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Your search returned 266 essays for "invertebrates":
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Invertebrates Species: Phylum Echinodermata - Echinoderm (meaning Spiny skinned) is a diverse group of invertebrates belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. Phylum Echinodermata consists of five main classes that are divided into 7,500 extant species and approximately 13,000 known extinct species, including several classes that were discovered through fossils. The five main classes are proposed to have evolved from a common metazoan ancestor approximately 500 million years ago during the early Palaeozoic period (Britannica, 2014). Echinoderms are predominately benthic (bottom dwellers) and found only in marine ecosystems....   [tags: Asteroidea, Ephiuroidea, Echinodea ]
:: 14 Works Cited
1110 words
(3.2 pages)
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates - Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates All aerobic organisms need a regular supply of oxygen from their environment in order to respire. This is much easier for terrestrial animals, as 21% of the air is made up of oxygen, compared to less than 1% in water. Aquatic animals have to overcome the problem of getting enough oxygen to support metabolic reactions in an environment where there is very little of it. Some simple organisms such as amoebae and flatworms are able to carry out gaseous exchange over their whole surface area, as they have a high surface area to volume ratio....   [tags: Papers] 460 words
(1.3 pages)
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Aquatic Invertebrates - Outline for a report Aquatic Invertebrates Used to Classify Stream Health Ecosystem All things contained in an environment Water (input and output) Climate Daylight Plant life Clear Cutting Clear Cutting seriously effects all aspects of an ecosystem Maine is, per capita, the most heavily logged state in the continental U.S. Why Clear Cutting is Used Simple Creates a uniform forest to harvest in 40 years or so Easy to replant Cheap to Maintain (pesticides) Clear Cutting Impacts on Streams Clear Cutting seriously effects stream ecosystems The effects of clear cutting can be felt on stream ecosystems for up to 60 years The First Five Years After a Clear Cut This time period is actually ben...   [tags: essays research papers] 618 words
(1.8 pages)
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Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels - Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels This essay will be analysing the occurrence of filter feeding and demonstrating it as a unique adaptation for marine mammals. It will also analyse how filter feeding, combined with invertebrates such as mussels, produces a complex, yet distinctive foraging strategy. This essay will also discuss the features of molluscs and how they are adapted to use their features to aid their particular means of feeding, including the full process of how this form of consumption occurs....   [tags: Papers] 898 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Benefits of the Florida Coral Reefs - ... An outer layer makes up the body covering, and an inner layer lines the digestive cavity." However in some cases there may be an third layer of cell which help support the cnidarian. They eat by opening their mouth which is at one end which leads to their digestive cavity. The Florida Reef has many coral living in it. Some include the endangered Staghorn coral, the grooved brain coral, the boulder star coral and many more. There are numerous benefits a coral reef like the Florida reef can bring....   [tags: ecosystem, invertebrates, protect] 754 words
(2.2 pages)
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Cnidarians: Freshwater Hydra, Jellyfish and Corals - “Cnidarians” is Greek for “stinging nettle” (“Introduction to Cnidaria"). Phylum Cnidaria include freshwater hydra, jellyfish, and corals. Each of these invertebrates go through transitions in body forms. Jellyfish are the most unusual and complex out of the phylum. Jellyfish are in the class Scyphozoa, which means true jellyfish. Cnidarians are found in the Mediterranean and in the oceans. They can live in the ocean as well as coastal waters. But the primary habitat for Cnidarians are in the open ocean....   [tags: invertebrates, marine biology] 723 words
(2.1 pages)
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Do Molluscs Show An Immune Response? - ... Further investigations were carried out to examine if it was the case. T4D and T7 coliphage titers from Biomphalaria glabrata hemolymph were used as a test virus. As soon as it was injected into the snails, it was observed that the test virus contained something soluble that neutralized the coliphage T4D and T7 in vitro. As time passed by, to their astonishment, the injected T4D and T7 began to reduce and this was not done prior to the experiment. After exhaustively analyzing the results, it was then presumed that the snails did show a resistance to the coliphage....   [tags: invertebrates, marine organisms, pathogen] 657 words
(1.9 pages)
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Arthropods are Small but Mighty - ... Caterpillars are also a great source of protein that are eaten by hundreds of people all over the world. People also consume eleven million crustaceans a year, another popular edible arthropod ("BBC Documentary - Insect Worlds: Them & Us - Episode 1."). The united nations has even suggested that eating insects will help solve the global hunger issue (TechMediaNetwork). Even though this may seem repulsive to many Westernized people, insects are soon to be on the menu for the West ("U.N. Suggests Eating Bugs to Fight World Hunger."). Arthropods have united people all over the world through trade....   [tags: invertebrates, hunger, pollinate food]
:: 4 Works Cited
525 words
(1.5 pages)
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Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species - Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species Aim: To investigate whether pollution affects the diversity of aquatic invertebrate species. Equipment: Wash tub, Smaller Margerine Tub Plastic Spoon, Milk Container, Net, Species Analysis Chart. The wash tub has the perfect surface area to count the animals without imprisoning them, the smaller margerine tub allows for the animals to be more carefully analysed so that their species can be more easily determined, the spoons are the perfect size to remove the animals individually, using the milk container is much easier than filling up the wash tub with...   [tags: Papers] 1203 words
(3.4 pages)
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Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate - Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate (i) Planning ------------ Introduction ============ Before a complex biological study can be planned and formulated, the terminology in the title above must be clarified. The investigation requires a sound knowledge of ecology, which essentially is the study of organisms, whether they be animals or insects, and their relationship with the environment in which they live....   [tags: Papers] 798 words
(2.3 pages)
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Life Cycle of Mosquitos - Insect is a living thing from a group of invertebrate animal which have the highest number of species in the world. One of them is mosquito which is known as blood-sucker. The mosquitoes, or a scientific name is Culicidae, are a family of about three and half thousand species within the order Diptera with the two-winged flies. They are more closely related to midges, gnats and crane flies and one of the more primitive families of Diptera. Mosquitoes are not founded in the places that are permanently frozen....   [tags: Insects, Living Things, Invertrebrate Animal]
:: 4 Works Cited
1332 words
(3.8 pages)
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Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) - Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) Jean Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a theory of evolution to the public. Although his ideas were not widely accepted they paved the way for others to do work in that field. Even before his work on evolution he did extensive work with invertebrates. His work on invertebrates inevitably led him to his theory of evolution. This theory was not accepted at his time and has since been proven wrong. The way he was raised and the institutions he attended gave him the opportunity to perform his work....   [tags: Biographies Biography Lamarck Essays]
:: 11 Works Cited
2811 words
(8 pages)
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Humans have Engangered the Columbia River Limpet - ... According to Robert S. Prezant’s article, “Mollusk”, a mollusk is “any of a large group of soft-bodied animals that have no bones.” The largest group of water animals is that of the Mollusks and there are approximately 100,000 different species of living mollusks. The phylum Mollusca is divided into 7 classes: Aplacophora, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Scaphopoda,and Gastropoda. Mollusks usually have an outer shell to protect their soft bodies.Other mollusks have an inner shell called a cuttlebone (in cuttlefish) or a pen (in squids)....   [tags: habitat, organism, mollusk] 1240 words
(3.5 pages)
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Practical Work Survey for Organism Identification in University of Greenwich Medway, Kent - I. Introduction Plants play a vital role for life existed on Earth. There are many types of plant species, which can be, distinguish by leaf shape, size of flower and petals (Cope et al. 2012). Kent and Cooker (1992) stated that identification of plant through special characteristic and physiological structure that the taxonomic nomenclature has applied in botanical flora. A quadrat surveys conducted surrounding the University of Greenwich at Medway, which focused to identify the plant in a grassland area and invertebrate....   [tags: bacterial action in proteins] 2741 words
(7.8 pages)
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Testing Water Quality at Four Sites on the River - Farmer's slurry in the nearby fields could fall in and pollute the river. The slurry could cover any vegetation in the river, not allowing them photosynthesise. Bacteria can reproduce rapidly and can double once every 20 minutes. The fungi and bacteria can also break down the plant and they need oxygen to live, so they take it from the water. This then starves the other animals and plants in the water. There are two types of sewage: Foul Sewage and Storm sewage. Storm sewage is the water which washes up anything on the road's surface such as oil, dog faeces and food....   [tags: Field Report] 1359 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Influence of Macroinvertebrates Communities in Water Quality Parameters - ... In nature these taxa commonly occur in similar habitats at stream sites throughout the region (Dostine, 2014). The examination of model macroinvertebrate for all sampling round shows that in summer there is always less diversity and abundance among key higher taxa of the wetland as compared to early spring. This is because of suitable temperature, water chemistry and flow. Similarly according to a study conducted by Leigh( 2012) in dry summer water level or depth may decrease which is worst situation for most surface dwelling species of macroinvertebrates(for example in summer sampling round 1 only five tax were recorded)....   [tags: water analysis report] 596 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Pandinus Imperator a.k.a. Emperor Scorpion - ... An invertebrate is an organism that lacks a vertebral column which is also called a backbone11. Every phylum of invertebrates has its own special characteristics, for example cnidarians, of the phylum Cnidaria, have special stinging organs called nematocysts. While invertebrates like echinoderms, of the phylum Echinodermata, have external spines11. The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum (according to number of species) and insects make up the largest part (according to number of species) of Arthropoda....   [tags: arthropoda, pets, endangered] 784 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System - The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System Method Equipment Pond net Tray Pots and lids Spoons Hand lens Wellington boots Specimen Pots Freshwater Invertebrate Key Scrap Paper (note pad) Gloves Tape to cover cuts Pencil I investigated how the quality, amount of dissolved oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and the temperature of the water in the River Roding System affected the distribution of organisms in the river....   [tags: Papers] 2198 words
(6.3 pages)
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Properties of the ipRGC Photopigment: Melanopsin - Properties of the ipRGC Photopigment: Melanopsin IpRGC’s are unique in that they contain their own photopigment, melanopsin (source). Melanopsin is categorized in the opsin family because of its ability to receive a photon of light and translate it into an electrochemical signal. This ability has been observed and is well understood in the photoreceptor rods and cones. The photoreceptors are key players in translating visual stimuli to a language the brain can understand. Their ability to interpret visual cues on their own depends on the opsins that are integrated into their structure (SOURCE)....   [tags: Light, Photosensitive] 853 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Permian-Triassic Extinction Event and It's Effects on Life on Earth - Introduction The Permian-Triassic extinction event is undoubtedly the largest extinction event the Earth has ever seen. While evidence shows that it occurred over a great amount of time, it was effective in causing the extinction of an incredibly large portion of life on Earth. To such an extent that it took millions of years before any large amounts of biodiversity occurred again. This is why it is also referred to as the ‘Great Dying’. This paper will will analyze the survivability of terrestrial vertebrates compared to that of terrestrial invertebrates during the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event....   [tags: biodiversity, marine life, terrestrial life]
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1520 words
(4.3 pages)
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Analysis of Our Diverse Ecosystem - There are many similarities and differences between species within our diverse ecosystem. There are many different types of plants and animals, some more similar than others. Not surprisingly, these similarities also give light to a large amount of differences between kingdoms and even species. Analyzing these species and their differences and similarities helps to give understanding to our incredibly diverse ecosystem. Plants make up a large portion of life on Earth. There are four major groups of plants; bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms....   [tags: plants, animals, species, reproduction] 1264 words
(3.6 pages)
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The Metabolic Rate of Organisms - The metabolic rate of an organism is commonly defined as the amount of energy that is metabolised via food or oxygen uptake per unit time. The metabolic rate for organisms plays a pivotal role in certain biological processes and overall maintenance of the organism. There are many ways of measuring metabolic rate but the most common way is to measure the amount of oxygen that is produced provided that there is no anaerobic metabolism. It can be hypothesised that the metabolic rate increases with body mass....   [tags: food, oxygen, animals, locomotion] 2590 words
(7.4 pages)
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Coral Reefs and Symbiosis - Corals reefs appear as isolated formations in the fossil record over four hundred million years ago, corals are extremely old animals that have evolved into modern reef creating forms over the last twenty-five million years. Coral reefs are unique and the most gorgeous and diverse out of all marine habitats. Organisms that provide the matrix for he growing reef are the dominant ones known as frame builders. Topographical, the reef is very complex. Thousands of fish and invertebrates live in association with reefs, because of the complexity....   [tags: Ocean, Animals] 700 words
(2 pages)
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Eleutherodactylus (Greenhouse Frogs) - Eleutherodactylus p. planirostris, or more commonly the Greenhouse frog, is from the Leptodactylidae family. They were unintentionally introduced to Florida around 1875. Their numbers have continued to grow and they are now very common among South Florida with increasing inhabitants around the panhandle. Greenhouse frogs have a reddish-brown appearance with either dark blotches or 2 dark stripes down their backs. They are relatively small in size usually growing to about an inch to and inch and a half in length....   [tags: essays research papers] 456 words
(1.3 pages)
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History of Animal Testing - ... English physician William Harvey discovered that the heart, and not the lungs circulated blood around the body. He found this as a result of his experimentation on live animals. Since 1948, animals have been used in a space program in the US, for testing aspects of space travel. Since the Vietnam War, animals have also been used in military training. Every year, over 25 million animals are used in a series of different experiments. Some include cosmetics and biomedical experimentation. Invertebrates are much more common than vertebrates in animal testing....   [tags: experiments, immune system, diseases] 520 words
(1.5 pages)
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Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds - Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds Aim- To investigate the distribution of invertebrates in two pond ecosystems. In this investigation I will be studying the distinction in abiotic factors and species diversity in the two ponds. The two ponds that I will be looking at to achieve my results is meadow pond which was man made in 1994 and Woodland pond which is mad made in 1990 and is surrounded by deciduous trees like oak and ash, which loose their leaves during the season of the year when there is in short water supply....   [tags: Papers] 1843 words
(5.3 pages)
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Coral Reefs: A Diverse Ecosystem - Coral reefs are one of the oldest and the most diverse ecosystems in the planet; because of such matter, scientists coined coral reefs as ‘rainforests of the sea. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA for short (2008) estimated that about 25% of marine life use coral reefs as safe havens from predators, breeding grounds, and feeding grounds despite the fact that coral reefs only cover a small percentage (estimated about 0.1%) of the world’s oceans. It serves an umbrella specie because it serves both as a habitat and a living, breathing organism for other marine animals to thrive....   [tags: coral reefs, ecosystem, marine life] 811 words
(2.3 pages)
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Reservoir and Sedimentation Assessment - ... The near surface water is usually warmer while the cooler, denser water sinks to the bottom where dissolved oxygen remains absent. This is due to the stagnant reservoir water being unable to mix as a result of stratification and loss of river flow. Dams that release colder water from the reservoir sediment bottom benefit some species of fish such as trout but low oxygen conditions impede their ability to survive. If dams release surface water the downstream habitats experience increased temperatures which many salmonids, macro-invertebrate, and aquatic plants cannot tolerate (American Rivers, 2002)....   [tags: dam decomissioning] 1113 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - The effects on estrogen on invertebrates, fish are used a specific example in this paper, have been more pronounced than the effects on mammals. Estrogen has affected fish because they are directly living and developing in the contaminated waters. It would make sense that fish would have a harsher rate of feminization in a naturally occurring settings and that if estrogen concentrations became too high then land animals would start to show feminization in the wild. Many kinds of fish are ideal for estrogen effect experiments because they have a quick life span....   [tags: Environmentalism / Human Health]
:: 14 Works Cited
1395 words
(4 pages)
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Coevolution of Bacterial Gut Microbiota and the Human Adaptive Immune System - Within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body thrive trillions of bacteria, comprising what is known as the microbiota (Slack et al. 2009, Figure 1). The microbiota can be defined as the combination of microorganisms living simultaneously in a location, with that location being the human body (Round et al. 2009). Many years of evolution have contributed to the relationship that is observed between human intestinal bacteria and the adaptive immune system. Contrary to the common belief that all intestinal bacteria are pathogenic, recent evidence suggests that the bacteria residing in the human gut actually play a crucial role in human adaptive immunological function....   [tags: human gut, immune system, microbiota]
:: 12 Works Cited
907 words
(2.6 pages)
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Ecologists Study the Interaction of Organisms within Their Environment - ... When the diversity that is local declines the production of plants may also decline and this brings variables into the ecosystem.( Naeem, Chapin III, Costanza, Ehrlich, Golley, Hooper, Lawton, O’Neill, Mooney, Sala, Symstad, Tilman,1999) The ecosystem has chemical cycles that contain both biotic and abiotic compounds known as biochemical cycles. The ecosystem has chemical cycles that contain both biotic and abiotic compounds known as biochemical cycles. This cycle has a reservoir that is abiotic, which contains carbon for the atmosphere, phosphorus for the biosphere(soil) and compounds of dissolved phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon....   [tags: ecosystems, biosphere, genetics] 784 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Difficult and Remote Island of Papua New Guinea - ... But none the less these people take pride in many different styles of cultural. Each group has created its own expressive form of art, dance, weaponry, costumes, singing, music, and much more. It is a culturaly diverse life but a rough life, which leads to a life expectancy of 32 years of age. The lack of modern facilities, clean water, and medications all lead to the short life expectancy. . (The Telegraph, June 2008) When developers enter a community, such as Wannakeepa a villages not even listed on a map, the tribesmen are often forced to choose between their native way of life or selling their lands....   [tags: culture, rain forest, indigenous] 992 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico - When you think of the Gulf of Mexico the first thing you don’t think of is coral reefs. You don’t even think of it as place to go surfing. If you ask a surfer what a reef is, they would probably say something that gets in my way while surfing. Reefs being either large or small, have grown for over thousands of years. The build-up of limestone or calcite have given way to magnificent structures that many marine animals call home (Science). Reefs are communities in the ocean where more than hundreds of different ocean species live (Moran)....   [tags: types of coral, hexacorals]
:: 10 Works Cited
1436 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Functions of Corals in the Ocean - Corals are one of the most important aquatic organisms in the ocean due to their versatility. Corals provide habitats for many species of fish to live and spawn; the fish are consumed by 30 to 40 million people and are also sold as pets, providing food and an income for people. The also control carbon dioxide in the ocean, by turning it into their limestone shell, and buffer the coast from strong currents, these reefs are called barrier reefs. Each reef in itself is very diverse. Corals are living structures that are made out of thousands of invertebrates (Campbell, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, Jackson & Reece, 2011)....   [tags: coral, reef, zooxanthallae] 2342 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Roles of Microbiota on Immunological Function - Within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body thrive trillions of bacteria, comprising what is known as the microbiota (Slack et al. 2009, Figure 1). The microbiota can be defined as the combination of microorganisms, consisting primarily of bacteria, living simultaneously in a location (Round et al. 2009). Thousands of years of evolution have contributed to the relationship that is observed between human intestinal bacteria and the adaptive immune system. Beginning with the initial divergence of vertebrates, humans have acquired the ability to establish and maintain a microbiota, which can be altered in response to various factors....   [tags: bacteria, gut, pathogens ] 940 words
(2.7 pages)
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Characteristics and Reproduction of the Fairy Shrimp - ... The female shrimp carries both fertilized and parthenogenesis eggs on the outer-side of her body in its litter sack for several days before being freed to fall to the bottom of the water, or the eggs may stay attached until the female dies. The number of eggs a female creates in a clutch differs from 10 to 150. Several clutches can often be created during the life of a female. Females can yield two kinds of eggs, thin shelled "summer" eggs and thick shelled "winter" eggs. The kind of egg created is determined by the number of males in the same water source; summer eggs will be made if there is a scarcity of males in the population....   [tags: movement, eggs, preditors]
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683 words
(2 pages)
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Notes on Geologic Periods of the Earth - Precambrian Geologic The Precambrian era is about 90% of the earth’s geologic life. It refers to all geologic time before 600 million years ago. During the Precambrian era, the earth formed along with the oceans and atmosphere. Originally, the earth was in a molten state, but as it cooled down, it developed a hard crust and oceans that developed water vapor to form an atmosphere. About five hundred million years after the earth was formed, small continents started to form. The plate tectonics also started to build up....   [tags: Geology, Biologic, Flora] 1681 words
(4.8 pages)
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Animal Testing is Cruel and Flawed - Animal testing is the use of non-human animals for scientific experimentation. There are estimates that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide from zebra fish to on-human primates are used annually. Much larger numbers of invertebrates are used even flies and worms are used has model organisms are very important, experiments on invertebrates are largely unregulated and not included in statistics. Animals are euthanized after being used in a experiment. Some of these animals are purpose-bred and others are caught in the wild or they are supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds....   [tags: Animal Cruelty, Argument, Animal Rights] 1229 words
(3.5 pages)
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Marine Life: Seychelles and Scuba Diving - Seychelles is considered to have some of the top scuba diving sites of the world. The marine life is plentiful enough to satisfy even the most imaginative underwater enthusiast, and the picturesque setting of the granite formations make delving into the blue waters a magical experience. The Seychelles offers a multitude of dive sites that are diverse and cater for all levels of experience. The Seychelles is made up of the world’s most beautiful islands lying just four degrees south of the equator in the Indian Ocean....   [tags: Archipelago, Tourist Attractions] 1133 words
(3.2 pages)
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Human Body and The Skeletal System - Skeletal System 1) As we age, our bones start to deteriorate because they lose their ability to regenerate as quickly as they had in the past. This leaves our bones less dense, and more brittle than healthy bones. What often results from this is fractured hips, and wrists from very light contact. The majority of the individuals that suffer from osteoporosis are women over the age of fifty. There is no known cure for osteoporosis, but there are prevention techniques. Our bones require calcium and vitamin D to help fill gaps in the porous bones of those suffering from osteoporosis....   [tags: calcium metabolism, anatomy, respiratory system] 1974 words
(5.6 pages)
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Benefits of the Red Drum Fishery - Red Drum populations along the east coast and gulf coast of the United States, have drastically diminished over the past thirty years. The cause of the drop in numbers of this beautiful fish is primarily due to the overfishing from both recreational and commercial fishermen. Federal and State governments have implemented measures in to prevent this fish from being targeted, and to make sure that the population numbers increase. Not only is this fish important for the fisheries in which they thrive, but they also contribute to the biodiversity of a number of different ecosystems....   [tags: Red Drum Populations]
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2186 words
(6.2 pages)
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Physics and Fish Bioenergetics - Welcome to the world of fish physics. Many of us understand basic fish behavior and can reach logical conclusions about where the best place to throw a fishing line is. But when we don’t think much further than that we are missing out on some very interesting details of fish behavior. We can never fully understand why we find some fish in one location and some fish in other locations until we consider the concept of fish bioenergetics. Ultimately, fish behavior is a product of bioenergetics....   [tags: physics fish bioenergetics] 2076 words
(5.9 pages)
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A Case Against Animal Testing - Animal testing Proposal Argument The University of Florida is one of the largest research universities in the nation. Animal testing has played key role medical advancements throughout history but really increase in the last half a century. The relationship between humans understanding animal has been important since nearly 60 % of diseases effect both humans and animals. Animal testing play a key role in the development on new drugs in the medical. Now there about 22 million animals each year being are used in research....   [tags: use of non-animal systems]
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1803 words
(5.2 pages)
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Sea Cucumber in Medical Application - 1 SEA CUCUMBER IN MEDICAL APPLICATION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Sea cucumbers from class of Holothuroidea are a group of echinoderms that include about 1,250 known living species. It is a unique creature due to the existence of endoskeleton or internal skeleton that consists of tiny ossicles or spicules, small particles of calcium carbonate embedded in the body wall. Mostly of them are indeed shaped like soft-bodied cucumbers. Generally, sea cucumbers can grow to the lengths of between 4 to 12 inches but there are also few species that are smaller or larger in size....   [tags: cell growth, asia, wounds] 1679 words
(4.8 pages)
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Effect of Gamma Radiation the Reproductive Ability of the Earthworm Eisenia Fetida - 1. Introduction: In nature radioactive material occurs either as naturally in the form of radioactive isotopes in rocks or as a consequence of human release such as during nuclear testing, normal maintenance of nuclear power plants and nuclear accidents such as those at Chernobyl and Fukushima Dallchi. Natural level of radiation sometime exceeds low baseline levels in uncontaminated areas by several hundred fold resulting in significant rates of diseases in human and other organisms can result in reproductive failure and death (Lubin and Boice, 1997; Ghiassi-Nejad et al....   [tags: atomic power, degradation and hatchability]
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2054 words
(5.9 pages)
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The Round Goby or Neogobius Melanostomus - The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a non-native species of fish. They are known for their aggressiveness and their signature black spot on their dorsal fin. Originally found in Eurasia, specifically the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and the Caspian Sea. They are able to inhabit both freshwater and salt water, making their ability to thrive almost anywhere possible. After first being discovered in the St. Clair River in 1990, the invasive species now calls the Great Lakes of the United States home....   [tags: non-native species of fish]
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597 words
(1.7 pages)
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Extinction Risks for Coral Reefs - Coral reef ecosystems around the globe are threatened by human interferences and climate change. This has led to many scientists conducting studies on global coral reef ecosystems to gain a better understanding of the cause and effects of coral reef damage. In both Hodgson’s (1999) and Carpenter et al.’s (2008) studies, they are aware of the continuous degradation of global coral reef ecosystems. Hodgson's study involved conducting a survey on global coral reef ecosystems to see whether human actions were affecting the health of supposed pristine Coral reefs....   [tags: Ecology]
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1243 words
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Physical Geography of Orange County - This sedimentary rock has hardened over the many years with sand shells, small pebbles, grains of sand and rocks of various sizes. In comparison to our 4.5 billion year old Earth, these sand shells might as well be brand new, when in reality they could be up to 1,000 years old. If the sandstone were to be replaced with calcite it would completely change the subclass of rock, it would then be chemical & organic limestone. The variation in sand stone is due to different rates of deposition and change in patterns of the sediment movement (Mc Knight, p....   [tags: earth science, geology, cloud types]
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909 words
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The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray - The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray Introduction ============ The source of the River Cray begins in Priory Gardens in Orpington through Sidcup and into Crayford and then finally into the River Darent near the Dartford Marshes. The route of the river takes it through many urban areas which will most certainly add pollution to the water. The river is a low lying river and is also a first order stream. Aim === To investigate the downstream changes of pollution in the river Cray....   [tags: Papers] 1440 words
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Animal Testing and Researching - Animal Testing and Researching Animal testing is supported by some, but opposed to others. The growing number of animals used in research differs among the different countries. The fruit fly and nematode are the most used animal in testing. However, the most common mammals used in animal research are mice and rats. Shaved albino rabbits and guinea pigs suffer severe testing for skin irritancy and eye irritancy. Though the usage of non-human primates are outlawed in some countries, the U.S. still finds the need to use them....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Animal Testing] 1031 words
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Mercury in the Everglades - Mercury in the Everglades Everglades Background Information: * Established in 1947 on 1.4 million acres in southwest Florida * Sunny, Semi-Tropical Swamp Setting. Experiences near daily downpours (http://srv3sftpa.er.usgs.gov/sofl.fact.html) Mercury's Effect on the Everglades: * A small amount of mercury is found in the crust of the earth. This is not the problem. The anthropogenic mercury is the problem. The mercury that is growing dangerously in size is known as methylmercury....   [tags: Geology]
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Biology of a Squid - Biology of a Squid Squids are among the most varied and unique of all invertebrates. They are mollusks of the Class Cephalopod, along with the nautilus, cuttlefish, and octopus. Squids are highly evolved, and have developed a number of traits uncommon to most other mollusks. Fossil records of cephalopods have dated back the Cambrian Period (about 600 million years ago). Structurally, squids have only small variations of a basic theme common to all cephalopods. They are spherical or cigar-shaped with two fins used to stabilize movement when swimming....   [tags: Papers] 570 words
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Hazardous Product, Amdro Powerflex Home Pest Indoor Insect Killer - ... These sensations are reversible and usually subside within 12 hours.” (Amdro) As far as toxicological data is concerned, it is slightly irritating to the eyes, and skin(rabbit). The product is also toxic dermal at >5,000 mg/kg(rat), orally >5,000mg/kg(rat). The inhalation toxicity level is 2.26 mg/l(rat). It was noted that young rats and mice did not posses the chemicals necessary to break down the zeta-cypermethrin to the level that adults do and thus were affected more strongly. The recommended storage for the product is fairly typical for any chemical with little special requirements....   [tags: seizures, numbing, chemical]
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Pollution and Its Effects on the Planet - ... Extinction of animal and plant species.Severe floods that ruin crops each year the world's poorest areas. The groups most vulnerable to contamination are: children, pregnant women, people with respiratory problems, the elderly with chronic diseases and animals. Another sector of the population with a high risk of the effects caused by air pollution are those who work outdoors or in places where it is most exposed to emissions of pollutants such as vehicular traffic filled streets or industries....   [tags: environmental issues] 524 words
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Lord Howe Island - Uniqueness Lord Howe Island is more commonly known as the most beautiful island in the Pacific, and is so unique that it is one of (only) four islands chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The Lord Howe Island Group was listed as a World Heritage in 1982 in recognition of its outstanding natural beauty and its incredible biodiversity. Two thirds of the island is a Permanent Park Preserve, and in 1998 the ocean surrounding the island was declared a Marine Park. Lord Howe Island is considered to be an amazing example of an island environment developed from underwater volcanic activity, having an uncommon variety of sceneries, flora and fauna....   [tags: Flora, Fauna, Location] 1000 words
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grey tree frogs - Hyla versicolor, commonly know as the Gray Tree Frog or the Eastern Gray Tree Frog, is an amphibian that is referred to as the “Chameleon of the Frog world” (Craighead, 2004, p.1) because of its ability to change colors. “This frog was once thought to be the same species as the Cope’s Gray Tree Frog”. They can only be distinguished by their calls and the fact that the Cope Gray Tree Frog is diploid while the Gray Tree Frog is tetraploid (NPWRC, 2004). The Gray Tree Frog is classified as follows: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Lissamphibia Order: Anura Family: Hylidae Genus: Hyla Species: H....   [tags: essays research papers] 1412 words
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Seneca Creek Stream Testing - pH is used to indicate the acidity of a substance as ranked on a scale from 1.0 to 14.0. Acidity increases as the pH gets lower. pH affects many chemical and biological processes in the water and different organisms flourish best within different ranges of pH. Most aquatic animals prefer a range of 6.5-8.0. Having a pH outside this range reduces the diversity in the stream because it stresses the physical systems of most organisms and can reduce reproduction. Low pH can allow toxic elements and compounds to become mobile and "available" for uptake by aquatic plants and animals, producing conditions that are toxic to aquatic life....   [tags: pH analysis, nitrates] 539 words
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Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia - Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia Daphnia are the organisms that are involved in this experiment to find out what effect alcohol has on their heartbeat. It is easy to study the effects of alcohol on the heart of Daphnia as the organ can be easily seen through the transparent body of Daphnia. The number of heartbeats may be counted before submersion in alcohol and after submersion in alcohol to investigate the effect of alcohol. Daphnia belong to the Phylum Arthropoda and are Branchiopoda which belong to the class, Crustacea....   [tags: Papers] 2282 words
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Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease - Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease Aim: To investigate closely the factors that can affect the activity of urease. The effect of concentration and temperature can be studied over a period of time leading to the order and activation enthalpy of the reaction. Introduction: UREASE (NH 2 ) 2 CO + 3H 2 O ----------> 2NH 3 (aq) + CO 2 (g) Urease is an enzyme found in microorganisms, invertebrates, and higher plants. It catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 5274 words
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The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans - The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans Our oceans are the most productive and more than likely the most helpful environment on the planet today. Oceans not only supply our ozone with life supporting oxygen, control the earth’s weather patterns, it also is home to over a million different species ranging from mammals, invertebrates, to microscopic plankton. The ocean is a very diverse environment and it is very important to keep the ocean and all off its creatures alive and healthy....   [tags: Papers] 342 words
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Intestinal Vesicle of Nematodes - S. carpocapsae and X. nematophila are mutualistic symbionts that parasitize, kill and use insects for reproduction. S. carpocapsae develop into non-feeding infective juveniles (IJ’s). The S. c. IJ’s serve as vectors for the X. n. The vector IJ’s then colonize at a place termed the vesicle. X. n. are released from the vesicle, via nematode defecation, into a new insect host. This process serves as a model to understand general aspects of horizontal transmission of symbionts by their hosts. It takes very few X....   [tags: Biology Steinernema Carpocapsae] 1654 words
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An Argument for GMO's in Foods - One of my favorite episodes of the television show, "The Simpsons", begins with Marge, the mother, serving her family a dinner of unusually large, genetically modified foods. Shortly after dinner is served, one of the potatoes eats a carrot. Although this example is comedic hyperbole, it is still an excellent illustration of the public perception of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as dangerous "Frankenfoods". This perception is out of touch with the reality of GMOs and runs contrary to a large body of scientific evidence that indicates that GMOs are safe for people and our environment....   [tags: argumentative, persuasive] 1200 words
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Learning and Memory - Learning and Memory Learning and memory are not unitary processes. Learning is the process by which new information is acquired; memory is the process by which that knowledge is retained. Learning can be divided into two types: 1)Explicit memory is the conscious acquisition of knowledge about people, places and things. It occurs in the highly developed vertebrate brain ,mainly in the diencephalic structure (1). 2) Implicit memory is the non conscious learning of motor skills and other tasks. It does not depend on the temporal lobe, but involves the sensory, motor associated pathways in the expression of learning process....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - The feminization of males of aquatic and mammalian species has been documented around the world. The purpose of this paper is to review how estrogen in the water supply is causing the feminization of males of animal and human variety. Natural and synthetic estrogens have been found in the water supply, most notably in the effluent water from waste treatment facilities. Experiments, tests and research on the effects of estrogen on mammalian and fish species has been done in the past with conclusive evidence of feminization among the experimental animals....   [tags: Environmentalism, Human Health]
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Contrasting the Aboriginal's View on the Environment and the European View on Managing Resources - Aboriginal and non-aboriginal people are un-intentionally separated by many means. One such example would be the way each use their land and how they manage it, and different land uses stem from different values and morals. The biggest difference is that aborigines think of their environment and its inhabitants no lower than themselves, they live with the environment, take care of it, preserving the balance of ecosystems. Non-aboriginal people, however, think less about everything else and are more centred on their own wellbeing, comfort, and wealth....   [tags: environment, environmental] 842 words
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The Immense Value of Coral Reefs and the Threat it is Currently Facing - Most people like to travel to different parts of the world for a vacation. Being at beautiful beaches under the hot sun and relaxing sounds like a perfect vacation, does not it. Tourists usually enjoy the clear, blue ocean with fishes and different under water living organisms visible. These picture perfect vacations would not last if people were not being cautious of their everyday acts. The ocean consists of plentiful colorful coral reefs. Some coral reefs today are endangered and it needs to be taking care of for their sake and ours....   [tags: biodiversity, resources, pollution] 1722 words
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Humans Are Natural, But Would the Earth Be Better without Humans? - Would the earth be better off without humans. The expected response from a member of today's society would be a resounding yes. However, those who are quick to come to such a conclusion may not be completely correct in their response. The world is a natural thing, with only earthly inhabitants, and so long as all of these inhabitants are of earthly origins, all are natural. We as humans are natural, and therefore any consequence of our existence, be it good or bad is natural. Now, this creates an extraordinarily broad realm of what is natural, but this point is essential to any argument for the existence of humans....   [tags: humanity, nature, earth, evolution,] 1674 words
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Ecological Integrity At Risk for the Cadron Creek Watershed in Arkansas - ... al 2008). Headwater streams are a major component of river networks and are composed of small swales, creeks, and streams, which form the building blocks for large river and lakes. Headwater streams are very influential on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, because they provide nutrients downstream, filter pollutants, and contain specialized habitat for both migrant and resident species (Meyer 2007). Despite their ecological importance, headwater streams are often purposefully ignored or omitted from the Clean Water Act, because of the numerous streams that dot the landscape, irregular hydrologic flow periods, and the fact that small headwater streams do not directly make up direc...   [tags: resource, pollutants, natural gas] 908 words
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Overview of the Megophrys nasuta and a Latest Research about Them - Megophrys nasuta are light to dark brown on their dorsal surface with cryptic patterns resembling the forest leaf litter. They have two thin, ridged skin fold that run dorsal laterally across the animal's back. Coarsely granular skin with prominent tubercles on the dorsal surface provide further camouflage amongst the forest floor. They also have long, pointed dermal projections on the snout and upper eyelids that resemble horns and from which this frog gets its namesake. On their ventral side they often have a dark chest and belly with a chin that ranges from a red to an orange coloring....   [tags: Animal, Asia, Research] 2567 words
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My Very Detailed Trip to the Wildlife Zoo in Arizona - ... We do know that they eat smaller fish and invertebrates, And that they are excellent hunters and swimmers. Giant Morray eel: These Eels are a species of moray eel commonly found at reefs in the Indo-Pacific. In body mass, These Eels are the largest, And come in second place as largest. As their name suggests these Eels are quite large and can reach nearly ten feet in length and sixty-six pounds in weight, As well as having rather large teeth and great flexibility. These Eels aren't strict to one place and can be found anywhere where there is a huge water mass connected to the ocean and warm water....   [tags: uncommon animal species description] 2453 words
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The Primary Mechanisms for Sex Determination Across the Animal Kingdom - ... How or why certain organisms develop into certain gender is not necessarily known, but the idea that there could be some sort of governing pattern could lend itself useful to comparative biology and reproductive endocrinology. Haplodiploid genetic system is a very curious mechanism in insects. The insects can be either uniparental or biparental, meaning one parent or two. The females can lay unfertilized eggs and the offspring will be haploid male, or they can lay fertilized eggs that will turn in to diploid females....   [tags: reproduction, environment, chromosomes ] 711 words
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Darwin's Theories vs. The Fossil Record: A Philosophic Challenge - Did you know the odds of proteins necessary to create a strand of DNA lining up in order naturally are only once in 4x10022 years (Werner 104). That’s highly improbable. Darwin didn’t anticipate that future discoveries would disprove the fundamental tenants of his theory of evolution. Modern science is repeatedly uncovering evidence that suggests that Darwinian evolution could not be the explanation for life on earth. The theory of evolution, proposed by Darwin, has been increasingly disproved due to its reliance on an implausible claim of spontaneous generation, gaps in the fossil record for which evolution lacks explanations, and contradicting scientific discoveries that overturn concepts...   [tags: Biology]
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Calmodulin- a multigene family promoting multitudes of cellular activities - Summary The importance of calcium as a second messenger probably can’t be emphasized enough. Ca2+-signalling through Ca2+-sensors such as calmodulin regulates a variety of vital functions in cells in response to stimuli. Calmodulin is a small evolutionally conserved Ca2+-binding pro-tein of the EF-hand superfamily that participates in many different cellular pathways through regulation of a diverse group of targets. Its function has shown to depend hugely on the way it is distributed throughout the cell and pools probably allow for CaM to be activated at the right time and place....   [tags: calcium, second messenger, vital functions]
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Sin Nombre Virus Risk Assessment in Yosemite National Park - ... Between August and September of 2012, there were ten confirmed cases of HPS from people who had recently visited the park earlier in the summer between June to mid-July with three of these cases being fatal (CDPH 2013). Nine of these individuals are thought to have been exposed to SNV while staying at the signature cabins of the Boystown area of Curry Village. The last victim is thought to have been exposed while hiking or camping at the High Sierra Camps, 15 miles east of Curry Village. Due to this recent outbreak and serious threat associated with HPS, we propose conducting an initial public health risk assessment and an ongoing monitoring program of SNV prevalence in deer mice within...   [tags: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome] 2918 words
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Matheny's Views on Ulitarianism and Factory or Farm Animals - ... With this in mind, we have to discover what truly makes others happy. We should not ignore those that are affected by our behavior. To act in an ethical manner we should consider everyone’s pleasure. Therefore, in Utilitarianism, we should consider the well being of several than the well being of one. In Matheny’s argument he states that nonhuman animals apply to the definition of Utilitarianism because they are sentient. For a being to be sentient, one must be aware of one’s self. (17) In the first premise, Matheny claims that we should “act in such a way as to maximize the expected satisfaction of interests in the world, equally considered.” (14) That being said, Utilitarianism is reas...   [tags: vegetarian, euthanize, environmental protection] 870 words
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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Environmental Law - ... The official statement of the Tubbataha Management Office, the US ship did not have a authorization to cross the threshold the park, which is a marine protected area. It was also established that the vessel did not inform the marine park rangers of its presence and situation. When the rangers apprehended the Americans of their violations and announced the intention of the rangers to board the vessels, the radio communication was unanswered and the boarding protocol was terminated, especially since the Filipinos saw the Americans taking positions armed with weapons....   [tags: Tubbataha reef park] 2431 words
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The Impact of Sea Otters on Marine Ecology - Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are marine mammals capable of spending their entire lives in water. Being carnivorous in nature, they feed on sea urchins, crabs, fishes, mussels and clams. They are referred to as keystone species due to their profound impact on marine ecology. The interaction between sea otters, sea urchins and kelp forests has been studied as a model of the impact of predator-prey interaction on community ecology. Sea otters are keystone predators, whose presence has a far-reaching influence on the marine food web by affecting the population of sea urchins in particular, and kelp forests & other marine organisms in general....   [tags: Ecology ]
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Diseases in Dogs, Domestic Cattle and Mountain Chickens - Contents Introduction 3 Diseases in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) 3 Parvovirus 3 Anaemia 3 Mange 4 Diseases in Domestic Cattle (Bos Tauris) 4 Bovine Tuberculosis 4 Lyme Disease 4 Parasitic Gastroenteritis 5 Diseases of the Mountain Chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) 5 Chytrid Fungus 5 Metabolic Bone Disease 6 Diseases of the Superb Starling (Lamprotornis superbus) 6 Avian Salmonellosis 6 Hyperkeratosis 7 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction This assessment will cover a range of diseases that affect dogs, cows, The Superb Starling and The Mountain Chicken....   [tags: animal health]
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Ocean Acidification and Its Effect on Climate Change - Ocean acidification is one of the highest environmental concerns that involve the change in climate. Ocean acidification is caused by uptake of rising atmospheric CO2. This increase in CO2 is from burning fossil fuels. Not only does it affect humans it affects numerous marine ecosystems. Coral reefs are one of the most affected systems by ocean acidification. Coral is one of the main ecosystem engineers in these ecosystems without them; the ecosystem will not be as healthy or sustainable for other organisms....   [tags: fossil fuels, biodiversity, coral reefs] 1915 words
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