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Your search returned over 400 essays for "innate"
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Innate Behaviors in Animals - Ever wonder how animals know so much. It’s simple. It’s all according to how they act and what they know. When an animal is born it has instincts. These instincts help the creature survive and cause them to behave certain ways. This is called Innate behaviors. Although, some things animals have been taught. Unlike Innate behaviors whereas it comes from the genes, other behaviors have to be learned. They are called Learned behaviors. Together, Innate and Learned behaviors can prove that animals are smarter then most people think....   [tags: Innate behaviors, animals, ] 709 words
(2 pages)
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Innate Ideas - In efforts to find truth, Descartes used only his logic to identify his existence. He also proved that there is some type of knowledge that we are born with. “Some of our ideas seem to be “born with me,” some “invented” by me, whereas others “come from without” (Descartes, 2008, p. 211). Which means Descartes believed that we enter this world with some innate ideas that overtime helps us to develop understanding of our sense (invented by me) and through our experiences (comes from without). Descartes was a dualist; he stated that there existed something outside of our bodies....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1450 words
(4.1 pages)
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Innate Ideas - Innate Ideas Throughout the passage of time, philosophers have written and discussed many topics in philosophy. Sometimes, these philosophers agree on ideas or sometimes they make their own assumptions. There are two philosophers who had different ideas concerning where innate ideas come from and how we get these types of ideas. Rene Descartes and John Locke were these two philosophers with the opposing argument on innate ideas. The place where Descartes discusses his views were in the Meditations on First Philosophy and Locke's argument is located in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding....   [tags: Papers] 641 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Theory of Innate Virtue - Throughout the dialogue of “Meno”, Socrates inquires what virtue is and whether virtue is innate, acquired through learning, or received as a gift from the gods (Jowett, 1949). After some discussion with Meno, Socrates first proposes the theory that virtue is innate. Subsequently the knowledge of innate virtue is of a priori knowledge, which is in turn contingent on a priori justification (Russell, 2011). A priori knowledge is knowledge that rests on a priori justification. A priori justification is a type of epistemic justification that is, in some sense, independent of experience....   [tags: Philosophy]
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999 words
(2.9 pages)
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Innate vs. Learned Vocalization - Every mammal and many other animals possess a larynx with the potential for making sounds. In communication, these regions serve to transmit information that will influence the listener’s behavior, i.e. to attract, fend off, inform, or warn (Bright, 1984). Among these many types of sounds, some animals appear able to produce more complex, learned vocalizations, while most are limited to rudimentary, innate vocalizations (Jarvis, 2004) The distinction between innate versus learned vocalization is not completely rigid, but there do appear to be linguistic and neuroanatomical distinctions separating them....   [tags: Vocalization] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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What Apects of Language Are Innate? - ... Conversely, studies from Ramus (2000) show that Tamarins do not need training and can discriminate phonemes and generalise it to new speakers. However, they can only discriminate between languages from different rhythmic families such as Dutch and Japanese, but not between English and Dutch. In contrast, infants of about 4 months of age can discriminate even between American and British English (Nazzi et al, 2000). Nativists also claim that children follow the same steps when acquiring any language, following the same schedule when acquiring sounds, words and grammar....   [tags: communication, Chomsky, grammar]
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2352 words
(6.7 pages)
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Lord of the Flies: The Innate Evil - When Ralph sees the naval officer that appears on the island to save them, he realizes that he will return to civilization. The shock causes him to reflect on what has happened. The rescue does not produce joy; instead he feels despair at what he has been through. He is awakened to the reality that he will never be the same. He has lost his innocence and learned about the evil that lurks within himself and all men through his experiences on the island. Ralph’s revelation to his loss of innocence and societal order among the boys is exemplified through the collapse of the attempted Democratic government, the killing of the pig, and the death of Piggy and Simon....   [tags: Literary Themes] 585 words
(1.7 pages)
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Innate Knowledge and Death - ... Children have been proven to be in tune with that which adults cannot perceive by exhibiting behavior contrary to the “norm” that society and labored mankind with by entertaining themselves with imaginary friends. Perhaps, this is the remembrance of things that once were or possibly the children are being entertained by old friends that have not yet been captured by the corporeal entity of the flesh. As Socrates points out, “Then our souls had a previous existence, Simmias, before they took on this human shape....   [tags: Socrates, Birth, Peace]
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1737 words
(5 pages)
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Innate Evil and the Temptations of the Devil - Early American literature is unique in that it is abundantly influenced by Biblical themes and ideas. Being that this country was founded by the strict, fundamentalist Puritans, it seems obvious that the literature would be pervaded by such things as the presence of evil and its impact on goodness and holiness. The “evil” that is found in Melville and Hawthorne is interesting because it reflects the Biblical idea of evil tempting good and attempting to convert it rather than simply destroy it. The stories of Poe reflect the turmoil and evil that is contained within a person and tempts him or her to commit evil acts....   [tags: American Literature, Billy Bud, William Wilson] 2234 words
(6.4 pages)
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Innate Difference Between Men and Women - In some way, have we failed to state the basic facts about innate differences between the sexes to our children. We have people that want to say that the division of the two sexes, female and male, is just an artificial invention of our culture and labeling a child as a “girl” or “boy” is a social decision. British researchers compiled and analyzed a large body of gender-related neurological research book, "Brain Sex: The Real Difference between Men and Women". They determined that men and women act different because of their brains are different and the evidence is  "conclusive" and "incontrovertible" that men and women have different mentalities and thus perceive the world differently (Rauchet p....   [tags: Women's Rights] 1119 words
(3.2 pages)
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Conscience Created versus Innate - Conscience Created versus Innate To what extent do you think you are dictated by your surroundings and your up-bringing. Do you claim your opinions to be your own. Do you trust your logic and your conscience. These are questions that are seldom asked by ourselves or by others. In fact, these kinds of questions could almost be considered taboo. It seems to be generally accepted that one can trust oneself, one’s authority, and one’s conscience. Upon these premises we seem to build up everything else....   [tags: Papers] 1418 words
(4.1 pages)
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innate human violence - Phillip Zimbardo, Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram, and Howard Zinn were/are all gifted psychologists that strived to understand the simple complexities of conformity within an individual’s specific societal structure. Within their own specific areas of psychology, every single one of them came to one simple conclusion that allowed each of them to become the quality of psychologist that they are today, and that is the understanding that the power of the situation can be stronger than the individual....   [tags: essays research papers] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Plato and Locke's Views on an Innate Idea - Plato and Locke's Views on an Innate Idea        What is an innate idea?  This can be defined as some idea or mental representation that is produced by outside perception or created anew by our imagination. It exists in the mind in virtue of the nature of the human mind.  According to Plato most if not all of our knowledge is innate. However, John Locke feels that we do not have any innate ideas.  Then the question arises of who is right or are they both wrong.  In this paper I will attempt to examine the conflicting views of Plato and Locke....   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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2119 words
(6.1 pages)
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Innate Evil in Golding's Lord of the Flies - This paper will explore the three elements of innate evil within William Golding's, Lord of the Flies, the change from civilization to savagery, the beast, and the battle on the island. Golding represents evil through his character's, their actions, and symbolism. The island becomes the biggest representation of evil because it's where the entire novel takes place. The change from civilization to savagery is another representation of how easily people can change from good to evil under unusual circumstances....   [tags: essays research papers] 688 words
(2 pages)
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Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on First and Subsequent Exposure to a Pathogen - The immune system is comprised of two responses: the adaptive immune response and the innate immune response. The first line of defence against invading organisms is classified as the innate immune response and the second line of defence and protection against re- exposure to the same pathogen is known as the adaptive immune response. Innate immune responses are known as the non-specific manner which composes the cells and defend the host from infection by other organism by mechanism. The adaptive immunity represents the antigen-specific immune response....   [tags: Medical Science]
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503 words
(1.4 pages)
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DESCRIBE THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT CELL TYPES OF INNATE IMMUNITY - The immune system is a complicated biological body system that protects us from pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi which has cells that are from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow. It includes white blood cells, chemicals and proteins like complement proteins and antibodies. The system is divided into two major parts that is the innate immunity system (non-specific) and the adaptive system (specific). The innate plays a vital role in the system as it is the primary defence mechanism whilst the adaptive immune system is the second line of defence....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1219 words
(3.5 pages)
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Speaking From Within: A Discussion on Our Innate Ability to Learn Languages - Speaking From Within: A Discussion on Our Innate Ability to Learn Languages For years since I moved to the United States after the age of nine, I've always been frustrated at the lack of improvement in my ability to speak English without a trace of foreign accent and my ability to write without any grammatical errors. It always seemed to me that learning languages is unlike learning anything else, I can logically understand the pronunciation of the a word or the rules of grammar, but for reasons unknown, I always found it hard to incorporate logical knowledge of language into the actual speaking and writing of English....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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1252 words
(3.6 pages)
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Innate Act of Evil or Demonstration? - Do you remember where you were on April 9th 1995. Videos clips flickered images of a crumbling collapsing building. Body bags amassed high next to ambulances. Lachrymose mothers pulled up to the scene hoping and praying that it wasn’t their son. Where were you on the day of the Oklahoma City Bombing. Do you remember hanging on to every word in President Clinton’s speech. Do you remember the feeling of nationalism that overpowered you. Do you remember the hated you felt for the man who had done this to your nation....   [tags: Terrorism]
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1588 words
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Innate Evils of Communism - ... Rand utilizes the government’s corruption and facades of loyalty to describe the extent at which Communists forced smiles and quotes on their faces and lips. Rand’s ultimate argument against Communism in practice reveals the hatred and deceit involved in achieving Party membership and favor. When Victor Dunaev betrays his sister to the GPU, he is motivated for a rewards for Party loyalty (Rand 339). This heinous act represents the evils of Communism and all loss for family devotion and values, as the party so willingly approves recognizes Victor’s “heroism” (Rand 339)....   [tags: We the Living, Ayn Rand, Soviet Russia] 816 words
(2.3 pages)
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Innate and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis - Abstract Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has T helper 1 (Th1) immunostimulatory activities but because of toxicity and pyrogenicity cannot be used as an adjuvant. Brucella abortus LPS has less toxicity and no pyrogenic properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. In the current study, the immunostimulatory properties of Brucella abortus LPS were evaluated for its adjuvant activity. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was extracted and after anion-exchange chromatography on Q-sepharose column, two fractions (17 and 23), which dominantly contained 30- and 70- kDa antigens, were collected for immunological studies....   [tags: Medical Science ] 3754 words
(10.7 pages)
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Making an Inmate for Life - The average Texas inmate was able to afford one five minute phone call every three months, yet this is only one example of severely limited interactions (Worely et al., 2010). The inmate population and eventually society are adversely impacted by the lack of contact or freedom in prison. Additional concerns include the impact elected isolation, inappropriate relationships, and snitching. It is hypothesized that limited amenities, lack of quality relationships, and institutionalization effect creates psychological issues for those who must re-enter society....   [tags: Criminal Justice]
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1806 words
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Inmate's Abuse in Prison - It is dreadful enough to get raped, but having to see your perpetrator every day and possibly raping you again is a constant fear that many inmates have to encounter. According to the Bureau of Justice (BJS), in 2008 correctional administrators reported 7,444 allegations of sexual abuse in prisons. About 46 % of the sexual abuse involved staff with inmates. But these statistics do not include the many cases that go unreported due to victim’s fear of being punished by their perpetrators and/ or to embarrassment and humiliation that comes with rape....   [tags: Criminal Justice]
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1145 words
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Accomodating the Increasing Inmate Population - Accomodating the Increasing Inmate Population In August 1994, the California Department of Corrections released its annual five-year facilities master plan for new prison construction. This plan, usually submitted to the Legislature earlier in the calendar year, was delayed so that the additional need for new prison beds resulting from the recently enacted Three Strikes and You're Out legislation could be incorporated into the plan. The facilities plan is based on the department's spring 1994 population estimate that estimated a total of 246,000 inmates by June 1999....   [tags: Papers] 1561 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Inmate - Original Writing - The Inmate - Original Writing The sounds of the keys echoed across the hallway. Past each set of bars the keys rang a wanted freedom. As the keys and the guard strolled past, almost motionless bodies turned, all drawing closer to the keys. Closer, closer … stop. The cold bars formed the wall that could not be broken. The freedom. All hands were on this wall except one. One set of hands lay quiet, still and with no movement. These hands belonged to a tall, dark-haired person, a man, and a ghost....   [tags: Papers] 716 words
(2 pages)
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The Inmate Subculture in United States Prisons: An Overview - The Inmate Subculture in United States Prisons: An Overview The Subculture Phenomena within Prisons To be able to discuss the issue of the inmate sub-cultures in prison I will first have to discuss what subcultures are and major reasons that they form. First of all the term subculture in general is kind of like a small culture within and not always accepted by members of a larger one known as a society. Societies as a whole are very large and contain many individuals within them, and let us face it it is human nature to group together or congregate with individuals that have similar interests....   [tags: Criminal Justice]
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We Must Put an End to Frivolous Inmate Lawsuits - We Must Put an End to Frivolous Inmate Lawsuits Our forefathers were bright enough to establish a system of government with a series of checks and balances to maintain a balanced government. For the past decade a series of checks and balances has begun to fail our government. In our failing system of government inmates have taken advantage of the court system and have flooded it with an inconceivable number of frivolous lawsuits. Laurel Walters, a writer for the Christian Science Monitor, investigated inmates' lawsuits and found that these "recreational litigators...are suing the courts as an intramural sports activity." Action needs to be taken in order to rectify and protect "US" from this squandering of our tax payer provided funds and resources....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
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1469 words
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The Philosophy of John Locke - Johnathan Robert’s life has been characterized by a keen ability to self teach. At two years old, he suffered an accident that broke his femur. Within weeks of his caste being removed, he relearned the skill of walking. At no older than six years old Johnathan had received numerous ear surgeries yet refused to allow his speech to reflect any of his hearing loss. By the age of seven, he had effectively taught himself how to read and write. According to the philosophy of John Locke, Johnathan’s knowledge did not come from innate ideas or principles, but rather from experiences and sensations....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1230 words
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locke's ideas - ... While the mind has the capacity to think, it is not actually constantly thinking. For example, if you are asleep but not dreaming, then according to Locke, your mind isn’t actually thinking. All ideas we experience derive from sensations and perception. Sensation obviously uses the bodily senses to receive ideas, whereas reflection uses the body’s own procedures to receive ideas like thinking, believing and doubting. [4] Both of these processes are passive. The corpuscular hypothesis, which Locke expanded on from Boyle’s original thoughts, seems to suggest that everything in existence are colourless, tasteless, soundless and odourless corpuscles of matter....   [tags: philosophy, knowledge]
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1074 words
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Are Humans Predisposed To Learn Language? - For a number of years, Noam Chomsky has produced written artefacts relating to the use and acquisition of language. In his works, Chomsky argues that humans have an innate ability to learn how to use language. The question of an innate ability to learn language is a cross-disciplinary one, relating to the fields of psychology, philosophy and linguistics. This essay will review Chomsky’s claim of an innate predisposition to acquire language by first attempting to determine precisely what Chomsky means by this term, before looking at key arguments both supporting and refuting the claim....   [tags: Linguistics]
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1258 words
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The immune System - The immune system is the body’s defence mechanism against pathogens. This system comprises of many cells that work together to protect the body from foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, parasites as well as tumours. The immune system is divided into two primitive forms, the innate and adaptive systems. The roles for both types are vital in the immune system; the innate is the rapid, non-specific primary response against any foreign material the body encounters, whereas the adaptive system is a secondary response and a more specific line of defence....   [tags: Biology, Diseases, Medical Research] 1598 words
(4.6 pages)
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John Locke and Human Understanding - John Locke and Human Understanding Book I - Neither Principles nor Ideas Are Innate Chapter I - No Innate Speculative Principles 1. The way shown how we come by any knowledge, sufficient to prove it not innate. It is an established opinion amongst some men, that there are in the understanding certain innate principles; some primary notions, koinai ennoiai, characters, as it were stamped upon the mind of man; which the soul receives in its very first being, and brings into the world with it. It would be sufficient to convince unprejudiced readers of the falseness of this supposition, if I should only show (as I hope I shall in the following parts of this Discourse) how men, barely by the use of their natural faculties, may attain to all the knowledge they have, without the help of any innate impressions; and may arrive at certainty, without any such original notions or principles....   [tags: Papers] 5291 words
(15.1 pages)
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Biochemistry Research Paper - Toll-like receptors are proteins that play a significant role in the recognition of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, thereby initiating an innate response. The TLR family recognizes structurally conserve molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) derive from these viruses and bacteria. TLR7 have been shown to mediate the recognition of single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, whereas TLR9 recognizes non-methylated CpG sequences in bacterial DNA molecules. However, the molecular mechanism by which non-methylated CpG DNA and ssRNA viruses activate the innate immunity is not well understood....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Viruses, Bacteria] 1897 words
(5.4 pages)
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John Locke - ... Plato was not the only philosopher that supported the idea of innate knowledge. Descartes also believed in innate knowledge over the Tabula Rasa, he believed in the innate ideas of God. Kant also believed that we had a sense of time, space, causality and comparison from innate knowledge (Al-Rodhan). Locke then goes further into his theory by stating that all knowledge begins with sensory experiences. Locke states that everything that is learned from our experience with objects. Since we are born as a Tabula Rasa we know nothing, so knowledge is the most valuable key....   [tags: metaphysics, Tabula Rasa, empiricism, knowledge]
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954 words
(2.7 pages)
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Themes in "Lord of the Flies" - William Goldning’s Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel where literary techniques are utilized to convey the main ideas and themes of the novel. Two important central themes of the novel includes loss of civilization and innocense which tie into the concept of innate human evil. Loss of civilization is simply the transition from civilization to savagery; order to chaos. The concept of loss of innocense is a key concept to innate human evil because childhood innocense is disrupted as the group hunted animals and even their own....   [tags: essays research papers] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Framing the Innateness Hypothesis - Framing the Innateness Hypothesis Perhaps the most traditional way of framing the innateness hypothesis would be in terms of an opposition between rationalism and empiricism. This is an opposition that is frequently encountered in philosophical debates over language acquisition, with the one side arguing that language acquisition is a phenomenon associated with the maturation of a language faculty or "organ," while the other side argues that language acquisition is instead a process of generalization from experience....   [tags: Language Learning Essays]
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1582 words
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EXAMINING EPISTEMOLOGY - In efforts to find truth Descartes used only his logic to identify his existence. He also proved that there is some type of knowledge that we are born with. “Some of our ideas seem to be “born with me,” some “invented” by me, whereas others “come from without” Descartes (211). Which means that we do enter this world with some innate ideas and overtime we acquire knowledge through our sense and experiences. Descartes was a dualist; he stated that there existed something outside of our bodies. Descartes agreed with the “ghost in the machine” theory developed by Gilbert Ryle, which states that there is some mystical being, which Descartes believed was the mind, that was primary to the machine (or the body)....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1098 words
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A Very Brief History on the Existence of God - The subsequent essay will provide a brief overview on the existence of God from René Descartes through Immanuel Kant. First, section (1), examines Descartes’ proof for the existence of God. Section (2), explores G.W. Leibniz’s view on God’s existence in addition to his attempts to rectify the shortcomings of Descartes’ proofs. Before continuing, it is imperative to understand that both Descartes and Leibniz believed that the existence of God could be proved via reason. The remainder of the essay then examines two additional philosophers, David Hume in section (4) and Immanuel Kant in (5), who contend that God’s existence cannot be rationally proven....   [tags: Philosophy, Descartes] 1213 words
(3.5 pages)
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Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis - Empiricist Views on the Innateness Hypothesis Barbiero, in his note on framing the innateness hypothesis, mentions that "to frame the innateness question is to attempt to distinguish among the different constraints and mechanisms that can be attributed to the human biological endowment for language". In this note, I follow up on Barbiero's proposal by discussing empiricist views, mainly Quinean views, on the innate learning mechanisms that enable children to acquire not only the semantics but also the syntax of their language....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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1293 words
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Exploring the Human Immune System - 2.4.1 Overview The immune system can be subdivided into two systems; innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immune system is made up of physical, chemical, and microbiological barriers, as well as the others elements of the immune system such as phagocytic cells (polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages), cells that release inflammatory mediator (basophils, mast cell, and eosinophils), natural killer cells, and the protein component (complement, cytokines, and acute phase proteins)....   [tags: medical, immunology] 1051 words
(3 pages)
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Neonatal Case Study Assessment - The human infant is called a neonate who is less than 28 days old. (Potter, Perry, Ross-Kerr, & Wood, 2009, p. 333) The newborn goes through mostly reflex changes during this critical time which leads to bonding and deep attachments between the parents and the neonate during the first 28 days. The neonate I worked with was 18 days old, male, Muslim, goes by the initials MK and lived in a townhouse with his parents. During birth, the family requested as many female staff as possible due to religious reasons....   [tags: Nursing, maternity, newborn nursing]
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The Immune System - ... As mentioned before, immune system contains cells, tissues and specific organs which attack and destroy pathogens and microorganisms. Most of immune system derived from stem cells in bone marrow. Pluripotent stem cells give rise to myeloid progenitor and lymphoid progenitor (ibid). Myeloid progenitor supports non-specific immune system, while lymphoid progenitor supports specific immune system. Non-specific immune system sometimes referred as innate immune system; this immunity one is born with and it is first respond is eliminate pathogens and prevent infection....   [tags: Human Organism Defense]
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995 words
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Language Acquisition: Understanding Language and its Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Aspects - ... The research by Hurford (1991) is heavily based on and expands on previous research conducted by Lenneberg (1967). According to previous research, children who have aphasia before puberty still have a reasonable chance of developing language. Also this research suggests that adults who experience aphasia have absolutely no chance of developing language because adults are past the sensitive period when language acquisition is possible. These adults may be able to make some progress but they are only able to retain whatever language acquisition skills they develop three to five months after the impairment (Lenneberg, 1967)....   [tags: language origin, speech, communication]
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3236 words
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What is Giftedness? - What is Giftedness. Maria, a friend of my mother's, once complained to our family about the public school system in Florida. She claimed Peter, her six-year-old child, is extremely intelligent and not only could he play the violin and chess, but he could also read upper-level books. Despite all this, he did not make it into the gifted program at school - a program that she believed he rightfully deserved to be a member of. Why was she so upset over the outcome, and what deciding factors do people consider that could lead to the child being selected against an accelerated program....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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2910 words
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Language - Possessing a language is a quintessentially human trait, yet the acquisition of language in children is not perfectly understood. Most explanations involve the observation that children mimic what they hear and the assumption that human beings have a natural ability to understand grammar. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner originally proposed that language must be learned and cannot be a module. The mind consisted of sensorimotor abilities as well as laws of learning that govern gradual changes in an organism’s behavior (Skinner, B.F., 1957)....   [tags: Linguistic Theory,Chomsky, Language Acquisition] 2175 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism - There are two main schools of thought, or methods, in regards to the subject of epistemology: rationalism and empiricism. These two, very different, schools of thought attempt to answer the philosophical question of how knowledge is acquired. While rationalists believe that this process occurs solely in our minds, empiricists argue that it is, instead, through sensory experience. After reading and understanding each argument it is clear that empiricism is the most relative explanatory position in epistemology....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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Personal Justice and Homicide in Scott’s Ivanhoe: - Personal Justice and Homicide in Scott’s Ivanhoe Abstract: Scott’s Ivanhoe reveals a conflict between our innate concept of justice as personal justice and the impersonal justice which is imposed on us by the modern nation-state. This conflict causes the split between the proper hero, who affirms the order of impersonal justice, and the dark hero, who acts according to personal justice, in Scott’s work. In Evolution and Literary Theory, Joseph Carroll provides a paradigm for the integration of literary criticism with evolutionary psychology....   [tags: Scott Ivanhoe Psychology papers]
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Toll like receptors and their therapeutic potential - Cellular Basis Of Disease: Why has the discovery of Toll-like receptors revolutionised our understanding of how the innate immune system works, and what is the therapeutic potential. The body has two immune systems: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Adaptive, or acquired, immunity refers to antigen-specific defence mechanisms that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is immunity develops throughout life....   [tags: essays research papers] 2112 words
(6 pages)
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Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period - Metaphysical Thoughts During the Enlightenment Period The eighteenth century was fraught with change. Dryden, Pope and Johnson were dominating the literature. Fahrenheit was building his first mercury thermometer. The Boston Tea Party and the French Revolution occurred. However, some of the most drastic changes occurred in thought. Prior to the eighteenth century, thinkers such as Locke, Spinoza, Descartes, and Hobbes dominated Western thought to the extent that they changed the way people viewed the world....   [tags: American America History]
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1774 words
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hierarchy of Morality - Excerpt from “The Immorality of Morals and the Future of Amorality” Most authors seem to promote one or the other of two functions for morality, internal cohesion and external threat. However morality served both equally well. In Darwinism, Dominance and Democracy by Somit and Peterson, the authors state, "Humans are social primates, closely (almost embarrassingly) akin genetically to the chimpanzees and only slightly less so to the gorillas. Working over at least 10 million years, natural selection has endowed the social primates with a predisposition (to understate the matter) for hierarchical social structures....   [tags: essays research papers] 976 words
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Rene Descartes is a Rationalist - There is a distinct difference between rationalism and empiricism. In fact, they are very plainly the direct opposite of each other. Rationalism is the belief in innate ideas, reason, and deduction. Empiricism is the belief in sense perception, induction, and that there are no innate ideas. With rationalism, believing in innate ideas means to have ideas before we are born.-for example, through reincarnation. Plato best explains this through his theory of the forms, which is the place where everyone goes and attains knowledge before they are taken back to the “visible world”....   [tags: Rationalism vs Empiricism]
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Descartes and God - Descartes and God Everywhere in this world there are debates on many things. Logic is often employed in order to understand and come to an agreement on these debated topics. One such topic, which is arguably the greatest topic of debate occurring in modern day, is the existence of God. Sure, many people believe in some sort of higher being, but how many of them try and use logic and rational thought to prove the existence of God. Many probably, however we will only look at one such person. Rene Descartes attempts to use his own logic to come up with the conclusion that a perfect being does exist and that being is in itself God in his book Meditations on First Philosophy....   [tags: Papers] 831 words
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Humanity’s Evil Inspired William Golding’s "Lord of the Flies" - “Drug dealers go big, use Boeing for coke run”, “11 killed in Pakistan by suicide bomber”, “Parents largely unaware teen binge drinking is growing deadlier” (Edmonton Journal, November 18, 2009). It is truly staggering to see the number of articles concerning crime, felony and death in a newspaper, everyday. It is not hard to find articles about laws being broken, about lawbreakers going free and about people being killed. The concept of newspapers full of stories showing humanity’s evil suggests that there is something wrong with today’s world, but newspapers have always been full of such articles and events....   [tags: evil, William Golding, Lord of the Flies, ] 1663 words
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Phantoms in the Brain - The brain is known as the “final frontier” of science; the nut that is toughest to crack but contains a vast wealth of information, a veritable treasure trove of knowledge that can enrich our understanding of human nature. One of the ways that neuroscientists study the brain is through case studies of what happens when the brain malfunctions – what happens to make the brain operate incorrectly, can we pinpoint the anomalies, and can we correlate neural anomalies to physiological problems. In his book “Phantoms in the Brain”, V.S....   [tags: Neurology] 1096 words
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Critical Age in First Language Acquisition - 1.0 Introduction Language is a set of arbitrary symbols which used for communication. Children will be taught or learn their first language from birth. Sometimes the term native language and the term mother tongue are used to indicate the term first language. Possessing a language is the quintessentially human trait: all normal humans speak, no nonhuman animal does.(Pinker, 2005) Nonetheless, learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a matter of a few years and without the need for formal lessons....   [tags: Language ]
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Women on the Bottom and Men on Top - Do women wear suits to work because they want to look like a man, or are they just tired of wearing dresses. Since the beginning of time, the gender coin has kept women on one side and men on the other. Coexistence has proven to be difficult in the best of times. The fact that men cannot have babies and women do not have a penis should not keep us from enjoying our differences. The mix-up in our thinking is that men and women are innately different yet we want them to be equal, which requires recognizing these differences then ignoring them, and puts reality on a collision course with the politically correct cause of equality....   [tags: Gender Studies]
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Asian Seabass - According to FAO (2008), the world fisheries production by capture and aquaculture has reached 142 million metric tons which this number shows the increasing of about 26 million metric tons from the fish production in 2007. FAO reported that the scale of fish capturing has reached the maximum level and it was counted that about 77% of the fishing region in the world has now classified as fully exploited. As this scenario might cause the decreasing of new fish sources, the fishing industry will face some problems to fulfill the demand of this protein source around the world (Meryl 2007)....   [tags: Business, Malaysian Market, Fish] 1224 words
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The Existence of God – A Very Brief History - The subsequent essay will cover a brief history on the existence of God from René Descartes through Immanuel Kant. First, section (1), examines Descartes’ ontological argument for the existence of God. Following this, in (2), I consider G.W. Leibniz’s view which seeks to rectify some of Descartes shortcomings. Descartes and Leibniz believed that the existence of God could be proved via reason. The remainder of the essay then examines two additional philosophers, David Hume in section (4) and Immanuel Kant in (5), who content that God’s existence cannot be rationally proved....   [tags: Analysis, Descartes, Leibniz] 973 words
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism - Rationalism and empiricism were two philosophical schools in the 17th and 18th centuries, that were expressing opposite views on some subjects, including knowledge. While the debate between the rationalist and empiricist schools did not have any relationship to the study of psychology at the time, it has contributed greatly to facilitating the possibility of establishing the discipline of Psychology. This essay will describe the empiricist and rationalist debate, and will relate this debate to the history of psychology....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Weaknesses of Descartes' Arguments - Descartes was incorrect and made mistakes in his philosophical analysis concerning understanding the Soul and the foundation of knowledge.  Yes, he coined the famous phrase, “I think therefore I am,” but the rest of his philosophical conclusions fail to be as solid (Meditation 4; 32). Descartes knew that if he has a mind and is thinking thoughts then he must be something that has the ability to think. While he did prove that he is a thinking thing that thinks (Meditation 3; 28), he was unable to formulate correct and true philosophical arguments and claims.  For instance, his argument for faith that a non-deceiving God exists and allows us to clearly reason and perceive was a circular argument.  Another issue with Descartes' philosophy is that he wanted to reconcile scientific and religious views, which is wrong since the two maintain completely different foundational beliefs and they should exist exclusively- without relation to the other.  Thirdly, he believed that the mind was the Self and the Soul, failing to recognize that humans have bodies and the outside world exists, and through which we gain our knowledgeable....   [tags: Philosophy]
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Theory Assessment - ... As a plebe I looked up to a particular firstie who displayed many of the innate traits of such a leader. Based on limited interaction it was apparent to me that this individual had a clear understanding of what was going on. Important decisions were made swiftly and with seamless confidence. As a follower, I held the belief that this individual would know how to get through any form of situation. He was clearly an intelligent person. This intelligence was not however, merely the result of countless hours of study....   [tags: Leadership, Application, Practice] 1815 words
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Leviathan - ... The Leviathan acts to “Defend [man] from the invasion of foreigners and the injuries of one another… is to confer all their power and strength onto one man…” (L 28.13). Essentially the Leviathan is composed of the obedience of the people - without the obedience of the people it would “not only not flourish, but in short time be dissolved” (L 30.7). Fundamentally the people must give up their rights for their own protection under the Leviathan, and the Leviathan holds supreme power over its subjects....   [tags: Hobbes, monarchy, commonwealth, governing]
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Poe's Fall of The House of Usher Essay: Beyond Empiricism and Transcendentalism - Beyond Empiricism and Transcendentalism in House of Usher      When Edgar Allan Poe wrote "The Fall of the House of Usher," two factors greatly influenced his writing. A first influence was John Locke's idea of Empiricism, which was the idea that all knowledge was gained by experiences, exclusively through the senses. A second vital influence was Transcendentalism, which was a reaction to Empiricism.  While John Locke believed that reality or truth was constituted by the material world and by the senses, Transcendentalists believed that reality and truth exist within the spiritual or ideal world....   [tags: Fall House Usher Essays]
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Measure for Measure Essay: Lord Angelo's Hypocrisy - Lord Angelo's Hypocrisy in Measure for Measure      Within ‘Measure for Measure’ Shakespeare presents the notion that mankind's corruption is not necessarily born by power, but rather already innate in humanity. Shakespeare argues that power is not a producer of corruption by presenting the Duke, who holds the most power, as a moral hero, and conversely revealing the corruption of the powerless class (through characters like, Pompey, Mistress Overdone, and Barnadine).  Shakespeare uses Lord Angelo in Measure for Measure to show that corruption is innate within mankind whilst Angelo is a symbolism for pharisaical fanaticism in the play....   [tags: Measure for Measure]
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Measure for Measure Essay: Immorality and Corruption - Immorality and Corruption in Measure for Measure         In ‘Measure for Measure’, Shakespeare demonstrates that there is an innate immorality and corruption in the heart of man. Shakespeare illustrates that power does not cause corruption.  This is achieved by presenting the Duke, who has the most power in Vienna, as a moral hero, and conversely revealing the corruption of the powerless class through characters including Pompey, Mistress Overdone, and Barnadine.  Through all this, Shakespeare uses Lord Angelo in Measure for Measure to show that immorality and corruption is innate in mankind....   [tags: Measure for Measure]
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Knowledge of Good in Plato's The Republic - An Intellectual Knowledge of Good in Plato’s Republic Socrates might be a wise philosopher but one of his ideas strikes me as particularly naive. In the allegory of the cave, he tells Glaucon that "in the world of knowledge the idea of good appears last of all, and is seen only with an effort [·] and that this is the power upon which he [the intellectual] would act rationally" (517b-c). In other words, he seems to be implying that knowledge of goodness is a sufficient condition for being good....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
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Piaget Theory - a) Describe 2 studies of perceptual development (12 marks). b) Assess the way in which such studies help to explain the development of perception (12 marks). In the following essay I intend to describe two studies of perceptual development. I then intend to assess such studies and how they help to explain the development of perception. By perceptual development, I mean how animals and humans alike develop their seeing capabilities. This development of perception could be learnt or innate. By innate, I mean to be born with the ability....   [tags: essays research papers] 758 words
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Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy - Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes’ third meditation from his book Meditations on First Philosophy, examines Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to explore Descartes’ reasoning and proofs of God’s existence. In the third meditation, Descartes states two arguments attempting to prove God’s existence, the Trademark argument and the traditional Cosmological argument. Although his arguments are strong and relatively truthful, they do no prove the existence of God....   [tags: Existence God Religion Descartes Essays] 1961 words
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The Origin Of Language - There has been considerable historical discourse over the nature of language. Most contend that thought and language are two interrelated criteria. Just how these criteria relate to the controversy over whether animals have language capabilities and even more specifically to the Sapir-Whorf human language thought debate, however, is not always clear. From a human context we know that language is a skill which allows us to communicate our thoughts to others and in so doing to attain desired "biological, cognitive, and social/behavioral feedback" (McDonnell, 1977)....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Inequality in the Classroom - The issue of inequality seems to be evident in our classrooms nowadays. It is said that although everyone, regardless of race or religion, have been given equal oppurtunities, the outcome is still imbalanced. Researchers say that this could be due to either biological destiny (/innate intelligence superiority) or cultural depravation (/cultural superiority). This essay will reflect my views on innate intelligence and cultural superiority in explaining group differences as well as other explanation accounting for inequalities in outcomes among groups....   [tags: Sociology] 749 words
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John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume - John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume John Locke, Berkeley and Hume are all empiricist philosophers. They all have many different believes, but agree on the three anchor points; The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience, reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience and there is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known from experience. Each of these philosophers developed some of the most fascinating conceptions of the relationships between our thoughts and the world around us....   [tags: Philosophy Empiricist Philosophers] 1235 words
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Locke - Locke I. General Notions Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes were not truly conscious of the phenomenalistic consequences of their theory of knowledge, which was based on empiricism. Both considered sensation as phenomenal presentations and also as representations of reality. Thus they still had something upon which to build an absolute metaphysics. With Locke gnosiological phenomenalism enters its critical phase. By considering sensations merely as subjective presentations, Locke gives us a theory of knowledge of subjective data devoid of any relation with external objects....   [tags: Papers] 1877 words
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The Origin of Ideas - The Origin of Ideas Webster's dictionary defines the word idea as 1) something, such as a thought or conception, that potentially or actually exists in the mind as a product of mental activity, 2) an opinion, a conviction, or a principle, 3) a plan, scheme, or method 4) the gist of a specific situation, and 5) a notion. We have a better understanding of these definitions today because of the thoughts and writings of Descartes and John Locke. These two have very different views on the origin of ideas....   [tags: Papers] 810 words
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Skill, Ability and Technique in Fitness - Skill, Ability and Technique in Fitness Both skill and technique are learnt and developed, whereas ability is innate. Because skill and technique are learnt, they are dependent on practice to be able to progress. As ability is innate, you are born with specific abilities, which will help you to develop skills and techniques. For example, if you are of average height, have good coordination and have an abundance of fast-twitch fibres in your legs then you have the ability to become a sprinter....   [tags: Papers] 788 words
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The Differences Between Skill, Ability and Technique in Fitness - The Differences Between Skill, Ability and Technique in Fitness Skill, ability and technique are linked together in the fact they all enable us to perform an activity productively, however each of them means something different. Skill: consists in the ability to bring about an end result with utmost certainty and smallest outlay of energy, or of time and energy. A top athlete can produce the required skill with only one attempt, for a movement to be classed as a skill it has to have a objective, and for the athlete to be classed as skilful this goal has to be achieved with certainty....   [tags: Papers] 889 words
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Descartes' Proof of God's Existence - The existence of God has always been an arguable topic. Descartes’ however, believed that he had proof of God’s existence through an intense analysis of the mind. Throughout this paper I will discuss what he has provided as proof and some of the complications that arise throughout his argument. You can find Descartes’ proof of the existence of God in the Third Meditation. Although to understand this argument you have to look at his previous meditation where he begins to build his argument with the notion that in order for him to think, he must exist....   [tags: Philosophy] 1246 words
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Simon as an Ambassador for Self-Realization “Lord of the Flies” - The trials and tribulations all humans face becomes prominent as each individual succumbs to evil in attempts of recreating his or her lost civilization. Out of each dark moment the individual faces, flourishes a new state of human consciousness that is consistent in revealing one’s true nature. In the Lord of the Flies, the transition the three young boys make into adulthood is evident as their significance and their newfound identity becomes more pronounced. Simon’s particular incident involves his encounter with the ‘Lord of the Flies’, where he comes to terms with the innate evil that resides within all humanity, causing him to be an ambassador for self-realization....   [tags: Lord of the Flies, Self-Realization, ] 959 words
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Comparing James and Jung's Perspectives on Religious Experience - 1. Are the perspectives on religious experience presented in William James’ Varieties and in Jung compatible. Briefly explain and compare them. For William James, his perspective on religious experience was skeptical. He divided religion between institutional religion and personal religion. For institutional religion he made reference to the religious group or organization that plays a critical part in the culture of a society. Personal religion he defined as when an individual has a mystical experience which can occur regardless of the culture....   [tags: Psychology] 1372 words
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Human Nature - “It is a sin to believe evil of others, but it is seldom a mistake.” -H.L Menckens From the moment they are born, humans have a naturally evil predisposition. Although the term ‘evil’ is difficult to define, there are various views on morality. The most commonly referenced one, Moral Objectivism, holds that moral standards are universally transcendent, and that certain acts are right or wrong independent of human subjectivity. It is by this unspoken moral code that humanity’s acts are judged. There is some debate whether a fundamental human nature exists, as social and environmental influences are present from the moment someone is born....   [tags: Theology] 1657 words
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Ross's Discussion of Moral Epistemology in What Makes Right Acts Right?, - In Ross's discussion of moral epistemology in What Makes Right Acts Right?, he makes a number of claims for moral objectivity and a set of prima facie duties. In Ross's view, these prima facie duties should govern how we behave in every sort of moral situation. Much of Ross's argument depends on this duties being innate and objective. This paper will criticize Ross's claims, specifically on the grounds of the existence and objectivity of these prima facie duties. I intend to show that Ross's comparisons about prima facie duties and mathematical axioms are baseless and false....   [tags: Morality] 860 words
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