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Your search returned over 400 essays for "immunity"
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Immunity to Parasites and Apoptosis - IMMUNITY TO PARASITES AND APOPTOSIS. Humoral and cellular immunity are the two sides of immunity turn on during parasitic infections and ideally are aimed to fight infection. However, in some cases immunity to parasites can exacerbate the disease and induce tissue injury. Cellular Immunity Animal models have been most useful to better understand mechanisms of immunity to parasites. Athymic mice that lack T cells are unable to control several parasite infections. This clearly indicates that T cells play an important role during the development of these infections (39,40)....   [tags: Biology, Cellular Immunity] 1925 words
(5.5 pages)
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Immunity in the U.S. Court - The right to not incriminate one’s self is established within the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution. The Fifth Amendment states, “No person…shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself” (Davenport, 2006, P. 87). People may plead the fifth as a means of refusing to answer questions about alleged criminal activities. The right to not self incriminate, is a fundamental right meant to protect individuals from being forced into giving evidence that could be used against one’s self....   [tags: Justice System ]
:: 7 Works Cited
1433 words
(4.1 pages)
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Foreign Soverign Immunity - ... 538). At the time of the filing, Israel had removed majority shares and became a tiered ownership structure with a less than majorities sharing thus, affecting immunity of the commercial activity and eliminating Israel as an instrumentality (Albright, 2006; Collier, 2004; Dole Food Co. v. Patrickson, 2003; Salmon, 2003). Shared Responsibilities Shared responsibilities between the employer and employee go back to the psychological contracts each bestow on the other and moral duty of doing no harm, creating present and future value (Caldwell, 2011)....   [tags: morals, ethics, United States, Dole v Patrickson]
:: 9 Works Cited
1729 words
(4.9 pages)
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Evolution Of Immunity And The Invertebrates - Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it's membrane, tiny cells would try to ingest the invader through the process of phagocytosis....   [tags: essays research papers] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
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Immunity from Sate Jurisdiction - Immunity from Sate Jurisdiction International law specifies that 'the jurisdiction of a state within its territory is complete and absolute'[1]. However, it is identified that certain categories of persons and bodies acting in the public interest are entitled to immunities and privileges from the exercise of the State jurisdiction. In April 1984 WPC Fletcher, a British policewoman was killed, as a result of shots being fired from the Libyan Bureau. The incident created great anger and it was asked by many as was whether the Libyan diplomats were immune from being tried in the United Kingdom courts and the abuse of such privilege granted to diplomatic persons....   [tags: Papers] 1235 words
(3.5 pages)
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Watergate-presidential Immunity - In the early morning hours of June 17, 1972, District of Columbia police officers discovered five men, wearing surgical gloves and carrying tear gas fountain pens, walkie-talkies, and wads of new $100 bills, apparently attempting to plant electronic surveillance equipment in the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate apartment-office complex. The resulting investigation led to the discovery of the roles of several White House staff and eventually to the President himself....   [tags: President Richard Nixon] 785 words
(2.2 pages)
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Presidential Immunity: Cases In The Supreme Court - The Supreme Court has had to rule on issues regarding Presidential immunity in a few cases. Three specifically have helped to set the precedent for how the court would interpret another case brought before the court. In Mississippi v. Johnson the ruling decided whether a president can have an injunction placed on him/her based on the carrying out of their executive duties. Next, in the case of Nixon v. Fitzgerald the court ruled on whether a president can be personally sued for decisions they made while in office that violated established law....   [tags: US History Justice court ] 1138 words
(3.3 pages)
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DESCRIBE THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT CELL TYPES OF INNATE IMMUNITY - The immune system is a complicated biological body system that protects us from pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi which has cells that are from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow. It includes white blood cells, chemicals and proteins like complement proteins and antibodies. The system is divided into two major parts that is the innate immunity system (non-specific) and the adaptive system (specific). The innate plays a vital role in the system as it is the primary defence mechanism whilst the adaptive immune system is the second line of defence....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
:: 4 Works Cited
1219 words
(3.5 pages)
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Immunity to Nihilism in Turgenev's "fathers and Sons" - Immunity to Nihilism in Turgenev's Fathers and Sons Whenever reform or revolution is possible, it is because a new, progressive ideal has been quickly and widely perpetuated among the people of a particular nation. It is often a country's youth population that most readily accepts such new ideals, since they, being in the process of education and the development of their personal beliefs, tend to be malleable to new ideas and standards, and ready for change and development. The older generation is thus an opponent to change, or at least, not passionately motivated towards any revolution, being older and accustomed to certain ways of life....   [tags: European Literature] 653 words
(1.9 pages)
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Religion as a Threat to Vaccination - ... Objections to vaccinations are not applicable to all religious people, however, and opinions on vaccination vary not only by major faith group, but also by sects within these faiths. Furthermore, individuals within such sects may also have differing beliefs. Grabenstein (2013) categorized religious objections to vaccinations, and determined that the three most prevalent reasons given for rejection along religious grounds were “violation of prohibitions against taking life, violation of dietary laws, or interference with natural order by not letting events take their course.” In some cases, Grabenstein (2013) found that the rejections of vaccinations by religious persons were not based in necessarily religious reasons....   [tags: Global Health, Herd immunity]
:: 8 Works Cited
1066 words
(3 pages)
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Embodiment of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction - ... The defense started its case by putting Eichmann on the stand, who told the court that he did not dispute any of the facts of what had ensued during the Holocaust, he however insisted in his defense that he was only following orders, relinquishing his conscience in order to follow the government policies and orders. While cross examination of Eichmann, Hausner asked him if he considered himself guilty of the murder of millions of Jewish People. He replied in the negative, denying any legal labiality however he said that humanely he was guilty of having deported them....   [tags: crimes, Eichmann Trial, Pinochet, immunity, law]
:: 2 Works Cited
1878 words
(5.4 pages)
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Battle Of Impunity - Battle of Impunity Insults often serve as a catalyst for revenge. Yet, revenge never comes without consequences. These consequences can stay in a person’s subconscious for the remainder of their life. Through the clever short story “The Cask of Amontillado” by Edgar Allan Poe, Montresor suffers from being insulted, seeking revenge and living with guilt. Montresor is unsuccessful in punishing Fortunato with impunity. The obsession to confess is a killer. Montresor starts the evil revenge plot with a smile on his face....   [tags: essays research papers] 593 words
(1.7 pages)
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5 Court Cases - I. Name and Citation STATE OF FLORIDA, versus SEMINOLE TRIBE OF FLORIDA II. Key Facts In this complaint, the the Tribe was operating "electronic or electromechanical facsimiles of games of chance" and that such operations constituted class III gaming as defined by IGRA. These games were operated despite the absence of a compact between the Tribe and the State regarding the regulation of class III gaming. The State also alleged that the Tribe planned to construct a new facility on its lands in order to conduct additional class III gaming....   [tags: essays research papers] 1814 words
(5.2 pages)
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The Latest Advances In Drug Manipulations Of The Immune System - INTRODUCTION In order to provide a detailed analysis of recent pharmacological developments involving the human immune system, it is firstly necessary to introduce the innate and adaptive immune responses . Immunosuppressants and immunomodulators will be differentiated between and a selection of new and often experimental drugs belonging to each category will be provided. Specific drugs will be described including the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics involved with each type. The possible clinical uses will be alluded to along with details from recent research....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 9 Sources Cited
3818 words
(10.9 pages)
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The Asian Auschwitz - “’How many logs did you chop today?’ People would answer ‘Two logs were cut at my section’, or ‘No logs were cut at my section’” (Simkin). This conversation was not a discussion on the productivity of a day’s work of cutting wood, no this was far worse. The discussion between these men was about the vivisection of live human subjects. Here was a daily part of the lives of workers and researchers of the Japanese Covert Biological and Chemical Warfare Research Department Unit, or better known as Unit 731, and the atrocities committed by the “Asian Auschwitz”....   [tags: Japan]
:: 7 Works Cited
1654 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Evolutionary Importance of Maternal Anti-Bodies and its Implications on Evolution and Ecology - An organism’s ability to survive is not limited to the number of resources available but even more importantly the organism’s ability to fight off infections. Immunity is one of the most important features an organism has to distinguish and protect itself against certain pathogens that could potentially be fatal to the organism. From the first line of defense such as skin and mucous membranes, an organism’s body is constantly fighting off antigens. Antigens are molecules from a pathogen or a foreign organism that provoke a specific immune response....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
:: 6 Works Cited
972 words
(2.8 pages)
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Understanding the Importance of Immunisation - Understanding the Importance of Immunisation According to http://www.amfar.org/cgi-bin/iowa/bridge.html, immunisation is the administration of antigenic components of an infectious agent to stimulate a protective immune response. Immunisation is a technique that is used to increase immunity to specific diseases in humans by exposing the individual to an anti-gen in order to raise ant-bodies to that anti-gen. Immunisation is a way of protecting against serious diseases such as tuberculosis and polio....   [tags: Papers] 1595 words
(4.6 pages)
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Officer Fatigue - Officer fatigue Officer fatigue can be a quite serious problem for police departments. Excess fatigue will generally reduce alertness, decrease performance and worsen mood. These symptoms can reduce officer's performance and safety with potentially life-threatening effects. Patrol officers are expected to remain alert and able to resolve complex, emotional, and potentially dangerous situations. They are expected to be able to multi-task, as well as stay alert during periods of inaction. These activities can be quite difficult for a fatigued officer to complete (Vila 1996)....   [tags: Police Departments, Moonlighting ] 1771 words
(5.1 pages)
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Recreational Property Negligence - M E M O R A N D U M TO: FROM: DATE: RE: Cole Gershwin- Immunity for Negligence on Recreational Property _________________________________________________________ I. STATEMENT OF FACTS Our Client, Mr. Cole Gershwin, is considering suit against the Chicago School District for injuries sustained as a result of tripping in a pothole. Gershwin, a teacher at Washington Elementary School, alleges that on October 10, 2000 at 12:20 pm, he was walking from the school to the teacher’s parking lot, and tripped in a pothole and fell....   [tags: essays research papers] 1501 words
(4.3 pages)
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The History of Swine Flu and the Current Worldwide Outbreak of this Virus - A long time ago, the world has been greatly hit by the virulent disease of swine flu in 1918, 1976, 1988, 1998, 2007 and now finally in the year of 2009. This flu is also referred to as swine influenza, hog flu, or pig flu. The swine flu that has hit humans has been mainly associated with bonds of the H1N1 virus. In the past, in Mexico, the Midwestern United States, South America, China, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of Eastern Asia have been found tainted with swine flu. Over the very past years this virus has shown its evil face along the entire world....   [tags: health, medical]
:: 2 Works Cited
846 words
(2.4 pages)
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Ebola Virus Infection Treatment & Management - “Scientists in Canada announced the successful treatment of Ebola viral infection in monkeys. The encouraging results were published in the journal Science Translational Medicine on June 13.” - www.healthmap.org Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease that was first recorded in 1976, when an outbreak occurred in Yambuku, Zaire, a country that was latter renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo (Walsh, Biek & Real, 2005). During the outbreak 318 cases were recorded of which 280 (88%) died. Later the same year, an outbreak occurred in Sudan where 284 cases were recorded with fatality rate of 53%....   [tags: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (Ebola HF)]
:: 9 Works Cited
1296 words
(3.7 pages)
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Exploring the Human Immune System - 2.4.1 Overview The immune system can be subdivided into two systems; innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immune system is made up of physical, chemical, and microbiological barriers, as well as the others elements of the immune system such as phagocytic cells (polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages), cells that release inflammatory mediator (basophils, mast cell, and eosinophils), natural killer cells, and the protein component (complement, cytokines, and acute phase proteins)....   [tags: medical, immunology] 1051 words
(3 pages)
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Asian Seabass - According to FAO (2008), the world fisheries production by capture and aquaculture has reached 142 million metric tons which this number shows the increasing of about 26 million metric tons from the fish production in 2007. FAO reported that the scale of fish capturing has reached the maximum level and it was counted that about 77% of the fishing region in the world has now classified as fully exploited. As this scenario might cause the decreasing of new fish sources, the fishing industry will face some problems to fulfill the demand of this protein source around the world (Meryl 2007)....   [tags: Business, Malaysian Market, Fish] 1224 words
(3.5 pages)
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The Importance of Childhood Vaccination - Since the introduction of vaccinations, medical science has managed to all but eliminate many formerly fatal and debilitating childhood illnesses in countries where the immunization of children is nearly universal. Diseases such as measles, mumps, diphtheria, rubella and polio have been relegated to a marginal status in developed countries with active immunization campaigns; smallpox is actually considered to have been completely eliminated from the earth, without a single case having been reported since roughly 1979 (“Childhood”)....   [tags: Medicine Vaccinations]
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1527 words
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Phagocytosis and the Immune Response - Phagocytosis and the Immune Response What are the roles of leucocytes in Phagocytosis and secretion of antibodies. The roles of cellular components of the blood are vital in the transport of respiratory gases and in the defence against disease. The role of white blood cells (also known as leucocytes) are concerned with the defence of the body against disease. Leucocytes are nucleated cells present in the blood. They are less numerous in comparison to red blood cells: there are around 7000 per nm³ of blood compared with 5000000 red cells....   [tags: Papers] 1106 words
(3.2 pages)
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Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on First and Subsequent Exposure to a Pathogen - The immune system is comprised of two responses: the adaptive immune response and the innate immune response. The first line of defence against invading organisms is classified as the innate immune response and the second line of defence and protection against re- exposure to the same pathogen is known as the adaptive immune response. Innate immune responses are known as the non-specific manner which composes the cells and defend the host from infection by other organism by mechanism. The adaptive immunity represents the antigen-specific immune response....   [tags: Medical Science]
:: 2 Works Cited
503 words
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Review of Research Report on an Oral Inhibitor of HIV-1 - Review of the Research Report: An Orally Bioavailable, Small Molecule Antagonist of the Chemokine Receptor CCR5, is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infection in vitro and in vivo Background The human body contains two type of immunity—innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity provides a specific response against the antigens of pathogens. White blood cells or lymphocytes are the main tools of adaptive immunity. There are two main types of lymphocytes; T and B cells. Pathogens have chemical signals, antigens, which the immune system recognizes....   [tags: Biology HIV AIDS]
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1372 words
(3.9 pages)
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Opportunistic HIV Infections - Opportunistic HIV infections Description- opportunistic HIV infections are those infections that are caused to a HIV positive person, when his CD4 count starts decreasing. Opportunistic HIV infections can be treated with strong antiretroviral drugs that aim to uplift the CD4 count and keep our immunity system stronHETEROSEXUAL HIV INFECTION Description- Heterosexual HIV infection is the most common reason for the spread of the disease. Heterosexual HIV infection may not be the major cause in advanced nations, but in developing and the developed countries, this reason accounts for more than half of all HIV cases....   [tags: Disease] 1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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Vaccines - Introduction Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, and more recent additions of hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome sickness. And thanks to state laws that require vaccinations for kids enrolling in kindergarten, the U.S. presently enjoys the highest immunization rate ever at 77%. Yet bubbling beneath these national numbers is the question about vaccine safety. Driven by claims that vaccinations can be associated with autism, increasing number of parents are raising questions about whether vaccines are in fact harmful to children, instead of helpful (Park, 2008)....   [tags: Ethical Issues, Immunology] 1147 words
(3.3 pages)
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Vaccinations Necessary to the Nation’s Youth - Parents must make many decisions about their child, which vary from what brand of diapers to use to at what age to start a college fund. Parents also take responsibility for their child’s health, including deciding whether or not to vaccinate. Immunizations serve as the most efficient way to prevent possible life threatening diseases, including mumps, Hepatitis B, and polio, from affecting children, not only during adolescence, but also throughout their adult lives. Parents need to make the informed decision to vaccinate their children....   [tags: Medical Research, Immunization]
:: 12 Works Cited
1755 words
(5 pages)
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The impact of Ig G levels on routine clinical biochemistry parameters in neonatal calves - Summary: The minimisation of neonatal mortality is critical for the success of an animal management programme. The period between calving and weaning is the most crucial period in the animal's life. A major management tool that could be used to reduce health problems in calves is feeding with colostrum. Colostrum is rich in energy, protein and vitamins (especially vitamins A, D, E and B12). Most importantly, colostrum is essential for newborns, in that it contains high levels of immunoglobulins, which transfer passive immunity to the calf, and thereby, enable it to fight with infections....   [tags: Animal Science ]
:: 13 Works Cited
1934 words
(5.5 pages)
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Negative Effects of Vaccinations - ... According to Michael Smith, MD and Charles Woods, MD of the University of Louisville School of Medicine they did not find the adverse pincushion effect to be true. “Timely vaccination during infancy has no adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes 7 to 10 years later. This data may reassure parents who are concerned that children receive too many vaccines too soon.” The CDC states that “an infant’s immune system is more than ready to respond to the very small number of weakened and killed infectious agents in vaccines....   [tags: epidemic, polio, children, pediatrician]
:: 5 Works Cited
1080 words
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Vaccines and the Prophylactic use of Antipyretics - ... These include treatment with gamma globulins or immune globulins, chemotherapy, and immunosuppressive therapies (Sorensen & Paris, 2012). There is no mention of antipyretic therapy’s effect on vaccine response in any of the previous articles. Two articles contained in the review of literature cite fever phobia as the likely explanation for parents treating the majority of fevers with antipyretics. Fever phobia is defined as the belief that fever, “can cause physical harm to children,” (Wallenstein et al., 2012, p....   [tags: pediatric care, healthcare, medicine]
:: 18 Works Cited
2523 words
(7.2 pages)
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The Spread of Disease In the New World - The Spread of Disease In the New World The extraordinary good health of the natives prior to the coming of the Europeans would become a key ingredient in their disastrous undoing. The greatest cause of disease in America was epidemic diseases imported from Europe. Epidemic diseases killed with added virulence in the " virgin soil" populations of the Americas. The great plague that arose in the Old World never emerged on their own among the western hemisphere and did not spread across oceans until Columbus' discovery....   [tags: American America History]
:: 5 Works Cited
1820 words
(5.2 pages)
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Health and Disease in Human History - The technologies and abilities encouraging human mobility have been an essential force in the shaping of global history. Ranging from footwear to airplanes, advancements in travel have resulted in both positive and negative consequences. A pioneering human spirit has led to extensive voyages seeking new lands, which explorers have found beneficial and detrimental. One of the most important components influencing the success or failure of exploration has been the effect of disease. It has acted as an important tool of conquest, as well as a useful deterrent against it....   [tags: Disease Humanity Health Essays]
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848 words
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VARIOLA VIRUS - VARIOLA VIRUS SMALLPOX INTRODUCTION The Variola virus, which is the most virulent member of Genus Orthopoxvirus, is the causative agent of smallpox. It specifically infects humans. The primary reason for infection in humans is due to its ability to evade the host immune responses, and avoid complement activation. Over the centuries, this naturally occurring virus has spread throughout the earth, through various environments, to cause severe outbreaks. The most devastation outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 40 percent in individuals who have not been vaccinated....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1963 words
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English - Racial Tension in Fever With the racial tension as high as it was in Philadelphia at the time of the Fever, one would think that any common enemy or goal would bring everybody together. However, when the illness known as the Fever hit the city, prejudice rose to different heights. Prejudice and racism is bad enough as it is. However, the citizens of Philadelphia were making it look like they wanted the blacks and immigrants to come back into the city. They told the blacks that they could come back to the city because they had immunity to the disease, when in actuality they only needed the blacks and immigrants to act as caretakers for the white upper class citizens....   [tags: essays research papers] 815 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Immune System - The Immune System The Immune System is a group of cells, molecules, and organs that act together to defend against disease. The body depends on the immune system to seek and destroy bacteria or viruses that could cause harm. There are two types of immunity: innate and adaptive. Innate is the body's first line of a defense against the disease. The innate immunity helped by barriers such as skin, tears, mucus, saliva, and infection. But the innate can't usually prevent disease completely. After the disease has passed through this it has a specific immunity which is known as adaptive immunity....   [tags: Papers] 1255 words
(3.6 pages)
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Immunization and Violence - Immunization and Violence 1. In a text dedicated to Kant as interpreter of the Enlightenment, Michel Foucault locates the task of contemporary philosophy in a precise stance. It concerns that taut and acute relation with the present that he names the "ontology of the actual." How are we to understand the phrase. What does it mean to situate philosophy in the point or on the line in which the actual is revealed in the density of its own historical being. What does an ontology of the actual mean, properly speaking....   [tags: Philosophy Kant] 4320 words
(12.3 pages)
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Vaccination and Eradication of Smallpox - The Vaccination and Eradication of Smallpox Smallpox, a disease caused by the variola virus, has devastated humanity for many centuries. Because of its high mortality rate, civilizations around the world sought to protect themselves from this disease. Throughout the 1700's, these protective methods became more sophisticated, and led up to Edward Jenner’s vaccination method in 1796. Indeed, the World Health Organization, the Center for Disease Control and the Agency for International Development began a joint program to eradicate smallpox in 1967....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease]
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1596 words
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H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu - H1N1 and the Regular Seasonal Flu There is currently a debate going on between the regular flu and the swine flu (H1N1). Both are viruses, but there is a difference between them. In this report, I will be discussing what a virus is, how it is transmitted, how it is proliferated, and what types of symptoms one has if they get the virus. I will also be discussing vaccines, how they are developed, why they are used, what a flu vaccine is in particular, how the early flu vaccine is different from H1N1 vaccine, and why there is a concern about the swine flu verses the regular flu, since swine flu season occurs yearly....   [tags: Compare Contrast, Virus, Flu] 785 words
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Child Immunization - Intro: The pros and cons of children immunization is my topic because being in the medical field it is my duty and responsibility to educate parents about the vaccinations which child is receiving and be able to explain to the parents what the vaccination is for and how to protect their child from illness or deadly diseases. According to MedlinePlus website the meaning of immunization (vaccination) is a way to trigger your immune system and prevent serious, life threatening diseases.17 Vaccination is another form of keeping our children healthy, especially when they are in school or daycare center....   [tags: Health Care]
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2391 words
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IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED MEDICINE - CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of Study Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidae, including human, and cause an inflammation of the liver called hepatitis. The disease was originally known as "serum hepatitis" that caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a one third of the world's population or more than 2 billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus....   [tags: Health ]
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715 words
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Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections - Granuloma Formation during Parasitic Infections Once parasites start an infection, they can effectively resist the lethal effects of macrophages and produce chronic infection that can lead to inflammation. Parasites can induce granulomatous inflammation that serves to insulate the pathogens that resist destruction (58). These granulomas are regulated by T cells that recognize parasite-released antigens. In the tissues macrophages accumulate and secrete chemicals that induce fibrosis and stimulate the formation of granulomatous tissue and provoke fibrosis....   [tags: Biology, Parasites] 2267 words
(6.5 pages)
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Infant Nutrition: What is best for your baby - breast milk or formula? - You and your husband find out that you are expecting your first child. This new little person is going to change your life forever. Though your baby is not here yet, you already know that you want the best for your baby - the best opportunities, the best schools and the best education. Simply, you want your baby to have the best in life. The first and most important decision that you will make for your baby is whether to feed your baby breast milk or formula. Many women today are opting for formula, but what is the best choice....   [tags: Parenting]
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1798 words
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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) - HEPATITIS B VIRUS Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a virus that attacks the liver. The virus is transmitted through blood and bodily fluids. This can occur through direct blood-to-blood contact, unprotected sex, use of contaminated needles, and from an effected mother to her newborn during the delivery process. The majority of people do not have noticeable symptoms when they are first infected with the HBV. People who do not know they are infected with the HBV, their body can respond in different ways....   [tags: biology, medicine, nursing]
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1199 words
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Meningitis in the United Kingdom and the United States of America - Neisseria meningitides causes systemic infections like meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia which are bacterial infections. Neisseria meningitides is only found in humans. Neisseria meningitidis is present with the normal flora of the mouth in the back of the throat or nose and will seldom cause disease. It is hard to explain why some individuals carry the bacteria without them getting affected while others contract meningococcal disease. About 10% of the general population will be affected by Neisseria meningitidis, with the utmost carriage (roughly 25%) in 15-19 year olds....   [tags: neisseria meningitides, meningococcal, septicaemia]
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3008 words
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Math - ... Stochastic models depend on the chance variations in risk of exposure, disease and other illness dynamics. They are used when these fluctuations are important, as in small populations (Trottier & Philippe, 2001). When dealing with large populations, as in the case of tuberculosis, deterministic or compartmental mathematical models are used. In the deterministic model, individuals in the population are assigned to different subgroups or compartments, each representing a specific stage of the epidemic....   [tags: health, virus, plague]
:: 2 Works Cited
1363 words
(3.9 pages)
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Hepatitis A - Introduction: Hepatitis is caused by a virus that is targeted at the liver, one of your most important organs!. Specifically, it causes inflammation and injury to the liver. Hepatitis comes in many different forms, five to be exact. There is Hepatitis A, B, C, D & E. Hepatitis is caused mainly by viruses, all of which are set on shutting down your liver. I will be specifically concentrating on Hepatitis A in this report. Hepatitis A is also known as infectious Hepatitis, an extremely contagious viral infection that often effects young children and young adults, especially those in large groups....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1055 words
(3 pages)
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Malaria - The Disease…………… That lead everyone in for a great awaking. Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoon of the genus Plasmodium and the four subspecies, falciparum, vivax, malariae, and ovale. The species that causes the greatest illness and death in Africa is P. falciparum. The disease is transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, of which the Anopheles gambiae complex (the most efficient) is responsible for the transmission of disease in Africa. Fever is the main symptom of malaria....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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1679 words
(4.8 pages)
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Toll like receptors and their therapeutic potential - Cellular Basis Of Disease: Why has the discovery of Toll-like receptors revolutionised our understanding of how the innate immune system works, and what is the therapeutic potential. The body has two immune systems: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Adaptive, or acquired, immunity refers to antigen-specific defence mechanisms that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is immunity develops throughout life....   [tags: essays research papers] 2112 words
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The Second Meaning of Dicey's Rule of Law - The Second Meaning of Dicey's Rule of Law The second meaning of Dicey’s rule of law states: “Equality before the law, or the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land administrated by the ordinary law courts”[1] Here Dicey is saying that we are all not only subject to law, but equal before it, irrespective of our role in the society. The public have more powers under the criminal law and the police and criminal evidence act 1984 for in excess of the citizens.,[2] so this conveys that no man is above the law; so the private citizens are under a duty to obey the same law, and that there can not be no special court or administrative tribunal for the state officials.[3] The principle of the equality before the law has raised problems for the rule of law....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
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Introduction of foreign pathogens into Australia - Introduction of foreign pathogens into Australia It is widely known that the poor health experienced by many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders relates from complex reasons originating from their history after European settlement. Two centuries of introduced disease, combined with today’s lifestyle diseases and impoverished socioeconomic and environmental conditions, have had devastating, and all too often fatal, effects on Indigenous health. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population suffered from introduced disease that often turned out to be fatal because of lack of immunity to introduced pathogens....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Stress and the Immune System - Stress and the Immune System AIM: to study the effect of stress (exams) on the immune system. They wanted to test the hypothesis that stress reduces immunity by seeing if there is a difference in immune response between two conditions (high and low stress). They were also interested to see if other factors affected immunity, such as psychiatric symptoms, loneliness, and life events. PROCEDURES: · 75 first year medical students (self-selected sample) volunteered to participate....   [tags: Free Essays] 368 words
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The Ebola Virus - Africa has been the focus of several deadly diseases for many years. The poor living conditions and tight quarters within the villages make it very difficult for the people to fight off disease when it strikes. One such disease is hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebolavirus. The fever it causes upon infecting humans has a high fatality rate, meaning almost certain death. Since Africa is still a developing nation and is unable to provide efficient care to those that become ill, there is a high demand to quickly understand all aspects of how the virus works....   [tags: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever 2014]
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Infectious Disease and Demise of the Indians in the New World - Infectious Disease and Demise of the Indians in the New World The European conquest of the New World was not caused by guns, swords, or barbaric type behavior but by the invisible danger- germs. Infectious diseases have played a major role in shaping the conquest of the New World. Vast amounts of people indigenous to the Americas died due to various types of diseases. It is often said that in the centuries after Columbus landed in the New World on 12 October 1492, more native North Americans died each year from infectious diseases brought by the European settlers than were born (Meltzer 38)....   [tags: American America History]
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The Movement of Disease - The Movement of Disease The desire to travel and explore developed among many early civilizations. This mobility provided these cultures with many advantages that have helped to advance their societies. Unfortunately, these movements are also responsible for the transmission of numerous diseases and their resulting adverse effects upon the inhabitants of the Earth. This essay seeks to outline the causes of epidemic diseases, explain their diffusion around the world, and explore why they are more harmful in certain societies....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Hepatitis B Virus - Hepatitis B Virus Characteristics: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. The infectious particle is 42nm in diameter, with a genome 3200 nucleotides long. It has an outer envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid, which contains viral DNA polymerase and has a diameter of 27nm. The envelope contains the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); this is the molecule to which anti-HBV antibodies are directed. The non-infectious hepatitis B particles are composed of HBsAg only and come in the form of filaments and spheres....   [tags: Essays Paper]
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army - Facing worldwide opposition, the United States has retreated from its demand that American peacekeepers be permanently immune from the new war crimes tribunal. U.S. diplomats are instead proposing a yearlong ban on any investigation. The compromise proposal made Wednesday marked a significant change in the Bush administration’s campaign to shield Americans from frivolous or politically motivated prosecutions by the new International Criminal Court. Members of the U.N. Security Council have been grappling with a U.S....   [tags: essays research papers] 666 words
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Current Status Of Malaria Vaccinology - Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease is of the utmost importance....   [tags: essays research papers] 2213 words
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Mononucleosis - ITION Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome that can be characterized by a multitude of symptoms. They include malaise, headache, fever, pharyngitis, pharyngeal lymphatic hyperplasia, lymphadenopathy, atypical lymphocytosis, and mild transient hepatitis. This disease occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. Mononucleosis is one of these diseases that are grouped into a class known as a viral infection; more specifically it is caused by the Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a herpes virus....   [tags: essays research papers] 1945 words
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The Immune System - The Immune System The immune system is a network of organs that contain cells which recognize foreign substances and destroys them. All living organisms are exposed to harmful substances and most can protect themselves in several ways, either with physical barriers or chemicals that repel and kill them. It protects vertebrates against viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites. These viruses are called pathogens. The immune system is known to help in the fight against cancer....   [tags: Papers] 2305 words
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Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines - Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines Edward Jenner (1749-1823) trained in London, under John Hunter, and was an army surgeon for a period of time. After that, he spent his whole career as a country doctor in his home county, Gloucestershire (West of England). His research was based on careful case studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain what viruses and diseases actually were. His innovative new method was successful to such an extent that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Bioterrorism with Smallpox - Bioterrorism: Smallpox Smallpox is a highly infectious and fatal disease caused by the Variola virus. It causes extremely painful pustules to sprout across the entire body. Spread from human to human, it has since been eradicated from the world through the efforts of the World Health Organization. However, there is a distinct possibility that it may be reintroduced through bioterrorism. Biological weapons may cause another pandemic to erupt across the world and kill millions of individuals. Through constant vigilance and careful planning, mankind can prevent this scenario....   [tags: Variola virus Terrorism Terrorist]
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To vaccinate, or not to vaccinate? - Currently, one cannot explore the news without coming across the topic of the swine flu, scientifically known as H1N1. Swine flu is a respiratory infection derived from the influenza virus. The virus contains genetic materials from human, swine, and avian flu viruses. It was first identified in spring 2009, and since then has spread rapidly across the globe. The infection’s spread has been verified as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. As soon as the swine flu virus was isolated, scientists quickly developed a swine flu vaccine....   [tags: Disease] 1456 words
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Mating Preference in Male Stickleback Fishes - Three spined stickle back fishes are small fishes with a deep body with three spines in front of the dorsal fin and are therefore are named stickle back because if the spines on the dorsal fin. These fishes are brownish, green and pale or orange reddish on the underside and are about 6 cm in length. The breeding male fish usually has a red belly and blue eyes. The three spined stickleback fishes are found in Northern Asia, northern America and Europe and some parts of southern and central Europe such as Belgium....   [tags: animals, mating preferences, fish,] 1433 words
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HPV Speech - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. Compared to this class, 25 out of the 30 students here have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one of your tables is safe. The rest of you are all at risk. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 878 words
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HPV Vaccination - According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, 80% of people in America are infected by the Human Papillomavirus, also known as HPV, at some point in their lifetime. That would be as though, 25 out of the 30 students in this classroom have or have had this sexually transmitted disease. Only one group of desks in this class would be safe from its harmful effects. This is an incredibly common, and potentially deadly, virus, which is why we should mandate the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, for all teenage girls entering middle school....   [tags: HPV Cancer, Cervical Cancer] 892 words
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Antibacterial Soap Does More Harm than Good - If look around this day in age you will notice one thing, many parents and children are Spermatophobia-fear of germ and contamination. Since the recent outbreak of H1N1, many people have increased their usage of antibacterial soaps in hope that they will avoid getting sick or becoming ill. Antibacterial products are include Plastic bags hand soap, toothpaste, personal care products detergents & cleaning products and the list continues. However, lately these products are doing more harm than help for those who use them in everyday life....   [tags: health and wellness]
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Limitations in Civil War Medicine - From 1861 to 1865, civil war broke loose and resulted in the many deaths of Americans. The blame for this tragedy is not due to the conflict alone, but due to the standards of medicine during the mid 1800s. Today we have the luxury of antibiotics and anesthetics to cure aliments and a much higher chance of surviving an injury or a common disease like malaria. Unfortunately, during the civil war, medical practitioners had to resort to primal methods in saving a civil war soldier’s life. Civil war soldiers lost their limbs and lives to injuries and diseases that would have been avoidable today....   [tags: american history, civil war]
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Human- Immunodeficiency Virus - Background There are many types of viruses. Those viruses, which have their genetic material in RNA, are called retro viruses. These retro viruses are responsible for most of the diseases in all plants and animals. The HIV or Human- Immunodeficiency Virus is also a kind of a retro virus. The HIV virus leads to AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which is a deadly pandemic, affecting every nook and corner of the globe. It is an acquired disease from external means. 31.3 million adults and 2.1million children in the world are HIV positive with several HIV symptoms, and 2millions deaths are witnessed every year due to the same reason....   [tags: Disease ] 1048 words
(3 pages)
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Depression in International Students - Depression is one of the many problems that International Students face. It's a problem that affects their day to activities and if left unattended can cause a lot of harm. It is called the 'common cold' of mental illness (Mental Health Info &Links, 2001). Depression was compared with 100 other diseases and it was ranked fourth in the global burden by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There is a fear that it might rise to second it diagnosis, treatment or prevention is not improved. Depression causes suffering and anguish for individuals, families, friends and communities....   [tags: Psychology]
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Unhealthy Dieting - A life time seems to go by so fast, but it’s spent by being involved in our own self appearance. In growing studies the United States leads the world in obesity rates. Non-stop fast food consumption and poor nutrition values contribute making an overall unhealthy diet. Unhealthy dieting does not only consist of eating too many saturated fats but also the use of pill popping and starvation. Even though pill popping and starvation seem like complete opposites, they can have a major affect on the body and mind....   [tags: Nutrition ]
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Social Class and Public Health: Determining Your Health - Social hierarchy and conditions within a community has a direct impact on the health and wellness of the people that reside within the boundaries of that city. Major contributors to the welfare of a neighborhood include but are not limited to: the area in which they live, their social standing within the population and the income of the individual or family. Each factor has a severe influence on the life expectancy of the peoples within the society. The actual living conditions of people directly correlate to the spread of infectious diseases and infestation of chronic illnesses that result in premature death....   [tags: Sociology ]
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Probiotics and Prebiotics - The digestive system is a compellation of organs that process foods consumed by humans. Our digestive system is made up of the stomach and intestines. These organs work simultaneously to break down food into smaller molecules so the body can extract nutrients and then turn it into waste. Since our digestive system constantly comes in contact with various foods, it also becomes an active site for growth of bacteria. Our digestive system contains astounding amounts of bacteria, which are both beneficial and dangerous....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The Vaccine War - Through the rise of technological advances in medicine, the vaccine has changed the world for the greater good of the human race. Making a great triumph and virtually eliminating an array of life-threatening diseases, from smallpox to diphtheria, thus adding approximately thirty years to many humans’ life spans. Although, a new complication has arisen, possibly linking neurological digression with this rise of new vaccines. Such a digression has forced parents to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations and brought forth mental anguish affecting the minds of many....   [tags: Medical Ethics ]
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International Relations Relating to Humanitarian Intervention - In the following essay I will discuss aspects of international relations relating to humanitarian intervention and how they affect a nation’s responsibilities in the international arena. I will be drawing parallels to historical examples of intervention and to recent world events. I will inspect the classical realist notion of non-intervention and sovereignty and another newer line of thought, more adapted to the modern system. What I hope to bring forth in this paper is a clearer understanding of the situation and the responsibilities of the actors in current international relations in regard to humanitarian rights and intervention....   [tags: humanitarian intervention and international law]
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Fear No Evil, Fear No Shot: Vaccinating Children Should Be Considered Safe - Illnesses such as pertussis, meningitis, and the flu are not extinct, nor are they easily treated if contracted, particularly by children. However, it seems that some parents of small children will not consent to have their children vaccinated against these and other life-threatening illnesses because they are convinced that some of these vaccinations cause SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), autism, or have other serious side effects. Although many studies have been conducted, and the majority have found no cause for alarm, many parents are still skeptical....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Poliomyelitis: The Child Killer - “I was placed in an isolation unit for polio victims. My parents were not allowed to touch me. I looked at them through a glass window and waved to them. I still have the small yarn bear that was given to me by my parents to hold while I was in isolation” (Boynton). Poliomyelitis, commonly referred to as Polio, is a contagious disease that targets children under five years old (World Health Organization). It started during the late eighteen hundreds, early twentieth century. By 1952, “more than 21,000 paralytic cases were reported” (CDC Poliomyelitis)....   [tags: Medicine]
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Biochemistry Research Paper - Toll-like receptors are proteins that play a significant role in the recognition of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, thereby initiating an innate response. The TLR family recognizes structurally conserve molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) derive from these viruses and bacteria. TLR7 have been shown to mediate the recognition of single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, whereas TLR9 recognizes non-methylated CpG sequences in bacterial DNA molecules. However, the molecular mechanism by which non-methylated CpG DNA and ssRNA viruses activate the innate immunity is not well understood....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Viruses, Bacteria] 1897 words
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