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Your search returned 177 essays for "invertebrates":
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Invertebrates Species: Phylum Echinodermata - Echinoderm (meaning Spiny skinned) is a diverse group of invertebrates belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. Phylum Echinodermata consists of five main classes that are divided into 7,500 extant species and approximately 13,000 known extinct species, including several classes that were discovered through fossils. The five main classes are proposed to have evolved from a common metazoan ancestor approximately 500 million years ago during the early Palaeozoic period (Britannica, 2014). Echinoderms are predominately benthic (bottom dwellers) and found only in marine ecosystems....   [tags: Asteroidea, Ephiuroidea, Echinodea ]
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1110 words
(3.2 pages)
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates - Gaseous Exchange in Aquatic Invertebrates All aerobic organisms need a regular supply of oxygen from their environment in order to respire. This is much easier for terrestrial animals, as 21% of the air is made up of oxygen, compared to less than 1% in water. Aquatic animals have to overcome the problem of getting enough oxygen to support metabolic reactions in an environment where there is very little of it. Some simple organisms such as amoebae and flatworms are able to carry out gaseous exchange over their whole surface area, as they have a high surface area to volume ratio....   [tags: Papers] 460 words
(1.3 pages)
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Aquatic Invertebrates - Outline for a report Aquatic Invertebrates Used to Classify Stream Health Ecosystem All things contained in an environment Water (input and output) Climate Daylight Plant life Clear Cutting Clear Cutting seriously effects all aspects of an ecosystem Maine is, per capita, the most heavily logged state in the continental U.S. Why Clear Cutting is Used Simple Creates a uniform forest to harvest in 40 years or so Easy to replant Cheap to Maintain (pesticides) Clear Cutting Impacts on Streams Clear Cutting seriously effects stream ecosystems The effects of clear cutting can be felt on stream ecosystems for up to 60 years The First Five Years After a Clear Cut This time period is actually ben...   [tags: essays research papers] 618 words
(1.8 pages)
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Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels - Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels This essay will be analysing the occurrence of filter feeding and demonstrating it as a unique adaptation for marine mammals. It will also analyse how filter feeding, combined with invertebrates such as mussels, produces a complex, yet distinctive foraging strategy. This essay will also discuss the features of molluscs and how they are adapted to use their features to aid their particular means of feeding, including the full process of how this form of consumption occurs....   [tags: Papers] 898 words
(2.6 pages)
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Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species - Pollution's Effect on the Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrate Species Aim: To investigate whether pollution affects the diversity of aquatic invertebrate species. Equipment: Wash tub, Smaller Margerine Tub Plastic Spoon, Milk Container, Net, Species Analysis Chart. The wash tub has the perfect surface area to count the animals without imprisoning them, the smaller margerine tub allows for the animals to be more carefully analysed so that their species can be more easily determined, the spoons are the perfect size to remove the animals individually, using the milk container is much easier than filling up the wash tub with...   [tags: Papers] 1203 words
(3.4 pages)
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Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate - Investigating the Effects of An Abiotic Factor on the Frequency and Distribution of a Freshwater Invertebrate (i) Planning ------------ Introduction ============ Before a complex biological study can be planned and formulated, the terminology in the title above must be clarified. The investigation requires a sound knowledge of ecology, which essentially is the study of organisms, whether they be animals or insects, and their relationship with the environment in which they live....   [tags: Papers] 798 words
(2.3 pages)
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Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) - Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) Jean Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a theory of evolution to the public. Although his ideas were not widely accepted they paved the way for others to do work in that field. Even before his work on evolution he did extensive work with invertebrates. His work on invertebrates inevitably led him to his theory of evolution. This theory was not accepted at his time and has since been proven wrong. The way he was raised and the institutions he attended gave him the opportunity to perform his work....   [tags: Biographies Biography Lamarck Essays]
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2811 words
(8 pages)
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Testing Water Quality at Four Sites on the River - Farmer's slurry in the nearby fields could fall in and pollute the river. The slurry could cover any vegetation in the river, not allowing them photosynthesise. Bacteria can reproduce rapidly and can double once every 20 minutes. The fungi and bacteria can also break down the plant and they need oxygen to live, so they take it from the water. This then starves the other animals and plants in the water. There are two types of sewage: Foul Sewage and Storm sewage. Storm sewage is the water which washes up anything on the road's surface such as oil, dog faeces and food....   [tags: Field Report] 1359 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System - The Effect of Pollution on the Distribution of Organisms Along the River Roding System Method Equipment Pond net Tray Pots and lids Spoons Hand lens Wellington boots Specimen Pots Freshwater Invertebrate Key Scrap Paper (note pad) Gloves Tape to cover cuts Pencil I investigated how the quality, amount of dissolved oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and the temperature of the water in the River Roding System affected the distribution of organisms in the river....   [tags: Papers] 2198 words
(6.3 pages)
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The Permian-Triassic Extinction Event and It's Effects on Life on Earth - Introduction The Permian-Triassic extinction event is undoubtedly the largest extinction event the Earth has ever seen. While evidence shows that it occurred over a great amount of time, it was effective in causing the extinction of an incredibly large portion of life on Earth. To such an extent that it took millions of years before any large amounts of biodiversity occurred again. This is why it is also referred to as the ‘Great Dying’. This paper will will analyze the survivability of terrestrial vertebrates compared to that of terrestrial invertebrates during the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event....   [tags: biodiversity, marine life, terrestrial life]
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1520 words
(4.3 pages)
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Analysis of Our Diverse Ecosystem - There are many similarities and differences between species within our diverse ecosystem. There are many different types of plants and animals, some more similar than others. Not surprisingly, these similarities also give light to a large amount of differences between kingdoms and even species. Analyzing these species and their differences and similarities helps to give understanding to our incredibly diverse ecosystem. Plants make up a large portion of life on Earth. There are four major groups of plants; bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms....   [tags: plants, animals, species, reproduction] 1264 words
(3.6 pages)
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Eleutherodactylus (Greenhouse Frogs) - Eleutherodactylus p. planirostris, or more commonly the Greenhouse frog, is from the Leptodactylidae family. They were unintentionally introduced to Florida around 1875. Their numbers have continued to grow and they are now very common among South Florida with increasing inhabitants around the panhandle. Greenhouse frogs have a reddish-brown appearance with either dark blotches or 2 dark stripes down their backs. They are relatively small in size usually growing to about an inch to and inch and a half in length....   [tags: essays research papers] 456 words
(1.3 pages)
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Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds - Investigating the Difference in Abiotic Factors and Species Diversity in Two Ponds Aim- To investigate the distribution of invertebrates in two pond ecosystems. In this investigation I will be studying the distinction in abiotic factors and species diversity in the two ponds. The two ponds that I will be looking at to achieve my results is meadow pond which was man made in 1994 and Woodland pond which is mad made in 1990 and is surrounded by deciduous trees like oak and ash, which loose their leaves during the season of the year when there is in short water supply....   [tags: Papers] 1843 words
(5.3 pages)
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Coral Reefs: A Diverse Ecosystem - Coral reefs are one of the oldest and the most diverse ecosystems in the planet; because of such matter, scientists coined coral reefs as ‘rainforests of the sea. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA for short (2008) estimated that about 25% of marine life use coral reefs as safe havens from predators, breeding grounds, and feeding grounds despite the fact that coral reefs only cover a small percentage (estimated about 0.1%) of the world’s oceans. It serves an umbrella specie because it serves both as a habitat and a living, breathing organism for other marine animals to thrive....   [tags: coral reefs, ecosystem, marine life] 811 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - The effects on estrogen on invertebrates, fish are used a specific example in this paper, have been more pronounced than the effects on mammals. Estrogen has affected fish because they are directly living and developing in the contaminated waters. It would make sense that fish would have a harsher rate of feminization in a naturally occurring settings and that if estrogen concentrations became too high then land animals would start to show feminization in the wild. Many kinds of fish are ideal for estrogen effect experiments because they have a quick life span....   [tags: Environmentalism / Human Health]
:: 14 Works Cited
1395 words
(4 pages)
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Coevolution of Bacterial Gut Microbiota and the Human Adaptive Immune System - Within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body thrive trillions of bacteria, comprising what is known as the microbiota (Slack et al. 2009, Figure 1). The microbiota can be defined as the combination of microorganisms living simultaneously in a location, with that location being the human body (Round et al. 2009). Many years of evolution have contributed to the relationship that is observed between human intestinal bacteria and the adaptive immune system. Contrary to the common belief that all intestinal bacteria are pathogenic, recent evidence suggests that the bacteria residing in the human gut actually play a crucial role in human adaptive immunological function....   [tags: human gut, immune system, microbiota]
:: 12 Works Cited
907 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico - When you think of the Gulf of Mexico the first thing you don’t think of is coral reefs. You don’t even think of it as place to go surfing. If you ask a surfer what a reef is, they would probably say something that gets in my way while surfing. Reefs being either large or small, have grown for over thousands of years. The build-up of limestone or calcite have given way to magnificent structures that many marine animals call home (Science). Reefs are communities in the ocean where more than hundreds of different ocean species live (Moran)....   [tags: types of coral, hexacorals]
:: 10 Works Cited
1436 words
(4.1 pages)
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Animal Testing is Cruel and Flawed - Animal testing is the use of non-human animals for scientific experimentation. There are estimates that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide from zebra fish to on-human primates are used annually. Much larger numbers of invertebrates are used even flies and worms are used has model organisms are very important, experiments on invertebrates are largely unregulated and not included in statistics. Animals are euthanized after being used in a experiment. Some of these animals are purpose-bred and others are caught in the wild or they are supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds....   [tags: Animal Cruelty, Argument, Animal Rights] 1229 words
(3.5 pages)
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Marine Life: Seychelles and Scuba Diving - Seychelles is considered to have some of the top scuba diving sites of the world. The marine life is plentiful enough to satisfy even the most imaginative underwater enthusiast, and the picturesque setting of the granite formations make delving into the blue waters a magical experience. The Seychelles offers a multitude of dive sites that are diverse and cater for all levels of experience. The Seychelles is made up of the world’s most beautiful islands lying just four degrees south of the equator in the Indian Ocean....   [tags: Archipelago, Tourist Attractions] 1133 words
(3.2 pages)
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Human Body and The Skeletal System - Skeletal System 1) As we age, our bones start to deteriorate because they lose their ability to regenerate as quickly as they had in the past. This leaves our bones less dense, and more brittle than healthy bones. What often results from this is fractured hips, and wrists from very light contact. The majority of the individuals that suffer from osteoporosis are women over the age of fifty. There is no known cure for osteoporosis, but there are prevention techniques. Our bones require calcium and vitamin D to help fill gaps in the porous bones of those suffering from osteoporosis....   [tags: calcium metabolism, anatomy, respiratory system] 1974 words
(5.6 pages)
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Benefits of the Red Drum Fishery - Red Drum populations along the east coast and gulf coast of the United States, have drastically diminished over the past thirty years. The cause of the drop in numbers of this beautiful fish is primarily due to the overfishing from both recreational and commercial fishermen. Federal and State governments have implemented measures in to prevent this fish from being targeted, and to make sure that the population numbers increase. Not only is this fish important for the fisheries in which they thrive, but they also contribute to the biodiversity of a number of different ecosystems....   [tags: Red Drum Populations]
:: 3 Works Cited
2186 words
(6.2 pages)
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Physics and Fish Bioenergetics - Welcome to the world of fish physics. Many of us understand basic fish behavior and can reach logical conclusions about where the best place to throw a fishing line is. But when we don’t think much further than that we are missing out on some very interesting details of fish behavior. We can never fully understand why we find some fish in one location and some fish in other locations until we consider the concept of fish bioenergetics. Ultimately, fish behavior is a product of bioenergetics....   [tags: physics fish bioenergetics] 2076 words
(5.9 pages)
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Extinction Risks for Coral Reefs - Coral reef ecosystems around the globe are threatened by human interferences and climate change. This has led to many scientists conducting studies on global coral reef ecosystems to gain a better understanding of the cause and effects of coral reef damage. In both Hodgson’s (1999) and Carpenter et al.’s (2008) studies, they are aware of the continuous degradation of global coral reef ecosystems. Hodgson's study involved conducting a survey on global coral reef ecosystems to see whether human actions were affecting the health of supposed pristine Coral reefs....   [tags: Ecology]
:: 2 Works Cited
1243 words
(3.6 pages)
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Physical Geography of Orange County - This sedimentary rock has hardened over the many years with sand shells, small pebbles, grains of sand and rocks of various sizes. In comparison to our 4.5 billion year old Earth, these sand shells might as well be brand new, when in reality they could be up to 1,000 years old. If the sandstone were to be replaced with calcite it would completely change the subclass of rock, it would then be chemical & organic limestone. The variation in sand stone is due to different rates of deposition and change in patterns of the sediment movement (Mc Knight, p....   [tags: earth science, geology, cloud types]
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909 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray - The Downstream Changes of Pollution in the River Cray Introduction ============ The source of the River Cray begins in Priory Gardens in Orpington through Sidcup and into Crayford and then finally into the River Darent near the Dartford Marshes. The route of the river takes it through many urban areas which will most certainly add pollution to the water. The river is a low lying river and is also a first order stream. Aim === To investigate the downstream changes of pollution in the river Cray....   [tags: Papers] 1440 words
(4.1 pages)
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Animal Testing and Researching - Animal Testing and Researching Animal testing is supported by some, but opposed to others. The growing number of animals used in research differs among the different countries. The fruit fly and nematode are the most used animal in testing. However, the most common mammals used in animal research are mice and rats. Shaved albino rabbits and guinea pigs suffer severe testing for skin irritancy and eye irritancy. Though the usage of non-human primates are outlawed in some countries, the U.S. still finds the need to use them....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Animal Testing] 1031 words
(2.9 pages)
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Mercury in the Everglades - Mercury in the Everglades Everglades Background Information: * Established in 1947 on 1.4 million acres in southwest Florida * Sunny, Semi-Tropical Swamp Setting. Experiences near daily downpours (http://srv3sftpa.er.usgs.gov/sofl.fact.html) Mercury's Effect on the Everglades: * A small amount of mercury is found in the crust of the earth. This is not the problem. The anthropogenic mercury is the problem. The mercury that is growing dangerously in size is known as methylmercury....   [tags: Geology]
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724 words
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Biology of a Squid - Biology of a Squid Squids are among the most varied and unique of all invertebrates. They are mollusks of the Class Cephalopod, along with the nautilus, cuttlefish, and octopus. Squids are highly evolved, and have developed a number of traits uncommon to most other mollusks. Fossil records of cephalopods have dated back the Cambrian Period (about 600 million years ago). Structurally, squids have only small variations of a basic theme common to all cephalopods. They are spherical or cigar-shaped with two fins used to stabilize movement when swimming....   [tags: Papers] 570 words
(1.6 pages)
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Lord Howe Island - Uniqueness Lord Howe Island is more commonly known as the most beautiful island in the Pacific, and is so unique that it is one of (only) four islands chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The Lord Howe Island Group was listed as a World Heritage in 1982 in recognition of its outstanding natural beauty and its incredible biodiversity. Two thirds of the island is a Permanent Park Preserve, and in 1998 the ocean surrounding the island was declared a Marine Park. Lord Howe Island is considered to be an amazing example of an island environment developed from underwater volcanic activity, having an uncommon variety of sceneries, flora and fauna....   [tags: Flora, Fauna, Location] 1000 words
(2.9 pages)
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grey tree frogs - Hyla versicolor, commonly know as the Gray Tree Frog or the Eastern Gray Tree Frog, is an amphibian that is referred to as the “Chameleon of the Frog world” (Craighead, 2004, p.1) because of its ability to change colors. “This frog was once thought to be the same species as the Cope’s Gray Tree Frog”. They can only be distinguished by their calls and the fact that the Cope Gray Tree Frog is diploid while the Gray Tree Frog is tetraploid (NPWRC, 2004). The Gray Tree Frog is classified as follows: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Lissamphibia Order: Anura Family: Hylidae Genus: Hyla Species: H....   [tags: essays research papers] 1412 words
(4 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia - Investigating the Effect of Alcohol on Heartbeat of Daphnia Daphnia are the organisms that are involved in this experiment to find out what effect alcohol has on their heartbeat. It is easy to study the effects of alcohol on the heart of Daphnia as the organ can be easily seen through the transparent body of Daphnia. The number of heartbeats may be counted before submersion in alcohol and after submersion in alcohol to investigate the effect of alcohol. Daphnia belong to the Phylum Arthropoda and are Branchiopoda which belong to the class, Crustacea....   [tags: Papers] 2282 words
(6.5 pages)
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Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease - Factors that Affect the Activity of Urease Aim: To investigate closely the factors that can affect the activity of urease. The effect of concentration and temperature can be studied over a period of time leading to the order and activation enthalpy of the reaction. Introduction: UREASE (NH 2 ) 2 CO + 3H 2 O ----------> 2NH 3 (aq) + CO 2 (g) Urease is an enzyme found in microorganisms, invertebrates, and higher plants. It catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 5274 words
(15.1 pages)
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The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans - The Importance of Preserving the Health and Diversity of the World's Oceans Our oceans are the most productive and more than likely the most helpful environment on the planet today. Oceans not only supply our ozone with life supporting oxygen, control the earth’s weather patterns, it also is home to over a million different species ranging from mammals, invertebrates, to microscopic plankton. The ocean is a very diverse environment and it is very important to keep the ocean and all off its creatures alive and healthy....   [tags: Papers] 342 words
(1 pages)
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Intestinal Vesicle of Nematodes - S. carpocapsae and X. nematophila are mutualistic symbionts that parasitize, kill and use insects for reproduction. S. carpocapsae develop into non-feeding infective juveniles (IJ’s). The S. c. IJ’s serve as vectors for the X. n. The vector IJ’s then colonize at a place termed the vesicle. X. n. are released from the vesicle, via nematode defecation, into a new insect host. This process serves as a model to understand general aspects of horizontal transmission of symbionts by their hosts. It takes very few X....   [tags: Biology Steinernema Carpocapsae] 1654 words
(4.7 pages)
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An Argument for GMO's in Foods - One of my favorite episodes of the television show, "The Simpsons", begins with Marge, the mother, serving her family a dinner of unusually large, genetically modified foods. Shortly after dinner is served, one of the potatoes eats a carrot. Although this example is comedic hyperbole, it is still an excellent illustration of the public perception of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as dangerous "Frankenfoods". This perception is out of touch with the reality of GMOs and runs contrary to a large body of scientific evidence that indicates that GMOs are safe for people and our environment....   [tags: argumentative, persuasive] 1200 words
(3.4 pages)
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Learning and Memory - Learning and Memory Learning and memory are not unitary processes. Learning is the process by which new information is acquired; memory is the process by which that knowledge is retained. Learning can be divided into two types: 1)Explicit memory is the conscious acquisition of knowledge about people, places and things. It occurs in the highly developed vertebrate brain ,mainly in the diencephalic structure (1). 2) Implicit memory is the non conscious learning of motor skills and other tasks. It does not depend on the temporal lobe, but involves the sensory, motor associated pathways in the expression of learning process....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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1104 words
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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply - The feminization of males of aquatic and mammalian species has been documented around the world. The purpose of this paper is to review how estrogen in the water supply is causing the feminization of males of animal and human variety. Natural and synthetic estrogens have been found in the water supply, most notably in the effluent water from waste treatment facilities. Experiments, tests and research on the effects of estrogen on mammalian and fish species has been done in the past with conclusive evidence of feminization among the experimental animals....   [tags: Environmentalism, Human Health]
:: 14 Works Cited
2141 words
(6.1 pages)
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Contrasting the Aboriginal's View on the Environment and the European View on Managing Resources - Aboriginal and non-aboriginal people are un-intentionally separated by many means. One such example would be the way each use their land and how they manage it, and different land uses stem from different values and morals. The biggest difference is that aborigines think of their environment and its inhabitants no lower than themselves, they live with the environment, take care of it, preserving the balance of ecosystems. Non-aboriginal people, however, think less about everything else and are more centred on their own wellbeing, comfort, and wealth....   [tags: environment, environmental] 842 words
(2.4 pages)
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Humans Are Natural, But Would the Earth Be Better without Humans? - Would the earth be better off without humans. The expected response from a member of today's society would be a resounding yes. However, those who are quick to come to such a conclusion may not be completely correct in their response. The world is a natural thing, with only earthly inhabitants, and so long as all of these inhabitants are of earthly origins, all are natural. We as humans are natural, and therefore any consequence of our existence, be it good or bad is natural. Now, this creates an extraordinarily broad realm of what is natural, but this point is essential to any argument for the existence of humans....   [tags: humanity, nature, earth, evolution,] 1674 words
(4.8 pages)
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Darwin's Theories vs. The Fossil Record: A Philosophic Challenge - Did you know the odds of proteins necessary to create a strand of DNA lining up in order naturally are only once in 4x10022 years (Werner 104). That’s highly improbable. Darwin didn’t anticipate that future discoveries would disprove the fundamental tenants of his theory of evolution. Modern science is repeatedly uncovering evidence that suggests that Darwinian evolution could not be the explanation for life on earth. The theory of evolution, proposed by Darwin, has been increasingly disproved due to its reliance on an implausible claim of spontaneous generation, gaps in the fossil record for which evolution lacks explanations, and contradicting scientific discoveries that overturn concepts...   [tags: Biology]
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1331 words
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The Impact of Sea Otters on Marine Ecology - Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are marine mammals capable of spending their entire lives in water. Being carnivorous in nature, they feed on sea urchins, crabs, fishes, mussels and clams. They are referred to as keystone species due to their profound impact on marine ecology. The interaction between sea otters, sea urchins and kelp forests has been studied as a model of the impact of predator-prey interaction on community ecology. Sea otters are keystone predators, whose presence has a far-reaching influence on the marine food web by affecting the population of sea urchins in particular, and kelp forests & other marine organisms in general....   [tags: Ecology ]
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1214 words
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Impact of Sea Otters on Community Ecology - Introduction Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are marine mammals capable of spending their entire lives in water. Being carnivorous in nature, they feed on sea urchins, crabs, fishes, mussels and clams. They are referred to as keystone species due to their profound impact on marine ecology. The interaction between sea otters, sea urchins and kelp forests has been studied as a model for the impact of predator-prey interactions on community ecology....   [tags: Ecology ]
:: 6 Works Cited
1490 words
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History: Theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin - Charles Darwin’s theory and evolution Introduction: Charles Darwin was an English scientist who developed the theory of evolution which had been around for long period of time which gave him fame during his life and after his death. In 1859, he published a book called Origin of Species which contains all the theory of evolution. Darwin’s theory caused a lot of argument and they are still continuing until these days. In religion view it caused clash because at that time people in Europe believed that God had created the whole world in 7 days according to the Bible....   [tags: hereditary, variation, selection principles]
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1371 words
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Purification of Milk Process and Chemical Reactions - In this study, a three step purification of alkaline phosphatase from non-pasteurized milk was reported. It included cream extraction, n-butanol treatment and acetone precipitation. Different parameters like buffer concentration, temperature, pH, substrate concentration, acetone and n-butanol treatment were optimized to maximize the enzyme activity. The enzyme was fruitfully purified upto homogeneity from the milk, with percentage recovery and fold purification of 56.17 and 17.67 respectively. The kinetic parameter were determined to be 0.927 (Km) and 55.86 (Vmax), with specific activity of 11.31 U/mg....   [tags: alkaline phosphatase, enzyme extraction]
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1955 words
(5.6 pages)
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Prescribed Fire to Manage for Quail Habitat - ... (Stevens, 2013) Quail and quail eggs are a natural source of protein for predators such as raccoons (Porcyon lotor), coyotes (Canus latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis spp.), and cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and these contribute for some of the decline in the population. However, the change of habitat and the loss of permanent woody and herbaceous cover needed for day to day protection of the quails and their brood survival have increased the opportunity for predators to find them with more ease than ever....   [tags: land management tool]
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1281 words
(3.7 pages)
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Striped Bass of New York State - The striped bass (Morone saxatilis), also known as the striper or rockfish, can be identified essentially by the darkish horizontal bands across its silver body. Striped bass can grow to over four feet long (122 centimeters), weigh over fifty pounds (23 kilograms) and live up to thirty years. The New York State record for a striped bass is a 76 pound fish (34 kilograms) caught off the coast of Montauk in 1981. The biggest striped bass on record is a 125 pound fish (56 kilograms) caught off the coast of North Carolina in 1891....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 933 words
(2.7 pages)
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Common Diseases of Dogs and Cows - Contents Introduction 2 Diseases in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) 3 Parvovirus 3 Hookworm 3 Fleas 4 Diseases in Domestic Cattle (Bos Tauris) 4 Bovine Tuberculosis 4 Roundworm 4 Cattle Tick 5 Diseases of the Mountain Chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) 5 Chytrid Fungus 5 Metabolic Bone Disease 6 Diseases of the Superb Starling (Lamprotornis superbus) 6 Avian Salmonellosis 6 Hyperkeratosis 7 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction This assessment will cover a range of diseases that affect dogs, cows, the superb starling and the mountain chicken....   [tags: Animal Diseases]
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1247 words
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The Ecological Impacts of Feral Swine - Like most nonnative, invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States has an increasingly negative impact on native plants. If left unchecked, feral swine will become responsible for the permanent destruction of many plant communities as well as endangering native plant populations. Nonnative species can also be called alien, exotic, or nonindigenous. Their presence is due to humans dispersing them to other locations beside their native habitat, or by humans creating environmental conditions that allow their growth....   [tags: Feral Hogs, Plant Communities]
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2713 words
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Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment - Introduction Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) categorize a vast assemblage of environmentally toxic compounds and have received notoriety in recent decades for their lingering presence within an ecosystem. Most POPs are lipophilic and enabling them to bioaccumulate within an ecosystem which may potentially cause long lasting damage as they are transferred through consumption of an organism’s fat content (Ritter et al. 1995). The chemical stability of POPs allows these substances to persist in an ecosystem for many years either in soils or within animal tissue (Ritter et al....   [tags: Ecosystem, Environment, Canasa, Pollutants]
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1847 words
(5.3 pages)
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Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Grasshoppers - TITLE : RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM OF GRASSHOPPER INTRODUCTION Grasshopper is classified under the Order Orthoptera and Class Insecta. Orthoptera derived from the word ‘orthos’ means straight or rigid while ‘ptera’ means wing. Grasshopper is categorized under Class Insecta due to having 3 segments of body which comprises of the head, thorax and abdomen. Insects have characteristic feature of a jointed exoskeleton with each segments of the body having dorsal sclerite, tergum, sternum and pleura (Chapman, 1998)....   [tags: orthoptera, animal cells, spiracles]
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1562 words
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Underwater Acoustics - My Communications coursework will be on non-radio communications. My chosen topic is underwater acoustics. The applications of underwater acoustics and their advantages and disadvantages will be studied. All forms of non-radio communications are based on waves. Waves are generally a disturbance in a surface, transferring energy from A to B. Waves can be mechanical vibrations travel through a medium. For example: water, sound. These waves are called mechanical waves. Progressive waves are created from a point and energy is distributed to the surroundings....   [tags: Non-radio Communications] 2136 words
(6.1 pages)
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DNA Sequences and Species Boundaries - Discussion The use of genetic markers has been an effective way to examine population structure (Bucklin and Kocher 1996) and mitochondrial DNA sequences have been used broadly to delimit species boundaries (Wiens 1999) . More recently the use of mitochondrial DNA sequences has been contentious, and two extreme viewpoints have emerged (see review in Rubinoff and Holland 2005), one position criticizing the exclusive use of mtDNA while others have endorsed one particular gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a universal marker....   [tags: Biochemistry] 2450 words
(7 pages)
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Marine Mammal: The Nawhal Monoceros - The Narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a social, specialized deep-water marine mammal characterized by a unique tooth growth protruding from the upper jaw. Narwhals lives along the coasts and rivers throughout the Arctic,characterized by icy ocean temperatures. Narwhals are usually found in groups of 15 to 20, but herds of several thousand have been seen in the Arctic waters since 1871. Regularly found eastwards from the Canadian Arctic to central Russia they have also been distributed throughout the Eurasian Arctic and in an especially high abundance around the oceans west of Cape Farewell on the east coast of Greenland in the summers and during the winter primarily in the Baffian Bay, and in t...   [tags: water bear, tardigrade]
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1101 words
(3.1 pages)
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Sharks: Predators with a Purpose - Shark. For many, their size, power, and great, mouthwatering jaws fill us with fear and fascination. Not for me, I’m bewitched by them. Sharks kill only a few people each year, but media coverage and movie representation of attacks have marked sharks as voracious killing machines. Our fears—and appetites—fuel an industry that hunts more than 100 million sharks each year and threatens to purge these vital predators from the oceans. The shark is an enchanting creature, over 400 different swim in the ocean today....   [tags: mouthwatering jaws, marine life]
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1154 words
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Charles Darwin and Natural Selection - One of the most influential people in modern day biology and geology is Charles Darwin. His advances in the fields still have impact to this day. His theory of Natural Selection made tidal waves through the scientific community all across the world. Darwin’s theories and studies are still a topic of conflict. Many Christians still dispute his theories, standing strong to their ideas of Creationism. Biographical Information On February 12, 1809 one of the mostly highly respected and controversial scientists was born (“Charles Darwin”)....   [tags: Creationism, Biology, Science]
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943 words
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The Decline of Seagrass Habitats - ... In regards to export in general, there is abundant qualitative data available, but very little quantitiave. The little that is available is mostly from North America, the Caribbean, and Europe. Very little is known of the seagrass systems in South American and Africa. The quantitative data that is available have provided very crude estimates in relation to exchange rates. The data suggests that from 0-100% of total production and 10-60% leaf production are exchanged depending on the physical processes at play, giving an average estimate of 15% of net primary productivity of seagrasses being exported out of seagrass ecosystems....   [tags: ecosystems, seagrass, biomass] 1766 words
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Blue Crabs - The scientific name given to the blue crab was derived from Latin and Greek: Calli, beautiful; nectes, swimmer; and sapidus, savory. Thus, a literal transition might be the beautiful savory swimmer. The blue crab is an important and interesting species. The blue crab is a species whose life history involves a complex cycle of planktonic, nektonic, and benthic stages which occur throughout the marine environment in a variety of habitats. The blue crab is one of the more abundant estuarine invertebrates and supports important commercial and recreational fisheries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts....   [tags: essays research papers] 425 words
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UV Radiation on Organisms - This project is significant because it could help bring about a better understanding of, how UV wave lengths affect the people and the hole in the ozone layer. By determining the effects of UV on Artemia Salina we come closer to alleviating the effects of UV radiation on organisms. In the future this could lead to better UV protection technology. IV: UV exposure in seconds DV: Mortality Rate DV2: Growth Rate it mm/day H1=the UV radiation will kill more Shrimp the longer they are exposed to it....   [tags: Research Analysis] 862 words
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The Existence of Trilobites - Beginning in the 18th century, the concept of paleontology was established and was further developed in the 19th century. Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, including organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and the environment around them. It’s also the study of past fossil records of past geological periods and relationships between ancient and modern day species. Although it is a field of biology, it has also been associated with geology because of the attempt to learn about the Earth itself, not just its organisms....   [tags: Paleontology ] 2471 words
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Biblical Creationism vs. Macroevolution - “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” is the very beginning of the Bible and the world, written in Genesis 1:1. There has been, is currently, and always will be constant debate over where we came from: created by a higher power or slowly adapted over billions of years. According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, evolution is defined as “a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations.” In summary, this means that all things today came from something simpler and, due to natural selection, have become more complex over long p...   [tags: creationism vs evolution ]
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2336 words
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Infectious Diseases Endangering Amphibians - The emergences of infectious diseases represent one of the greatest threats confronting amphibians. One third of the world’s amphibian population is facing extinction. Frog populations have also been steadily declining. Amphibian populations are faced with invasive environmental problems including infectious diseases. (Holland et al. 2007). Ribeiroia ondatrae, a trematode parasite, is suggested to be linked to the rise in frog mutations during development. Mutations include: missing, extra, and/or malformed limbs....   [tags: Infectuous Diseases, Frogs, Tadpoles]
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IUGR in Model Rats - Knowing the functions of the liver helps us gather a lot of information about liver but next we need to see how the liver works and functions with other receptors, enzymes and proteins and if these enzymes have a higher efficiency in the IUGR or the control mice. The main enzymes, proteins and receptors are the three types of PPAR, PEPCK, CPT-1, SREBP-1, and FAS. All of these expression studies will yield data on the effects of fetal programming in the IUGR female, a decreased fetal nutrition model....   [tags: health, liver enzymes]
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1135 words
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The Giant Clam - The giant clam is known as a reef dwelling mollusk. The domestication factor has become of large importance to the Indo-Pacific peoples. Mainly in the area of their diet. These huge clams are huge targets for fishermen and can be found easily. With the crystal water complection of the reef waters they live in makes them even easier to be spotted by the fishermen an by poachers. The people of this region eat every part of the flesh of the animal. They either dry, cook, or eat them raw....   [tags: essays research papers] 449 words
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The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef - The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc)....   [tags: Papers] 519 words
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The Daintree Rainforest - The Daintree Rainforest, one of the oldest rainforests in the world, is part of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia. This 1200 square kilometer, or approximately 500 square mile, rainforest is home to 3000 plant species. This region “contains 30 percent of Australia's frog, marsupial and reptile species, 65 percent of Australia's bat and butterfly species and 20 percent of the bird species,” according to the Daintree Discovery Center, the rainforest’s interpretive facility. Of these, 700 plants and 70 animals exist only in northeast Queensland and nowhere else in the world....   [tags: Ecology] 856 words
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Eco-Friendly Wildlife Garden - Eco-friendly wildlife garden is a great way to attract wildlife to your garden with various types of benefits. There are large numbers of native wildlife reserve in the gardens with an important value all over the country. The most important elements for a good and healthy wildlife garden are food, shelter and water. These are the fundamental elements required by all the living organisms to survive. Food: You can consider the habitat of some insects that feeds on nectar. Some animals that feed on worms and slugs and birds that feed on fruits and berries can be put in the gardens to increase the aesthetic look of the garden....   [tags: Gardening] 720 words
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Micke Grove Zoo - All over the world, millions of animals are kept in captivity for our entertainment or education. Even though modern zoos try to produce natural conditions for the animals that are sheltered there, wild animals suffer physically and mentally from the lack of freedom that these zoos impose. These environments are artificial. A zoo is where wild animals are held in reserve for exhibition. Zoos are not considered ecosystems because an ecosystem is defined as a “space in which interactions take place between a community, with all its complex interrelationships, and physical environment” (Enger and Smith 94)....   [tags: Zoology]
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1192 words
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Animal Testing Discussion - The major ancient philosophers, Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes, argue that animals lack a moral status because they do not engage in rational thought, are not conscious, and do not behave morally (Wilson, 2001). However, contrary to their beliefs, non-human animals do display the characteristics that Aquinas and Descartes claim qualifies humans for a moral status. In this paper, I will argue that animals should have an equal moral status to that of humans. This is due to the lack of relevant differences between humans and animals in the areas of thinking rationally, having a conscience, and behaving morally....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Animal Ethics] 2305 words
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A Philosophic Challenge - Did you know the odds of proteins necessary to create a strand of DNA lining up in order naturally are only once in 4x10022 years. (Werner 104). That’s highly improbable. Darwin didn’t anticipate that future discoveries would disprove the fundamental tenants of his theory of evolution. Modern science is repeatedly uncovering evidence that Darwinian evolution cannot be the explanation for life on earth because it relies on an implausible claim of spontaneous generation, leaves gaps in the fossil record, and is contradicted by emerging scientific discoveries....   [tags: Theory of Evolution, Darwin, DNA] 1155 words
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Coral Reef Destruction - Coral reefs are well known for their colorful array of marvelous sights including a parade of exotic flora and fauna. They are said to be the foundation for a quarter of marine species, and are a crucial support for human life as well. The coral reef ecosystem is a diverse collection of species (ranging from microscopic to larger-than-life in size) that interact with each other and their physical environment. If any piece of a coral reef is harmed or removed the entire community can be seriously affected, even to the point of collapse....   [tags: Enviroment, Marine Species]
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1564 words
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The Wood Frog - Description and Habitat The wood frog is part of the amphibian family and is nothing short of unique. It can range from 3.5 to 7.6 cm in length. Suggested by the name, it is a frog that is found mainly in wooded areas, lakes, forests and boggy land; however they can just about survive anywhere there is enough water available in the spring for breeding. The wood frog is the most widely distributed amphibian, mainly dispersed throughout the North American region, indicated by the image below. "It is found farther north than any other North American reptile or amphibian, and is the only frog found north of the Arctic Circle....   [tags: biology, habitat, amphibian family]
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1225 words
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The Fennec Fox - The Fennec Fox, also known as the Dessert Fox, is the smallest species of fox in the world. Linnaeus, who is known as the father of Taxonomy, classified all foxes under the Genus Vulpes- Fennec Foxes are more specifically classified within the species as Vulpes zerda. As previously stated Fennec Foxes are the smallest known species of foxes- to give one a mental image, they are smaller than the typical house cat. Vulpes zerda’s head and body are roughly eleven inches long, with a tail around seventeen inches long....   [tags: Dessert Fox, Smallest Fox, Linnaeus]
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1431 words
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The Immune System - One of the most important systems in the body of any species is the immune system. The immune system is a biological response that protects the body from dangerous pathogens that can cause harm or even death to the body. Without a well developed immune system that best fits the species’ body, an animal would have no chance of survival. A successful immune system has a myriad of mechanisms to protect the body from pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. The immune system has many mechanisms that enable it to protect the body from pathogens, such as mucus, phagocytes and effectors, or fevers....   [tags: phagocytosis, pathogens, blood cells]
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1128 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Hox Genes - The Hox genes are a set of related genes that code for transcription factors involved in determining the general body plan of an organism along the anterior to posterior axis. One unique feature of the hox gene is that its function and presence is highly conserved in a wide range of species, including the model organism Drosophila, amphibians, and mammals. Because of such a high level of homology amongst species where this gene cluster exists, conducting research using model organisms containing the hox gene cluster can lead to relevant discoveries in higher organisms and help to better understand evolutionary diversity....   [tags: axis, organism, drosophila]
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Salt Marsh Ecosystem - Salt marshes, usually mistaken for a mosquito infested mud pits, have a higher purpose than what the human population gives them credit for. Salt marshes are a unique ecosystem that makes home to many different species of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Salt marsh ecosystem’s serve as nursery grounds for many juvenile game fish such as red fish and black drum and are also home to a very important commercial fish, the bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). The salt marsh ecosystems also serve as a buffer by filtering the pollution out of our waters....   [tags: environmental science, ecology]
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1853 words
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Black Turnstone - As an adult, the black turnstone is a stocky, short legged bird that has dark colorings but white across its wings and back. Its tail is white with a black terminal band. As a hatchling they are brownish with a brown gray tail. The beak of the turnstone is black, short, and thick. The bill is about 20-27 millimeters long and slightly upturned. This helps them flip over rocks to get food. Both males and females are about 22–25 cm and weigh 100–170 g. Other names of this bird are Tournepierre noir and Vuelvepiedras negro....   [tags: Animal Research ]
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540 words
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Brain Plasticity - Brain Plasticity Throughout the line of questioning we have been following in our efforts to get "progressively less wrong" in our class wide model of the brain, a constant debate has sparked on the issue of whether brain equals behavior. If we agree that brain truly equals behavior, then we can surmise that the vastly differing human behavior must also translate to differing nuances in the brain. It is a widely conceded point that experience also effects behavior, and therefore experience must also affect the brain....   [tags: Neurology Neurological Papers]
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1130 words
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Coelomate And Acoelomate - Most animal phyla originated in a relatively brief span of geological time, however the diversity among them is extraordinary. Every organism is very unique a detailed in certain ways, comparisons of certain types of organisms can be very difficult. The class in which will be compared is that of the invertebrates. The main difference between coelomate and acoelomate body plans are that coelomates have a true coelom, which is a fluid-filled body cavity completely lined by tissue which is derived from mesoderm....   [tags: essays research papers] 631 words
(1.8 pages)
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Life - Until recently, scientists believed that the sole source of energy responsible for life on earth was the sun. In 1977, a group of scientists researching the theory of plate tectonics, traveled to the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and discovered something that could possibly explain how life began on this planet. From the Galapagos Rift's thermal springs, scientists discovered densely populated communities of several species never before observed. Since that time the Federal Government has devoted more than 10 million dollars to research these communities and their evolutionary history....   [tags: essays research papers] 858 words
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