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Your search returned over 400 essays for "fungi"
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Fungi: A Misunderstood Marvel - Very few view fungi as essential to human life. If asked to consider this diverse kingdom, most would only answer with whether they enjoy mushrooms on their pizzanotwithstanding the fact that there are at the very least 1 million species of fungi thought to outnumber vascular plants by a ratio somewhere between six to one and thirty-three to one. Even so, only 100,000 species of fungi are known to exist while mycologists continue to discover 1000 new species every year. Most notable was the recent discovery of a single honey mushroom congregation thought to weigh 605 tons and cover 2200 acres of Oregon’s Strawberry Mountains....   [tags: Fungi]
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906 words
(2.6 pages)
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Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Fungi - We isolated thirty thermophilic fungi with ability to grow at 45 °C on medium containing wheat bran and casein as carbon sources and produced proteases in both SSF and SmF (data not shown). The fungus strain F.2.1.4 presented the highest protease activity and was sub-jected to taxonomic characterization. Analyses of macro and micro-morphological characteristics accommodated the isolate F.2.1.4 in the genus Myceliophthora due to the presence of spreading colonies with dense aerial mycelium and blastic conidia often borne in ampulliform swellings (Van Oorschot, 1980)....   [tags: science experiments,] 1302 words
(3.7 pages)
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Use of White-Rot Fungi - ... The molecular weight of fungal laccases ranges from 50-70 kDa with isoelectric points at pH 3-5 (Hofrichter, 2002; Baldarian, 2005; Kullikova et al., 2011). 2.3.3.1 Laccase mediated reaction The active site of laccase contain one T1 Copper (Cu) bound as a mononuclear centre, one T2, and two T3 Cu atoms. These 3 T2 and T3 Cu atoms form a trinuclear centre. In the resting enzymes all four Cu atoms are likely to exist in the Cu+2 state (Morozova et al., 2007; Aehle, 2007). The typical reaction of laccase is oxidation of a phenolic compound and a concomittant reduction of molecular oxygen to water....   [tags: Bioremediation, Biodegration, Decolorization] 2417 words
(6.9 pages)
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Thermophilic Fungi - Thermophilic fungi are known to produce thermostable enzymes which have a number of applications, mainly in biotechnological processes. In this work, we report the characterization of a protease produced in state-solid (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentations by a newly isolated thermophilic fungus identified as a putative new species in the genus My-celiophthora. Enzyme-production rate was evaluated for both fermentation processes, and in SSF, using a media composed by a mixture of wheat bran and casein, the proteolytic output was 4.5-fold larger than that obtained in SmF....   [tags: biology, science, experiments,] 1881 words
(5.4 pages)
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Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi - Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi Infectious diseases are diseases or illnesses (caused by bacteria or viruses) that can be transmitted from person to person or from organism to organism by touch or the exchange of blood or saliva and also could be passed through air molecules. For instance, the common cold and AID's are infectious diseases, whereas illnesses such as diabetes and gout are non-infectious diseases. Simple Hygiene: Because many cold viruses are spread by contact with infected secretions, frequently washing the hands, carefully disposing of used tissues, and cleaning items and surfaces can help to reduce their spread....   [tags: Papers] 1918 words
(5.5 pages)
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Diversity of Micro Fungi on the Leaves of Hevea Brasiliensis - 2.1 What are pathogens. Carris, Little, and Stiles (2012) defined pathogen as parasites that causes diseases which are categorized by symptoms. 70% of known plant diseases are caused by plant pathogenic fungi. Plant pathogenic fungi are parasites, but not all plant parasitic fungi are pathogens. Of many types of fungi that live on plants, the endophytic fungi live in intimate association with plants and depend on them for nutrition. As for the biotrophic fungal pathogens, they obtain nutrients from living host tissues, often via specialized cells called haustoria that form inside host cells....   [tags: pathogens in rubber tree plantations]
:: 14 Works Cited
1090 words
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Bioluminescent Fungi - Bioluminescent Fungi INTRODUCTION What is Bioluminescence. The current paper main focus is on bioluminescent Fungi but the basic features of bioluminescence discussed are common to all bioluminescent organisms. Bioluminescence is simply light created by living organisms. Probably the most commonly known example of bioluminescence by North Americans is the firefly, which lights its abdomen during its mating season to communicate with potential mates. This bioluminescent ability occurs in 25 different phyla many of which are totally unrelated and diverse with the phylum Fungi included in this list (an illustration of a bioluminescent fungi is displayed in figure 1)....   [tags: essays papers]
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2033 words
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The Fungi Formerly Known as Dentinum Repandum - The Fungi Formerly Known as Dentinum Repandum This paper will cover a description of Hydnum repandum, its ecology, and some research involving the species. The first topic to be discussed in this paper is a description of Hydnum repandum, which was until recently referred to as Dentinum repandum. The description of the fungi will start with the appearance of H. repandum, and will be followed by the life cycle of the noted species. The appearance of Hydnum repandum is quite unique. The stipe of the fungi can range from two to seven centimeters tall, and one to three centimeters thick (Wood)....   [tags: Hydnum Repandum Fungus Essays]
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1227 words
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Fungi and apoptosis - Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and according to the WHO it accounted for approximately 7.6 million deaths in 2008 (WHO, 2011). The most prevalent forms of cancer present in the United States are breast and prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2011). Over the past decade anticancer drugs and cancer treatment have made inadequate progress. However today, there is a greater understanding of the molecular basis behind the formations of tumorigenesis. This knowledge combined with the molecular diversity of natural compounds such as those found in mushrooms have paved the way for the discovery of new drugs....   [tags: Medical Research]
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1350 words
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Microorganisms and the Great Potato Famine in Ireland - ... People naturally find it disturbing and dirty, however there are good types of Fungi, often referred to as friendly fungi. In 1928 Penicillin, one of the most famous of antibiotic drugs was discovered having derived it from the fungi called Penicillium. This discovery has since has a huge impact on helping people across the globe. However, not all is it seems, there are some nasty fungi that can cause diseases in plants, animals and people. A famous one being Phytophthora infestans. This caused the Great Potato Famine in Ireland in the mid 1800’s which resulted in a million deaths....   [tags: microbe, fungi, spreading ] 837 words
(2.4 pages)
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How Zombies Could Really Exist in Real Life - ... This could develop into full post-mortem mobility. A dead host came from a drawback to an advantage, becoming a mobile platform for spore distribution. Zombie hunger drive may have originated from the spores distribution method. The development refinement of the fungal neural system, allowing for zombies to be more coordinated and to run at a full speed. This behavior may seem unlikely, in the animal world. Some species of parasitic wasps are able to reprogram behavioral patterns of their hosts (bees, and ants) creating new behaviors beneficial to the wasps and the detrimental of the host....   [tags: fungi, neurotoxins, nanobots]
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1126 words
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Common Mycorrhizal Network in the Forest Ecosystem - The amount of fungal biomass in the boreal forest soil is estimated to around 900 kg ha−1 (Wallander et al., 2001). Considering this quantity of fungal mycelia in the soil, it is easily possible that the whole forest ecosystem might be interconnected by a fungal web called common mycorrhizal network (CMN) (Peter, 2006; Lekberg et al., 2010). The simplest CMN structure consists of one or more mycorrhizal fungi that connect at least two plant root systems. Another possibility is when the fungal hyphae fuse togeather and connect the root systems of their host plants....   [tags: fungi, interconnected, nutrients] 545 words
(1.6 pages)
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Psilocybin and its Many Uses - In the kingdom of Fungi, is a collection of different organic multicellulary eukaryotic organisms. Fuguses are unique from any other life form. They grow in the wild yet they are not plants. They also breakdown and digest animals and plants alike, but they are not animals. Fungi are made up of chitin, a derivative of glucose that is also found in cephalopods, arthopods and crustaceans alike. Similiar to cellulose which is a what plants' cell walls are comprised of, Chitin is a tough material that gives the Fungi its structure....   [tags: Kingdom of Fungi, Organic Multicellulary]
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1026 words
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The Importance Of Responsible Nutrient Management to the Future of Agriculture - Microorganisms Although they are small microorganisms have a humungous impact in the structure of soil and plant formation. Microorganisms, which include many different fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, are considered the architects of the soil as they have the ability to create a strong ecosystem in the soil. Microorganisms work best in communities to develop the structures for plants. For microorganisms to thrive there has to be a diverse amount of nutrients in the soil for them to feed off of....   [tags: microorganisms, fungi, bacteria]
:: 9 Works Cited
1363 words
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The Effects of Biotechnology - Effects of Biotechnology Biotechnology is a new emerging interdisciplinary branch of biology and chemistry. It is mainly associated with research and development. This branch is a combination of life science with technology. In the mid twentieth century, the basic research has been done in this fields and agriculture and now it is developing very fast due to ongoing world food security. This branch was started with innovation of fermentative microorganisms by Louis Pasteur - the father of biotechnology....   [tags: fungi, agriculture, environment] 1213 words
(3.5 pages)
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Molecular Genetic Testing and Risk Assessment of Releasing Nonpathogenic Fusarium Oxysporum - Background work and knowledge 1. Introduction Fusarium oxysporum is a host specific soilborne fungi, it attacks many important crops, vegetables and fuits, for example: melon, tomato, cucumber etc. and causes vascular wilt diseases, crown and root rots, wilt disease (Kaur, 2010). Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum is a strain of F. oxysporum which does not attack plants in the soil. These nonpathogenic strains play an important role is supressing F. oxysporum, therefore it is an effective biocontrol agent of F....   [tags: fungi, biocontrol, research]
:: 10 Works Cited
814 words
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Mycorrhizas Among Plant Species - Figure. 1 - Abundance of various types of mycorrhizas among plant species, literature review from 128 publications (Brundrett, 2009) includes ca 8000 plant species, AM – arbuscular mycorrhiza, EcM – ectomycorrhiza, NM – nonmycorrhizal, Ericoid – ErM, Orchid – OrM. Arbuscular mycorrhiza The most common and abundant mycorrhiza is AM which belongs into the endomycorrhizas and inter alia associates with approximately 74% of all Angiosperm plant species, number of Gymnosperm species and some Cryptogamic species (Brundrett, 2009)....   [tags: photosynthesis, fungi, cell] 965 words
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Risk Profile of Aflatoxin - Introduction Aflatoxin is a kind of mycotoxins, and mycotoxin is referring to all toxins produced by fungi. About 30 years ago, 100000 turkeys were poisoned and dead in Britain, when Aflatoxin was found (HKSAR, 2011). Aflatoxicosis is the disease caused by the consumption of substances or foods contaminated with Aflatoxin, which causes abdominal pain, vomiting, hepatitis and (sometimes) death after acute exposure to high concentrations in food. Several high-profile epidemics have occurred in Eastern Africa in the past decade (Azziz-Baumgartner, 2005)....   [tags: mycotoxins, fungi, food contamination]
:: 16 Works Cited
1965 words
(5.6 pages)
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Virulence Factors and Evasion of the Human Defense System of Fungus - A dimorphic fungus known as Candida albicans is the highest investigated and most common fungal pathogen in humans, capable of evading the human complement system. It populates the oral and genitourinary cavity surfaces, the digestive tract and triggers an array of infections that are dependent upon the character of latent imperfections in the host. As a former hospital employee that has witnessed firsthand accounts of the increasing degree of such infections, it sparked my curiosity to investigate the reason and manner in which this fungi can achieve such virulence....   [tags: Candida Albicans, fungi, immune system]
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1210 words
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The Importance of Yeast for Humans - Yeast is a single- celled fungi which may grow fast if it is in the right condition and environment (The University of Arizona, n.d.). This fungi is egg shaped and very small and can only be seen with a microscope. The cell has a very thin membrane to it (HowStuffWorks, n.d.). Yeast are found in the water, in soil, on the skins of humans and animals, and on the surface of plants. A yeast cell reproduces asexually by budding. However, when conditions are adverse the cell reproduces sexually until conditions return to normal....   [tags: cell, fungi, reproduce, sugar, temperature] 704 words
(2 pages)
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The Processes of Photosynthesis and Fermentation - Introduction: “Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle”(Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx) . “Yeasts were discovered to have connection with fermentation as observed by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “However, fermentation does not have to always occur in anaerobic condition” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Yeasts still prefer to undergo fermentation to process organic compounds and generate ATP even in the presence of oxygen” (Biology Online, 2008, p....   [tags: Biology, Organic Compounds, Bacteria, Fungi]
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3094 words
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Interspecific Fungal Horizontal Gene Transfer - Abstract Abstract: Strong evidence was found that horizontal gene transfer occured between two fungal species. Genetic sequencing and compartive genomics, with specific attention to a loci containing the ToxA gene, showed that the two loci on Stagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophera tritici-repentis species are nearly identical and could not be derived from inheritance from a common ancestor. This gene transfer resulted in increased virulence of the P. tritici-repentis wheat pathogen sometime in the 1940's....   [tags: Biology Fungi Genetics Genomics] 3330 words
(9.5 pages)
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Sex Chromosomes - The mechanisms responsible for the origin and maintenance of large non-recombining regions on sex chromosomes have been mostly studied in plants and animals, but the recent discovery of similar features on the fungal chromosomes carrying mating type genes in several species may shed new light on this phenomenon (Fraser et al. 2004). Sex chromosomes in plants and animals have evolved from an autosomal pair by the expansion of the non-recombining region around complementary genes determining sex-specific functions (Bergero and Charlesworth 2009)....   [tags: Biology, Heterothallic Fungi] 1709 words
(4.9 pages)
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The Northern Spotted Owl Research - I have chosen to do research on the Northern Spotted Owl for my keystone lab. Many factors can influence the life of this species. The Northern Spotted Owl is said to be located in the Old Growth Forests of Northern California, Oregon, Washington and some small areas in British Columbia, and Canada. The northern spotted owl has inhabited these areas for hundreds of years, yet was only found as a species in the early 1900’s. We are all aware the Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a keystone species, but it is also known as an indicator species of Old Growth Forests....   [tags: hypogenous fungi,FWS,extinction,keystone species]
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946 words
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Dangerous type of Biological Weapon - 1. Introduction Anthrax is one of the many biological weapons that cause the world to panic. Biological weapons can be described as a weapon that are using material such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, toxin, or other biological agents that can be utilized against human, plants, or animals (Schneider, 2014). Biological weapons have already been used during ancient times. Tossing rotting animals into heavy fortified town to slowly killing the people inside the town, or poisoned the source of water has already been a military strategy long time ago....   [tags: Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Toxins, Anthrax, Humans]
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1316 words
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Effectively Treating Fungal Problems with Terbinafine Hydrochloride - Terbinafine Hydrochloride: Effectively Treating Fungal Problems Abstract Lamisil, which is chemically terbinafine hydrochloride, is the premier antifungal drug on the market. It effectively destroys fungal problems ranging from athlete’s foot to onychomycosis. However, Lamisil has a number of problems associated with it, including cost, side effects, and even effectiveness. Therefore, I created two analogs in an attempt to improve Lamisil, which I will discuss in my paper. Plenty of fungal problems exist, including athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, and onychomycosis (fungal infection beneath nails)....   [tags: Biology Medical Fungus Fungi Lamisil]
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1269 words
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Isolation of Fungal Strains: An Experimental Study - Endophytic microorganisms are bacteria or fungi that live inside plant tissues at any moment of their life cycle, without causing damage or disease symptoms to their hosts (deSouza et al. 2011; Sunkar & Nachiyar 2011). They have been found in every plant species examined to date and recognized as the potential products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and industry. Endophytes are ubiquitous with rich biodiversity. It is noteworthy that of nearly 300.000 plant species that existed on the earth, each individual plant is the host to one or more endophytes....   [tags: Plants, Bacteria] 1060 words
(3 pages)
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Hay and its Unforeseen Dangers - Every performance horse owner has a very rigorous exercise and feeding program. Today there are so many feed supplements that it is very easy to ensure your animal gets every nutrient it needs to perform at its very best. However, even with all these extra additives every horse needs the basics in their diets. Primarily roughage, for those people who do not have access to year-round pasture the alternative is hay. The first step of the process of hay production is the standing crop. The standing crops contain bacteria and yeasts....   [tags: Agriculture]
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1180 words
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The Mircobiology Department: What is Studied, Tested, and Used - Microbiology Department Introduction A Microbiology department deals with micro-organisms. These microorganisms are too small and they can only be seen by microscopes. A micro-organism is smaller than a red blood cell and they are the oldest form of life on earth. Pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host and pathogen. Pathogen can pass disease to unicellular organisms that belong to biological kingdoms. There are some organisms that can cause infectious diseases. Infectious disease is a disease that caused by a micro-organism (viruses, bacteria and fungus) that enters the body of an organism....   [tags: mircoorganisms, infectious, sample types, health] 1834 words
(5.2 pages)
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Biodiversity: How Ecological Systems Link Us Together - Biodiversity is the unit of variation of life. It can refer to genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity usually tends to bunch in hotspots, and the number has been growing through time but will be likely to slow in the future. According to Lemons and Morgan (1995) study the biological diversity defines as “the variability among living organisms from all sources and ecological complex of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’’....   [tags: species variation, ecosystem, life]
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1133 words
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Types of Microorganisms - Earth is surrounded by organisms which have independent roles to maintain various life processes. Microorganisms can be defined as living things that are invisible to our naked eyes and found abundantly in our environments. On the basis of ribosomal RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequencing, microorganisms are divided into three phylogenetically distinct domains, which has included the Archaea, the Bacteria and the Eukarya (Madigan, Martinko, Stahl, & Clark, 2012) (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). Archaea is the first domain of microorganisms....   [tags: archaea, bacteria, eukarya]
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1016 words
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Enhancing Bread’s Shelf Life Utilizing Oregano as a Natural Preservative - Introduction BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Mold is a type of microscopic fungi. The growth of mold can be useful in the production of numerous antibiotics, foods (such as cheese, soy sauce and others), enzymes and beverage but they can also be harmful to humans and some other food. Mold derives the energy to survive from organic matter on which they live. This is the reason why mold causes decomposition in organic matter. Bread molds grow quickly at a temperature between 15°C to 30°C. Molds in bread can be poisonous and can cause infections if eaten....   [tags: Origanum Vulgare]
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3368 words
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Relationship Between Ambient Airborne Fungal Levels and Meteorological Data - Total Spore Trap Sampling Method The spore trap method is used due to the ability to immediately identify a large spectrum of the majority of fungal spores within the air. This method is able to identify species that are unable to culture well or those that are no longer viable, but present. Alternatively within the industry there is not a consensus on the method. Downfalls include the difficulty of identifying some mold spores and there is no differentiation between non-viable and viable spores....   [tags: Meteorology]
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Basic Discription Of Microbiology - BASIC DISCRIPTION OF MICROBIOLOGY They’re out there. You can’t see them but they can see you. Right at this very moment they are living on and in your body, and there is nothing you can do about it. This may sound like the beginning of a horror movie, but it isn’t. It is actually a very basic description of a very broad subject: microbiology. Microbiology is a complex subject that spans out into a variety of areas. I am a person who is entering the health care field, and it is inparitive that I know the subject of microbiology and how if effects the world in which we live....   [tags: essays research papers] 2050 words
(5.9 pages)
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Composting and the Benefits and Limitations of its Use as Soil Amendment - Composting and the Benefits and Limitations of its Use as Soil Amendment Composting is widely-known as an environmentally sustainable method of recycling food scraps and garden/yard clippings. According to the United States Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) 1994 report entitled, "Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Composting", food discards constitute approximately 8 percent of municipal solid waste generated nationwide. A case study observed in San Francisco, California, reported that an estimated 31 percent of residential wastes and 19 percent of commercial waste generated is food waste....   [tags: Compost Environment Ecology Essays]
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Natural Toxins in Foods - Food is filled with Natural chemical that are essential to our health, but some foods include potentially unsafe substance called natural toxins. Most natural toxins happen naturally in just few foods and other natural toxins are produced when the food is damaged or when mould or fungi growth on the food, First natural toxins produced by fungi: Example Mycotoxins. Mycotoxins The Mycotoxins are metabolites of mould which may infect foods, animal feeds and that happen to be toxic to human. The study of Mycotoxins, and the legislation associated with their control are based on them being considered as adulterant of foods and animal feeds....   [tags: Food Science]
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2002 words
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Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Nutrients and Structure - Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Nutrients and Structure Works Cited Missing Since the 1970s, the agribusiness and agrochemical industries have been aware of a growing problem: as the global population soars, soils around the world are becoming less suitable for farming as a result of erosion, nutrient depletion, and structural degradation. In the United States, about 60,000 farmers have abandoned the "conventional" system which relies on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and adopted the organic farming systems that allowed areas of China and India to be successfully farmed for 4,000 years (Reganold et al., 1990, p....   [tags: Agriculture Agricultural Essays] 1321 words
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Practical Work Survey for Organism Identification in University of Greenwich Medway, Kent - I. Introduction Plants play a vital role for life existed on Earth. There are many types of plant species, which can be, distinguish by leaf shape, size of flower and petals (Cope et al. 2012). Kent and Cooker (1992) stated that identification of plant through special characteristic and physiological structure that the taxonomic nomenclature has applied in botanical flora. A quadrat surveys conducted surrounding the University of Greenwich at Medway, which focused to identify the plant in a grassland area and invertebrate....   [tags: bacterial action in proteins] 2741 words
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Lignocellulosic Biomass is Promoted and an Alternative Feedstock Source for Biofuel - Lignocellulosic biomass is currently being promoted as an alternative feedstock source for the production of biofuel. Naturally occurring lignocellulosic biomass is abundant especially in plant cell walls, but is recalcitrant and resistant to degradation. Two main obstacles in cellulose breakdown are: cellulose in crystalline form cannot be degraded efficiently by cellulases and the presence of lignins that prevent access of cellulose to enzyme. In nature, the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass is catalysed by enzymes from various microorganisms such as saprophytic fungi and bacteria [Alvira et al 2010]....   [tags: cellulase, genetic, enzyme production] 696 words
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Endophytic Microorganisms that Redise on the Tissues of Living Plants - Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe ) have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB) medium at room temperature (no shaking) for 3 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC) and afforded two pure compounds as yellow oil (compound 1) and yellow crystal ( compound 2)....   [tags: cultivation, endophytic fungus, penicillium]
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1916 words
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Germs, Genes and Civilization by David Clark - David Clark the author of the book Germs, Genes and Civilization explains the importance of diseases and epidemics through history. Though most diseases and epidemics have played a huge role in creating history, most have gone unnoticed. Clark argues that there are positives and negatives effects that have affected our growing world due to pestilence. Clark explains that disease is a relatively new theory that evolved with growing cities and agriculture. With growth in industry and agriculture came pestilence, which has affected history positively and negatively....   [tags: human genome, epidemic]
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908 words
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Whats Hot, Whats Not? - Every fall, homeowners have the same problem: dead leaves. Trees shed leaves and taint once perfected lawns. To get rid of these leaves, people rake the leaves and assemble them into large piles that trucks come and remove. If these piles are left long enough, they will heat up. On a cold day, steam can be seen rising from these piles of leaves. But why does it do this. Decomposition is the breaking down of a substance into parts that it was made of. Microorganisms break down organic matter while composting and making carbon dioxide, water, heat, and humus....   [tags: essays research papers] 987 words
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Creating Biofuels from Waste - Biofuels from Waste Purpose Biofuels mark a great step into today’s efforts to slow down global warming. However, when food sources, such as corn and soy are used as derivatives for ethanol, the impact is far worse than using fossil fuels. Biofuels require more energy to do artificial refinery, cultivating, and collecting; whereas, fossil fuels already meet all the prerequisites through millions of years in the earth, and thus use less energy. On the social justice stance, the poor suffer through the sky-rocketed food prices because farmers are using their food to supply the ethanol demand....   [tags: Energy Fuel Environment] 923 words
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The Role of Fungus in the Extinction of Dinosaurs - The Role of Fungus in the Extinction of Dinosaurs The debate over what ultimately killed off the dinosaurs is an area of great interest to not only scientists, but everyone. The dominant thought seems to be that an asteroid struck the earth at the end of the Cretaceous period and killed off much of the fauna and flora inhabiting the earth. However, the sequence of events following that mass extinction has been fairly blurry until a recent discovery, published in a recent issue of Science, by paleontologists Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin....   [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]
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1299 words
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The Nature of Disease Causing Organisms - The nature of DISEASE CAUSING ORGANISMS and the mechanisms employed by man to combat these organisms. What is disease. A disease is a disturbance in the normal structure or function of an organism, group of organisms or the entire body. Diseases affect different organisms in different ways, they may be temporary, they may be chronic, or they may be terminal. They may even be localized or widespread through an entire body. Many diseases have been eradicated, but, some have no cure. Humans and other vertebrates have a system of specific immunity to combat disease....   [tags: essays research papers] 446 words
(1.3 pages)
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Fungus - Fungus The Latin word for mushroom is fungus (plural, fungi). The word fungus has come to stand for a whole group of simple plants that contain no chlorophyll and lack such complex plant structures as roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Included among the fungi, along with mushrooms, are molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, truffles, and yeasts. Toadstool is another name for mushroom. Some people use the name toadstool only when referring to poisonous mushrooms, but botanists make no such distinction....   [tags: essays research papers] 2114 words
(6 pages)
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Sample Questions for a Biology Exam or Essay Topics: Viruses and Bacteria - • BIO-112-IT1-S-14 Topic 7 Module 2 Exam - topics for essay and sho... Viruses. 1. Why are viruses not living organisms. Pg325 Viruses are not considered living organisms because they have a single viral structural. This means viruses are not cells because they have no nucleus, organelle, or cytoplasm, and no genetic material. Having none of these characteristics viruses cannot be considered a living cell because they do not metabolize, respond to stimuli or reproduce on their own. They have to infect a living cell by entering a l host to reproduce more of its self....   [tags: Organisms, Structure] 799 words
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Collection and Identification of Plant Parts and Dental Caries Pathogens - Collection and Identification of Plant Parts and Dental Caries Pathogens.  Plant Materials Collection The small branches of locally available Z. zanthoxyloides and T. glaucescens were collected from local Ogbete main market Enugu and were authenticated by Prof. Okigbo R.N of the department of Botany of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. These plant materials were dried under the sun for two weeks and also cut into pieces of approximately 15cms and transferred to the oven set at 45°C for 20-30mins before it was reduced to fine powder with the aid of mechanical grinder....   [tags: caries sample, patients, tooth] 1073 words
(3.1 pages)
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Iron Deficiency: A Major Health Issue in the World - Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, including human beings, but it is not readily available. Consequently, Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major threat to the health and development of the human populations in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that nearly 3.7 billion people are iron deficient, with 2 billion of these being anemic (WHO, 2007). Iron deficiency is most prevalent in south Asian countries (Zlotkin et al. 2004). In Bangladesh about half of all children and 70 percent of all women in Bangladesh are anemic (Ahmed 2000)....   [tags: healthy, foods, supplementation, fortification] 2271 words
(6.5 pages)
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Energy from Respiration is Essential for All Living Organisms - Respiration occurs in all living organisms, it is the process of mixing glucose from cells that has been stored inside the organism from various sources, with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy (however energy is not a substance) the specific word equation for cellular aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) is glucose and oxygen → carbon dioxide, water and energy. This energy produced can then be used for essential life processes and growth. For plants, plant roots, photosynthesizing algae and bacteria, the respiration process begins with photosynthesis....   [tags: photosynthesis, atmosphere, carbon] 2844 words
(8.1 pages)
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Problems Associated with Celiac Disease and Lactose Intolerance - Introduction: Enzymes are essential to the proper functioning of the human body. Enzymes are catalysts, which cause reactions to occur. The two primary classes of enzymes for maintaining life functions are digestive and metabolic enzymes. The primary digestive enzymes are classified as proteases, amylases and lipases. These enzymes can help breakdown food molecules. Metabolic enzymes are responsible for the repairing and structuring of every cell. Inadequate production of digestive enzymes can have a negative impact on the breakdown of food into the various nutrients our bodies require....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]
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How Phytophthora Infestans Affected the Irish Potato Famine - This paper will discuss the significance of Phytophthora infestans in regards to the mid-nineteenth century Irish potato famine. Phytophthora infestans is an organism that infects potatoes as well as tomatoes and is the cause of the potato famine that invaded Ireland in 1845. The invasiveness and complexity of Phytophthora infestans was responsible for the spread and severity of the outbreak that resulted in mass emigration and death. Ultimately, Ireland was ill-prepared economically, socially and intellectually to control the Phytophthora infestans infestation of the mid-nineteenth century....   [tags: death, crops, disease] 1603 words
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Coffee Rust Fungus of the Coffea Genus - Introduction The coffee bean is one of the world’s most widely utilized commodities touching almost every continent. In the book Coffee Rust: Epidemiology, resistance, and management Ajjamada Kushalappa asserts, “After petroleum coffee is the most important product in international world trade” (Kushalappa, Eskes 1989) Given this fact, it can be safe to assume the growing of this crop plays a large role in many countries economic stability. Coffee rust is a disease of the Coffee tree which has proven it has the ability to decimate a farmer’s crop in a short period of time....   [tags: Agriculture]
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Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Xenobiotics, Uptake and Degradation - Introduction Petrochemical anthropogenic contaminants in soil and water are a byproduct of industrialization. In the past, mechanical methods of remediation have been successfully used to clean contaminated soil and water. Phytoremediation is effective at removing contaminants from soil and water (Wallace). Its efficacy has been proven and the chemical and biological processes are now better understood. This paper is a summary of the biochemical processes occurring in soil and within macrophytes that take xenobiotics from contaminants to CO2 and H2O....   [tags: Soil Microorganisms, Toxic Residues]
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Pathogens And The Spread Of Disease - Contents 1.1Introduction 1.2Methodology 2.0 What is a Pathogen. 2.1 Major Categories of pathogens/micro-organism 2.2 Bacteria Fig 2.3 Bacterial Shapes 2.4 Viruses Fig 2.5 Structure of a virus 2.6 Fungi 2.7 Parasites 3.0 Pathogenic Environment 4.0 What is disease. 4.1 How disease spreads 5.0 Conclusion References Pathogens and the spread of disease 1.1Introduction “Health depends on the body maintaining its internal harmony.” (The U205 Course Team, 1985) Health is a momentary condition of ones state of physical and mental well being....   [tags: Disease]
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Development of Industry Causes Enviromental pollution - An increase in industrial, agricultural practices and several anthropogenic activities adds a significant amount of heavy metals in soil and water. Presence of these metals beyond the threshold limit is toxic for the flora and fauna of the surroundings. So, there is a need for removing the harmful heavy metals from the environment. Conventional methods such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane processes, etc. have been ineffective because of technical and economic issues....   [tags: biosorption, agricultural practices, biosorbents]
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Infections of the American Chestnut Tree - ... The genome of CHV consists of two open reading frames, open reading frames A and B (ORF A and ORF B) (Cite). Management of the blight using CHV has been greatly effective in Europe, but much less so in North America13. CHV’s primary use in North America is for managing blight infections on individual trees, rather than controlling the blight on the population level as in Europe13. Though its efficacy is limited in North America, CHV provides plant pathologists with a useful tool to study factors that affect the virulence of C....   [tags: cryphonectria parasitica]
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Sexual Selection in Everything We Do - The word “evolution” is commonly used to explain the comparisons between the past and the present. Explaining what evolution means is difficult because of the many definitions that exist. The feat of evolution often refers to the heritable changes that occur because of genetic changes. Alterations in gene structure often result in physical changes in organisms. These alterations can change the mechanisms and dynamics of various populations as a result. However, physical changes do not appear overnight....   [tags: the theory of evolution] 1811 words
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Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest - Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest: Human degradation and its consequences Deforestation is a word that displays an image of cruelty against nature. In any language, and on every continent, the word deforestation is frowned upon by all social classes, however why it is still happening. The consequences of this act that involves human beings willing to cut down trees, burning plants, and destroy habitats of animals are just actions to satisfy some human being. The Amazon rainforest covers various countries where 60% is in Brazil, and 13% in Peru, and produces 20% of total oxygen in the world....   [tags: Deforestation Essays]
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Monsanto in St. Louis, Missouri - Monsanto which is located in 6 continents and 68 countries is the biggest seed company of the 21st century. Monsanto was founded in 1901, St. Louis, Missouri, United States by John Francis Queeny. Likewise, Monsanto Headquarters are currently located in St. Louis, Missouri where founded. Monsanto had about 20,600 workers in 2011. Hugh Grant, the current CEO of Monsanto, has been in this position since 2010. He has a salary of about f $1,391,356 per year excluding his additional profits. The three main brands of the company in India are Bt Cotton, Dekalb and Roundup....   [tags: Monanto Webpages, Companies, India]
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African Dust and Microbial Pathogens - ... was isolated from dust and non-dust events. To compare A. sydowii and other fungal pathogens, 18s rRNA DNA comparisons were made for relationship determination. Results showed, that air filters exposed to dust storms collected more microbial components than filters exposed to non-dust storms. Interestingly, Aspergillus spp., Bispora spp. and Candida spps were collected in the non-dust storm sample. Aspergillus spp. collected from the dust storm event was used for studies of sea fan inoculation....   [tags: pathogenic disease outbreaks]
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So Many Negatives of Pestacides - Pesticides are such types of compounds which kill pests such as insects, fungi and unwanted plants such as weeds. They are used to kill mosquitoes which are used in public health, and in to kill pests that destroys crops in agriculture. Their nature is that these pesticides are quite poisonous to different species and humans also. They must be disposed of properly and quite safely. Pesticides are the one of those poisonous substances that is spread into the environment to kill living beings intentionally....   [tags: pests, crops, health] 1125 words
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Weird Plant’s on Planet Earth - What are plants. How have they developed. How do they use developed skills to benefit their life. Plants are always evolving every minute. Their are very many species of carnivorous plants. There is over 500 species of them. All carnivorous plants more scientifically known as insectivores. Because of their location of living they have developed a strong taste for insects. They capture, devour, and use nutrients from the insects to replace the lack in their ground diet. The bladderwort is an insectivore....   [tags: carnivorous plants, species]
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The Fall of the House of Usher - In the short story, “The Fall of the House of Usher” by Edgar Allen Poe, diction is extensively used to create an air of suspense. Poe’s use of diction along with symbolism contributes to establishing a mood of despair. By using symbolic comparison between the Ushers and their house, the story’s suspense builds and the characteristics of the Ushers are portrayed. Poe’s cunning tactics are evident in the way he achieves a story of both suspense and horror. In “The Fall of the House of Usher”, Poe’s use of dark, descriptive words allow him to establish an eerie mood....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Edgar Allan Poe] 655 words
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Mineralization and Bio-remediation as a Recycling Process - Recycling is an important part of maintaining life. Recycling effects every aspect of life, whether it is recycling plastic or recycling compounds. The basic concept of recycling is to convert waste into something useful or reusable. When we begin to look at recycling as a whole, or to determine what process is most important in our community, we must first look at the big picture. Recycling doesn't only effect our individual community, it effects the Earth as a whole. With this in mind, everyone would benefit from recycling....   [tags: Decomposers, Waste]
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The History of Muden - Literature Review The history of Muden began with the Voortrekkers who started with dense bush and uninhabited land. Cattle and wheat were farmed in the area and in 1915 ostriches were introduced. 1917 hectares of orange trees and to irrigate these crops canal systems were put in place. The settlers observed that not enough rain was being supplied to the crops and the area was semi-arid. These fruit trees eventually stopped bearing and the Winter’s brought frost with it so planting sugar cane was not ideal.(Harty 2013) Muden has encountered devastating storms....   [tags: storm, damage] 567 words
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Biological Pest Control is Better than Chemical Control - Biological Pest Control is Better than Chemical Control A pesticide is any agent used to kill pests or control the incidence of insect pests, plant pathogens and weed populations. Biological control is the control of pest and weeds using specially chosen living organisms or biological products, whereas chemical control is the use of pesticides or chemicals to kill or control pests. Predators or parasites are used to keep the pest population low. Insects move, leaving their enemies behind, so by introducing their natural enemies to the environment the number of pests and their effect on the surroundings decreases....   [tags: Papers] 680 words
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Woodlot Eco-Boxes Essay - I observed many different organisms in the woodlot, including both heterotrophs and autotrophs. The producers I found include birch trees, sugar maples, white pines, grasses, and berries, as well as various weeds and small plants. The consumers that I observed were all first-order consumers and included ants, grasshoppers, a salamander, spiders, and other species of bugs. Decomposers visible in the woodlot included fungi, mold, and mosses. There were some traces of indirect animal evidence left in the woodlot....   [tags: essays research papers] 331 words
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Bioremediation of DDT - Over 39 years have passed since the nationwide ban of a well-known pesticide, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (1), yet it still has an important role in public health as well as the environment. DDT is a persistent toxin, having a long half-life of 2 to 15 years terrestrially and 150 years aquatically (as cited in 5). It was originally used in World War II to control malaria and yellow fever then became a main staple in pesticide control for crops. Because DDT was a highly effective pesticide for malaria it is still used in areas where the disease is prevalent....   [tags: Use, Impact, Importance]
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Opportunistic Fungal Infections - Fungal infections are either opportunistic or endemic ubiquitous fungi that exist freely in the environment cause endemic fungal infections. On the other hand, opportunistic fungal infections only cause disease when the immune system degrades [1]. Opportunistic fungi are commensal with the host and a very low intrinsic virulence to cause until the immunity is altered. Some of these include: Candida species, Aspergillus species, pneumocystic jirovecii and Cyptococcus neoformans. These disseminate diseases such as: oral candidiasis (oral thrush), genito-urinary disease and ocular or sinus infections which may spread to involve the Central Nervous system [2]....   [tags: Immunopressed Patients, Effects]
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Eberconazole, an Antifungal - Summary I chose to summarize an article about a new antifungal called eberconazole. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the world’s population is affected by a dermatophytic infection. This is a parasitic skin infection caused by a fungus. The most common species of fungi to cause dermatophytosis are Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. It is caused by parasitic organisms attaching to the keratin on the skin. They feed on the keratin and form colonies. These infections are only limited to the superficial layers of the skin so topical antifungal agents are a great treatment....   [tags: Dermatophytic Infection, Parasitic Skin Infection]
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The Act to Save America's Forests - The Act to Save America's Forests A new bill in the U.S. Congress, The Act to Save America's Forests will be decided on September 2001 to see if it will go into affect. The law would help reduce clearcutting in many national forests and save the endangered species living in that habitat. At one time America was once covered with one billion acres of towering primeval forests. These forests were teeming with plants and animals, a treasure-trove of evolutionary diversity and biological richness....   [tags: Environment, Law, American Goverment, Deforestatio] 327 words
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Issues Associated with Pest Control - Issues Associated with Pest Control Pests can be kept under control in many ways. However, the main way to kill off pests is to use a substance called a pesticide. A pesticide is a substance produced to kill or repel any pest. Pests can be insects, mice, rabbits or other animals, weeds, fungi or microorganisms for example bacteria and viruses. The term pesticides covers a whole range off substances used to control pests some of which are insecticides (these kill insects), herbicides (these kill plants/weeds) and fungicides (these destroy fungi)....   [tags: Papers] 1205 words
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Bacterial and Viral Infections - Bacterial and Viral Infections Being part of the Sports Medicine profession, Athletic Trainers have to be ready for anything and everything when it comes to treating their athletes. This includes recognition, evaluation, education and prevention of various problems. One specific aspect of this is having a basic knowledge of contagious diseases that is seen all too commonly in Athletics. Some examples of this include Tinea Pedis(Athlete's Foot), Conjunctivitis(pink eye), and Tinea Corporis(ringworm)....   [tags: Papers] 1257 words
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Food Products and Biotechnology - Food Products and Biotechnology INTRODUCTION This paper is about Biotechnology and its use in creating new food products. In researching this paper, I found there is a lot of information on this subject and a lot of debate on the creation of genetically altered food, medicine, crops, and more. I decided to do my paper on the genetically altered food part of the subject. I will discuss what biotechnology is, who is for it and who is against it, and what some of the ethical concerns are when it comes to growing genetically modified (GM) crops....   [tags: Papers] 1628 words
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The Destruction of the Feminine and Triumph of Society: Homosexuality In Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher” - In Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher” there is dense symbolism that surrounds the house that may lead the reader to infer many conclusions about Roderick himself. Perhaps the most interesting understanding comes in the femininity that is present in the story. Poe uses very specific descriptors in the story, many of which seem to indicate the gentle, soft, delicate features of woman. These substantiations seem to be interconnected in opposition to death, and by the end of the story, they overwhelm any masculine threat that appeared in the story....   [tags: Literary Analysis, argumentative, persuasive]
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Dr. Indrani Bose's Seminar, “Using RNA Interference to Understand the Virulence and Biology of the Yeast Cryptococcus Neoformans - ... There are a few antifungal medicines in use today, these are Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, and Fluconazole. But there are various negative effects of using these drugs. “The long-term use of drugs that target ergosterol, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B, can result in renal and liver toxicity” (2). Another issue is that Cryptococcus neoformans eventually develops resistance to these medications. Dr. Bose stated that her long term goal is to discover better drugs to eradicate this disease from developing in humans....   [tags: meningoencephalitis, fungus, genes] 771 words
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Biomass Residue from Palm Oil Industries Used as Renewable Energy Fuel in Southeast Asia - Biomass residue from palm oil industries are attractive renewable energy fuel in Southeast Asia (Salman, 2013). Palm kernel shell which much known as PKS are the shell fractions left after the nut has been remove after crushing the palm oil mill. Kernel shell are fibrous material and can be easily handled in bulk directly from the product. Moisture content in kernel shell is low compared to other biomass residues in between 11% to 13%. This lead to account of higher heating average of lignocellulosic biomass....   [tags: biofuel alternatives] 613 words
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The Affect of Environmental Conditions on Gene to Map Distance in Sordaria Fimicola - Abstract: This paper analyzes whether or not gene to map distance in Sordaria fimicola is affected by changes in environmental conditions. The main focus is on how temperature affects the recombination frequency in this organism. It is analyzed if under different environmental conditions wt x gray and wt x tan varies in their percent crossing over. It is investigated how factors such as temperature and ultraviolet light have affected the gene to centromere distance in Sordaria. Results obtained in lab as well as scientific researches prove that as temperatures increases the percent of crossing over increases as well....   [tags: Environment ] 948 words
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Analysis of Carver's "What We Talk about When We Talk about Love" - Love cannot be defined in one sentence or even a paragraph. Every human has his or her own definition of love because people usually define love based on their cultures, backgrounds, social classes, educations, and their societies. In this essay, the main point will be the different kinds of love that Carver illustrates in his story “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.” In Carver’s story, there are some points that I can relate to my personal experience. There are a few characteristics and symbols in the story that are really important to understand in order to define what a real love is and find the intention thrown out the story....   [tags: Raymond Carver] 1632 words
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