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Saussure's System For Evaluating Linguistics - In “Course in General Linguistics”, Saussure does two things to develop his system for evaluating linguistics: he chooses language as his linguistic object and he only incorporates factors into his model that can be said to be true of all languages over all time. The net result is a very high level and flexible classification structure, which is more intent on making a developmental framework for evaluating linguistics than necessarily providing tremendous insight into it’s more concrete aspects: rudiments like structure, meaning, morphology, syntax, or phonology....   [tags: Linguistics] 895 words
(2.6 pages)
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Linguistics and Its Pioneers - Linguistics, as defined by Edward Finegan, is the systematic inquiry into human language-into its structures and uses and the relationship between hem, as well as into the development and acquisition of language. Language, as defined by the Collegiate Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is a body or system of words and phrases used by a large community or by a people, a nation, or a group of nations. Most contemporary linguists work under the assumption that spoken language is more fundamental, and thus more important to study than writing (Linguistics)....   [tags: Linguistics] 855 words
(2.4 pages)
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Linguistics Assignment - ... He's from a large and popular family that had ties in all areas of his community, thus making his enculturation easier than if he was on his own. He also had members of the family who spoke perfect English and were more than willing to help him learn and adjust to the new language. He claimed the way he was forced to learn the language was by working and interacting with others that weren't his family. If he had not gotten his job at the market, he could have gotten by fairly easily just being around family because many did speak English....   [tags: Linguistics Interview] 1468 words
(4.2 pages)
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Understanding Several Concepts on Linguistics - 1. What are the features of human language. Give examples to illustrate them. Re: Through the comparison of human and animal communication, American linguist Charles Hocktett has given the defining properties of human language. The features are generally discussed from the angle of structure: the formation of words and phrases, the function of various forms of language and in what cases language is produced. In the following part, I will choose four of them to illustrate. (1) Arbitrariness By arbitrariness, "we mean that there is no logical connections between meanings and sounds." (4) That is from the very beginning when human tried to use symbols to communicate, the symbols had no relation in meaning with what they referred to or the similarities to indicate what the real things were....   [tags: Linguistics] 1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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Computational Linguistics - Computational Linguistics Computational linguistics is a discipline between linguistics and computer science which is concerned with the computational aspects of the human language. This area of computer science overlaps with the field of Artificial Intelligence. Basically, computational linguistics is a series of programs that interprets human speech into words and actions. There are a couple of different areas of computational linguistics and those areas are theoretical computational linguistics and applied computational linguistics....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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The Study of Linguistics - The Study of Linguistics Language changes with history and time. Our perception of words changes. Everything changes, from cooking with a fire to cooking with a microwave. Some examples of the ways language changes are through accents, books, slang, influential people, and historical events. Accents show development of culture over time, maybe through a historical event, such as a new country being found. The people living there might adopt the culture of the founders. Language also changes, from using different sounds in words, which are called phonemes or "segments that differentiate words" (Fromkin and Brace 303)....   [tags: Papers] 1449 words
(4.1 pages)
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Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation - Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation ABSTRACT: This paper reports a procedure which I employed with two computational research instruments, the Index Thomisticus and its companion St. Thomas CD-ROM, in order to research the Thomistic axiom, ‘whatever is received is received according to the mode of the receiver.’ My procedure extends to the lexicological methods developed by the pioneering creator of the Index, Roberto Busa, from single terms to a proposition. More importantly, the paper shows how the emerging results of the lexicological searches guided my formation of a philosophical thesis about the axiom’s import for Aquinas’s existential metaphysics....   [tags: Technology Philosophy Essays]
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The Analyzing of Arabic: Through Culture, History and Linguistics - The analyzing of Arabic: Through culture, History and Linguistics. Can you name all the languages in the world. If you can its impressive because there are 6,909 different living languages in use today. With such a diverse array of communication techniques one can only wonder about this fascinating concept; language. There are several languages that usually correspond to another culture so one might wonder about their relationship and even the languages operation. So, how does language work and how do language and culture affect each-other....   [tags: Language] 2146 words
(6.1 pages)
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Are Humans Predisposed To Learn Language? - ... It is suggested that newborn infants can carry out ‘protoconversations’ from a very young age (Gregory, 2004; Trevarthen, 2002). A protoconversation is essentially a method of communication used by infants with their adult carers which analysis has shown to follow a musical pattern. It is the musical analysis of the protoconversation that perhaps provides the best support for the argument proposed by Chomsky. The protoconversation appears to follow a 30 second cycle, in addition to exhibiting a regular beat and bar structure (Malloch, 1999 as cited in Trevarthen, 2002; Trevarthen & Malloch, 2000)....   [tags: Linguistics]
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The Pursuit of the Preservation of Linguistic Diversity - Language, the tool by which humans communicate with each other, can be very diverse and is absolutely essential in documenting what it truly means to be a member of any ethnic, political or social group existing in the world today. However, it also follows that with the destruction or decline of a group, so too does the language dwindle in speakers and die. There are many factors responsible for this, such as local attitude shifts towards the language in question, ethnic subjugation/strife, social motivations to push the language to be come moribund; but although it is troubling that with the language death, the “intellectual wealth of the people who use it” (Hale, 1992) is lost as well, it is important to note that this is a natural social occurrence, and is not inherently a disaster every time it happens....   [tags: Linguistics] 692 words
(2 pages)
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Forensic Linguistics Assignment - ... Incidentally, if the recipient was experiencing some stress at time of hearing the voice, then it can contribute to a positive effect on his or her memory. Therefore, for an effective balance of evidence to be achieved, the voice parade that is carefully carried out should be conducted. Interestingly, voice line ups have been used in the United Kingdom as evidences in the sexual assault cases. Other problems that arise from analyzing the speech are based on profiling given that pitches or accents can be disguised....   [tags: Forensic Science ]
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Concordancing O. Henry's The Cop and The Anthem - Concordancing O. Henry's The Cop and The Anthem A concordancer is one of the simplest but, at the same time, most powerful tools to elicit certain types of information-in a quick and effective way- from the diverse corpora available nowadays. Concordancers have been widely used in linguistics, above all in text-type studies which rely on quantitative analysis. There have been significant development in corpus linguistics during recent years. Yet linguistics is not the only field where concordancers may prove useful....   [tags: Linguistics] 3931 words
(11.2 pages)
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Language Differences Among Classes - ... There would consequently be a subconscious acceptance of each other’s linguistic form. This suggests that the notion and idea of prestige is abstract, and variable, not presiding over the entire global speech community, but smaller, nationwide social groups. On the other hand, evidence in Figure B can provide a counter-argument, as the vernacular verb forms are more commonly used by the lower social groups in each area. This implies that prestige can permeate across completely different social groups, and that prejudices can be held across several communities....   [tags: Linguistics] 1934 words
(5.5 pages)
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Bilingual Aphasia with Parallel Recovery - ... In the other participants, language recovery post-stroke was marked by better recovery in one language compared to the other (differential recovery; 18%), inappropriate mixing of the two languages (blended recovery; 9%), recovery of one language only (selective recovery; 7%) or recovery of one language after another (successive recovery; 5%). Fabbro (2001) evaluated the recovery profiles of 20 right-handed, high-proficiency bilingual PWA and also found a predominance of parallel recovery (65%) followed by differential recovery (35%)....   [tags: Linguistics] 1881 words
(5.4 pages)
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Language Learning Strategies - ... Silva (1992) concludes that the primary reason why Arab learners of ESL are unable to write in a professional style from the first to the final draft is their non-native status. Moreover, old or traditional educational practices continuing today compound the student problems (El Sadig, 2010). Considering the problems, researchers like Takaji (2001) and Hirayanagi (1998) suggested that the academic standard in context with development of writing skills should be made an inherent part of the learning discourse....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Delving Into the Meaning of the Word "Bilingual" - If one were to survey a crowd of 100 people about the meaning of the term “bilingual,” one would likely receive 100 different responses. There does not exist one universally accepted definition for the term “bilingual”—rather, interpretations tend to differ from person to person. Dr. Guadalupe Valdes proposed one definition of bilinguals as those who “can function to some degree in more than one language.” A more restrictive definition was offered by Leonard Bloomfield necessitating “native-like control of two languages” in order to consider a speaker bilingual....   [tags: Linguistics] 2334 words
(6.7 pages)
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History Of Writing - Table of content 1. Introduction 2. The development of writing systems 2.1 Non – phonological systems 2.1.1. Cave paintings 2.1.2. Pictographic 2.1.3. Ideographic 2.2 Phonological systems 2.2.1. Logographic 2.2.2. Sumerian writing 2.2.3. Syllabaries 2.2.4. Alphabets 3. Conclusion 4. Appendix 5. Reference 1. Introduction The aim of this report is to define the history of writing, how the writing system changed through the development of human society. 2. The development of writing systems According to array of proofs discovered in many countries all over the world by the archaeologists, it is said that Writing has been existing for such a long time and it is continuously developed with the flow of time....   [tags: Language linguistics ] 1448 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Process of Some Semantic Changes in English Language - ... It comes into life, grows up and modifies itself. It also may adapt to everyday use and most time it falls into disuse. This "natural" process guide the word to its semantic maturity and, sometimes, to its more developed morphological form. Words can also be formed by the necessity of a semantic addition inside a basic lexicon meaning. Yet, words may be formed and also change their meanings through the necessity to assign names to things according to the way they are and how aesthetically they should be linguistically called....   [tags: Linguistics, Morphological Changes] 2078 words
(5.9 pages)
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Language & Theory : The Differential Theory - In an article in a recent issue of Language (Newmeyer 2003), Frederick Newmeyer argues for a clear separation between what he terms `knowledge of language [i.e. grammar] and use of language [i.e. pragmatics]' (682). In developing his argument, Newmeyer makes frequent reference to linguistic analyses that are corpus-based, that is, centered on information taken from large datasets of actual speech or writing (e.g. transcriptions of conversations, newspaper articles, novels). In Newmeyer's view, grammar is distinct frompragmatics, and because a corpus contains examples of actual language use drawn from a large community of speakers and writers, it can yield only performance data....   [tags: Linguistics] 834 words
(2.4 pages)
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I Say Irregardless? - I Say Irregardless. After careful study of other texts and information concerning Prescriptive and Descriptive approaches to grammar and the linguistic values of both, I decided to write about a word that I used quite often in conversation. Irregardless is that special word that to me announces my indignation, opposition and intent to follow my own thoughts, speech or actions that may conflict with something being prescribed to me from an opposing position. That may not be clear, so an example of my interpretation and use of Irregardless might be, "You will probably go ahead and do it your way, irregardless of what I say." Although my word choice was wrong, it seems to have more impact using the substandard version of regardless....   [tags: Linguistics] 399 words
(1.1 pages)
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Grammatical and Lexical Changes 1550 -1700 - Today, like during the renaissance when it could be said that the English language developed the most, there is no shortage of people who comment and have opinions on the development of the English Language. In an essay entitled English our English John Marenbon (1987) talks of the necessity to include Latin in the national curriculum to aid the English student in their study, he also says that any Englishman who does not have a grasp of Latin is "(A) stranger to his own culture" (note the patriarchal ideological inscription in not including females who speak or study English in his comments!)....   [tags: Linguistics] 949 words
(2.7 pages)
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English Grammatical Categories - The words of every language are divided into several word classes, or parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives etc. The words of a given class exhibit two or more forms in somewhat different grammatical circumstances. These forms are not interchangeable and each can be used only in a given grammatical situation. This variation in form is required by the existence of a grammatical category applying to that class of words. Thus a grammatical category is "a linguistic category which has the effect of modifying the forms of some class of words in a language" (Trask)....   [tags: Linguistics] 1989 words
(5.7 pages)
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Various Attempts to Translate Dante's Divine Comedy - Throughout the past two hundred years, many linguists have attempted to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy into English. While all have been successful in conveying the general meaning of various passages, diction and wordiness have varied wildly; no two translations are identical. This can be attributed to two factors: normal translational variation and the intent of the linguist. Taking both of these into account, John Ciardi's 1954 translation is far superior to the others. Unlike previous literary works, The Comedy (divine was added to the title some two hundred years after Dante), written between 1307 and 1320, was originally published in vernacular Italian....   [tags: Linguistics] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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The interactional nature of suspended clause constructions in Japanese - ... From the Construction Grammarians’ point of view, Ohori (1995:216) argued that “suspended clauses have their own discourse functions that are not manifest in non-suspended version […]. Notice that the pragmatic effects of suspended clauses […] are only partially reducible to the properties of clause-linking devices themselves.” In the diagram below is shown a relationship among the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic features of the SCC. 2 Problems Ohori’s formulation nicely describes the distinct features of SCCs compared to the “non-suspended” subordinate clauses, i.e., suspended clauses which occur with their main clauses....   [tags: Linguistics, Spoken Japanese] 1185 words
(3.4 pages)
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Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts - Analysis of Semantics and Pragmatics in Two Texts Linguistics is the science of a language. Linguists depend on the use of certain aspects in order to analyse, describe and explain a human language; these aspects include semantics and pragmatics. Semantics can be defined as the study of "meaning" of lexical words and expressions independently of context. Where pragmatics is the process of recognising the "invisible meaning" of lexical items and expressions; taking into account the speaker's/ addressee's intention, the status of hearer/ receiver and the actual situation....   [tags: Compare Contrast Linguistics] 1481 words
(4.2 pages)
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Indigenous or English? - 4. Many young Africans no longer speak the original language of their parents and many African languages are dying out slowly and/or are being replaced by English or other European languages. Do you think it necessary to preserve our indigenous languages or should we solely promote English. Tell us your opinion about this question and what are the advantages of the choice you made and the disadvantages of the choice you rejected. In Africa, language defines who we are and today, there exist over 1,400 languages of which most of them are dying gradually....   [tags: Linguistics] 835 words
(2.4 pages)
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An Excellent Interepter - we is student.The need and demands of interpreters have increased considerably, primarily due to an ever-growing internationalization and globalization. This growing demand for interpretation has also led to people’s thoughts of what makes a qualified interpreter. Hence, this essay will argue that, to be an excellent interpreter, one should not only have the proficiency in one or two languages but also should develop some essential skills, such as being able to comprehend the spoken text thoroughly, to predict the unfamiliar words, to develop effective note-taking skills as well as to interpret impartially and confidentially by clinging to the professional code of ethic....   [tags: Linguistics] 624 words
(1.8 pages)
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Features of Spoken Language That Are Significantly Different From Written Language - Abstract This paper serves as an introductory investigation into the grammar of spoken English. More specifically, this paper will analyze selected features of spoken language which are significantly different from written language or features of spoken language not found in written language. The features analyzed also have a high rate of occurrence in the spoken language. The ultimate goal of this investigation is the development of English Language Teaching materials which will address the features detailed....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Complex Language Usage in Non-Human Species - ... The bark of the prairie dog is used primarily as a warning call, but a study carried out by C. N. Slobodchikoff show that the calls are sometimes non-cautionary in nature, and simply tell each other of nonthreatening animals that are roaming around the colony, as though the prairie dogs are gossiping amongst themselves. (2009 p.72) The communication system of the Gunnison's prairie dog contain many elements present in human language. They are capable of using verbs, nouns and adjectives to describe the location, size, and speed of approach of predators and other animals to their companions (Slobodchikoff 2009 p....   [tags: Linguistics]
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The Vocabulary - ... In novelist George Orwell’s mind, this was not the case. In his novel 1984, Orwell wrote about a tyrannical government that used a new language to control its citizens and their thoughts. Thoughts not approved by the government’s ruling Party “should be literally unthinkable” (Orwell 299). Limiting language, he believed, limited what concepts exist in words and can be easily expressed. The same tactics used by the Party in 1984 were used in the US in the time period around that year. New words, like “windows of vulnerability” and “nuclear deterrent” were coined by the government to pacify the people and to justify its actions....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Semiotics - ... Now that I have explained the theory of semiotics, I will analyze how researchers have used this theory and what common conclusions they have drawn in their studies. The first theme I found to be recurrent in my research articles is that it is ultimately the consumer who determines the meaning of an advertisement. One article that analyzed pesticide advertisements over a period of five decades says that it is the society or audience that determines the meaning of the advertisement (Kroma & Flora, 2003)....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Spanish Language Metaphors - Linguistic Impact In the field of Modern Languages and Linguistics, words are of great importance. A language’s phonology (study of how sounds are organized and used), morphology (study of the form and structure of words), syntax (study of the rules that govern sentence structure), semantics (study of meaning of words, sentences, and expressions), pragmatics (study of aspects of meaning and language use and context), and phonetics (study of human speech sounds) all play an important part in everyday life....   [tags: Linguistics Modern Languages]
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Effective Devices - Effective Devices There is a description of the family who migrated from Vietnam to the US, and they are having a language problem inside of family in the essay, “Language Use in Family and in Society,” from the English textbook, Constructing Others, Constructing Ourselves. (Lee Thomas, Linh Cao 61 -71). The parents cannot speak English although the children are comfortable with speaking English. As a result, the parents and children cannot communicate appropriately in various situations, and the parents have lost their authority on their children....   [tags: Linguistics Language Communication Essays]
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Definition of the English Language - Definition of the English Language The many varieties of dialects and accents of the English language make it difficult to put together one exact definition of what the English language is when looked upon as one unified language. One has to look at the evolutionary development of the language. It is therefore necessary to consider the historical events to grasp the coherence of the present situation regarding the English speaking nations of the world. The history of the English language is of significance because English is spoken more frequently than any other language except Chinese, (1)....   [tags: Papers English Linguistics Essays]
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Children Language Acquisition - The stages of language knowledge develop by stages, and it is suggested, each successive stage approach more approximates the grammar of the adult usage. This essay is going to illustrate the different stages in language acquisition that children pass through and elicit the theories in accordance. In the stage of "the first sounds", the noises produced by infants are simply responses to stimuli, for instance crying as a reaction to hunger. These noises sound the same in all language communities....   [tags: Linguistics] 693 words
(2 pages)
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Syllabus Vs Curriculum. Constructing a Syllabus - Introduction: Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practitioners excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language teaching, and while needs of adult migrants and private sectors or industrial language learners were extensively examined, the majority of learners of English continued to struggle with large classes, limited text books, few contact hours, and years of unintensive study. The work of many teachers had either been ignored by syllabus or curriculum designers, or had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussion by administrations who did not fully realize the implications of the innovations so proudly presented....   [tags: Linguistics] 3233 words
(9.2 pages)
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The Influence of the Norman Conquest: Incorporating French Into English Culture and Language - The Influence of the Norman Conquest Incorporating French into English Culture and Language Normandy and England circa. 1066 Normandy is a coastal district in France that lies almost directly across from England. Its name was derived from the groups of Northmen who settled in the district only a century or two before the Norman Conquest. Although the Norman population would be largely Scandinavian in origin during the ninth and tenth centuries, it would shift in the century spanning 966 to 1066 to a largely French population (Baugh, 1959, p....   [tags: Linguistics] 2373 words
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Shades of Meaning - "Obsession is a commitment; you have to believe in it, because it soon takes you over." A chilling statement made by Pilar Vilades in a New York Times Magazine article regarding how time consuming an obsession can be. This is exceptionally true in cases of OCD. The human mind is truly one of this world's wonders, and watching how a person with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder behaves will cause one to cherish sanity. However, even those who are considered sane experience their share of obsessive feelings in the more benign form of infatuation....   [tags: Linguistics] 559 words
(1.6 pages)
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Academic Discourse - The definition of a discourse community is as yet undefined; it does however require a set of specific characteristics, which allow the term to be narrowed until the point when many competing notions are eliminated. It is more a set of ideas, relating to the world of research and academic writing. There are many uncertainties surrounding the qualities and characteristics of a discourse community, many of which rise from a lack of definition. The following research is aimed at reducing confusion by identifying complex ideas and breaking them down....   [tags: Linguistics] 1140 words
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Smooth - "Definition" - A statement which captures the meaning, the use, the function and the essence of a term or a concept Let me try to define smooth. In doing so we are trying to capture the essence of being smooth, or something's "smoothness." It is smoothness that is defined - not this or that specific smooth object. We want to be able to identify smoothness whenever, wherever and however we come across it. But smoothness cannot be captured without somehow tackling and including the uses of a smooth object....   [tags: Linguistics] 1198 words
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Interpretations of Communication - The concept of representation and of how information is produced and submitted appealingly to an audience is essential to any written, visual or verbal text. Iconic, symbolic and indexical forms of representation when combined with preconceived ideas of particular subject matter assist in the forming of either negative or positive reactions with regards to a text. This paper examines the attached text and provides a critical reading of the strategies used to promote the ideas raised in the text and why such ideas are relevant....   [tags: Linguistics] 1301 words
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Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale - Vladimir Propp presents an excellent argument in his "Morphology of the Folktale." In testing his hypothesis he compares the themes of about 100 tales and comes out with a formula, ultimately coming to the conclusion that there is really only one fairy tale in its structure. He takes "a description of the tale according to its component parts and [compares] the relationship of these components to each other and to the whole" (Tatar 382). There is a significant amount of repeating functions in these classic stories....   [tags: Linguistics] 552 words
(1.6 pages)
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Stuctured Immersion in English As a Second Language (ESL) - Structured Immersion and the truth Structured Immersion is an ESL (English as Second Language) program designed to be a bilingual instructional tool for students who are in a sense none native English speakers. Even though this program is still used in some US states as well as in other parts of the world, it is to my point of view a masked excuse of a program created to control the essence of a language by teaching on a need to know basis the true sense of bilingualism. This Program is a really bad copy of a program used in Canada....   [tags: Linguistics] 331 words
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An Ode to the Novel - Forward by the Author This article is, as such, neither fact nor an accepted and acknowledged verity of any kind, manner or way. It is merely an opinion of the writer's, and an element of his disposition. The allusions and information included in it are the sum of personal belief and researched designs, on the part of its writer, other involved parties, and noted scholars, who have, over the years, come to feel that what it entails is more or less a relevant and important characteristic of the artistic landscape that has proved to constitute such an unequivocal and integral part of society, human civilization and existence....   [tags: Linguistics] 3044 words
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American English - Appearance of American English: I believe that most of us must have this experience that when we look up a word in a dictionary we'll find the word "BrE' or "AmE" marked behind the very word. "BrE" here means British English (herein called BrE) while AmE means American English (herein called AmE). So I can say that AmE has been more and more popular throughout the English--speaking countries, especially among the young people. To a certain extend it has become more common than BrE. Then how does it come into being....   [tags: Linguistics] 931 words
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Modes of Modern English Vocabulary Development - Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. There is a variety of means to produce words. The most productive are affixation, composition and conversion. Let's focus on one of them: composition. According to the research, words produced through composition constitute 28% to 30% of all the new words. It is also called compounding which is a way to join two words to make a new special meaning....   [tags: Linguistics] 821 words
(2.3 pages)
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Runes: Clues to Uncovering the Past - Runes: Clues to Uncovering the Past The runic alphabet is an ancient Germanic alphabet that was used throughout Northern Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and Iceland from the first century C.E. well into the Middle Ages. This alphabet, used by the Anglo-Saxons and shared with other Germanic peoples, was brought to England at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions . While runes enjoyed widespread usage among the peoples of the area, there is no concrete agreement as to the origin of this writing system....   [tags: Linguistics] 948 words
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A Stylistic Analysis of "What Every Woman Should Carry" - How this essay will be approached is by first giving a general interpretation of the poem "What Every Woman Should Carry" by Maura Dooley. This will be followed by, with the use of stylistic features, a more thorough interpretation. The stylistic features that will be used are deviation, parallelism as well as cohesion and foregrounding. This will be done by taking a closer look at the only stanza contained in the entire poem which consists of 12 lines. This particular poem could be broken into two parts....   [tags: Linguistics] 749 words
(2.1 pages)
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The American Foreign Service, A Review - The Diplomacy of Silence: The American Foreign Service is an examination of the attitudes of the members of the United States Foreign Service toward the Soviet Union from 1933-1947. Hugh DeSantis draws upon extensive archival records, manuscripts, oral histories, and personal interviews in writing this book. Additionally, he combines a quick history of the diplomatic events with a record of American diplomats' commentaries on these events in the construction of his thesis. He argues that American diplomats steadfastly counseled neither cooperation with Moscow nor a hostile stance; instead, the images of the Soviets fluctuated and so did policy dispositions....   [tags: Linguistics] 457 words
(1.3 pages)
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Analysis of Wuthering Heights, Chapter One - Emily Bronte was born in 1818 in Thornton, Yorkshire. Her father, the Reverend Patrick Bronte had married Maria Branwell in 1812 and had already published a number of books himself. In 1820 he moved to the small town of Howarth where he served as a rector and chairman of the parish committee. After her mother died Emily spent most of her time reading with her two sisters, Anne and Charlotte and their brother Branwell. Howarth is placed at the edge of a large area of moorland, which is said to be the setting for Emily's only novel, `Wuthering Heights'....   [tags: Linguistics] 799 words
(2.3 pages)
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Baroque Style - The word baroque is derived from the Portuguese word `barocco', meaning irregular pearl. Until nineteenth century the word baroque was used mostly as a fancy synonym for `absurd' and `grotesque'. The characteristic feature of this style is energy, lack of harmony, attraction for the ornate and an explosive elaboration, which almost conceals the underlining order or pattern. M. H Abrams in, `Glossary of Literary Terms' defines baroque as a ."..term applied by the art historians to a style of architecture, sculpture and painting that developed in Italy in the late sixteenth and seventeenth century and then spread to Germany and other countries of Europe....   [tags: Linguistics] 398 words
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The Cultural Differences between Chinese & English in Communication - 1. Introduction Once a group of Chinese was visiting the home of an American. As they were shown around the house, they commented, "You have a very nice home. It's so beautiful." The hostess smiled with obvious pleasure and replied in good American fashion "Thank you" ---- which caused surprise among some of her Chinese guests. Later, while conversing at the dinner table, the host remarked to the Chinese interpreter, a young lady who had graduated not long ago from a university, "Your English is excellent....   [tags: Linguistics] 9442 words
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Public Speaking Informative Essay - Specific Purpose Statement: To inform my audience about how the Dutch go about in dealing with their social problem Central Idea: When it comes to dealing with its social problems the Dutch do so with an attitude of tolerance and respect Introduction: I. Imagine the reaction if George Bush announced tomorrow that he was planning to legalize prostitution, marijuana, gay marriages and Euthanasia there probably would be uproar. II. People would say he'd lost his mind, arguing that his plans would be nothing but a recipe for disaster possibly resulting in social anarchy....   [tags: Linguistics] 1224 words
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Repetition and the Split of Sign - We follow Lacan and return to Freud, only to find ourselves arriving at the knowledge that the unconscious operates like translating without the original text. There goes a process of representing activity in which we achieve a representation without knowing what is the "represented." Lacan leads us back to so many of Freud's decisive terms, thereby prefiguring the way those terms slip away from the grasp of traditional conceptual discourse. In The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis we are told that "the unconscious is structured like language" (FFC 20)....   [tags: Linguistics] 2968 words
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A Distinct Dialect-Hakka - Introduction to Hakka The Hakkas are a unique ethnic group of "Han" Chinese. They are thought to be the earliest "Han" settlers in China. One theory states that many of the early Hakkas were affiliated with the "royal bloods." After 17 century, the sailing skill was improved and developed, therefore, about in the early Qing dynasty, a lot of Minnan and Uedong people sailed across the sea to Taiwan. But Hakkas were much fewer than Minnan people. There were two reasons: the first is that during the Kang Xi period, the Hakkas of Chouzhou Fu and Huezhou Fu were banned from sailing across the sea to Taiwan because of the prohibition; the other is supposed to be that most Hakkas living in the mountains were not familiar with watercourses, so they preferred to stay in the mountains....   [tags: Linguistics] 1496 words
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The Rise of English as a National Language - The English language has been used for thousands of years, and today is the preferred language of many countries. But the language itself was not always held in such high regard. During the medieval era, the language went through a period of severe neglect, and in the fourteenth century, English was seen as the language of peasants. French and Latin were the languages used by the elite, the educated, and the clergy, whereas English was the barbarous language of plowmen. There are many historic people and points in history that contributed to the rise of the English language, but it was during the Elizabethan Age that any hesitancy about the merits of the English dialect diminished....   [tags: Linguistics] 570 words
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Prescriptive Approach Vs Descriptive Approach to Language - French grammarian, Dominique Bonhours, proved on his deathbed that a grammarians work is never done when he gazed at those around his deathbed and whispered, "I am about to- or I am going to- die; either expression is used." Language is in a constant state of flux and there is always controversy to changes in and attitudes towards language. This is not something new, as it was the Romans that said the Vikings speech sounded like the 'cawing of crows' because of their harsh guttural sounds....   [tags: Linguistics] 723 words
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Language in Haiti - Language in Haiti Language is a major issue in Haiti. Our language is both one of our greatest belongings and one of our greatest baggages. On one hand, it represents the mainstay of our culture, the unique pathway to our true nature; on the other, it sometimes restricts and casts us out by putting us in a box and preventing us from accessing two prime universal bases of knowledge and culture: French and English. Our people, in Haiti and throughout the world, sometimes need to use Creole, French, and English at different times, in different places, to respond to different needs....   [tags: Linguistics]
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Sexism in the English Language - In a time of war and also in a time when we really needs to unite and help rebuild cities and states from disasters, certain civil right groups continue to introduce and push us to "think in new ways" creating "the possibility of a new reality" (Kleinman 396). The claim is that sexism in the English language has harmed women. Is the claim true. I think not. As Americans, we study our history to hopefully we do not repeat mistakes done in the past. Perhaps in the past, "man" has harmed women, denied women certain human rights that every person should receive, and set them back years in the social ladder, but words alone these days do not have the same setbacks....   [tags: Linguistics] 1815 words
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The Relationship Between Language and Worldview - ... Everett therefore believes that cognitive development is the fundamental stage within which culture is founded. Communities would therefore possess different cultural interpretations and worldviews, if there is a problem in the cognitive development stages. Everett identifies language as the main issue that sidelines some communities from getting into civilization. Language barriers are also important as communication among different communities influences the perceptions and the interpretations of world matters....   [tags: linguistics, cultural studies]
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Language Development in Hearing-impaired Children - ... With the crucial phase in the child's development comes with its acquisition of language. However, this is a very difficult time for child with hearing loss. Some may say that we need to look into pedagogical efforts to further infant development or to aid atypical cases. To m e honest I am really not even sure if doctors and specialist even know how to do this with hearing impaired children or infants. What I have read from Jerome Bruner is that we need to understand methodologically what occurs during language learning....   [tags: Linguistics, Child Development]
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Analyzing Identity in Racist Language - Throughout the semester I have learned to analysis the dialogue of the texts we read and came to find out the characters voices derive the tone of the author's argument. Better yet, I learned how to read between the lines. Based on the series of texts I have read in GEW 101, I come to depict the significance of language to one's identity is that racism is not acceptable, by comparing texts, authors and scholarly sources. Some of the texts and authors include: Martin L. King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail; Urban Neanderthals; Black Ball; Gran Torino and a Very Old Man with Enormous Wings....   [tags: Identity, linguistics, ] 883 words
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Being Fat is Not Okay - The meaning of “ok” means all is good. In my title I stated that Being Fat Is Not “Ok”. Staying healthy is ok, but from the research I have found, if you are overweight than you have an increased risk of catching many disease such as: kidney disease, liver disease, cancer and even lung disease (Montgomery). Campos says that there is no evidence that fat causes disease, therefore, fat is okay. I disagree with Campos’ views that being fat is ok because, as recent research has shown, there is much scientific evidence that shows and proves that being overweight increases the chance of getting a disease....   [tags: weight, linguistics, ]
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Metaphors: A Way to Think and Reason About Our Lives - ... Deeply rooted plants can live a long time and they are hard to remove. Knowledge we have about history: It is a long passage of time. It is the background of a person or thing. It is a record of the past and the past influences the present. The corresponding elements between the two domains: The passage of time corresponds to depth of the roots. The roots’ depth corresponds to a firmly placed entity. The state of putting down deep roots corresponds to establishing an entity. Now, putting together our understanding about each domain allows us to make sense of this metaphor....   [tags: Linguistics, Language]
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Code Switching and Modern Language Mixing - When Cultures and Languages Blend: Traditional and Modern Instances of Code-Switching and Other Language Mixing One of the most fascinating sociolinguistic phenomena in modern times is code-switching. This act occurs when a speaker or speakers switch from one dialect to another within a single conversation. It is similar to style-shifting, which involves a change in the level of formality between speakers. (Curzan, 266-269) The complexity of social interaction requires language users to adapt to changing needs in conversation....   [tags: Culture Linguistics Language]
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Ebonics is not a Seperate Language but Improper Form of English - Ebonics is not a Seperate Language but Improper Form of English The United States is filled with many different ethnicities, cultures, customs, languages, etc. Supposedly, our public schools are equipped with classes, teachers, curriculums and materials in order to educate that part of the student population whose first language is something other than the English language. Bilingual classes, transitional classes, ESL classes are just a few of the programs that have been developed to instruct non-English speaking students in order for them to acquire the English language....   [tags: Linguistics Papers]
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The Language of Gender, Race, and Class Sustains Power - The Language of Gender, Race, and Class Sustains Power Born into the world, Homo Sapiens inherit a mythology through language and ideas justifying their place in that world. Mythology is an invisible mental world that supports the physical world. Language may be an apparatus for surviving experience, but it only gives the individual mental analogies of reality. Language is not value free; language has political power implications inherited from its popular mythology. These political power implications are most accentuated in a society by race, class, and gender archetypes....   [tags: Linguistics politics ]
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Sociolinguistic Interview - A Sociolinguistic Interview Irving and I sit across from each other at a vintage `60's Formica table, my trusty Panasonic RN-111 micro-cassette recorder in hand. He is a black male in his mid 20's who grew up in a region of Atlanta called the "SWAts" (South West Atlanta), for the most part, except for the five years that he spent in a little Georgia town called Hogansville with his grandmother. After high-school, he joined the Army and then went on to college. This is where we are now. Irving and I are both in the same AAVE class, and we discussed some of the topics that have been brought up in that class over a banana and a bowl of cereal....   [tags: Sociology Linguistics] 1955 words
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Cultural and Technical Metaphors - Cultural and Technical Metaphors Intro Everyday conversation is riddled with metaphoric analogies. Most often, they go unrealized by the speaker as well as the listener. Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary defines a metaphor as “a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as in drowning in money)” (Metaphor 1). Metaphors are a quick and simple way of relating a message without divulging unnecessary details that would otherwise cloud the ultimate point....   [tags: Language Linguistics]
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Metaphors in the Mechanical Engineering Field - Metaphors in the Mechanical Engineering Field The Mechanical Engineering field involves multiple disciplines. The language from the disciplines converges into a complex dialect of sayings and metaphors. Metaphors are used in the field as “a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison” [1]. The Mechanical Engineering field entails different working environments and types of employment. The metaphors CAD jockey, cube farm, and worth his salt encapsulate different aspects of a Mechanical Engineer....   [tags: Language Linguistics]
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Preventing Extinction and World Change - Thirteen years ago, wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Of two potential locations considered (Snowflake Springs and Butte Rock) they were placed in the low-risk prey Butte Rock for the purpose of encouraging the wolves to spread out and create packs. Before and during the reintroduction project, Oregon State University researchers measured the rate of willow growth along 2.6 miles of the Gallatin River, which ran through Butte Rock and Snowflake Springs. During their study from 1998 to 2002, the researchers discovered that Snowflake Springs, where the elk were and no wolves lived, the willow growth dropped from 92% to nothing (“How Wolves Help Willows,” 4)....   [tags: animals, Yellowstone, Extinction, linguistics,] 1188 words
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English as a Second Language in China - In contemporary society, English, which is studied as the second language, has become an international language. China is a typical example showing the popularity of English around the world. More specifically, Chinese students have even been studying English in their primary school. Because of different cultures, histories, and religious, the Chinese and English languages have a multitude of dissimilarities. Chinese students have enormous trouble in learning English. An ESL instructor, to be successful in teaching Chinese students, should understand these profound differences in terms of pronunciation, writing, and grammar....   [tags: ESL, China, linguistics, ] 648 words
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Linguistic Theories - In the past, the study of grammar has been investigated for centuries, it was also significantly role in language teaching and learning. The reasons for teaching and learning are different in each period. In some eras, a major aim of teaching and learning was making learners to be able to communicate. In others, it was essentially taught for the purposes of reading and writing. For these reasons, the studies of two linguistic theories, the traditional grammar and the structuralism were created....   [tags: Language] 1612 words
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English Spelling Should be More Phonetic - English Spelling Should be More Phonetic The interest in the scientific description of sound has led to the invention of the International Phonetic Association (IPA) in 1888. IPA is an association to develop a phonetic alphabet to symbolise the sound of all languages. According to Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams. (2003), the use of Roman alphabet in the English writing system had inspired the IPA to utilise many Roman letters in the invention of phonetic symbols. Unlike ordinary letters that may or may not represent the same sounds in the same or different languages, these alphabetic characters have a consistent value (Fromkin et al., 2003)....   [tags: Linguistics English Language Argumentative] 1504 words
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Linguistic Internationalization - Capitalism has been around for some time, and globalization is becoming part of the world. People need to learn different languages to communicate with business from other nations. Esperanto is an easy-to-learn language than can be used to make business with international organizations, and solve the linguistic Issue of learning different languages. Our world is crowded by different languages, some of which have a minimum difference between them and others which are extremely different. Some languages are based on Latin and Greek Words....   [tags: Languages] 365 words
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Linguistic Stereotypes - Linguistic Stereotypes Language is a method in which individuals communicate in order to get their opinion across to the listening party. Language is the tool which ideas can be conveyed in various ways. Typically, language is referred to verbal communication, however, it ranges to all methods of communication i.e. sign language. Linguistic stereotypes are an existent form of discrimination. Since, languages are criticized and mocked due to the connection between language and cultural character....   [tags: Research Papers Language Essays Languages]
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Linguistic Determinism: Words and Thoughts - ... Verbal tense is a feature in English grammar and according to Whorf rationale the practice of life should make English speakers highly sensitive to the relative order of when something happens and when someone speaks about it. This way, criminals will not be lost when the automatic computation of the order of events is encapsulated in the language system, which leads the suspects to betray in their own words. For Moura & Cabrussi (2008: 45), the product highlighted by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is thought and it neither formulates nor organises without the suitable instrument: language....   [tags: Language, Semantics] 2201 words
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Cultural and Linguistic Issues Impacting Psychological Assessment - Introduction While psychological assessment can be useful, it is merely a tool that provides a piece of a puzzle when assessing individuals. Many things need to be considered in addition to psychological assessment to generate the most accurate results. No individual is exactly the same, therefore a standarized assessment tool will remain flawed. Cultural and linguistic differences are important to acknowledge and understand in efforts to reduce bias in assessment tools. Cultural and Linguistic Issues Impacting Psychological Assessment An individuals culture is one of the most influential factors that will drive an individual’s responses to psychological assessment....   [tags: Psychology] 682 words
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The Linguistic Situation of South Africa - When it comes to linguistics, South Africa is like a melting pot of languages. In total, South Africa has eleven major languages coming from both Africa and Europe. The major languages used are Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sesotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In order to understand how each of these languages arrived in South Africa, we must first look at the history of people living in the country. The first identified language spoken in the South Africa was Khoisan. This language was spoken by the indigenous people of South Africa, the Khoikhio, who lived mainly in the southern coastal regions of the country....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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X-Bar Syntax and Its Contribution to the Linguistic Theory - X-Bar Syntax and Its Contribution to the Linguistic Theory 'X-bar syntax, as a theory of phrase structure grammar, makes a significant contribution to both the descriptive and the explanatory adequacy of Linguistic Theory.' The aim of a theory of language is to describe a speaker's linguistic competence. (Class notes) In order for a grammar to be satisfactory it must satisfy two main conditions: descriptive adequacy and explanatory adequacy. A grammar that satisfies descriptive adequacy "describes the grammatical sentences of a language in such a way as to uncover deeper principles and rules, which capture in a more satisfactory way the intuitions of the native speaker....   [tags: Papers] 1773 words
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