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Investingating the Growth-Inflation Nexus in Africa - Every macroeconomic policy aims at keeping the output growth rate at a high and sustainable level, and the inflation rate at a stable, desirable level. Price level stability is crucial in determining the output growth rate. This led central banks in a number of countries to implement inflation targeting regimes. Such decisions give rise to the important question: what is the most suitable inflation target. The literature regarding the nature of the relation between inflation and growth goes back to the 1960s....   [tags: regression model, inflation, economic growth]
:: 30 Works Cited
1506 words
(4.3 pages)
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Inflation and the Economy - Inflation and the Economy WHY UNDER MONETARY FREEDOM INFLATION COULD BE STOPPED WITHOUT BRINGING ABOUT UNEMPLOYMENT 1. Unemployment and inflation do coexist and inflation causes much unemployment which would cease with it. 2. Excessively inflated prices would fall to market prices and so promote sales and employment. 3. Less government spending would mean more private spending. 4. Prices and wages could be adjusted fast. If this is not done then this is not the effect of stopping inflation....   [tags: Inflation Economy Economics Essays]
:: 2 Works Cited
7770 words
(22.2 pages)
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Making Money From Inflation - Making Money from Inflation Inflation is the all-encompassing and continued rise taken together level of prices measured by an index of the cost of various goods and services. Recurring price increases erode the purchasing power of money and other financial assets with fixed values, creating grave economic distortions and uncertainty. Inflation results when actual economic pressures and anticipation of future developments cause the demand for goods and services to exceed the supply available at existing prices or when available output is restricted by faltering productivity and marketplace constraints....   [tags: Economics Inflation Strategy] 1359 words
(3.9 pages)
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Inflation - Inflation defines as an increase in the price you pay or a decline in the purchasing power of money. In other words, price inflation is when prices get higher or it takes more money to buy the same item. Interest rates are increased to moderate demand and inflation and they are reduced to stimulate demand. Monetary policy aims to influence the overall level of monetary demand in the economy so that it grows broadly in line with the economy's ability to produce goods and services. This stops output rising too quickly or slowly....   [tags: Economics Economy Price Inflation] 951 words
(2.7 pages)
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The Issue of Inflation Control as an Objectice of Central Banks - The Issue of Inflation Control as an Objectice of Central Banks This paper looks at the issue of inflation control as an objective of central banks. Viewing the British Commonwealth and Continental European models of ‘zero inflation’ in contrast with the moderate inflation policy of the US provides a case against zero inflation as a policy objective. A variety of issues that surround inflation; e.g., the inflation/unemployment relationship, etc, will be brought to the fore. In the final analysis, it is clear that efforts to eradicate inflation are misguided and more moderate inflation is preferable in an era where steady economic growth is desirable....   [tags: Hyper Inflation Economy Economics Essays]
:: 8 Works Cited
4401 words
(12.6 pages)
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Germany and the Inflation - The road to the inflation era started with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The main clauses of the treaty stripped Germany of her overseas colonies as well as took chunks of German territory from the west and east. It also aimed to demilitarize the country by forcing her to downsize her navy to only six battleships, as well as reduce the army from around seven hundred fifty thousand troops to only one hundred thousand. In additional the country was forbidden from making or using heavy artillery or tanks....   [tags: History] 1872 words
(5.3 pages)
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Exploring the Causes and Effects of Inflation - A balloon is flat and small when there is no air inside of it. When air is blown into the balloon, it starts to grow in size and grow bigger and bigger until it reaches its limits. Inflation in some ways is similar to the balloon. It will continue to grow and will not stop until something is done to stop it. Inflation can cause great harm to an economy, especially during a recession. What is inflation, what are some of the causes and effects of inflation and what can be done to prevent it....   [tags: financial, economy] 1565 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Effect of Commodity Prices on Inflation - The effect of commodity prices on inflation is considered in the following literature. Commodity prices are thought to be leading indicators of inflation for two reasons. The first is that in general commodity prices respond to economic shocks quicker than macroeconomic variables. The second is that commodity prices reflect global shocks such as floods, which may lead to agricultural price rises and therefore, leads to higher consumer prices, (Furlong, 1996). 2.1 Oil Prices on Inflation Fluctuations in oil prices are usually found to have an impact on macroeconomic variables....   [tags: economy, oil, food] 1888 words
(5.4 pages)
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The Effects of Inflation in Malaysian Economy - ... The consequence of inflation is people will expect prices to rise, then they will consume more to avoid higher costs. Because local trader will hide the stocks or take advantages in the situation that the oil price increase to increase the prices of good. Increase of crude oil price make Malaysia soared to a 26-years high inflation in year 2008, June (Lesova, 2008). In that time, the oil price has increased to USD 145 a barrel (Crude Oil Price History, n.d.), and caused Malaysia to face 7.7 percent inflation in year 2008, June and increase again to 8.5 percent in year 208, July (ssquah, 2008)....   [tags: drop in investment, financial uncertainty] 661 words
(1.9 pages)
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The Philippine Inflation this Year - Introduction The Article discussed inflation in the Philippines this year, its effect to the economy and how the country handle it over time. The analysis looks into the macroeconomic issues that affects economics. It focuses on the main points about inflation. This will cover how inflation are being measured, the effects on demand and supply and analyse the relationship of inflation to the Philippine economy. Analysis All government’s ultimate goal is to maintain a strong and sustainable economy but there are so many factor to consider in making it work right....   [tags: macroeconomic analysis]
:: 4 Works Cited
1071 words
(3.1 pages)
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Credibility of an Inflation-Targeting Regime - Mishkins view (2011) before the recent crisis, inflation targeting was the standard framework for monetary policy with it being seen as highly successful in OECD countries, with low inflation and low variability of inflation. However the recent crisis not only crushed economic activity, creating the most severe world-wide economic contraction since the Great Depression, but it also seemed to destroy confidence in the ability of central bankers to effectively manage the economy. As a result central banks slashed their benchmark interest rates to what economists call ‘zero lower bound’....   [tags: Recent Crisis, Monetary Policy]
:: 5 Works Cited
1367 words
(3.9 pages)
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The Issue of Grade Inflation - The Issue of grade inflation Introduction This essay deals with the specific term of grade inflation by working with three texts on that issue seeing grade inflation from different perspectives and discussing terminology. Every country has its own grading system. In some countries from 0-10 in others the scale is 1-5 or 0-20 an there are many others. However, this is by far not the only thing that can be said about grading. The question also is the practical application of the grading scheme. Are more higher grades given or lower....   [tags: texts, ask critical questions, grading problems] 2711 words
(7.7 pages)
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Rising Inflation in the UK - Inflation; ‘a situation in which prices rise in order to keep up with increased production costs… result[ing] [in] the purchasing power of money fall[ing]’ (Collin:101) is quickly becoming a problem for the government of the United Kingdom in these post-recession years. The economic recovery, essential to the wellbeing of the British economy, may be in jeopardy as inflation continues to rise, reducing the purchasing power of the public. This, in turn, reduces demand for goods and services, and could potentially plummet the UK back into recession....   [tags: Economic Theory, Monetary Policy]
:: 2 Works Cited
1391 words
(4 pages)
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The Consequences of Grade Inflation - The Consequences of Grade Inflation When students arrive at university, professors expect them to understand the material to an exceptional standard. The problem is that grade inflation is occurring more regularly in secondary schools and universities across the country and when these students’ marks are sent to universities or colleges, the student may be given multiple scholarships for something that he/she should not have earned. Grade inflation is conceived between both students and teachers, meaning that the students are given higher grades when they have inadequate learning, reading, and verbal skills, while the teachers do not have to grade as many papers as they should in the real c...   [tags: standards, teaching, education] 647 words
(1.8 pages)
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Hyper- Inflation in Germany 1923 - Hyper- inflation in Germany 1923 was that of a huge blow to their economy and moreover, to their self-esteem. The value of the German mark became next to nothing, and people ended up having to trolley wheel-barrows full of money just to buy a loaf of bread. There are several causes for this happening in the first place, Germany had no goods to trade with the first place and they weren’t exactly on good terms with other countries to be in a position to do so. Then there was the severe impact of the treaty of Versailles that was “happily bestowed” upon them after the First World War....   [tags: German History] 1351 words
(3.9 pages)
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Rethinking of the Graduation Inflation - Rethinking of the graduation inflation The current society witnesses the prosperity of various kinds of ceremonies and graduations. It seems that the end of every stage, every moment, and every period needs a ceremony to declare that it is finished. Considering that weird phenomena, the regular essayist for Time Magazine Amy Dickinson wrote an essay “Graduation Inflation” to present her views on this peculiar social issue in current society. Probing into the article of Dickinson, I agree with her idea of the problems the number of “graduations” and awards children experience today and supports her criticisms on the “graduation inflation” with evidences....   [tags: Prosperity, Ceremnies, Graduation, Culture]
:: 3 Works Cited
966 words
(2.8 pages)
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Inflation and Oil Prices - Inlfation and Oil Prices Inflation refers to persistent increase in the price level over time and is one of the most dangerous threats to an economy because if unchecked it will erode the purchasing power of a currency and if the monetary system of the country is destroyed, can ultimateky force the indivduals to adopt foreign currency. There are two kinds of Inflation: Demand Pull and Cost Push Inflation. Cost Push Inflation: A situation when inlfation persists in the economy becuase of initial decrease in aggregate suppky caused by an increase in the rela price of an important factor of production i.e wgaes and energy....   [tags: economic and financial analysis]
:: 3 Works Cited
760 words
(2.2 pages)
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What is Demand Pull-Inflation? - Demand pull-inflation is an increase of price arising from the increased overall demand for a nation’s output when consumption, investment, government spending or net exports rise without a corresponding increase in the level of AS (figure 1.) Essentially, it’s increase of certain products/services arising from an increase of demand for the same products/services, which cause to shift AD to right. There are various ways that can cause demand-pull inflation. First of all, demand-pull inflation can occur from the increase in consumption....   [tags: increase in consumption, government, korea] 571 words
(1.6 pages)
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Global Inflation and Unemployment - Article summary This article by Andrew McCathie posted in EarthTimes and titled “European inflation climbs unemployment at 12-year high was posted on Friday July 30 2010. The article reports that food and energy costs have played a critical role in driving up inflation in the 16-member eurozone. The rates of unemployment remained stagnant to its highest level during this time. Introduction The recent global financial crisis that affected not only America but also Europe and other parts of the world resulted in massive unemployment....   [tags: Economics, Unemployment Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1280 words
(3.7 pages)
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College Students: Grade Inflation - Grade Inflation Throughout the twenty-first century college should be a top priority for students graduating from high school, but students who make the next step into attending college are facing a problem that is growing rapidly. The problem is grade inflation transpiring within college nursing programs. Dr. Judith Scalan who is an Associate Professor and Associate Dean of the Graduate Program and Dr. Dean Care is an Associate Professor and Acting Dean at the University of Manitoba stated that “Grade Inflation can be defined as a student’s grade point average increasing without student achievement increasing” (2)....   [tags: high graduation rates, methods of evaluation]
:: 8 Works Cited
2441 words
(7 pages)
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Inflation and Absolute Power - Throughout the years the government has gained complete control over money and its development. The government wanted control because it believes that it is easier to acquire monetary assets if they have the control over all money and, at the same time, eliminate the middle-man of trade. With the ever growing population the government came up with a way to counterfeit money to keep up with the demand of money. This counterfeiting of money created inflation. Inflation happens when there is more and more money being created, this lessens the value of each individual dollar....   [tags: power] 712 words
(2 pages)
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Money Supply and Inflation - Money Supply plays an important role in macroeconomic analysis, especially in selecting an appropriate monetary and fiscal policy. Considerably, I am yet to come across theoretical work that has been done on this topic (analysis money supply and its impact on other variable i.e. inflation, interest rate, real GDP and nominal GDP). However some other topics similar to this one have been done by AL-SHARKAS, Adel, where he uses the same technique and models on the topic ‘out put response to shocks to interest rate, inflation and stock returns....   [tags: Economy, Macroeconomics] 1726 words
(4.9 pages)
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Economy: Inflation in Brazil - Brazil, an economy expanding in the world market is known as one of the South American countries that has a well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors. This thriving economy has been experiencing economic growth slowly but surely (World Fact Book). They have secured and maintained inflation rates in the single digits for the past ten years the lowest recorded at 2.6 in 2003 and the highest being 6.9 in 2005 (World Fact Book). Brazil’s ultimate aim is to maintain inflation rate below 6%....   [tags: south american countries, policies] 754 words
(2.2 pages)
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Inflation Rate of Euroarea - ( 1 May 2013, http://perspectives.pictet.com/2013/05/01/euro-area-deflation-is-looming/ last viewed 25 May 2014) The above diagram shows the inflation rate of Euroarea. During recession, the inflation rate of Euroarea did not fell a lot. This shows that ECB policy was successful to kept the inflation rate around the normal rate that is 2%. people and business to spend and invest more money. Since the interest rate is low, firms and people will tend to spend rather than put it into bank. This is because they think it is not worth to put their money in the bank when the interest rate is so low....   [tags: economy, government, taxes] 979 words
(2.8 pages)
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Stop the Tuition Inflation - Higher education costs have been increasing at a rapid pace, faster than inflation for the economy as a whole, for the past fifty years. It started in the 1960’s when the federal government passed the Higher Education Act to increase the amount of people able to afford and attend college. Regardless of the Unites States Government efforts to increase the affordability of college, federal aid programs have not risen to expectations due to the ever-increasing college prices. To lower the price of college, the government needs to cut back on student financial spending to go only to the lowest income families and create tax incentives for families to start saving up on their own....   [tags: Higher Education, college]
:: 14 Works Cited
2338 words
(6.7 pages)
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The Causes of Inflation - The Causes of Inflation There are three major causes of inflation: 1. Demand - pull inflation 2. Cost - push inflation 3. Monetarist Theory 1. Demand - Pull Inflation ========================== This type of inflation is caused by excess aggregate demand, exceeding aggregate supply. Quite simply 'too much demand is chasing too few goods'. This can occur when the growth in aggregate demand is so strong, that aggregate supply cannot respond quickly enough - resulting in prices getting bidded-up....   [tags: Economics] 1112 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Meaning of Inflation - The Meaning of Inflation There are four macroeconomic policy objectives that a government pursues: high and stable economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, the avoidance of balance of payments deficits and excessive exchange rate fluctuations. Some of these policy objectives may conflict with each other depending on the priorities of the government. A policy designed to accelerate the rate of economic growth may result in a higher rate of inflation and balance of payment deficit....   [tags: Papers] 1090 words
(3.1 pages)
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Battling Inflation - As prices begin to rise in various sectors of the economy, some businesses are continuing to tread lightly. Keeping costs down has assisted the US economy in balancing the control of inflation better than other countries emerging from the global recession, such as China and Europe. But with the US economy still recovering and inflation rates in other nations rising the concern of slipping back into another recession has become a very real issue. Factors such as supply and demand, price elasticity and inflation are all contributing factors to the outcome....   [tags: Economics ]
:: 9 Works Cited
1608 words
(4.6 pages)
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Inflation: The Rise & Fall of The American Economy - Why is inflation bad for the American economy. Imagine going into the popular local food market or gas station several times a week. After a couple of weeks, imagine going into these stores and noticing the prices have steadily increased over the past few months. This is called inflation, and it is causing many problems in the United States. There are three different types of inflation: demand-pull, cost-push, and built-in. Demand-pull inflation occurs when prices increased because of such high demand....   [tags: Economics]
:: 11 Works Cited
1712 words
(4.9 pages)
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The Best Economic Environment for Inflation Targeting - Introduction: In the past two decades, a multitude of countries, including Canada and Australia have instituted “explicit inflation targeting” (Svensson, 1996, p.1) for fear of the high cost of “volatile inflation” (Freedman&Laxton, 2009, p. 6).Mishkin offered the definition of inflation targeting (IT). It is a monetary policy strategy intended to achieve price stability within a specific range (Mishkin,2000).As is concisely demonstrated by Mishkin, IT “establishes a transparent and credible commitment” to the precision of the future “numerical objective”(Mishkin,2008).Nonetheless, it is not a prudential policy....   [tags: Monetary Systems, Global Finance]
:: 11 Works Cited
1121 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Inflation - The impact of the Global Financial Crisis on inflation After the onset of the global economic recession in 2008, inflationary pressures were relieved. Slower economic growth and incomes growth lessened the ability of businesses to increase consumer prices, while also decreasing demand for labour and materials trimmed down inflationary pressures on business costs. By 2009, both headline and underlying inflation fell to the lower end of the Reserve Bank’s inflation target band between 2-3% where the Treasury forecasted inflation (CPI) to be 1.5% in 2008-09....   [tags: Economics ]
:: 7 Works Cited
356 words
(1 pages)
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Money Supply, Inflation, and Exchange Rates - Money supply, inflation and exchange rates In brief, an upward movement in the volume of money supply causes the cost of borrowing, which is also the interest rate to move downwards. Basically, this is because there will be excess money in circulation in the economy than is required. Subsequently, households will save the surplus money in the banks in order to take advantage of the high interest rate bearing securities. Following this increase in volume of money supply, pressure is exerted on the cost of borrowing, which will move downwards up to a new equilibrium state....   [tags: Surplus, Organizations, Infleuces]
:: 2 Works Cited
457 words
(1.3 pages)
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Effects of Inflation - Effects of Inflation Inflation is the most commonly used economic term in the popular media. A Nexis search in 1996 found 872,000 news stories over the past twenty years that used the word inflation. "Unemployment" ran a distant second. Public concern about inflation generally heats up in step with inflation itself. Though economists do not always agree about when inflation starts to interfere with market signals, the public tends to express serious alarm once the inflation rate rises above 5 or 6 percent....   [tags: Economy Economics Money Essays] 2891 words
(8.3 pages)
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Inflation In Vietnam - Vietnam’s inflation last month, 27%, reached highest position in asia. Prices of everything go all the way up, especially necessities like gasoline, food and clothes (e.g: food prices increased 74%). Overdose foreign investment and technologically backward industry seemed to be the causes. Besides, overty rate has reduced to 15% from 58% since 1993, but now it is likely to raise again. Some workers who led vietnam’s rise from poverty are suffering from expensive city life, planning to return to their rural home....   [tags: Economy Vietnam Economics] 719 words
(2.1 pages)
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Money And Inflation - Money and Inflation The nation's economic stability has many factors which amount to inflation. Inflation may be caused by a number of problems, but there are some specific examples which have direct control over which way the prices and spending sway. Inflation simply means that the American dollar, in this case, is less valuable on the foreign exchange market and the gold standard is moved to higher prices; which simply means that more currency is needed to exchange for gold. Any slight change in investments or a company's cost premium could change the entire economy because of the domino effect acting on the rest of society....   [tags: essays research papers] 569 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Great Inflation - The Great Inflation In late-1922 the German government were forced to ask the Allies for a moratorium on reparations payments; this was refused, and she then defaulted on shipments of both coal and timber to France. By January of the following year, French and Belgian troops had entered and occupied the Ruhr. The German people, perhaps for the first time since 1914, united behind their government, and passive resistance to the occupying troops was ordered. A government-funded strike began as thousands of workers marched out of their factories and steel works....   [tags: American History Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited
2373 words
(6.8 pages)
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Inflation and Its Effects on Investment - Inflation and Its Effects on Investment For world economic markets, inflation is a fairly new experience as for much of the pre-twentieth century there had been little upward pressure on prices due to gold and other metallic standards. These backed currencies limited governments’ abilities to create new money. So at the end of the gold standard strong political pressures often caused governments to issue more money increasing the money supply and therefor the price level. Inflation reflects a situation where the demand for goods and services exceeds their supply in the economy(Hall, 1982)....   [tags: Finance Financial Economics Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1361 words
(3.9 pages)
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The effects of inflation on the labor market - Objective: The effect of inflation on the job market The Effects of inflation on the Job Market In the major industrial countries, low unemployment usually creates inflationary pressures. But during the recent economic expansion in the United States, prices have held steady despite low unemployment. Inflation is generally defined as an upward directional increase in the average of prices. Most people tend to be concerned about it because it reduces the purchasing power of the income earned by households....   [tags: essays research papers] 822 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Evolution Of Inflation In Romania - The Evolution of Inflation in Romania (Charts not available) As in other centrally planned economies, most consumer prices in Romania were fixed before the 1989 revolution. However, with the liberalization of economic policy dramatic changes occurred and high inflation was, and still is, expected to remain one of Romania¡¦s key short-term economic concerns....   [tags: Economy Economics] 1969 words
(5.6 pages)
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Overview on Inflation Targeting as a Monetary Policy Strategy - INTRODUCTION Since the 1990s, a large number of industrial countries and a growing number of emerging market and transition economies have adopted inflation targeting as their monetary policy strategy. During the implementation they face many challenges. However, there is no established pattern so countries must learn along the way from one another and more importantly from their own experience. This paper provides an overview on inflation targeting as a monetary policy strategy, necessary preconditions for its successful implementation, its advantages and disadvantages and issues and challenges that emerging market and transition economies face while defining and implementing this monetary...   [tags: transition economies, macroeconomic policy]
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2842 words
(8.1 pages)
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Inflation in Thailand and Indonesia and the Asian Financial Crisis - There is a close relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the unemployment rate as it will relate to the decrease or increase of inflation rate. The inflation rate will increase when GDP and unemployment decreases, because it will affect the purchasing power of the people of a particular country. From 1997 to1998, both countries : Thailand and Indonesia reached their highest peak of inflation, which is 9.24% and 75.27% respectively. It is caused by the Asian financial crisis which hit most of the asian countries....   [tags: Stock, Market, Economy] 522 words
(1.5 pages)
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Inflation - By the beginning of the 1980s, double-digit rates of inflation had become so pervasive among industrialized economies that they were viewed as a major deterrent to global economic growth. Since then, an explicit policy goal of low inflation has become a mantra for policymakers, and many countries, such as the U.K., New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Sweden, and the eleven countries under the European Central Bank (ECB), have enacted fundamental reforms to achieve that goal. Specifically, they have made their central banks more independent and thus insulated them from the temptations of inflationary finance; furthermore, in most of these cases, as well as in the U.S., central banks have practiced...   [tags: Economics Economy] 1903 words
(5.4 pages)
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Inflation - Inflation INFLATION CAN OUR ECONOMY GROW WITHOUT IT. INFLATION CAN OUR ECONOMY GROW WITHOUT IT. What is inflation. The definition of inflation, according to Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, is “an undue expansion or increase, from overissue.” Although, Webster’s is considered by most to be the overall best dictionary, WordNet states the meaning of inflation a lot clearer by saying, “it’s a general and progressive increase in prices.” It occurs when the value of goods rises faster than the value of money....   [tags: Economics]
:: 4 Works Cited
1098 words
(3.1 pages)
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Relationship Between Inflation and Unemployment - Inflation and unemployment are two key elements when evaluating a whole economy and it is also easy to get those figures from National Bureau of Statistics when you want to evaluate it. However, the relationship between them is a controversial topic, which has been debated by economists for decades. From some famous economists such as Paul Samuelson, Milton Freidman etc to some infamous economists, this topic received a lot of attention. However, it is this debate that makes the thinking about it evolve....   [tags: Economics]
:: 8 Works Cited
1860 words
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Inflation in the UK Economy - Inflation in the UK Economy Before starting to explain inflation it is necessary first to define it. Inflation can be described as a positive rate of growth in the general price level of goods and services. It is measured as a percentage increase over time in a price index such as the GDP deflator or the Retail Price Index. The RPI is a basket of over six hundred different goods and services, weighted according to the percentage of how much household income they take up. There are two measurements of this: the headline rate (includes all the items in the basket) and the underlying rate (RPIX) which excludes mortgage interest payments....   [tags: Economics Money England Essays]
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2610 words
(7.5 pages)
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Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy in the UK in 1992-1997: Was It Successful? - Increase in international economic integration necessitates countries to determine an appropriate monetary policy. It means the control of the money supply or interest rate by the monetary authority (Lipsey and Crystal, 2007). The main purpose of it is to provide the economic stability and growth. The mechanism that provides these changes in the monetary policy is called the monetary transmission mechanism (MTM). Therefore, the aim of this essay is to discuss and analyze the role of the MTM in solving macroeconomic problems....   [tags: Economics ]
:: 12 Works Cited
1282 words
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A Real Problem: Brazil's Currency Depreciation and Inflation - 1. Introduction A decade ago, an American’s experience in Brazil may have included a trip to a soccer game, a visit to see the statue of Christ the Redeemer, and a many cups of the country’s famous coffee. For those that could afford it, this seemed like a desirable vacation destination. Again, with the exchange rate in 2003 at 3.5 reais to the dollar, this was a vacation only for those that could afford it. One might assume that this high exchange rate comes with a high standard of living and a high value of money for Brazil’s own citizens....   [tags: finanancial analysis] 1275 words
(3.6 pages)
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Government Budgets on Inflation - Government Budgets on Inflation Problems with format ?Since Greece and Italy are in the European Union and have both joined the European Monetary Union, one might think that they would have fairly stable economies, and Turkey would be the unstable one of the three.. But that is not necessarily true.. Although Turkey does have more of an unsteady economy, Italy and Greece?s were not doing so well in the recent past.. Looking at each country separately then comparing the three is the best way to see how the government budgets affect the inflation rates of Greece, Italy and Turkey.....   [tags: Economics Economy Essays]
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1720 words
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The Grade Inflation Epidemic - The Grade Inflation Epidemic       It's June, and another graduating class is hoping, among other things, to achieve high grades. Of course, "high" is a subjective target. Originally a "C" meant average; today however, the expectations and pressures to give and receive "A's" and "B's" takes its toll on teachers and students alike. This nullifies the value of the traditional grading scale and creates a host of entirely new problems. The widespread occurrence of grade inflation seriously affects the credibility of secondary and post-secondary education in America....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
:: 7 Works Cited
1961 words
(5.6 pages)
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Commodities Futures And Inflation - ABSTRACT Indian markets recently thrown open a new avenue for retail investors and traders to participate: commodity derivatives. For those who want to diversify their portfolios beyond shares, bonds and real estate, commodities are the best option. They provide risk management facility. However, India, under pressure to cool inflation running near two-year highs, banned new wheat and rice futures contracts in its fledgling exchanges in February in a bid to check speculation and hopefully tame prices....   [tags: Business Finance] 1917 words
(5.5 pages)
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Inflation Targeting - It widely recognized that the monetary policy within a country should be primarily concerned with the pursuit of price stability. However, it is still not clear how this objective can be achieved most effectively. This debate remains unsettled, but an increasing number of countries have adopted inflation targeting as their monetary policy framework. (Dr E J van der Merwe, 2002) This topic of Inflation targeting is a subject which immediately conjures different perceptions from different people. Many feel that low inflation should be a main aim of monetary policy, while others (such as trade union activists) believe that a higher growth rate to stimulate jobs should be the main concern....   [tags: Economics] 1838 words
(5.3 pages)
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The Relationship Between Inflation and Unemployement with the Long-run Phillips Curve - The Long- Run Phillips Curve (LRPC) The Long- Run Philips Curve, LRPC shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment when the actual inflation rate equals the expected inflation rate. If unemployment falls below its natural rate, inflation will accelerate and vise- versa. The LRPC is a vertical line at the Natural Unemployment Rate (Frictional Unemployment plus Structural Unemployment). Along the LRPC, an increase in the inflation rate will have no effect on the unemployment rate....   [tags: government spending, ecomomist, stagflation] 1058 words
(3 pages)
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What´s Macro Policy: The Adaptive Expectations Theory - A theme that dominates modern discussions of macro policy is the importance of expectations, and economists have devoted a great deal of thought to expectations and the economy. Change in expectations can shift the aggregate demand (AD) curve; expectations of inflation can cause inflation. For this reason expectations are central to all policy discussions, and what people believe policy will be significantly influences the effectiveness of the policy. Expectations complicate models and policymaking enormously; they change the focus of discussions from a response that can be captured by simple models to much more complicated discussions....   [tags: economy, inflation] 1501 words
(4.3 pages)
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Inflation Targeting: Central Banks Should Not Go For It - A Project Report on Inflation Targeting: Should Central Bank go for it. Economic Environment and Policy INFLATION TARGETING Definition Inflation targeting framework refers to a set of economic policies adopted by the central bank wherein it announces a projected or "target" inflation rate and strives to achieve that figure using measures like interest rate changes and other monetary tools. Elements of Inflation Targeting[1] · Announcement of an explicit quantitative inflation target or range for some period of time....   [tags: Economics] 1100 words
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To What Extent is Inflation a serious Economic Problem - To What Extent is Inflation a serious Economic Problem ====================================================== Before considering whether Inflation has serious Economic Problems, we have to get to grasp what it exactly is. Inflation is defined as a sustained general rise in prices in the Economy. Obviously the government can't measure every single price change for every single good in the economy, so therefore they take a basket of goods and by using a price index measure a change in it. The basket of good has a representative range of goods and services and it needs to be recorded at a regular basis, to measure how inflation is changing....   [tags: Economics] 1667 words
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The Effect of Hyper-Inflation of 1923 on the Lives of Germans - The Effect of Hyper-Inflation of 1923 on the Lives of Germans After the war there had been a period of stability, but this was much akin to the calm before a storm; inflation soon resumed and by 1923 was raging as the "wildest inflation in history". Prices would double in a matter of hours. A wild stampede erupted as people rushed to buy food and get rid of money. The government, however, continued to print paper money in an attempt to appease the people, despite not having sufficeint resources to support the currency; this led to constantly rising inflation....   [tags: Papers] 520 words
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How Are Automatic Stabilizers Used To Combat Inflation? - How are Automatic Stabilizers Used to Combat Inflation. In today's economy, there are devices present called automatic stabilizers. Automatic stabilizers, are mechanisms which aid in the correction of an economic problem without the interference of anyone or anything. They are perhaps most useful to combat demand - pull inflation. Demand - pull inflation, is when prices rise because the economy cannot produce enough goods to satiate the economy. An automatic stabilizer, that is beneficial to combat such a problem, is a progressive tax....   [tags: essays research papers] 393 words
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Coca Cola - Growth, Employment, Business Cycle And Inflation - Introduction Fiscal Policy affects The Coca-Cola Company as it does many other businesses. The four components of Fiscal Policy are employment, growth, business cycle and inflation. The following discusses the different aspects of Fiscal Policy as related to The Coca-Cola Company. Employment One of the Coca-Cola Company’s strongest strengths lies in its ability to conduct business on a global scale while maintaining a local approach, one of the most intelligent strategies thought up by the human resource department of Coca-Cola....   [tags: Business Analysis Management Strategy] 1218 words
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CPI: Fluctuation of Price of Goods and Services in a Country - The CPI in the United States is defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as "a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services." So basically the CPI is an indication of the fluctuation of price of goods and services in the country. Each country has their own CPI index whether it’s the U.S., Canada or UK. Calculating CPI is not very complicated it is simply done by getting the numbers of change in price of the fixed price of goods....   [tags: Inflation, Deflation, Economy] 1074 words
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Developed Countries and Economically Developed Countries - ... Using the estimation of Phillips Curves model that has apply in the research, his conclude that the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) may be decreased a little bit. Besides, nowadays inflation in United States caused the cost of import decreased due to the appreciation of US Dollars, decreased in product price and the Asian crisis. Mankiw (2000), has already made a research in United State to defines the short run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment rate. In the research said that a contractionary monetary shocks will increased the unemployment rate....   [tags: inflation rate, unemployment rate] 918 words
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The Real Stabilization Plan of Brazil - Brazil faced many struggles with its currency throughout the last half century, eventually changing its currency five times before reaching what most would argue was their best stabilization plan. The stabilization plan that Brazil concluded with and is currently practicing is known as the Real. Each of the five currencies mentioned lasted at most three years, however since the creation of the Real Plan, the Real has been used for over twenty years. Compared to each of its predecessors, the Real Plan can easily be considered the most successful strategy followed by the Brasilian government....   [tags: inflation, brasilian economy, currency]
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The Impact of European Monetary Union - I. Introduction According to Lane (2006), the European Monetary Union (EMU) began on the year 1999. Following his line of analysis and reasoning, this paper shall seek to analyze the purported impacts of the said action in the light of their inflation rates and the proportion of their portfolio holdings allocated to the other members of the Euro-zone. Furthermore, the author of this paper shall look qualitatively in the current Asian context to examine the relevance of a monetary union in the continent....   [tags: inflation, european nations, integration]
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The Relationship between the Repo Rate, Disposable Income, Inflation and In Turn Economic Growth in South Africa - ... Figure 1.0 (Tradingeconomics.com, 2014) Figure 1.0 shows how the inflation rate has been recorded since 2011. Form the graph it can clearly be seen that there has been an upward trend. Inflation is used here as it relates more directly to economic growth rather than the repo rate. To see how the inflation rates increased/decresed one must look at the transmission mechanism. The transmission mechanism is the way that the fluctuations in the repo rate effect inflation and economic growth (Riksbank.se, 2011)....   [tags: economic analysis]
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The Importance of Increasing the Minimum Wage - ... While the real value of the minimum wage decreased its value by 33%, the executives of the places that employ people for minimum wage earn at least 15 million dollars a year, some make 63 thousand dollars an hour which is ten thousand dollars more than the average annual income (Nader 1). On top of cheating wages, congress chooses to only address inflation when it comes to their own salary. Congress increases their salaries annually along with inflation but leave minimum wage the same(Nader 1)....   [tags: Inflation, Government, Economy] 618 words
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The Controversy of Standards in Grading Systems - Throughout the education system, the standards of grading continues to be a highly controversial issue; however, grading is an integral component of nearly all educational institutions, including the University of Oklahoma. We continue to question whether grade inflation is a big deal or not and strive try to come to conclusions. Grading will undoubtedly continue to utilize grades as a measurement to gauge a student’s skills and abilities. Students are also given grades as a means to assess their abilities and to provide an opportunity for self-improvement in the areas that have been graded unsatisfactory....   [tags: education, inflation, performance levels] 540 words
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Canadian Health Care System and US Health Care System - Various studies have proved that macro-economy factors have a significant impact on health care costs and the same is explained hereunder: Impact of Inflation: Evil effects of inflation can also be experienced in health care sector. High inflation rate in health care sectors have subsequently increased the health care cost. For instance, cost of modern medicines is not affordable to most households in lower income and middle income counties. According to a study, around 20-30% of households are forced to sell their assets to cover up their health care expenses....   [tags: economy, health care, inflation] 532 words
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Impact of Reaganomics on the American Economy - Leading up to the year 1981, America had fallen into a period of “stagflation”, a portmanteau for ‘stagnant economy’ and ‘high inflation’. Characterized by high taxes, high unemployment, high interest rates, and low national spirit, America needed to look to something other than Keynesian economics to pull itself out of this low. During the election of 1980, Ronald Reagan’s campaign focused on a new stream of economic policy. His objective was to turn the economy into “a healthy, vigorous, growing economy [which would provide] equal opportunities for all Americans, with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination.” Reagan’s policy, later known as ‘Reaganomics’, entailed a four-point plan w...   [tags: Inflation, High Taxes, Unemployment]
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The Debate Over Changing the Minimum Wage - The debate over changing the price of minimum wage has been looked over and talked about for many years. Some people are against changing the minimum wage price and some people agree with changing the minimum wage price. There are pros and cons about the discussion of changing minimum wage. Minimum wage was $5.15 an hour and in 2007 the minimum wage was raised to $7.25 an hour. Today people all over the world are discussing if the minimum wage should be raised to $9 an hour or $10 an hour. People who work at McDonald’s are minimum wage employees and some of them are students in high school or college....   [tags: college, inflation, costs] 784 words
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Opportunities and Challenges in Marketing in Third World Nations - Marketing in Third world nations – Opportunities and Challenges Anthony O’Sullivan, Marie-Estelle Rey and Jorge Galvez Mendez, 2011 discusses the opportunities and challenges of marketing in the third world nations. The revolutions and protests to get economic and political freedom that arise in Egypt and Tunisia spread across the region to Libya and other nations. This protests ended the regime of Muammar Qadaffi of Libya, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Ben Ali of Tunisia etc. These protests led to the opportunities in political and economic system in these regions....   [tags: inflation, exports, imports, source] 1197 words
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Should Congress Raise the Minimum Wage - Should Congress Raise Minimum Wage. As our federal government debates the idea to raise the minimum wage, several interesting questions occur. Most important, should we raise the minimum wage. I believe it is a bad idea of raising the minimum wage from $7.25 per to approximately $10.25 in a short period of time, and I will explain why. The main reason raising the minimum wage radically would kill the economy is the pressure it would place on small businesses. Harrison, a reporter with The Washington Post, asks the question, “Are small businesses the back bone of our economy” (pars....   [tags: salary, employee, inflation]
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Determining the Foreign Exchange Rate - 3.1 Determinants of Exchange Rate Foreign exchange rate is the price of a unit of foreign currency in terms of the domestic currency . In a floating exchange rate mechanism, foreign exchange rate is determined in the same way like the price of any other commodity in a free market economy. Thus, change in the value of the domestic currency relies on factors like foreign exchange reserves, money supply in the economy, the central bank’s policies and differences in the interest yield on dated securities of the concerned economies....   [tags: capital, inflation, interest] 1033 words
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Should Minimum Wage Be Raised? - Should Minimum Wage Be Raised. Minimum wage has always been a controversial issue. Many politicians use the argument of minimum wage for their own political propaganda. Some may argue minimum wage should be raised, while others believe it will have detrimental effects on our economy if it is raised. Surprising to most people, minimum wage earners make up only a small percent of American workers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, minimum wage workers make up about 2.8% of all workers in America....   [tags: economy, employees, inflation] 863 words
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Retirement Money Management: The Time Value of Money Method - ... Time is a very important key factor to everything we do in our day to day activities. According to the teaching of the assistant pastor of United Charismatic healing ministry, Pastor Amos Ayitei, he says “if you don’t use time wisely it is obvious that time will use you”. The community has a way of changing for the good or bad for people. It could be recession, inflation or anything. But they all start gradually that’s why Larry Light brings to light how not to run out of money in retirement through the time value of money method....   [tags: 4% rule, recession, inflation] 796 words
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Role of Federal Rate in Economics - The Federal Funds Rate is the interest rate that Federal Reserve uses to trade funds with banks. Changes in this rate can trigger a chain of events that can be beneficial or devastating to the economy. If a bank is charged a higher interest rate to trade money or take out a loan, then the increase will be passed on to their customers, causing them to pay higher transaction fees or more interest. Each month, the Federal Open Market Committee meets to determine the federal funds rate. This in turn affects other short term interest rates....   [tags: Recession, Money Flow, Inflation]
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Mistake in Raising the Minimum Wage - Would raising the minimum wage actually help the American economy. Some people believe it would take people out of poverty. Others think that it will make it easier for people to supply for their families. Many believe that it should have been raised with the price of inflation over the years. While any of these reasons might be true, there are still many consequences that could take action if minimum wage is raised. Most Republicans are completely against the idea of raising it while President Obama would like to raise it from $7.25 an hour to $10.10 an hour....   [tags: economy, unemployment, inflation] 1062 words
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How to Stimulate the Economy - ... When the country’s economy is performing poorly; for instance, when there is high unemployment, interest rates are at almost zero, inflation is about 2% per year, and GDP growth is less than 2% per year, the fiscal and monetary policy can be used to adjust these numbers to somewhat acceptable limits. In such a scenario, an expansion in fiscal policy would suffice to correct unemployment and low GDP by encouraging government spending, but may result in relatively higher interests and lower investment....   [tags: inflation, unemployment. tax] 720 words
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Understanding Latin America's International and Economic Relations with Import Substitution Industrialization Model - ... On a negative note, these nations led to become greatly dependent on technology, there was an increase of external capital control over developed areas, an under qualified labour force for factory jobs, increase in prices of manufactured goods and inflation, migration from rural to urban areas and as a result an increase in social problems, and finally, the industrial sector did not bother to conquer external markets which essentially contradicted the whole purpose of ISI. For these reasons ISI was seen as a short-term solution, leading to rapid economic growth that was unsustainable in the long run....   [tags: politics, borders, inflation] 1530 words
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Theories of Exchange Rate Determination - Before discussing the economic literature on the relationship between interest rates and exchange rates in full, it will be useful to briefly discuss some of the important theories of exchange rate determination. There are many theories such as the theory of Purchasing Power Purchase Agreement (PPP), the Flexible Price Monetary Model (FPM), Sticky Price Monetary Model (SPM), Real Interest Rate Differential Model (RIRD), and Portfolio Balance Theory (PBT) of exchange rate determination. The PPP to maintain equality between domestic and foreign prices are based on the domestic currency through commodity arbitrage....   [tags: economics, interest, inflation] 837 words
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Foreign Exchange: Internal & External Balances - Discuss the concepts of internal and external balances and what floating exchange rates can do to a country's economy Review of the subject When referring to the internal balance these are the goals of economics relating to full employment or a case of normal production and low inflation, that is, the prices are stabilized. In the situation of over-employment the prices of materials increase while in the case of under-employment the prices will decrease. When unexpected inflation occurs, the country finds it difficult to plan for the future and there is a case of income redistribution between traders and investors....   [tags: inflation, countries, economy]
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The Great East Japan Earthquake's Impact on the Japanese Financial System - ... Therefore, the Nikkei 255 is considered to be a good proxy of the Japanese market capitalization ( Ugbede, Lizam, Kaseri & Idachaba, 2013). Market capitalization is a way how to determine the value of a company using the stock price, and to presume the likeliness of it’s growth (Amadeo, 2013). Meanwhile the financial system is defined as a network of markets and institutions that bring savers and borrowers together (Hubbard, 2000). Hence, detailed analysis of the Nikkei 225 allows to evaluate the impact of the earthquake on companies, including those that comprise the financial system....   [tags: inflation, market, economy] 1590 words
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