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Aquatic Invertebrates - Outline for a report Aquatic Invertebrates Used to Classify Stream Health Ecosystem All things contained in an environment Water (input and output) Climate Daylight Plant life Clear Cutting Clear Cutting seriously effects all aspects of an ecosystem Maine is, per capita, the most heavily logged state in the continental U.S. Why Clear Cutting is Used Simple Creates a uniform forest to harvest in 40 years or so Easy to replant Cheap to Maintain (pesticides) Clear Cutting Impacts on Streams Clear Cutting seriously effects stream ecosystems The effects of clear cutting can be felt on stream ecosystems for up to 60 years The First Five Years After a Clear Cut This time period is actually beneficial in most aspects of stream animal (vertebrate and invertebrate) health The increase in CWD creates resources for life Nutrients good for aquatic species increase Nitrogen levels increase 40 times Potassium levels increase 11 times After Five Years The negative effects of clear cutting begin to be felt Increase in fast growing vegetation catches nutrients Increased solar radiation leads to increased water temperatures With no protection, water temperatures drop drastically at night After Five Years (continued) Packed soil and new vegetation lead to increased water input Leading to higher peak flows and washing out CWD and boulders (habitats) The stream widens and becomes shallower Overall homogenization of the stream occurs Second Growth After 30-40 years, second growth forests develop The stream ecosystem stabilizes Stream Invertebrates Stream invertebrates have adapted to the harsh stream environment Mayflies are flattened from top to bottom, allowing them to swim fast in low current areas Blackflies produce a substance to attach themselves to rocks when the current is strong Many aquatic insects have tarsal claws used to attach themselves to rocks to avoid the current Identifying Stream Quality with Stream Invertebrates These adaptations have led to species that easily survive in polluted streams and those that don’t Streams can be classified by the types of insects in them There are 3 different categories of aquatic invertebrates when referring to stream health Invertebrate Body Parts Healthy Stream Invertebrates Invertebrates that live in a healthy stream are classified as Group One Taxa Healthy streams contain high biodiversity Some examples are......   [tags: essays research papers] 618 words
(1.8 pages)
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates - Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates All aerobic organisms need a regular supply of oxygen from their environment in order to respire. This is much easier for terrestrial animals, as 21% of the air is made up of oxygen, compared to less than 1% in water. Aquatic animals have to overcome the problem of getting enough oxygen to support metabolic reactions in an environment where there is very little of it. Some simple organisms such as amoebae and flatworms are able to carry out gaseous exchange over their whole surface area, as they have a high surface area to volume ratio....   [tags: Papers] 460 words
(1.3 pages)
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Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels - Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels This essay will be analysing the occurrence of filter feeding and demonstrating it as a unique adaptation for marine mammals. It will also analyse how filter feeding, combined with invertebrates such as mussels, produces a complex, yet distinctive foraging strategy. This essay will also discuss the features of molluscs and how they are adapted to use their features to aid their particular means of feeding, including the full process of how this form of consumption occurs....   [tags: Papers] 898 words
(2.6 pages)
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Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species - Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species Aim: To investigate whether pollution affects the diversity of aquatic invertebrate species. Equipment: Wash tub, Smaller Margerine Tub Plastic Spoon, Milk Container, Net, Species Analysis Chart. The wash tub has the perfect surface area to count the animals without imprisoning them, the smaller margerine tub allows for the animals to be more carefully analysed so that their species can be more easily determined, the spoons are the perfect size to remove the animals individually, using the milk container is much easier than filling up the wash tub with water because if we had to fill the tub itself up, we could fall in, and the net is designed with a tight enough mesh to capture the very miniature creatures, wihout having to bend down and scoop them out ourselves Method: Fill the milk container with water from the first, unpolluted dyke, and tip the contents into the wash tub....   [tags: Papers] 1203 words
(3.4 pages)
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Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate - Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate (i) Planning ------------ Introduction ============ Before a complex biological study can be planned and formulated, the terminology in the title above must be clarified. The investigation requires a sound knowledge of ecology, which essentially is the study of organisms, whether they be animals or insects, and their relationship with the environment in which they live....   [tags: Papers] 798 words
(2.3 pages)
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Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) - Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) Jean Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a theory of evolution to the public. Although his ideas were not widely accepted they paved the way for others to do work in that field. Even before his work on evolution he did extensive work with invertebrates. His work on invertebrates inevitably led him to his theory of evolution. This theory was not accepted at his time and has since been proven wrong. The way he was raised and the institutions he attended gave him the opportunity to perform his work....   [tags: Biographies Biography Lamarck Essays]
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Testing Water Quality at Four Sites on the River - Farmer's slurry in the nearby fields could fall in and pollute the river. The slurry could cover any vegetation in the river, not allowing them photosynthesise. Bacteria can reproduce rapidly and can double once every 20 minutes. The fungi and bacteria can also break down the plant and they need oxygen to live, so they take it from the water. This then starves the other animals and plants in the water. There are two types of sewage: Foul Sewage and Storm sewage. Storm sewage is the water which washes up anything on the road's surface such as oil, dog faeces and food....   [tags: Field Report] 1359 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System - The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System Method Equipment Pond net Tray Pots and lids Spoons Hand lens Wellington boots Specimen Pots Freshwater Invertebrate Key Scrap Paper (note pad) Gloves Tape to cover cuts Pencil I investigated how the quality, amount of dissolved oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and the temperature of the water in the River Roding System affected the distribution of organisms in the river....   [tags: Papers] 2198 words
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Eleutherodactylus (Greenhouse Frogs) - Eleutherodactylus p. planirostris, or more commonly the Greenhouse frog, is from the Leptodactylidae family. They were unintentionally introduced to Florida around 1875. Their numbers have continued to grow and they are now very common among South Florida with increasing inhabitants around the panhandle. Greenhouse frogs have a reddish-brown appearance with either dark blotches or 2 dark stripes down their backs. They are relatively small in size usually growing to about an inch to and inch and a half in length....   [tags: essays research papers] 456 words
(1.3 pages)
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Life - Until recently, scientists believed that the sole source of energy responsible for life on earth was the sun. In 1977, a group of scientists researching the theory of plate tectonics, traveled to the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and discovered something that could possibly explain how life began on this planet. From the Galapagos Rift's thermal springs, scientists discovered densely populated communities of several species never before observed. Since that time the Federal Government has devoted more than 10 million dollars to research these communities and their evolutionary history....   [tags: essays research papers] 858 words
(2.5 pages)
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Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds - Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds Aim- To investigate the distribution of invertebrates in two pond ecosystems. In this investigation I will be studying the distinction in abiotic factors and species diversity in the two ponds. The two ponds that I will be looking at to achieve my results is meadow pond which was man made in 1994 and Woodland pond which is mad made in 1990 and is surrounded by deciduous trees like oak and ash, which loose their leaves during the season of the year when there is in short water supply....   [tags: Papers] 1843 words
(5.3 pages)
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Physics and Fish Bioenergetics - Welcome to the world of fish physics. Many of us understand basic fish behavior and can reach logical conclusions about where the best place to throw a fishing line is. But when we don’t think much further than that we are missing out on some very interesting details of fish behavior. We can never fully understand why we find some fish in one location and some fish in other locations until we consider the concept of fish bioenergetics. Ultimately, fish behavior is a product of bioenergetics....   [tags: physics fish bioenergetics]
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Underwater Acoustics - My Communications coursework will be on non-radio communications. My chosen topic is underwater acoustics. The applications of underwater acoustics and their advantages and disadvantages will be studied. All forms of non-radio communications are based on waves. Waves are generally a disturbance in a surface, transferring energy from A to B. Waves can be mechanical vibrations travel through a medium. For example: water, sound. These waves are called mechanical waves. Progressive waves are created from a point and energy is distributed to the surroundings....   [tags: Non-radio Communications] 2136 words
(6.1 pages)
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Mercury in the Everglades - Mercury in the Everglades Everglades Background Information: * Established in 1947 on 1.4 million acres in southwest Florida * Sunny, Semi-Tropical Swamp Setting. Experiences near daily downpours (http://srv3sftpa.er.usgs.gov/sofl.fact.html) Mercury's Effect on the Everglades: * A small amount of mercury is found in the crust of the earth. This is not the problem. The anthropogenic mercury is the problem. The mercury that is growing dangerously in size is known as methylmercury....   [tags: Geology]
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Animal Testing and Researching - Animal Testing and Researching Animal testing is supported by some, but opposed to others. The growing number of animals used in research differs among the different countries. The fruit fly and nematode are the most used animal in testing. However, the most common mammals used in animal research are mice and rats. Shaved albino rabbits and guinea pigs suffer severe testing for skin irritancy and eye irritancy. Though the usage of non-human primates are outlawed in some countries, the U.S. still finds the need to use them....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Animal Testing] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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grey tree frogs - Hyla versicolor, commonly know as the Gray Tree Frog or the Eastern Gray Tree Frog, is an amphibian that is referred to as the “Chameleon of the Frog world” (Craighead, 2004, p.1) because of its ability to change colors. “This frog was once thought to be the same species as the Cope’s Gray Tree Frog”. They can only be distinguished by their calls and the fact that the Cope Gray Tree Frog is diploid while the Gray Tree Frog is tetraploid (NPWRC, 2004). The Gray Tree Frog is classified as follows: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Lissamphibia Order: Anura Family: Hylidae Genus: Hyla Species: H....   [tags: essays research papers] 1412 words
(4 pages)
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Biology of a Squid - Biology of a Squid Squids are among the most varied and unique of all invertebrates. They are mollusks of the Class Cephalopod, along with the nautilus, cuttlefish, and octopus. Squids are highly evolved, and have developed a number of traits uncommon to most other mollusks. Fossil records of cephalopods have dated back the Cambrian Period (about 600 million years ago). Structurally, squids have only small variations of a basic theme common to all cephalopods. They are spherical or cigar-shaped with two fins used to stabilize movement when swimming....   [tags: Papers] 570 words
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Animal Testing is Cruel and Flawed - Animal testing is the use of non-human animals for scientific experimentation. There are estimates that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide from zebra fish to on-human primates are used annually. Much larger numbers of invertebrates are used even flies and worms are used has model organisms are very important, experiments on invertebrates are largely unregulated and not included in statistics. Animals are euthanized after being used in a experiment. Some of these animals are purpose-bred and others are caught in the wild or they are supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds....   [tags: Animal Cruelty, Argument, Animal Rights] 1229 words
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - ... Another problem with high concentration of vitellogenin might cause lipids and proteins to divert in the body causing the scales of a fish to have a loss of calcium. With a loss of calcium the scales become weaker and diseases are more likely to affect the fish (Gross-Sorokin, Roast, and Brighty 2006). Because of intersex conditions becoming more prevalent as time goes on and that fish will become intersex around the age of puberty; the roaches can have a decreased reproduction rate in terms of sperm output because the body and internal mechanisms of the fish were becoming more female....   [tags: Environmentalism / Human Health]
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Blue Crabs - The scientific name given to the blue crab was derived from Latin and Greek: Calli, beautiful; nectes, swimmer; and sapidus, savory. Thus, a literal transition might be the beautiful savory swimmer. The blue crab is an important and interesting species. The blue crab is a species whose life history involves a complex cycle of planktonic, nektonic, and benthic stages which occur throughout the marine environment in a variety of habitats. The blue crab is one of the more abundant estuarine invertebrates and supports important commercial and recreational fisheries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts....   [tags: essays research papers] 425 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray - The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray Introduction ============ The source of the River Cray begins in Priory Gardens in Orpington through Sidcup and into Crayford and then finally into the River Darent near the Dartford Marshes. The route of the river takes it through many urban areas which will most certainly add pollution to the water. The river is a low lying river and is also a first order stream. Aim === To investigate the downstream changes of pollution in the river Cray....   [tags: Papers] 1440 words
(4.1 pages)
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Antarctica - Contents • Geographical location • Physical features and climate change • People who live and work there • Animals • Exploration • Antarctic Treaty and Madrid protocol • How is the environment at risk. • What is unique about Antarctic. Geographical location Antarctica is one of the two continents that are wholly in the southern hemisphere. 42 % of Antarctica is owned by Australia, the other 58% is spread across six other countries. All seven countries have agreed to the Antarctic Treaty, which makes laws to prevent pollution and other bad things....   [tags: Geography] 1404 words
(4 pages)
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Extinction Risks for Coral Reefs - ... The invertebrate survey was undertaken at two depth intervals of 3m and 10m. Four 0.5 m wide by 20 m long belts were placed on the coral reef. Over a period of 3-5 minutes the observers counted the number of invertebrates found on the belts. The coral survey was performed, by placing four 20 m long belts on the coral substrate. At 0.5 m intervals the substrate on which the belts were lying was examined and recorded. After the two and half month survey, the data was collected and interpreted by various means: Cluster analysis, Coral Reef Health Index (CRHI) and Distance Population Index (DPI)....   [tags: Ecology]
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Learning and Memory - Learning and Memory Learning and memory are not unitary processes. Learning is the process by which new information is acquired; memory is the process by which that knowledge is retained. Learning can be divided into two types: 1)Explicit memory is the conscious acquisition of knowledge about people, places and things. It occurs in the highly developed vertebrate brain ,mainly in the diencephalic structure (1). 2) Implicit memory is the non conscious learning of motor skills and other tasks. It does not depend on the temporal lobe, but involves the sensory, motor associated pathways in the expression of learning process....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Brain Plasticity - Brain Plasticity Throughout the line of questioning we have been following in our efforts to get "progressively less wrong" in our class wide model of the brain, a constant debate has sparked on the issue of whether brain equals behavior. If we agree that brain truly equals behavior, then we can surmise that the vastly differing human behavior must also translate to differing nuances in the brain. It is a widely conceded point that experience also effects behavior, and therefore experience must also affect the brain....   [tags: Neurology Neurological Papers]
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Black Turnstone - As an adult, the black turnstone is a stocky, short legged bird that has dark colorings but white across its wings and back. Its tail is white with a black terminal band. As a hatchling they are brownish with a brown gray tail. The beak of the turnstone is black, short, and thick. The bill is about 20-27 millimeters long and slightly upturned. This helps them flip over rocks to get food. Both males and females are about 22–25 cm and weigh 100–170 g. Other names of this bird are Tournepierre noir and Vuelvepiedras negro....   [tags: Animal Research ]
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Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia - Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia Daphnia are the organisms that are involved in this experiment to find out what effect alcohol has on their heartbeat. It is easy to study the effects of alcohol on the heart of Daphnia as the organ can be easily seen through the transparent body of Daphnia. The number of heartbeats may be counted before submersion in alcohol and after submersion in alcohol to investigate the effect of alcohol. Daphnia belong to the Phylum Arthropoda and are Branchiopoda which belong to the class, Crustacea....   [tags: Papers] 2282 words
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Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease - Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease Aim: To investigate closely the factors that can affect the activity of urease. The effect of concentration and temperature can be studied over a period of time leading to the order and activation enthalpy of the reaction. Introduction: UREASE (NH 2 ) 2 CO + 3H 2 O ----------> 2NH 3 (aq) + CO 2 (g) Urease is an enzyme found in microorganisms, invertebrates, and higher plants. It catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 5274 words
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Intestinal Vesicle of Nematodes - S. carpocapsae and X. nematophila are mutualistic symbionts that parasitize, kill and use insects for reproduction. S. carpocapsae develop into non-feeding infective juveniles (IJ’s). The S. c. IJ’s serve as vectors for the X. n. The vector IJ’s then colonize at a place termed the vesicle. X. n. are released from the vesicle, via nematode defecation, into a new insect host. This process serves as a model to understand general aspects of horizontal transmission of symbionts by their hosts. It takes very few X....   [tags: Biology Steinernema Carpocapsae] 1654 words
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Redfin Pickerel - Description: The Redfin pickerel has 15 to 36 dark, wavy vertical bars and reddish-orange lower fins. The coloration is much the same as that of chain pickerels, a dark backward slanting bar below the eye. The snout is shorter and broader than any other pickerel. There are normally 11 to 13 branchiosstegal rays under the lower jaw. The cheek and gill covers are completely covered in scales. They weigh up to one and a half pounds, which is the world record to this day. They have an average length from 6-10 inches with an average weight of 5 ounces....   [tags: essays research papers] 429 words
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The Giant Clam - The giant clam is known as a reef dwelling mollusk. The domestication factor has become of large importance to the Indo-Pacific peoples. Mainly in the area of their diet. These huge clams are huge targets for fishermen and can be found easily. With the crystal water complection of the reef waters they live in makes them even easier to be spotted by the fishermen an by poachers. The people of this region eat every part of the flesh of the animal. They either dry, cook, or eat them raw....   [tags: essays research papers] 449 words
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Succession - Succession Succession is where a pioneer species colonise an area, and gradually bring about changes so that other more complex species may also colonise the area, replacing the pioneers. The presence of the pioneer species signifies primary succession, which is basically the colonisation of bare rock. The abiotic conditions are extreme, with a very harsh climate which can only be survived by the pioneer species. An example of a pioneer species is lichen, which are found in the splash zone of a shore....   [tags: Papers] 369 words
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The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans - The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans Our oceans are the most productive and more than likely the most helpful environment on the planet today. Oceans not only supply our ozone with life supporting oxygen, control the earth’s weather patterns, it also is home to over a million different species ranging from mammals, invertebrates, to microscopic plankton. The ocean is a very diverse environment and it is very important to keep the ocean and all off its creatures alive and healthy....   [tags: Papers] 342 words
(1 pages)
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An Argument for GMO's in Foods - One of my favorite episodes of the television show, "The Simpsons", begins with Marge, the mother, serving her family a dinner of unusually large, genetically modified foods. Shortly after dinner is served, one of the potatoes eats a carrot. Although this example is comedic hyperbole, it is still an excellent illustration of the public perception of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as dangerous "Frankenfoods". This perception is out of touch with the reality of GMOs and runs contrary to a large body of scientific evidence that indicates that GMOs are safe for people and our environment....   [tags: argumentative, persuasive] 1200 words
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Contrasting the Aboriginal's View on the Environment and the European View on Managing Resources - Aboriginal and non-aboriginal people are un-intentionally separated by many means. One such example would be the way each use their land and how they manage it, and different land uses stem from different values and morals. The biggest difference is that aborigines think of their environment and its inhabitants no lower than themselves, they live with the environment, take care of it, preserving the balance of ecosystems. Non-aboriginal people, however, think less about everything else and are more centred on their own wellbeing, comfort, and wealth....   [tags: environment, environmental] 842 words
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DNA Sequences and Species Boundaries - Discussion The use of genetic markers has been an effective way to examine population structure (Bucklin and Kocher 1996) and mitochondrial DNA sequences have been used broadly to delimit species boundaries (Wiens 1999) . More recently the use of mitochondrial DNA sequences has been contentious, and two extreme viewpoints have emerged (see review in Rubinoff and Holland 2005), one position criticizing the exclusive use of mtDNA while others have endorsed one particular gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a universal marker....   [tags: Biochemistry] 2450 words
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Humans Are Natural, But Would the Earth Be Better without Humans? - Would the earth be better off without humans. The expected response from a member of today's society would be a resounding yes. However, those who are quick to come to such a conclusion may not be completely correct in their response. The world is a natural thing, with only earthly inhabitants, and so long as all of these inhabitants are of earthly origins, all are natural. We as humans are natural, and therefore any consequence of our existence, be it good or bad is natural. Now, this creates an extraordinarily broad realm of what is natural, but this point is essential to any argument for the existence of humans....   [tags: humanity, nature, earth, evolution,] 1674 words
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UV Radiation on Organisms - This project is significant because it could help bring about a better understanding of, how UV wave lengths affect the people and the hole in the ozone layer. By determining the effects of UV on Artemia Salina we come closer to alleviating the effects of UV radiation on organisms. In the future this could lead to better UV protection technology. IV: UV exposure in seconds DV: Mortality Rate DV2: Growth Rate it mm/day H1=the UV radiation will kill more Shrimp the longer they are exposed to it....   [tags: Research Analysis] 862 words
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Striped Bass of New York State - The striped bass (Morone saxatilis), also known as the striper or rockfish, can be identified essentially by the darkish horizontal bands across its silver body. Striped bass can grow to over four feet long (122 centimeters), weigh over fifty pounds (23 kilograms) and live up to thirty years. The New York State record for a striped bass is a 76 pound fish (34 kilograms) caught off the coast of Montauk in 1981. The biggest striped bass on record is a 125 pound fish (56 kilograms) caught off the coast of North Carolina in 1891....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 933 words
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The Daintree Rainforest - The Daintree Rainforest, one of the oldest rainforests in the world, is part of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia. This 1200 square kilometer, or approximately 500 square mile, rainforest is home to 3000 plant species. This region “contains 30 percent of Australia's frog, marsupial and reptile species, 65 percent of Australia's bat and butterfly species and 20 percent of the bird species,” according to the Daintree Discovery Center, the rainforest’s interpretive facility. Of these, 700 plants and 70 animals exist only in northeast Queensland and nowhere else in the world....   [tags: Ecology] 856 words
(2.4 pages)
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Eco-Friendly Wildlife Garden - Eco-friendly wildlife garden is a great way to attract wildlife to your garden with various types of benefits. There are large numbers of native wildlife reserve in the gardens with an important value all over the country. The most important elements for a good and healthy wildlife garden are food, shelter and water. These are the fundamental elements required by all the living organisms to survive. Food: You can consider the habitat of some insects that feeds on nectar. Some animals that feed on worms and slugs and birds that feed on fruits and berries can be put in the gardens to increase the aesthetic look of the garden....   [tags: Gardening] 720 words
(2.1 pages)
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Impact of Sea Otters on Community Ecology - ... Innumerable coastal marine organisms thrive on kelp forests, enhancing biodiversity of the region. Therefore, to maintain the diversity and richness of coastal marine ecology, sea otters should be preserved, who indirectly lead to the preservation of kelps. Impact of sea otters on community ecology The presence or absence of sea otters influences marine ecology at the community-level. Studies have shown that kelp forests enhance the underwater environment, providing a suitable habitat for fishes....   [tags: Ecology ]
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Micke Grove Zoo - ... The zoo provides shelter some of the animals that are nearly extinct. For instance, the zoo shelters birds such as Marbled Teal which is mainly found in eastern and western Mediterranean, western and southern Asia, north and sub-Saharan west Africa, Iran, Pakistan, and northwest India. Micke Grove provide home to other birds such as the Swainson’s Hawks that are also threatened in the wild. Animals such as Black-handed Spider Monkeys [from Mexico, Central America, and, Bolivia], Black Tufted-ear Marmoset [from South Central Brazil], Ring-Tailed Lemur [South and Southwestern Madagascar], and Hamadryas Baboon [from Ethiopia, Somalia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Abyssinia] are also kept at the zoo and are endangered in the wilderness....   [tags: Zoology]
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The Impact of Sea Otters on Marine Ecology - ... Studies showed that the elimination of sea otters during the 1800s from the Californian waters might be responsible for the dwindling numbers of kelp forests. Further studies have also shown that the population density of sea otters affects seaweed biodiversity as well. In a study conducted in Alaska on three different bays, the Torch Bay, Deer Harbor and the Surge Bay, it was found that the presence of sea otters led to a decrease in the population of sea urchins, which led to an increase in the population of seaweeds....   [tags: Ecology ]
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Darwin's Legacy - ... After graduating in 1831, Charles was contacted by Henslow, who offered a once in a lifetime opportunity to travel the coast of South America. Jumping at the chance, Charles set sail on the Beagle with a phrenologist named FitzRoy, to complete a survey of South America’s coast. During his travels, Charles read a work called “The Principles of Geology” by British geologist Charles Lyell. In the book, Lyell challenged the religious ideas of earth’s formation and proposed uniformitarianism instead....   [tags: Scientists ] 1299 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Existence of Trilobites - ... They typically would roam the sea floor and filter the mud in order to acquire food. Another example of this is their role as predators. The majority of early trilobites are thought to have been predators of benthic invertebrates, which are backboneless organisms that inhabit the bottom of any body of water, such as lakes and streams (Gon III, 2008). As the Cambrian period progressed, these arthropods had to adapt to the way their environment was changing in order to survive and prevent extinction....   [tags: Paleontology ] 2471 words
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Animal Testing Discussion - ... For example, does an earthworm have a moral status. What about a pig versus a dog. To consider that all biological organisms have a moral status and therefore, rights, seems quite absurd. People who advocate for animal rights largely concern themselves with the “higher animals.” Higher animals are those that can possess memories, participate in a social community, are conscious and aware, and can plan ahead. Many animals display a wide variety of behaviors that indicate that they have these characteristics....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Animal Ethics] 2305 words
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Alligators - ... (Crocodopalis, 2006). American alligator food can be found in many different areas of its habitat. Some of it food is found in the litoral zone, limnetic zone, and on the shore. In Louisiana coastal marshes, adult alligators mostly eat nutria (little beavers). While in Florida and northern Louisiana, alligators mostly fish, and turtles. In Farming areas, adult alligators eat calves, goats, hogs, cattle and adult horses. (I.C.W.D.M, 2005). Diet influences alligator’s body condition, growth, and reproduction because nutrition varies among prey items....   [tags: Animals, Environment, Hunters] 2669 words
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A Philosophic Challenge - ... Yet, an experiment conducted in a laboratory was only able to make amino acids by human intervention through the use of sophisticated equipment (Werner 206). Head of the Genome Project, Francis Collins, discounts the theory of spontaneous generation as a scientifically unsupportable speculation. He believes that an impersonal organism could not have suddenly evolved, and later transformed into a personal humanity. (Driscoll and Brashears 98) Collins said, “I can’t imagine how nature, in this case the universe, could have created itself” (qtd....   [tags: Theory of Evolution, Darwin, DNA] 1155 words
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - ... The chemicals that cause feminization also, in theory, may have an effect on the human body to cause reproductive diseases (Jobling, Burn, Thorpe, Williams and Tyler 2009). In many of the research and tests that will later be analyzed, data from these tests can be complied to state that feminization is a large problem for some species right now. The problem stems from feminization not being reversible which causes populations to decrease, altered mating behavior, skewed sex ratios, reduced testicular growth, and reduced reproductive output (Jobling, Burn, Thorpe, Williams and Tyler 2009)....   [tags: Environmentalism, Human Health]
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Darwin's Theories vs. The Fossil Record: A Philosophic Challenge - ... However, the theory of evolution theorized that very dissimilar animals evolved from a common ancestor (Werner 100). Even Darwin, in his own book— On the Origin of Species, recognizes flaws in his theory. In what amounts to a two chapter apology, he acknowledges that his theory doesn’t correspond with fossil records, and that there were holes in the theory that didn’t match up with paleontological discoveries (Werner 74). The concept of evolution suggests that organisms’ progress is leisurely....   [tags: Biology]
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Artificial Reef - ... Metal artificial reef structures vary from metal boxes to entire decommissioned ships. Unlike concrete, metal cannot be directly placed into a seabed but rather requires a laborious process to inhabit life. If metal is not treated and cleaned properly, it could be toxic to surrounding ocean wildlife. Also, much like plastic, metal has a smooth surface that makes it difficult for algae to attach to. Fortunately, through the use of electricity, mineral accretion can be used to accelerate the growth of corals and other reef organisms....   [tags: Environment]
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Cephalopod Communication - There is an ongoing debate in the marine world arguing that cephalopods use their camouflage to communicate with each other. A cephalopods camouflage is made up of a bunch of tiny chromatophores in their skin. Several scientists think that the communication is plausible, while others stick to the no-fun result that there is not a bit of proof. In order to understand if cephalopods use their chromatophores to communicate, it might be a good idea to know what a cephalopod is. A cephalopod is in the class of mollusks that scientists classify octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish....   [tags: marine biology, ] 1047 words
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Centipedes - Did you know that one species of centipede can be a foot long. Thankfully, this type only lives in South America. Centipedes are insect-like invertebrates. They are usually reddish-brown in color, but can range in color from yellow to dark brown. Depending on the species, are between 3 and 30 centimeters long. A centipede has one pair of legs on each of its body segments. The head is flattened, with a pair of long antennae. They have jaws containing poison glands on their first body segment, directly behind their head....   [tags: essays research papers] 454 words
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Coelomate And Acoelomate - Most animal phyla originated in a relatively brief span of geological time, however the diversity among them is extraordinary. Every organism is very unique a detailed in certain ways, comparisons of certain types of organisms can be very difficult. The class in which will be compared is that of the invertebrates. The main difference between coelomate and acoelomate body plans are that coelomates have a true coelom, which is a fluid-filled body cavity completely lined by tissue which is derived from mesoderm....   [tags: essays research papers] 631 words
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Spiders - Spiders My essay is on spiders. I have chosen a few spiders to report about. I also have some basic info about spiders in general. Spiders comprise a large, widespread group of carnivorous arthropods. They have eight legs, can produce silk, and usually have poison glands associated with fangs. More than 30,000 species of spiders are found on every continent except Antarctica in almost every kind of terrestrial habitat and a few aquatic ones as well. Spiders range in body size from about 0.5 mm (0.02 in) to 9 cm (3.5 in)....   [tags: essays research papers] 614 words
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The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef - The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc)....   [tags: Papers] 519 words
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Let's Put an End to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation - We Must Put an End to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Without animal research, cures for such diseases as typhoid, diphtheria, and polio might never have existed. Without animal research, the development of antibiotics and insulin would have been delayed. Without animal research, many human beings would now be dead. However, because of animal testing, 200,000 dogs, 50,000 cats, 60,000 primates, 1.5 million hamsters, and uncounted millions of rats and mice are experimented upon and die each year, as living fodder for the great human scientific machine....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
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Combining of Old World Animals and the New World Environment - Combining of Old World Animals and the New World Environment On the morning of October 12, 1492, as Columbus and his fleet of three ships approached the majestic shores of the new world, it marked the end of one era and the beginning of another. Until this historic moment, the two continents had lived separately from each other, unaware of the other's existence. However, as Columbus and his crew set foot upon the New World, the flood gates were suddenly opened as the country now known as America, fell into the hands of its European discoverers....   [tags: American America History]
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Management of Old-growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest - Management of Old-growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest When westward expansion brought settlers to the Northwest in the 1800s, they discovered that coniferous trees “forty feet in circumference [that] shot two-hundred feet straight up” flourished in the forests of the Pacific coast (Ervin 55). These early pioneers found the opportunity for economic growth in logging these vast forests of towering trees unlike any they had seen before. Today, the timber industry still remains the backbone of economic support for Washington, Oregon, and northwestern California, but an inevitable conflict has arisen between humans and our environment....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Earth Faces a Sixth Mass Extinction - Earth Faces a Sixth Mass Extinction Scientists in Great Britain have been studying the distribution of birds, butterflies and plants for the past 40 years and the results from these studies suggest that the Earth is heading towards another mass extinction, and this one may have its roots in human activity. Within the four billion years that Earth has been around, it has already experienced five mass extinctions. The most recent, and most well known occurred 65 million years ago and caused the extinction of the dinosaurs....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Microraptor Gui: Link Between Bird and Dinosaur - The Microraptor Gui: Link Between Bird and Dinosaur The Debate: For years paleontologists have debated intensely about the origin of birds. How did air-borne birds evolve. How did they learn to take flight. Are they linked to dinosaurs. If they are, which species of these reptiles are the birds closest related to. The Find: From 2001 and 2002, six new basal dromaeosaurid specimens from the Lower Cretaceaous Jehol Group in Chaoyang Basin in western Liaoning, China, were found. These six specimens of the Microraptor gui, previously known genus Microraptor, were discovered by Xing Xu from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 1153 words
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The Extinction Event and Life in the Post-Apocalyptic Greenhouse - The Extinction Event and Life in the Post-Apocalyptic Greenhouse The biggest mass extinction of the past 600 million years (My), the end-Permian event (251 My ago), witnessed the loss of as much as 95% of all species on Earth. Key questions for biologists concern what combination of environmental changes could possibly have had such a devastating effect, the scale and pattern of species loss, and the nature of the recovery. New studies on dating the event, contemporary volcanic activity, and the anatomy of the environmental crisis have changed our perspectives dramatically in the past five years....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 840 words
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The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and Medicines - The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and Medicines The health of human populations requires a wide variety of chemical and physical supports from both local ecosystems and from the global ecosystem. The subject of this paper is the indirect relationship between biodiversity and human health, particularly with regard to coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs are the most diverse ecosystems in the sea. “High diversity density gives rise to intense species competition and the subsequent organism capability to construct exotic defensive and offensive chemicals, many with pharmacological value” (Adey 2000)....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Techniques of Cloning - Techniques of Cloning “ It is now possible to make clones, or exact genetic copies, of sheep, cows, goats, mice and, probably, humans. This opens the way towards the production of replacement body parts from adult cells ” ( Gurdon and Colman 743 ). Cloning techniques have been in use for centuries. The practice of taking cuttings is universal among gardeners, and large companies now propagate desirable plant strains in their millions. Lower invertebrates can also be cloned. For example, cut an earthworm or flatworm in half, and the missing halves will regenerate to create two genetically identical individuals....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]
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Post-graduate Traveling Fellowship Recipient - Post-graduate Traveling Fellowship Recipient "With every step, you are met by the most bizarre and wonderful forms," she told me. I have never heard someone talk about nature in the way that my host mother in France did. She has not been able to return to what she calls "the jungles of Madagascar"-her birthplace-but images of wild and beautiful greenness have never left her mind. In Madagascar, there are two hundred thousand different species of living things; ninety-three percent of them are endemic to this island....   [tags: Environmental Ecology Teaching Essays] 1133 words
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Soft Corals - Soft Corals Organisms of the order Alcyonacea, more commonly referred to as soft corals, are fascinating and poorly-understood animals. Although they are Cnidarians, and thus among the simplest of all animals, they have developed remarkable ways of thriving in the Great Barrier Reef and all over the world. They possess symbiotic relationships, special toxins, and several different methods of reproduction, each helping to ensure the survival of the various soft coral species....   [tags: Ecology Great Barrier Reef Essays]
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Bioerosion and Reef Ecology - Bioerosion and Reef Ecology The breakdown of calcareous substrates among coral reefs, or bioerosion, is a facet of reef ecology too often forgotten. The process plays a much more important role than it is usually credited with. Bioeroding species, consisting of many different types of organisms that act on the environment in a seemingly endless variety of ways, interact with the ecosystem and with each other as part of the reef growth and degradation cycle. The degradation portion of this cycle, the part that is most often overlooked, is essential for the development of reefs as the diverse and beautiful habitats that we know them as....   [tags: Bioeroding Ecosystem Ecology Essays]
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Monotremes and Electroreception - Monotremes and Electroreception Abstract Through their evolution, monotremes have developed several characteristics that make them unique from most other mammals. The focus of this paper lies on the electroreceptive capabilities of monotremes. Electroreception of monotremes is partially comparable to that in fish. The bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the beaks of the echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus and Zaglossus bruijni, all contain three types of receptors: push-rod mechanoreceptors, serous gland electroreceptors, and mucous gland electroreceptors....   [tags: Monotremes and Electroreception] 2612 words
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Spiders - Spiders Spiders can be found in all environments throughout the entire world, except in the air and sea. (Biology of Spiders, R.Foelix) These invertebrates of the order Aranea are one of the several groups of the Class Arachnida, with about thirty four thousand species. They range in body size from only a few millimeters in length to almost five inches. All are carniverous and have four pair of walking legs, one pair of pedipalps, and one pair of chelicerae. (Spiders, W.Shear) Each chelicerae consists of a base and a fang....   [tags: science] 1896 words
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Piping Plover - Piping Plover Introduction The piping plover, a bird now going extinct, was once very bountiful. When an animal is going extinct, it could mean a lot of things. The Piping Plover is an endangered species. An endangered species is a name for a plant or animal that is slowly dying out. This bird is experiencing population drops, so it is called endangered. It is known to scientists as the Charadrius Melodus (ES: Piping Plover). It mainly resides around the Great Lakes and sometimes lives along the Atlantic coast in Canada and the United States (Piping Plover Page)....   [tags: science] 1434 words
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The Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) - The Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) The Brazil Nut is the fruit of a tree that grows mostly wild in rainforests. Castanheiro do Para, which is the Brazilian name given to this tree, is found in many Amazonian states of Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela and Ecudor. It is most pervalent in the Brazilian states of Marahao, Mato Grosso, Acre, Para, Rondonia, and the Amazonas. The tree is enormous, Frequently attaining the height of 160 feet or more. The fruit is a large spherical woody capsule or pod and measures an average of six inches in diameter and can weigh up to 5 pounds....   [tags: Botany]
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The Benefits of Having a Greenhouse - The Benefits of Having a Greenhouse There are many benefits of having a greenhouse or growing space attached to the average family home. A well-built greenhouse can utilize solar power in such a way that it becomes a positive addition to the household in every way. Greenhouses present an opportunity for everyone to be able to grow some of their own food, save electricity, gain practical experience, and soothe their mind and body. Throughout history gardens have served as a food source for families....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Maintaining Marine Reef Aquarium - Maintaining Marine Reef Aquarium Important Aspects in Maintaining a Marine Reef Aquarium There is something fascinating and relaxing in having an aquarium in a home. Like a fireplace’s warm glow and bright colors, the colors that are emitted from an aquarium can be just as warm and even more colorful. From the slow and graceful movement of the fish to the frantic feeding frenzy, an aquarium is different each time it is viewed. Although a freshwater tank can be full or color, it does not come close to the fiery colors that are present in a marine aquarium....   [tags: essays papers]
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The Ahmanson Ranch Development - The Ahmanson Ranch Development It all started back in 1989 when Home Savings of America announced to build a giant new community consisting of 3,050 homes, two schools, two hotels, two golf courses and 400,000 square feet of commercial and industrial areas on the 5,400-acre Ahmanson Ranch located at the eastern end of Ventura county, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Even though the Ahmanson Ranch has been owned by Home Savings of America since 1963, the nature remained undisturbed all these past years....   [tags: Ventura Country Environmental Essays]
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Cloning - Cloning What is a Clone. A clone is a group of genetically identical cells. For example, tumors are clones of cells inside an organism because they consist of many replicas of one mutated cell. Another type of clone occurs inside a cell. Such a clone is made up of groups of identical structures that contain genetic material, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Some of these structures, called plasmids, are found in some bacteria and yeasts. Techniques of genetic engineering enable scientists to combine an animal or plant gene with a bacterial or yeast plasmid....   [tags: essays research papers] 957 words
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coral reef - CORAL REEFS Almost every one of us have heard and most of you have seen the Coral reefs but did you know what actually these are: As a mariner its important to know about the marine life, that was one reason I have chosen this topic for my today’s short presentation. GM, my scheme of presentation will be as flashed: DEFINATION OF CORAL REEF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORAL AND CORAL POLYP WHERE WE CAN FIND CORAL CONSTRUCTION OF CORAL REEFS CONDITIONS FOR GROWTH OF CORAL REEFS TYPES OF CORAL REEFS THREAT TO CROAL REEFS WHAT SHOULD A MARINER DO IN CORAL RICH AREAS FUTURE OF CORAL REEFS CONCLUSION What is a coral reef....   [tags: essays research papers] 2542 words
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Coral Reefs And Bleaching Phenomenon - Imagine yourself observing one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. Thousands of species of plants and animals provide a dizzying array of color and motion. Massive structures provide a canopy that shelters hundreds of exotic species in a myriad of microclimates. As land-based observers, we almost automatically assume that this is a description of the rich ecosystem of a tropical rainforest. However, if we take ourselves off the safety of dry land and immerse ourselves in the ocean, we will find an equally dynamic environment in the depths of our world’s coral reefs....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Evolution vs. Creationism - Evolution vs. Creationism The Evolution vs. Creationism controversy goes all the way back to the Publishing of Origin of Species in 1859 by Darwin laying the foundation for the evolution of life to be understood. Scientists are continuously finding more evidence to support Darwin’s conclusion; that organisms descended from a common ancestor modified by the mechanism of natural selection resulting in the evolution of species adapting to their environment. The following are the main geological topics concerning creationism: radiometric dating, transitional forms and the Cambrian explosion....   [tags: essays research papers] 929 words
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