However, it is not very clear when and how the conversational participants know whether the intended message is contextually inferable (or conventionalized) or not, since a SCC and a “non-suspended version” of subordinate clause are not totally distinct category....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
(3.4 pages)
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Structuralism as a Literary Movement - Structuralism as a literary movement first emerged in the 1960s in the field of linguistics. It expanded to other areas of studies as well by philosophers such as Louis Althusser in Marxist theory, Roland Barthes in literary studies, Jacques Lacan in psychoanalysis, Gerard Genette in narratology, and Claude Levi-Strauss in anthropology. This paper focuses on Strauss’s Structure and Dialectics, Genette’s Five Types of Transtextuality, and Barthes’s The Death of the Author....   [tags: linguistics, philosophers, life, god]
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Characterization of Stereotypes in the Play, Pygmatation by George Bernard Shaw - ... The two men Pickering and Higgins both study linguistics and phonetics, the mechanisms and sound of speech. Higgins easily reveals the class of Eliza just by the manner in which she speaks. “You see this creature with her curbstone English: the English that will keep her in the gutter to the end of her days.” This quote displays the first impression of the high class, Mr. Higgins, of the low class Eliza and how she is instantly criticized. This extract also shows that as soon as rank is defined in a society, ignorance manifests and that filling the breach between classes grows perplexing....   [tags: discrimination, linguistics, dr doolittle]
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
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Different Types of English Spoken Throughout the World - ... This thus emphasises that having English as a global language helps countries economic growth and makes it difficult for other countries to compete with it due to their Military, Political and Economic power (Nunan, 2001). Having one language globally enables countries to communicate and interact with one another as it increases the understanding and brings efficiency to countries (Hale and Basides, 2013). Translation enables people to communicate with each other in different languages and language skills....   [tags: language development, dialect, linguistics] 1022 words
(2.9 pages)
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I Say Irregardless? - I Say Irregardless. After careful study of other texts and information concerning Prescriptive and Descriptive approaches to grammar and the linguistic values of both, I decided to write about a word that I used quite often in conversation. Irregardless is that special word that to me announces my indignation, opposition and intent to follow my own thoughts, speech or actions that may conflict with something being prescribed to me from an opposing position. That may not be clear, so an example of my interpretation and use of Irregardless might be, "You will probably go ahead and do it your way, irregardless of what I say." Although my word choice was wrong, it seems to have more impact using...   [tags: Linguistics] 399 words
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English Grammatical Categories - The words of every language are divided into several word classes, or parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives etc. The words of a given class exhibit two or more forms in somewhat different grammatical circumstances. These forms are not interchangeable and each can be used only in a given grammatical situation. This variation in form is required by the existence of a grammatical category applying to that class of words. Thus a grammatical category is "a linguistic category which has the effect of modifying the forms of some class of words in a language" (Trask)....   [tags: Linguistics] 1989 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Practice of Code Switching - ... Code-Switching occurs when two languages are used in one interaction session between two bilingual speakers (Young, 2014). Code Switching is mostly used in cases where there is maintenance of two codes in one language used for communication (Olugbara, 2008). In this literature study, occurrence of code switching among students is evident in the context of the classroom with students from different regions with different language set up (Schendl& Wright, 2011). Code switching is a frequent occurrence because these students who need to communicate in one language that some consider foreign....   [tags: linguistics, multilingual envrionment] 719 words
(2.1 pages)
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Features of Spoken Language That Are Significantly Different From Written Language - Abstract This paper serves as an introductory investigation into the grammar of spoken English. More specifically, this paper will analyze selected features of spoken language which are significantly different from written language or features of spoken language not found in written language. The features analyzed also have a high rate of occurrence in the spoken language. The ultimate goal of this investigation is the development of English Language Teaching materials which will address the features detailed....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) - 1. Introduction Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is primarily inspired by Halliday’s (1985) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) which describes language as ‘social semiotic’. According to Fowler et al. (1979), “language is social act and it is ideologically driven”. van Dijk (1988) also views language as being not only based on linguistic structures but also on a set of ‘complex communicative events’ which are embedded in social context. He introduces the socio-cognitive model of CDA where social and personal cognition mediates between society and discourse....   [tags: linguistics, analysis of texts]
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Complex Language Usage in Non-Human Species - While human beings generally consider themselves superior to animals due to our sophisticated use of language, there are several species of animal who use language that includes many properties linguists consider necessary to classify a system of communication as a language. Opinion between linguists varies considerably on what constitutes a language, but generally it is agreed that "A language consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages." (Weiten, 2008, p....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Language as it seems - The general requirement class of the University of California Merced, Core, helps envelop students to think beyond their given scopes, to push towards critical analysis of not everything but anything. The various themes each week that are highlighted in lectures, and tested in discussion, are all essentially inter-related to one another. To me, what intrigues me the most is how language, a simple, yet staple form of communication, can tie and embed itself into life, this curriculum, and society altogether....   [tags: Developing Civilization, Musical Linguistics]
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Causes of Language Death and Endangered Languages - This essay will discuss the causes of language death and if endangered languages are worth saving. This essay agrees that endangered languages are worth saving and that many factors contribute to language death. Firstly the essay will explain what language death is and the meaning of what is an endangered language. Secondly discuss language death and language birth. Thirdly discuss the causes of language death. Lastly, critically discuss if endangered languages are worth saving. The purpose of this essay is to show that language death is much higher than language birth....   [tags: Linguistics, Anthropology]
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The Relationship Between Gender and Language - The book An Intorduction of Sociolinguistics is an outstanding introductary book in the field of sociolinguistics. It encompasses a wide range of language issues. In chapter 13, Wardhaugh provides a good insight to the relationship between language and gender. He explains gender differences of language-in-use with concise examples. Wardhaugh riases questions about sexist language and guides readers to look closer at how people use language differently because of their own gender in daily life. According to the Whorfian hypothesis, which indicates that the way people use language reflects their thoughts, different genders adapt different communication strategies....   [tags: Linguistics, Sexism]
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Indigenous or English? - 4. Many young Africans no longer speak the original language of their parents and many African languages are dying out slowly and/or are being replaced by English or other European languages. Do you think it necessary to preserve our indigenous languages or should we solely promote English. Tell us your opinion about this question and what are the advantages of the choice you made and the disadvantages of the choice you rejected. In Africa, language defines who we are and today, there exist over 1,400 languages of which most of them are dying gradually....   [tags: Linguistics] 835 words
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An Excellent Interepter - we is student.The need and demands of interpreters have increased considerably, primarily due to an ever-growing internationalization and globalization. This growing demand for interpretation has also led to people’s thoughts of what makes a qualified interpreter. Hence, this essay will argue that, to be an excellent interpreter, one should not only have the proficiency in one or two languages but also should develop some essential skills, such as being able to comprehend the spoken text thoroughly, to predict the unfamiliar words, to develop effective note-taking skills as well as to interpret impartially and confidentially by clinging to the professional code of ethic....   [tags: Linguistics] 624 words
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History Of Writing - Table of content 1. Introduction 2. The development of writing systems 2.1 Non – phonological systems 2.1.1. Cave paintings 2.1.2. Pictographic 2.1.3. Ideographic 2.2 Phonological systems 2.2.1. Logographic 2.2.2. Sumerian writing 2.2.3. Syllabaries 2.2.4. Alphabets 3. Conclusion 4. Appendix 5. Reference 1. Introduction The aim of this report is to define the history of writing, how the writing system changed through the development of human society. 2. The development of writing systems According to array of proofs discovered in many countries all over the world by the archaeologists, it is said that Writing has been existing for such a long time and it is continuously developed...   [tags: Language linguistics ] 1448 words
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Definition of the English Language - Definition of the English Language The many varieties of dialects and accents of the English language make it difficult to put together one exact definition of what the English language is when looked upon as one unified language. One has to look at the evolutionary development of the language. It is therefore necessary to consider the historical events to grasp the coherence of the present situation regarding the English speaking nations of the world. The history of the English language is of significance because English is spoken more frequently than any other language except Chinese, (1)....   [tags: Papers English Linguistics Essays]
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The Influence of the Norman Conquest: Incorporating French Into English Culture and Language - The Influence of the Norman Conquest Incorporating French into English Culture and Language Normandy and England circa. 1066 Normandy is a coastal district in France that lies almost directly across from England. Its name was derived from the groups of Northmen who settled in the district only a century or two before the Norman Conquest. Although the Norman population would be largely Scandinavian in origin during the ninth and tenth centuries, it would shift in the century spanning 966 to 1066 to a largely French population (Baugh, 1959, p....   [tags: Linguistics] 2373 words
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Stuctured Immersion in English As a Second Language (ESL) - Structured Immersion and the truth Structured Immersion is an ESL (English as Second Language) program designed to be a bilingual instructional tool for students who are in a sense none native English speakers. Even though this program is still used in some US states as well as in other parts of the world, it is to my point of view a masked excuse of a program created to control the essence of a language by teaching on a need to know basis the true sense of bilingualism. This Program is a really bad copy of a program used in Canada....   [tags: Linguistics] 331 words
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A Stylistic Analysis of "What Every Woman Should Carry" - How this essay will be approached is by first giving a general interpretation of the poem "What Every Woman Should Carry" by Maura Dooley. This will be followed by, with the use of stylistic features, a more thorough interpretation. The stylistic features that will be used are deviation, parallelism as well as cohesion and foregrounding. This will be done by taking a closer look at the only stanza contained in the entire poem which consists of 12 lines. This particular poem could be broken into two parts....   [tags: Linguistics] 749 words
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The Rise of English as a National Language - The English language has been used for thousands of years, and today is the preferred language of many countries. But the language itself was not always held in such high regard. During the medieval era, the language went through a period of severe neglect, and in the fourteenth century, English was seen as the language of peasants. French and Latin were the languages used by the elite, the educated, and the clergy, whereas English was the barbarous language of plowmen. There are many historic people and points in history that contributed to the rise of the English language, but it was during the Elizabethan Age that any hesitancy about the merits of the English dialect diminished....   [tags: Linguistics] 570 words
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Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale - Vladimir Propp presents an excellent argument in his "Morphology of the Folktale." In testing his hypothesis he compares the themes of about 100 tales and comes out with a formula, ultimately coming to the conclusion that there is really only one fairy tale in its structure. He takes "a description of the tale according to its component parts and [compares] the relationship of these components to each other and to the whole" (Tatar 382). There is a significant amount of repeating functions in these classic stories....   [tags: Linguistics] 552 words
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Prescriptive Approach Vs Descriptive Approach to Language - French grammarian, Dominique Bonhours, proved on his deathbed that a grammarians work is never done when he gazed at those around his deathbed and whispered, "I am about to- or I am going to- die; either expression is used." Language is in a constant state of flux and there is always controversy to changes in and attitudes towards language. This is not something new, as it was the Romans that said the Vikings speech sounded like the 'cawing of crows' because of their harsh guttural sounds....   [tags: Linguistics] 723 words
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General-Purpose Language Teaching: Constructing a Syllabus - Introduction: Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practitioners excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language teaching, and while needs of adult migrants and private sectors or industrial language learners were extensively examined, the majority of learners of English continued to struggle with large classes, limited text books, few contact hours, and years of unintensive study. The work of many teachers had either been ignored by syllabus or curriculum designers, or had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussion by administrations who did not fully realize the implicatio...   [tags: Linguistics] 3233 words
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Modes of Modern English Vocabulary Development - Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. There is a variety of means to produce words. The most productive are affixation, composition and conversion. Let's focus on one of them: composition. According to the research, words produced through composition constitute 28% to 30% of all the new words. It is also called compounding which is a way to join two words to make a new special meaning....   [tags: Linguistics] 821 words
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Runes: Clues to Uncovering the Past - Runes: Clues to Uncovering the Past The runic alphabet is an ancient Germanic alphabet that was used throughout Northern Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and Iceland from the first century C.E. well into the Middle Ages. This alphabet, used by the Anglo-Saxons and shared with other Germanic peoples, was brought to England at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions . While runes enjoyed widespread usage among the peoples of the area, there is no concrete agreement as to the origin of this writing system....   [tags: Linguistics] 948 words
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The American Foreign Service, A Review - The Diplomacy of Silence: The American Foreign Service is an examination of the attitudes of the members of the United States Foreign Service toward the Soviet Union from 1933-1947. Hugh DeSantis draws upon extensive archival records, manuscripts, oral histories, and personal interviews in writing this book. Additionally, he combines a quick history of the diplomatic events with a record of American diplomats' commentaries on these events in the construction of his thesis. He argues that American diplomats steadfastly counseled neither cooperation with Moscow nor a hostile stance; instead, the images of the Soviets fluctuated and so did policy dispositions....   [tags: Linguistics] 457 words
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Analysis of Wuthering Heights, Chapter One - Emily Bronte was born in 1818 in Thornton, Yorkshire. Her father, the Reverend Patrick Bronte had married Maria Branwell in 1812 and had already published a number of books himself. In 1820 he moved to the small town of Howarth where he served as a rector and chairman of the parish committee. After her mother died Emily spent most of her time reading with her two sisters, Anne and Charlotte and their brother Branwell. Howarth is placed at the edge of a large area of moorland, which is said to be the setting for Emily's only novel, `Wuthering Heights'....   [tags: Linguistics] 799 words
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Repetition and the Split of Sign - We follow Lacan and return to Freud, only to find ourselves arriving at the knowledge that the unconscious operates like translating without the original text. There goes a process of representing activity in which we achieve a representation without knowing what is the "represented." Lacan leads us back to so many of Freud's decisive terms, thereby prefiguring the way those terms slip away from the grasp of traditional conceptual discourse. In The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis we are told that "the unconscious is structured like language" (FFC 20)....   [tags: Linguistics] 2968 words
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The Relationship Between Language and Worldview - The Relationship Between Language and Worldview There has been a raging debate over the relationship between language and worldview, and especially on cultural affiliations in different parts of the world. The main agenda is based on the origin of language, the unique features portrayed by humans, and its essence in the development of varying cultures, beliefs and practices. Different researchers have developed theories and arguments to explain the origin of the languages, its connection to worldview and its application in daily activities....   [tags: linguistics, cultural studies]
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Personal Experience with Language and Other Skills and Abilities - ... I also reflect very heavily on task even when they are finished this is because in my head if I ever had to do it again I want to do better, pushing myself forward. Often when I struggle with a question or topic I try and think of logical step by step explanations for what I’m looking for, trying to come to a sensible agreement in my head before I ask for guidance. I am glad that this reflects so highly in the score I got because I have always thought that it always very important to ask “why” ever since I was little, or no one would know anything....   [tags: linguistics, mathematics, interpersonal] 689 words
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The Role Social Class Plays on the British English Language - ... The most common features of the accent is: words that use the vowel ‘i’, are pronounced like ‘oy’, therefore ‘bite’ would be pronounced as ‘boyt’ and the letter ‘h’ is usually silent, hence ‘Birmingham’ would be pronounced as ‘Birmingam’. In 2008, it was dubbed as the 'least attractive accent in the united kingdom', by researchers at the British Psychological Society. They also argued that 'it characterises the speaker as less intelligent and less attractive than others'. One of the researchers, Dr Lance Workman conducted an experiment to see if perceptions of people are affected by their accent....   [tags: sociological perspective on linguistics] 944 words
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An Ode to the Novel - Forward by the Author This article is, as such, neither fact nor an accepted and acknowledged verity of any kind, manner or way. It is merely an opinion of the writer's, and an element of his disposition. The allusions and information included in it are the sum of personal belief and researched designs, on the part of its writer, other involved parties, and noted scholars, who have, over the years, come to feel that what it entails is more or less a relevant and important characteristic of the artistic landscape that has proved to constitute such an unequivocal and integral part of society, human civilization and existence....   [tags: Linguistics] 3044 words
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Sexism in the English Language - In a time of war and also in a time when we really needs to unite and help rebuild cities and states from disasters, certain civil right groups continue to introduce and push us to "think in new ways" creating "the possibility of a new reality" (Kleinman 396). The claim is that sexism in the English language has harmed women. Is the claim true. I think not. As Americans, we study our history to hopefully we do not repeat mistakes done in the past. Perhaps in the past, "man" has harmed women, denied women certain human rights that every person should receive, and set them back years in the social ladder, but words alone these days do not have the same setbacks....   [tags: Linguistics] 1815 words
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Explain why action is central in the analysis of interaction? - Introduction: Transcript of interactions can be examined using various methods of analysis including conversation analysis (CA), interactional sociolinguistics, politeness theory, critical discourse analysis and discursive psychology just to name a few. Researchers make decisions on which analytical framework they are to adopt in their study based on the focus of their investigation and the level of detail they hope to extract from the data (Stubbe, Lane, Hilder, Vine, Vine, Marra, Holmes and Weatherall, 2009)....   [tags: conversation analysis, linguistics, sociology]
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Bilingual Education and Native Language Maintenance - ... Therefore, two languages, both native and second language, should have equal treatment in term of media of instruction in the classroom. The students should have distinguishable opportunity to get in contact, to speak, and to expose with the two languages both in classroom and outside the classroom. In bilingual education issues, Faltis & Hudelson (1998) argue that the effectiveness of bilingual school dealing with successful achievement of English, however we also need considering the native language that the students possessed....   [tags: linguistics, hegemony of English] 2188 words
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Reduction of Languages in Today's World - These skills, which are inherent to the majority of the citizens, can be found among the 7.000 million people that live in 220 countries and comunicate with one of the 7.000 languages. According to the UNESCO half of the languages are dying out since almost the 90% of the population speak the 5% of the 7.000 languages in the world. Each year the number of languages is reduced, alongside this a colossal foe or a potential ally is the internet; since all the information that circulates on the network is dominated by 12 languages....   [tags: communication, linguistics, communities] 562 words
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Language Development in Hearing-impaired Children - This had to be the hardest paper that I have written here at Ashford. I think a lot had to do with finding four articles that I could really relate to. Well, then again finding the articles that interested me the most in one of the following areas: cognitive development, language development, social development, or memory and the brain in children and infants. Most students would say that this is easy, however, my situation is not like most students. I have a 6 year old little girl, named Racine, that is my true inspiration....   [tags: Linguistics, Child Development]
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Postgraduate Program Entry Request Essay - Having read English and Related Literature at undergraduate level, I took advantage of the course’s flexibility by choosing modules from a diverse world literature. I have improved my aesthetic understanding of the creative process of literature which also expanded channels for making my English more proficient, especially in reading, listening, writing and critical thinking. My main motivation to pursue postgraduate study in this programme is to specialise in teaching language because I strongly believe that a proper teaching of language is essential to building a dynamic society....   [tags: Literature, Teaching, Linguistics] 535 words
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Statement of Purpose for University - I decided to pursue a degree in Finance following the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, which had a powerful effect on both my country and my life. After taking an advanced history course that covered the biggest economic decline of the 20th Century – the Great Depression – I became acutely aware of how an economic crisis can have a devastating impact on global infrastructure. My continued desire to understand the hidden contributive factors behind these downfalls led me to read Akerlof’s and Schiller’s Animal Spirits....   [tags: finance, business, linguistics] 535 words
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The Need for Bilingual Education - In the fifth fortnightly review, I will be discussing on the needs of bilingual or English as a second language (EAL) pupil. This refers to learners whose first language is not English and comes from a diverse cultural, linguistic background and with little or no educational background (Ofsted, 2012) The EAL pupils experience barrier to their learning due to English language not have been their first language or have limited English, or considered Bilingual pupils. In addition the school provides a specialist EAL supports for the pupils, through practical activities, to make sure that cognitive and language learning takes place....   [tags: second language, culture, linguistics] 548 words
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Public Speaking Informative Essay - Specific Purpose Statement: To inform my audience about how the Dutch go about in dealing with their social problem Central Idea: When it comes to dealing with its social problems the Dutch do so with an attitude of tolerance and respect Introduction: I. Imagine the reaction if George Bush announced tomorrow that he was planning to legalize prostitution, marijuana, gay marriages and Euthanasia there probably would be uproar. II. People would say he'd lost his mind, arguing that his plans would be nothing but a recipe for disaster possibly resulting in social anarchy....   [tags: Linguistics] 1224 words
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