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Immunity to Parasites and Apoptosis - ... This is a disease caused by the filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) and Brugia malayi (B. malayi), it has been reported that this condition is frequently confused as acute or refractory bronchial asthma (42). Interleukin-10 and TGF-1 are cytokines that induce responses associated to Th17 cells, which are probably effective in the protection against extracellular bacteria and perhaps parasitic infections, but they also play a role in the amplification of autoimmune disorders (18-20) and produce tissue damage by inducing the synthesis of autoantibodies....   [tags: Biology, Cellular Immunity] 1925 words
(5.5 pages)
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Immunity in the U.S. Court - ... United States, the belief was that Charles Joseph Kastigar would use the Fifth Amendment protection against self incrimination. The issued an order granting immunity but Kastigar and Stewart refused to testify (Kastigar v. United States - Case Background, 2009). The claim was that “only transactional immunity, which was not granted, would satisfy the Fifth Amendment with respect to self-incrimination” (How Comprehensive Must The Offered Immunity Be?, 2009). The main concern with this case is whether the government can force a witness who invokes the Fifth Amendment to testify....   [tags: Justice System ]
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1433 words
(4.1 pages)
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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Immunity from Sate Jurisdiction - Immunity from Sate Jurisdiction International law specifies that 'the jurisdiction of a state within its territory is complete and absolute'[1]. However, it is identified that certain categories of persons and bodies acting in the public interest are entitled to immunities and privileges from the exercise of the State jurisdiction. In April 1984 WPC Fletcher, a British policewoman was killed, as a result of shots being fired from the Libyan Bureau. The incident created great anger and it was asked by many as was whether the Libyan diplomats were immune from being tried in the United Kingdom courts and the abuse of such privilege granted to diplomatic persons....   [tags: Papers] 1235 words
(3.5 pages)
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Watergate-presidential Immunity - In the early morning hours of June 17, 1972, District of Columbia police officers discovered five men, wearing surgical gloves and carrying tear gas fountain pens, walkie-talkies, and wads of new $100 bills, apparently attempting to plant electronic surveillance equipment in the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate apartment-office complex. The resulting investigation led to the discovery of the roles of several White House staff and eventually to the President himself....   [tags: essays research papers] 785 words
(2.2 pages)
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Presidential Immunity: Cases In The Supreme Court - The Supreme Court has had to rule on issues regarding Presidential immunity in a few cases. Three specifically have helped to set the precedent for how the court would interpret another case brought before the court. In Mississippi v. Johnson the ruling decided whether a president can have an injunction placed on him/her based on the carrying out of their executive duties. Next, in the case of Nixon v. Fitzgerald the court ruled on whether a president can be personally sued for decisions they made while in office that violated established law....   [tags: US History Justice court ] 1138 words
(3.3 pages)
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DESCRIBE THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT CELL TYPES OF INNATE IMMUNITY - ... Neutrophils are also granulocytes that are mainly found in the bloodstream and makeup seventy percent of the circulating leukocyte population. They respond quickly to inflammatory signals from infected tissues that are damaged and are bacterial infected. They go through the endothelium of the blood vessels and enter sites of inflammation through the process of chemotaxis. Factors of this process like the IL-8 and C5a take neutrophils from the blood and enter the area of inflammation. This cell recruits several effector mechanisms that fight against infection....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1219 words
(3.5 pages)
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Immunity to Nihilism in Turgenev's "fathers and Sons" - Immunity to Nihilism in Turgenev's Fathers and Sons Whenever reform or revolution is possible, it is because a new, progressive ideal has been quickly and widely perpetuated among the people of a particular nation. It is often a country's youth population that most readily accepts such new ideals, since they, being in the process of education and the development of their personal beliefs, tend to be malleable to new ideas and standards, and ready for change and development. The older generation is thus an opponent to change, or at least, not passionately motivated towards any revolution, being older and accustomed to certain ways of life....   [tags: European Literature] 653 words
(1.9 pages)
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Battle Of Impunity - Battle of Impunity Insults often serve as a catalyst for revenge. Yet, revenge never comes without consequences. These consequences can stay in a person’s subconscious for the remainder of their life. Through the clever short story “The Cask of Amontillado” by Edgar Allan Poe, Montresor suffers from being insulted, seeking revenge and living with guilt. Montresor is unsuccessful in punishing Fortunato with impunity. The obsession to confess is a killer. Montresor starts the evil revenge plot with a smile on his face....   [tags: essays research papers] 593 words
(1.7 pages)
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5 Court Cases - I. Name and Citation STATE OF FLORIDA, versus SEMINOLE TRIBE OF FLORIDA II. Key Facts In this complaint, the the Tribe was operating "electronic or electromechanical facsimiles of games of chance" and that such operations constituted class III gaming as defined by IGRA. These games were operated despite the absence of a compact between the Tribe and the State regarding the regulation of class III gaming. The State also alleged that the Tribe planned to construct a new facility on its lands in order to conduct additional class III gaming....   [tags: essays research papers] 1814 words
(5.2 pages)
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The Latest Advances In Drug Manipulations Of The Immune System - INTRODUCTION In order to provide a detailed analysis of recent pharmacological developments involving the human immune system, it is firstly necessary to introduce the innate and adaptive immune responses . Immunosuppressants and immunomodulators will be differentiated between and a selection of new and often experimental drugs belonging to each category will be provided. Specific drugs will be described including the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics involved with each type. The possible clinical uses will be alluded to along with details from recent research....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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3818 words
(10.9 pages)
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The Asian Auschwitz - ... What would the U.S. need this type of research for. The reason behind granting immunity to Unit 731 researchers was not to obtain the Unit’s research but to prevent the Russians from receiving this research and possibly using it against the U.S. If this was their true intention, the U.S. should have tried and prosecuted the Unit 731 researchers, while preventing any of their research from reaching the public eyes, since they had already covered up the Unit 731’s existence till recently. Even today the Japanese government still denies claims that Unit 731 existed as a human experimentation research facility....   [tags: Japan]
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1654 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Evolutionary Importance of Maternal Anti-Bodies and its Implications on Evolution and Ecology - ... Although it is apparent that maternal antibodies have an effect on the early development of the immune system, research has shown that these antibodies could improve “juvenile immune response… [and thus] have potential for far-reaching fitness consequences.” (Boulinier and Staszewski 2008). There have been genetic factors associated with the transfer of maternal antibodies, specifically in regards to the amount of antibodies transferred by the mother or the amount of antibodies the offspring takes in....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
:: 6 Works Cited
972 words
(2.8 pages)
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Understanding the Importance of Immunisation - Understanding the Importance of Immunisation According to http://www.amfar.org/cgi-bin/iowa/bridge.html, immunisation is the administration of antigenic components of an infectious agent to stimulate a protective immune response. Immunisation is a technique that is used to increase immunity to specific diseases in humans by exposing the individual to an anti-gen in order to raise ant-bodies to that anti-gen. Immunisation is a way of protecting against serious diseases such as tuberculosis and polio....   [tags: Papers] 1595 words
(4.6 pages)
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Officer Fatigue - ... Liability and officer's status while moonlighting With the many dangers of moonlighting assignments and the potential for lawsuits against the moonlighting officer the question of who is liable for paying for these events is a serious concern. While on-duty and while acting as a police officer off-duty, it seems reasonable that the agency is responsible. It is much less clear who should be responsible when a moonlighting officer injures themselves or another. The issue can be further complicated by the fact that many departments permit or even encourage moonlighting officers to wear their department-issued uniform and gun while moonlighting (Scarry 2007)....   [tags: Police Departments, Moonlighting ] 1771 words
(5.1 pages)
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Recreational Property Negligence - M E M O R A N D U M TO: FROM: DATE: RE: Cole Gershwin- Immunity for Negligence on Recreational Property _________________________________________________________ I. STATEMENT OF FACTS Our Client, Mr. Cole Gershwin, is considering suit against the Chicago School District for injuries sustained as a result of tripping in a pothole. Gershwin, a teacher at Washington Elementary School, alleges that on October 10, 2000 at 12:20 pm, he was walking from the school to the teacher’s parking lot, and tripped in a pothole and fell....   [tags: essays research papers] 1501 words
(4.3 pages)
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The History of Swine Flu and the Current Worldwide Outbreak of this Virus - A long time ago, the world has been greatly hit by the virulent disease of swine flu in 1918, 1976, 1988, 1998, 2007 and now finally in the year of 2009. This flu is also referred to as swine influenza, hog flu, or pig flu. The swine flu that has hit humans has been mainly associated with bonds of the H1N1 virus. In the past, in Mexico, the Midwestern United States, South America, China, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of Eastern Asia have been found tainted with swine flu. Over the very past years this virus has shown its evil face along the entire world....   [tags: health, medical]
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846 words
(2.4 pages)
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Ebola Virus Infection Treatment & Management - “Scientists in Canada announced the successful treatment of Ebola viral infection in monkeys. The encouraging results were published in the journal Science Translational Medicine on June 13.” - www.healthmap.org Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease that was first recorded in 1976, when an outbreak occurred in Yambuku, Zaire, a country that was latter renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo (Walsh, Biek & Real, 2005). During the outbreak 318 cases were recorded of which 280 (88%) died. Later the same year, an outbreak occurred in Sudan where 284 cases were recorded with fatality rate of 53%....   [tags: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (Ebola HF)]
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1296 words
(3.7 pages)
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Exploring the Human Immune System - 2.4.1 Overview The immune system can be subdivided into two systems; innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immune system is made up of physical, chemical, and microbiological barriers, as well as the others elements of the immune system such as phagocytic cells (polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages), cells that release inflammatory mediator (basophils, mast cell, and eosinophils), natural killer cells, and the protein component (complement, cytokines, and acute phase proteins)....   [tags: medical, immunology] 1051 words
(3 pages)
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Asian Seabass - ... (1994), two factors that affect the decreasing of L. calcarifer production in aspect of quality and quantity are disease and malnutrition. Larvae of this fish that face the malnutrition problems will show physical symptoms such as pale, less active, poor appetite thus cause death. The high content of unsaturated fatty acid is so important in L. calcarifer diet or the lack of this unsaturated fat will cause the larvae resistance against disease decrease thus decreasing the larvae survival rate and growth (Wattanabe et al....   [tags: Business, Malaysian Market, Fish] 1224 words
(3.5 pages)
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The Importance of Childhood Vaccination - ... In Japan in 1974, there was a roughly 80% immunization rate against pertussis, which resulted in about 400 reported cases of the illness and zero deaths (“Childhood”). When a safety scare involving the vaccine occurred and the immunization rate dropped to about 10%, the number of cases skyrocketed to over 13,000 and resulted in 41 deaths (“Childhood”). This is a staggering 32,500% increase in the number of sick children from this specific reduction in vaccinations alone. There have also been similar disease outbreak issues in the United States....   [tags: Medicine Vaccinations]
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1527 words
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Phagocytosis and the Immune Response - Phagocytosis and the Immune Response What are the roles of leucocytes in Phagocytosis and secretion of antibodies. The roles of cellular components of the blood are vital in the transport of respiratory gases and in the defence against disease. The role of white blood cells (also known as leucocytes) are concerned with the defence of the body against disease. Leucocytes are nucleated cells present in the blood. They are less numerous in comparison to red blood cells: there are around 7000 per nm³ of blood compared with 5000000 red cells....   [tags: Papers] 1106 words
(3.2 pages)
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Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on First and Subsequent Exposure to a Pathogen - The immune system is comprised of two responses: the adaptive immune response and the innate immune response. The first line of defence against invading organisms is classified as the innate immune response and the second line of defence and protection against re- exposure to the same pathogen is known as the adaptive immune response. Innate immune responses are known as the non-specific manner which composes the cells and defend the host from infection by other organism by mechanism. The adaptive immunity represents the antigen-specific immune response....   [tags: Medical Science]
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503 words
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Review of Research Report on an Oral Inhibitor of HIV-1 - Review of the Research Report: An Orally Bioavailable, Small Molecule Antagonist of the Chemokine Receptor CCR5, is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infection in vitro and in vivo Background The human body contains two type of immunity—innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity provides a specific response against the antigens of pathogens. White blood cells or lymphocytes are the main tools of adaptive immunity. There are two main types of lymphocytes; T and B cells. Pathogens have chemical signals, antigens, which the immune system recognizes....   [tags: Biology HIV AIDS]
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1372 words
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Opportunistic HIV Infections - Opportunistic HIV infections Description- opportunistic HIV infections are those infections that are caused to a HIV positive person, when his CD4 count starts decreasing. Opportunistic HIV infections can be treated with strong antiretroviral drugs that aim to uplift the CD4 count and keep our immunity system stronHETEROSEXUAL HIV INFECTION Description- Heterosexual HIV infection is the most common reason for the spread of the disease. Heterosexual HIV infection may not be the major cause in advanced nations, but in developing and the developed countries, this reason accounts for more than half of all HIV cases....   [tags: Disease] 1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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Vaccines - ... Table 1 lists the current vaccination schedule for early childhood vaccinations. Negatives for Vaccinations More than any other matter, the question of autism has stirred the battle over vaccines. Since the 1980’s, the quantity of vaccinations that children get has doubled, and in that same time, autism diagnoses have tripled. In 1998, Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist of London's Royal Free Hospital published a paper in the journal the Lancet in which he stated the results of a study that he did....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Immunology] 1147 words
(3.3 pages)
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Vaccinations Necessary to the Nation’s Youth - ... In the mid-1980’s, countless individuals brought lawsuits against pharmaceutical manufacturers in civil court claiming and “adverse reaction to a vaccine” (Binski 15). Vaccine manufacturers soon built up a cost damage of 3.5 billion dollars between the years 1980 and 1986. Due to the fear of limitless liability in future lawsuits, an abundance of pharmaceutical manufacturers began to greatly limit or altogether cease the production of vaccines. The general public’s faith in vaccines began diminishing, because diseases that vaccines originally protected people from had been all but eradicated, which made parents less concerned about the disease and more concerned with the possible adverse side effects (Binski 16)....   [tags: Medical Research, Immunization]
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1755 words
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The impact of Ig G levels on routine clinical biochemistry parameters in neonatal calves - ... On the other hand, although easily applicable and inexpensive, the zinc sulphate and sodium sulphate turbidity tests do not produce sensitive results. In this respect, the development and use of inexpensive, highly sensitive, rapid tests that can be easily applied under field conditions would provide major advantages (2,7). In calves and lambs, intestinal absorption being non-selective within the first 24¬–48 hours of life, enables the direct absorption of several proteins and macromolecular substances from the intestines (9)....   [tags: Animal Science ]
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1934 words
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The Spread of Disease In the New World - The Spread of Disease In the New World The extraordinary good health of the natives prior to the coming of the Europeans would become a key ingredient in their disastrous undoing. The greatest cause of disease in America was epidemic diseases imported from Europe. Epidemic diseases killed with added virulence in the " virgin soil" populations of the Americas. The great plague that arose in the Old World never emerged on their own among the western hemisphere and did not spread across oceans until Columbus' discovery....   [tags: American America History]
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1820 words
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The Dual Nature of Disease - The Dual Nature of Disease The technologies and abilities encouraging human mobility have been an essential force in the shaping of global history. Ranging from footwear to airplanes, advancements in travel have resulted in both positive and negative consequences. A pioneering human spirit has led to extensive voyages seeking new lands, which explorers have found beneficial and detrimental. One of the most important components influencing the success or failure of exploration has been the effect of disease....   [tags: Disease Humanity Health Essays]
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848 words
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VARIOLA VIRUS - VARIOLA VIRUS SMALLPOX INTRODUCTION The Variola virus, which is the most virulent member of Genus Orthopoxvirus, is the causative agent of smallpox. It specifically infects humans. The primary reason for infection in humans is due to its ability to evade the host immune responses, and avoid complement activation. Over the centuries, this naturally occurring virus has spread throughout the earth, through various environments, to cause severe outbreaks. The most devastation outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 40 percent in individuals who have not been vaccinated....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1963 words
(5.6 pages)
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English - Racial Tension in Fever With the racial tension as high as it was in Philadelphia at the time of the Fever, one would think that any common enemy or goal would bring everybody together. However, when the illness known as the Fever hit the city, prejudice rose to different heights. Prejudice and racism is bad enough as it is. However, the citizens of Philadelphia were making it look like they wanted the blacks and immigrants to come back into the city. They told the blacks that they could come back to the city because they had immunity to the disease, when in actuality they only needed the blacks and immigrants to act as caretakers for the white upper class citizens....   [tags: essays research papers] 815 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Immune System - The Immune System The Immune System is a group of cells, molecules, and organs that act together to defend against disease. The body depends on the immune system to seek and destroy bacteria or viruses that could cause harm. There are two types of immunity: innate and adaptive. Innate is the body's first line of a defense against the disease. The innate immunity helped by barriers such as skin, tears, mucus, saliva, and infection. But the innate can't usually prevent disease completely. After the disease has passed through this it has a specific immunity which is known as adaptive immunity....   [tags: Papers] 1255 words
(3.6 pages)
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Immunization and Violence - Immunization and Violence 1. In a text dedicated to Kant as interpreter of the Enlightenment, Michel Foucault locates the task of contemporary philosophy in a precise stance. It concerns that taut and acute relation with the present that he names the "ontology of the actual." How are we to understand the phrase. What does it mean to situate philosophy in the point or on the line in which the actual is revealed in the density of its own historical being. What does an ontology of the actual mean, properly speaking....   [tags: Philosophy Kant] 4320 words
(12.3 pages)
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Vaccination and Eradication of Smallpox - The Vaccination and Eradication of Smallpox Smallpox, a disease caused by the variola virus, has devastated humanity for many centuries. Because of its high mortality rate, civilizations around the world sought to protect themselves from this disease. Throughout the 1700's, these protective methods became more sophisticated, and led up to Edward Jenner’s vaccination method in 1796. Indeed, the World Health Organization, the Center for Disease Control and the Agency for International Development began a joint program to eradicate smallpox in 1967....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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1596 words
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H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu - H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu There is currently a debate going on between the regular flu and the swine flu (H1N1). Both are viruses, but there is a difference between them. In this report, I will be discussing what a virus is, how it is transmitted, how it is proliferated, and what types of symptoms one has if they get the virus. I will also be discussing vaccines, how they are developed, why they are used, what a flu vaccine is in particular, how the early flu vaccine is different from H1N1 vaccine, and why there is a concern about the swine flu verses the regular flu, since swine flu season occurs yearly....   [tags: Compare Contrast, Virus, Flu] 785 words
(2.2 pages)
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Child Immunization - Intro: The pros and cons of children immunization is my topic because being in the medical field it is my duty and responsibility to educate parents about the vaccinations which child is receiving and be able to explain to the parents what the vaccination is for and how to protect their child from illness or deadly diseases. According to MedlinePlus website the meaning of immunization (vaccination) is a way to trigger your immune system and prevent serious, life threatening diseases.17 Vaccination is another form of keeping our children healthy, especially when they are in school or daycare center....   [tags: Health Care]
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IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED MEDICINE - CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of Study Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidae, including human, and cause an inflammation of the liver called hepatitis. The disease was originally known as "serum hepatitis" that caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a one third of the world's population or more than 2 billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus....   [tags: Health ]
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715 words
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Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections - ... The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 or its product (carbon monoxide) can reduce the amount of free heme, opening the way for a new therapeutic approach to this deadly complication (66). It is clear that in other parasitic diseases such as Chagas’ disease there is not a complete understanding of immunopathology that follows infection. During acute infection some parasite molecules can activate macrophages and this provokes nitric oxide synthesis, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and as a consequence there is a control of parasitemia and reduction in the number of deaths (54,67,68)....   [tags: Biology, Parasites] 2267 words
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Infant Nutrition: What is best for your baby - breast milk or formula? - ... It can protect your baby from allergies, asthma, diabetes, obesity and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A convincing number of studies have shown that babies who are breastfed have better immunity and digestion, a lower mortality rate, a higher IQ, not as many hospital admissions, pneumonia, stomach flu and diarrhea. In general, breastfed babies have less of a risk of becoming overweight, developing high blood pressure and tooth decay. The infection-fighting antibodies that are passed from a mother to her baby through colostrum and breast milk contain immunities to ear and respiratory infections, diarrhea and meningitis....   [tags: Parenting]
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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) - ... The current treatment options of early intervention and secondary prevention will benefit many patients with signs of active liver disease. In my reading if not intervened promptly, the patients may develop into worse situations that need the use of drugs, hospitalization or surgery (tertiary prevention). They should talk to their doctors about whether they are good candidates for drug therapy or a clinical trial. Hepatitis B current estimates suggests that there are nearly 150,000 new infections of Hepatitis B annually, and there are about 1.2 million people with chronic Hepatitis B infections in the United States....   [tags: biology, medicine, nursing]
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1199 words
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Meningitis in the UK - ... Swab has to be taken from the mouth into the nasopharyngx. Lumbar puncture is contraindicated (HPA 2011). CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS Household Contacts: Even though the threat to contacts is less, the utmost recognized absolute and relative risk is to individuals who live in the same home as a case of meningococcal disease (Hastings L et al 1997, D Wals P et al 1981). Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin were the drugs found to be more efficient in eradicating carriage than placebo in six and two RCTs respectively (Fraser A et al 2006)....   [tags: Public Health]
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3008 words
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Hepatitis A - Introduction: Hepatitis is caused by a virus that is targeted at the liver, one of your most important organs!. Specifically, it causes inflammation and injury to the liver. Hepatitis comes in many different forms, five to be exact. There is Hepatitis A, B, C, D & E. Hepatitis is caused mainly by viruses, all of which are set on shutting down your liver. I will be specifically concentrating on Hepatitis A in this report. Hepatitis A is also known as infectious Hepatitis, an extremely contagious viral infection that often effects young children and young adults, especially those in large groups....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1055 words
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Malaria - The Disease…………… That lead everyone in for a great awaking. Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoon of the genus Plasmodium and the four subspecies, falciparum, vivax, malariae, and ovale. The species that causes the greatest illness and death in Africa is P. falciparum. The disease is transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, of which the Anopheles gambiae complex (the most efficient) is responsible for the transmission of disease in Africa. Fever is the main symptom of malaria....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1679 words
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Toll like receptors and their therapeutic potential - Cellular Basis Of Disease: Why has the discovery of Toll-like receptors revolutionised our understanding of how the innate immune system works, and what is the therapeutic potential. The body has two immune systems: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Adaptive, or acquired, immunity refers to antigen-specific defence mechanisms that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is immunity develops throughout life....   [tags: essays research papers] 2112 words
(6 pages)
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The Second Meaning of Dicey's Rule of Law - The Second Meaning of Dicey's Rule of Law The second meaning of Dicey’s rule of law states: “Equality before the law, or the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land administrated by the ordinary law courts”[1] Here Dicey is saying that we are all not only subject to law, but equal before it, irrespective of our role in the society. The public have more powers under the criminal law and the police and criminal evidence act 1984 for in excess of the citizens.,[2] so this conveys that no man is above the law; so the private citizens are under a duty to obey the same law, and that there can not be no special court or administrative tribunal for the state officials.[3] The principle of the equality before the law has raised problems for the rule of law....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
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Introduction of foreign pathogens into Australia - Introduction of foreign pathogens into Australia It is widely known that the poor health experienced by many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders relates from complex reasons originating from their history after European settlement. Two centuries of introduced disease, combined with today’s lifestyle diseases and impoverished socioeconomic and environmental conditions, have had devastating, and all too often fatal, effects on Indigenous health. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population suffered from introduced disease that often turned out to be fatal because of lack of immunity to introduced pathogens....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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431 words
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Stress and the Immune System - Stress and the Immune System AIM: to study the effect of stress (exams) on the immune system. They wanted to test the hypothesis that stress reduces immunity by seeing if there is a difference in immune response between two conditions (high and low stress). They were also interested to see if other factors affected immunity, such as psychiatric symptoms, loneliness, and life events. PROCEDURES: · 75 first year medical students (self-selected sample) volunteered to participate....   [tags: Papers] 368 words
(1.1 pages)
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The Ebola Virus - Africa has been the focus of several deadly diseases for many years. The poor living conditions and tight quarters within the villages make it very difficult for the people to fight off disease when it strikes. One such disease is hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebolavirus. The fever it causes upon infecting humans has a high fatality rate, meaning almost certain death. Since Africa is still a developing nation and is unable to provide efficient care to those that become ill, there is a high demand to quickly understand all aspects of how the virus works....   [tags: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever 2014]
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850 words
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Infectious Disease and Demise of the Indians in the New World - Infectious Disease and Demise of the Indians in the New World The European conquest of the New World was not caused by guns, swords, or barbaric type behavior but by the invisible danger- germs. Infectious diseases have played a major role in shaping the conquest of the New World. Vast amounts of people indigenous to the Americas died due to various types of diseases. It is often said that in the centuries after Columbus landed in the New World on 12 October 1492, more native North Americans died each year from infectious diseases brought by the European settlers than were born (Meltzer 38)....   [tags: American America History]
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2043 words
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The Movement of Disease - The Movement of Disease The desire to travel and explore developed among many early civilizations. This mobility provided these cultures with many advantages that have helped to advance their societies. Unfortunately, these movements are also responsible for the transmission of numerous diseases and their resulting adverse effects upon the inhabitants of the Earth. This essay seeks to outline the causes of epidemic diseases, explain their diffusion around the world, and explore why they are more harmful in certain societies....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Hepatitis B Virus - Hepatitis B Virus Characteristics: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. The infectious particle is 42nm in diameter, with a genome 3200 nucleotides long. It has an outer envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid, which contains viral DNA polymerase and has a diameter of 27nm. The envelope contains the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); this is the molecule to which anti-HBV antibodies are directed. The non-infectious hepatitis B particles are composed of HBsAg only and come in the form of filaments and spheres....   [tags: Essays Paper]
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army - Facing worldwide opposition, the United States has retreated from its demand that American peacekeepers be permanently immune from the new war crimes tribunal. U.S. diplomats are instead proposing a yearlong ban on any investigation. The compromise proposal made Wednesday marked a significant change in the Bush administration’s campaign to shield Americans from frivolous or politically motivated prosecutions by the new International Criminal Court. Members of the U.N. Security Council have been grappling with a U.S....   [tags: essays research papers] 666 words
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Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance....   [tags: essays research papers] 2213 words
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Mononucleosis - ITION Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome that can be characterized by a multitude of symptoms. They include malaise, headache, fever, pharyngitis, pharyngeal lymphatic hyperplasia, lymphadenopathy, atypical lymphocytosis, and mild transient hepatitis. This disease occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. Mononucleosis is one of these diseases that are grouped into a class known as a viral infection; more specifically it is caused by the Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a herpes virus....   [tags: essays research papers] 1945 words
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The Immune System - The Immune System The immune system is a network of organs that contain cells which recognize foreign substances and destroys them. All living organisms are exposed to harmful substances and most can protect themselves in several ways, either with physical barriers or chemicals that repel and kill them. It protects vertebrates against viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites. These viruses are called pathogens. The immune system is known to help in the fight against cancer....   [tags: Papers] 2305 words
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Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines - Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines Edward Jenner (1749-1823) trained in London, under John Hunter, and was an army surgeon for a period of time. After that, he spent his whole career as a country doctor in his home county, Gloucestershire (West of England). His research was based on careful case studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain what viruses and diseases actually were. His innovative new method was successful to such an extent that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Bioterrorism with Smallpox - Bioterrorism: Smallpox Smallpox is a highly infectious and fatal disease caused by the Variola virus. It causes extremely painful pustules to sprout across the entire body. Spread from human to human, it has since been eradicated from the world through the efforts of the World Health Organization. However, there is a distinct possibility that it may be reintroduced through bioterrorism. Biological weapons may cause another pandemic to erupt across the world and kill millions of individuals. Through constant vigilance and careful planning, mankind can prevent this scenario....   [tags: Variola virus Terrorism Terrorist]
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To vaccinate, or not to vaccinate? - Currently, one cannot explore the news without coming across the topic of the swine flu, scientifically known as H1N1. Swine flu is a respiratory infection derived from the influenza virus. The virus contains genetic materials from human, swine, and avian flu viruses. It was first identified in spring 2009, and since then has spread rapidly across the globe. The infection’s spread has been verified as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. As soon as the swine flu virus was isolated, scientists quickly developed a swine flu vaccine....   [tags: Disease] 1456 words
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Mating Preference in Male Stickleback Fishes - Three spined stickle back fishes are small fishes with a deep body with three spines in front of the dorsal fin and are therefore are named stickle back because if the spines on the dorsal fin. These fishes are brownish, green and pale or orange reddish on the underside and are about 6 cm in length. The breeding male fish usually has a red belly and blue eyes. The three spined stickleback fishes are found in Northern Asia, northern America and Europe and some parts of southern and central Europe such as Belgium....   [tags: animals, mating preferences, fish,] 1433 words
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HPV Vaccination - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. That would be as though, 25 out of the 30 students in this classroom have or have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one group of desks in this class would be safe from its harmful effects. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 892 words
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HPV Speech - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. Compared to this class, 25 out of the 30 students here have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one of your tables is safe. The rest of you are all at risk. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 878 words
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Antibacterial Soap Does More Harm than Good - If look around this day in age you will notice one thing, many parents and children are Spermatophobia-fear of germ and contamination. Since the recent outbreak of H1N1, many people have increased their usage of antibacterial soaps in hope that they will avoid getting sick or becoming ill. Antibacterial products are include Plastic bags hand soap, toothpaste, personal care products detergents & cleaning products and the list continues. However, lately these products are doing more harm than help for those who use them in everyday life....   [tags: health and wellness]
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Limitations in Civil War Medicine - From 1861 to 1865, civil war broke loose and resulted in the many deaths of Americans. The blame for this tragedy is not due to the conflict alone, but due to the standards of medicine during the mid 1800s. Today we have the luxury of antibiotics and anesthetics to cure aliments and a much higher chance of surviving an injury or a common disease like malaria. Unfortunately, during the civil war, medical practitioners had to resort to primal methods in saving a civil war soldier’s life. Civil war soldiers lost their limbs and lives to injuries and diseases that would have been avoidable today....   [tags: american history, civil war]
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Human- Immunodeficiency Virus - Background There are many types of viruses. Those viruses, which have their genetic material in RNA, are called retro viruses. These retro viruses are responsible for most of the diseases in all plants and animals. The HIV or Human- Immunodeficiency Virus is also a kind of a retro virus. The HIV virus leads to AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which is a deadly pandemic, affecting every nook and corner of the globe. It is an acquired disease from external means. 31.3 million adults and 2.1million children in the world are HIV positive with several HIV symptoms, and 2millions deaths are witnessed every year due to the same reason....   [tags: Disease ] 1048 words
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Depression in International Students - Depression is one of the many problems that International Students face. It's a problem that affects their day to activities and if left unattended can cause a lot of harm. It is called the 'common cold' of mental illness (Mental Health Info &Links, 2001). Depression was compared with 100 other diseases and it was ranked fourth in the global burden by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There is a fear that it might rise to second it diagnosis, treatment or prevention is not improved. Depression causes suffering and anguish for individuals, families, friends and communities....   [tags: Psychology]
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Unhealthy Dieting - ... Despite the effort her little girl approached Orenstin and said “mama, don’t get f-a-t O.k.?” after that, over a long period of time, she tried not to teach her daughter about weight, but teach her about the media and how it will try to effect her daughter. The media plays a huge factor in every Childs life, it tells them how to look, what to wear, and even the toys they need to have. Many teens do the exact same thing, they listen to the media and try to have the same appearance as a size “0” model and that’s how the diets get started....   [tags: Nutrition ]
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Social Class and Public Health: Determining Your Health - ... This constricts the amount of blood flow through the body and in turn leads to serious conditions such as heart attacks, increased blood pressure and lower immunity. Although a person’s living conditions greatly affect their health, by the same token their social status determines where on the health gradient they dwell. Unfortunately most of the elements that helped determine social ranking are predetermined; age, race, gender and ethnicity. However there are some components of the social hierarchy that people can control such as level of education....   [tags: Sociology ]
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Probiotics and Prebiotics - ... Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that are beneficial in helping to stimulate bacterial activity and regulation in the digestive system. Prebiotics can be found in carbohydrate fibers called oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that contain 3-10 simple sugars linked together. They can be found in fruits, legumes, and whole grains. Since they are indigestible, oligosaccharides stay in the digestive tract and help the growth of beneficial bacteria (Dolson). Oligosaccharides are covalently attached to proteins or membrane lipids and are either a linear or branched structure....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The Vaccine War - ... Scientist Hank Jennings says, “They still want it to be a choice. They don’t want it to be compulsory” (Palfreman, 2010). Additionally, despite the scientific fact that vaccines are safe, government rule regarding parental choice is another component increasing the fight against vaccines. Throughout The Vaccine War, the particular theory exemplified on the human behavior is Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Cognitive Dissonance Theory is a notion created by Leon Festinger that disputes that dissonance is an awkward feeling that encourages people to take action to diminish it....   [tags: Medical Ethics ]
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International Relations Relating to Humanitarian Intervention - ... A good example would be the Soviet Union using the pretext of ‘invitation’ in order to justify its interventions in its former satellite states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan.(Plant 1995:197) The non-intervention principle has formed a foundation stone of international order, and lent a degree of predictability-in theory, at least-to the conduct of interstate relations.(Thomas 1994:18) However as we enter a new century the world is changing and becoming more interconnected than ever....   [tags: Human Rights ]
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Poliomyelitis: The Child Killer - ... Those that overcome paralytic polio have a significant chance of catching post-polio syndrome. This form occurs in about 25%-40% of people who had it, survived, and have lived without it for thirty to forty years. New muscle pain occurs as well as weakness. There is not a direct reason for why it reoccurs later on in life. One idea is that it involves “the failure of oversized motor units created during the recovery process of paralytic poliomyelitis” (CDC Poliomyelitis 261). What made polio such a threat to humans was that people did not know how it was caused....   [tags: Medicine]
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Fear No Evil, Fear No Shot: Vaccinating Children Should Be Considered Safe - ... Despite the evidence that immunizations work well, parents are dubious because they have read studies about children being diagnosed with autism, citing the cause as a direct result of the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine), which contained a mercury-laden preservative. These parents argue that because of this ingredient, children are at risk of autism or other disorders and side effects. The truth is they may be reading and hearing nebulous information. Today, vaccines for preschool children do not contain the preservative, and for those parents who may fear older children’s exposure to the preservative, there is a way to ask for a shot that is preservative free (VanTine-Reichardt)....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Biochemistry Research Paper - ... PAMPs are structurally conserved molecules derive from pathogens, and therefore make an idea target for recognition by the innate immune system. Recognition of ssRNA by TLR7 and non-methylated CpG DNA by TLR9 drive innate immune effector function such as inflammatory of cytokine production. These events happen through ssRNA and non-methylated CpG DNA triggering the TLR7 and TLR9 signaling cascade (Fig 2), leading to activation of transcription factors and kinases activity, and eventually altering gene expression....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Viruses, Bacteria] 1897 words
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What is Copyright? - ... Teachers, however, often like to use other items that are not in the textbooks or school purchased equipment for “classroom-use,” which may cause some legal issues or confrontations if they are not careful. Teaching often times has its excuses for why it is “okay” to just pull information from copyrighted material and use it to teach children. But does anyone really know where congress draws its power to make copyright laws, or what the “Four Factors of Fair Use” are, or whether or not teachers have a sort of immunity to copyright infringement....   [tags: Legal Issues, Ethics] 1644 words
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Childhood Sexual Abuse - ... Zlotnick, Mattia, Zimmerman (2001) found that patients with a history of childhood sexual abuses are at higher risk for psychiatric morbidity and prolonged depression. The study was conducted using 235 patients at a psychiatric outpatient facility with an range of 18-65 with a mean age of 47.4 years. A history of sexual abuse increases the risk of eating disorders. Higher rates of eating disorders are found in women, who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Depression, suicide attempts, and anxiety, as well as higher rates of bulimia and anorexia nervosa....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Sexual Trauma, Depression] 1005 words
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Studies Pertaining to the Clinical Aspects of Malaria - ... The author found that previous immunity, as indicated by presence of splenomegaly, was associated with better prognosis both in terms of lower mortality and less hemodynamic disturbance which was evident in the older children owing to previous exposure to malarial infection, and therefore development of immunity (Sheiban et al. 1998). It is important to note that malaria was reported to be the cause of 5.9% of chronic renal failure in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis in Hadramout governorate (Badheeb 1998)....   [tags: Health, Diseases] 984 words
(2.8 pages)
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Allergies - ... The human body expresses its reaction of allergies in many different ways. Symptoms can manifest itself through illness involving the skin, mucosal tissue or both.3 Epidermis can display mild reddish spread on the skin to a severe rash. Sensitivity involving the mucosa can lead to respiratory problems or digestion issues, examples of such are persistent phlegm, cough, and pain and flare ups3. When a person is prone to allergies, contact with an allergen causes a reaction within minutes or hours.3 A case can be made that exposure to certain allergens can increased the development of allergic reactions in adults....   [tags: Medical Conditions]
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Colony Collapse Disorder and Pesticides - ... The effects of miticides are disastrous as they involve the reduction of not only the sperm count among the drones, but also the viability of those sperms (Timbrell, 2002). The effects of these pesticides are not killing the bees instantaneously but impairing their behavior and development. However, some pesticides are very lethal since the honey bees do not even go back to their hives and most of them die after ingesting small amounts of these chemicals from plants that have been sprayed with them....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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Prolonging and Separating Vaccines - ... Most adults have either had the diseases that infants are vaccinated against or have had the vaccine to protect themselves; therefore infants will develop this immunity in utero, allowing for delayed vaccination safely. One aspect of research showing that it may be better to prolong infant immunizations until after the age of two is the study of neuroimmunology, or more specifically, the microglia within the brain and neurological system. One study has shown that when vaccines are given close together, or too soon before the neurological system has had a chance to mature, these specialized immune cells, called microglia, can create and release toxic elements (Miller, 2004) causing neurological disorders resulting from damaged brain cells....   [tags: Health, Vaccination]
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