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Real Life Uses for Metabolic and Digestive Enzymes - Enzymes are protein based molecules that help to speed up reactions in other molecules. They cause reactions without being used up or changing after the reaction is completed. Enzymes are the body’s workers and they are produced by all living things. Enzymes are made of chains of amino acids. The amino acids are linked in specific ways to complete whichever job they were made to do. Each enzyme was built for a different job and will only work with a specific substance. The efficiency of enzymes is dependant on the temperatures that enzymes are exposed to....   [tags: metabolic enzymes, digestive enzymes, biology,] 679 words
(1.9 pages)
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Investigation on Enzymes - Investigation on Enzymes Introduction Sam and Sarah planned and carried out an experiment to see the effect of pH on the activity of the enzyme amylase which breaks down starch into sugar. They decided to investigate 5 different pH's 2,4,6,8 and 10. 1. The used a measuring cylinder to measure out 5cm3 of starch and placed it in a test tube. They then added acid or alkali until they got to pH2. They checked this using indicator paper 2. They placed the test tube in a rack on the bench and added 5cm3 of amylase which they had also measured using a measuring cylinder....   [tags: Papers] 730 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine - The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes have a wide range of applications and they are used in industry and in medicine to perform numerous different tasks to get specific results. The market for commercially produced enzymes is catalysts is very large because enzymes are used in reactions to speed up a specific process therefore making the process cheaper for the company since they work best in aqueous solutions at atmospheric pressure and at low temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Industrial Uses of Enzymes - The Industrial Uses of Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts made up of polymers of Amino Acids, and they’re very useful inside and outside our body. Enzymes, like other catalysts, speed up chemical reactions, and over 700 of their kind are known in today’s world, since being discovered in the 1850s. There are many industrial applications of enzymes, and they speed up processes that could take years to be completed. FERMENTATION: Making beer and whisky was known to humans for the past 8,000 years....   [tags: Papers] 718 words
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Commercial Uses of Enzymes - Commercial Uses of Enzymes The use of enzymes to modify foods has increased vastly and these fermentations are continuing to be important, however, a new type of enzyme industry has evolved which involves the use of harvesting enzymes from microorganisms. The production of enzymes from bacteria and fungi can be isolated from the growth media and cleansed and purified as necessary. Generally in industrial processes the enzyme is immobilised which allows t h enzyme to be re-used and also enable the products to be separated easily....   [tags: Papers] 735 words
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Medicine and Industry - The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Medicine and Industry What is an enzyme. ================== In relative terms enzymes are biological catalysts; control the rate of chemical reaction, different temperatures and pH’s affect their optimum rate of reaction in living organisms. In detail; enzymes are globular proteins, which catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms, they are produced by living cells – each cell has hundreds of enzymes. Cells can never run out of enzymes as they or used up in a reaction....   [tags: Papers] 739 words
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The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice - The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice As the enzyme concentration increases so too does the volume of juice. This is because as the concentration of enzyme molecules increase there is more chance of a collision with an apple substrate molecule. If the chance of a collision is increased then the number of collisions will increase resulting in a higher rate of reaction. The enzyme combines with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex. Enzyme + Substrate ¬¬¬> Enzyme-Substrate Complex The enzyme-substrate complex then breaks down to give the product and releases the enzyme in an unchanged form: Enzyme-Substrate Complex ¬¬¬> Product + Enzyme So I can conclude that the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the enzyme....   [tags: Papers] 729 words
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The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme - The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids. Enzymes catalyze thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Enzymes are highly specific so each one speeds up only one particular chemical reaction. Many kinds of enzymes are found in each cell but because they are used over and over there may be only a small amount of each enzyme present....   [tags: Papers] 691 words
(2 pages)
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Lab Report on Measuring the Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide using Enzyme Catalysis - Lab Report on Measuring the Rate of Conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide using Enzyme Catalysis In essence, the main objective was to use chemical titration to measure and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen by using the enzyme catalase. Other purposes of the lab were; to measure the effects of changes of temperature, pH, enzymes concentration, and substrate concentration on rates of an enzyme. The lab was also an opportunity to see a catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment....   [tags: Papers] 678 words
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Affects of Smoking on Plants - Cigarettes contain more than 4,000 different chemicals, including arsenic, acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Some of these chemicals actually may benefit the plant. Smoke of all kinds, including cigarette smoke, increases the amount of carbon dioxide where it is present. Plants use carbon dioxide to make sugars during photosynthesis. Its increased abundance, therefore, makes it easier for the plant to obtain. Smoke also contains carbon monoxide which plants are able to convert into carbon dioxide.....   [tags: Smoking, informative, expository] 703 words
(2 pages)
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The Benefits Genetic Engineering for Medical Purposes - Genetic Engineering has developed by very rapidly over the past twenty years. It is also one of the most controversial topics to go through the United States. From the research gene therapy to the cloning of different animals, genetic engineering can save lives while at the same time, endanger them as well. There are many pros and cons which are being heavily debated by political, scientific, and many other organizations. Most are centered on the idea of using Stem cells as a way of curing diseases....   [tags: Genetics] 680 words
(1.9 pages)
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The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals - The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. When amino acids are linked together, they form polypeptide chains and bonded together by peptide bonds. There are different structures of polypeptides primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The primary structure is a straight chain of polypeptides. Secondary structure is the polypeptide chain coiling to form an α helix or the polypeptide chain linking together to form a β pleated strand....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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Exploration of Light Microscopes - Exploration of Light Microscopes What does the word microscope mean: The first part of the word "Micro" means tiny. The "scope" part means to look at or view. Microscopes are tools that are used too enlarge images of small objects so that they can be studied. A light microscope is an instrument made up of two lens they are eyepiece lens and the object lens combined they produce a much greater magnification that what is possible with just one single lens. The microscope also has a variety of knobs to focus the picture seen thought the microscope....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution - Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution Plan ==== Scientific knowledge: Substances called catalysts speed up many chemical reactions. Catalysts called enzymes control the metabolic reactions in the body. Amylase is an enzyme; it is present in the digestive systems of many animals. Amylase speeds up the breakdown of long chain starch molecules. I know that the more common enzymes work best at around 37.c as this is our natural body temperature....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Investigating if the Concentration of CuSO4 Affect the Germination of Barley Seeds - Investigating if the Concentration of CuSO4 Affect the Germination of Barley Seeds Investigation ============= Analysis -------- When looking at the data collection sheet it can be seen that as the concentration of CuSO4 increases, the percentage of seed germination decreases. This already shows a clear sign that enzyme inhibition has occurred. Looking at the “Average Length of Roots” graph, it can be seen that the concentration of CuSO4 does inhibit the growth of roots significantly because the average root length drops sharply after the 0% solution....   [tags: Papers] 674 words
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Fermentation of Apple Cider - Fermentation of Apple Cider “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence.” – Louis Pasteur, Great French Scientist (1822-1892). Fermentation is chemical changes in organic substances produced by the action of enzymes. This general definition includes virtually all chemical reactions of physiological importance, and scientists today often restrict the term to the action of specific enzymes, called ferments, produced by minute organisms such as molds, bacteria, and yeasts....   [tags: Papers] 756 words
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Genetic Defects in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator - GENETIC DEFECTS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR (CFTR) Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to explain what Cystic Fibrosis is and also to explain what the causes of Cystic Fibrosis are. Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutation in a gene called Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Cystic Fibrosis is known as one of the most common life-shortening disease. More that 1,000 mutations in the CFTR gene have been found in people with Cystic Fibrosis....   [tags: Biology Medical CFTR Cystic Fibrosis]
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Mitochondria - Mitochondria Mitochondria are tiny organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They are rather large organelles ranging from 0.5µm to 10µm in length and 1µm in diameter. The mitochondria are the energy factories of the cell and are located in the cytoplasm. They are the sites of cellular respiration. The mitochondria are responsible for generating ATP from such organic fuels as simple sugars and fats in the process of cellular respiration. This doubled-membrane organelle has its own DNA and can reproduce by splitting itself....   [tags: essays research papers] 756 words
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The Biological Significance Of The Properties Of Water - The Biological Significance Of The Properties Of Water The human body 15% lipids, 12% proteins but by far the biggest % is water which makes up a massive 70% of the human body. This is the equivalent of 49kg in an average male adult human of mass 70kg. This is a good indication of just how important water is in the human life. Without water we would not be able to life and Earth is therefore the only planet in this galaxy with life as we know it except for Mars where ice has been discovered so water may have been present once....   [tags: Papers] 741 words
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Viruses: Complex Molecules Or Simple Life Forms? - Viruses: Complex Molecules or Simple Life Forms. Viruses have been defined as "entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause the synthesis of specialised elements that can transfer the genome to other cells." They are stationaryand are unable to grow. Because of all these factors, it is debatable whether viruses are the most complex of molecules or the simplest life forms. While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms....   [tags: essays research papers] 752 words
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Environmental Pollutants and The Human Body - In current society we are inundated with numerous technological advances that expel large quantities of new pollutants and chemicals that "have entered our environment so recently that our genes, cells, brains and bodies have not yet evolved mechanisms for coping with them." (Duncan) When Duncan refers to the trade-offs of our spectacular society, he is alluding to something more foreboding. In this technological age: television, newspapers and the internet relentlessly deals out information. We have, in some regard, become ignorant to the full extent of the world around us only taking into account the surface information and not delving deeper into a wealth of knowledge....   [tags: Pollution] 693 words
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Advantages and Uses of Biofuels - Definition: According to Dr Andrew Zimmerman Jones, the Definition of energy is: Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, electrical, or other forms (1) A simpler definition is: Energy is the ability to do work and cause change (2) Renewable vs. non renewable: The definition of bio fuels: “Bio fuel is defined as solid, liquid or gaseous fuel obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological material and is different from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material....   [tags: environment, energy sources, fuel] 693 words
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Introns And Exons - Introns and Exons The finding of the Introns and the exons was one of the most significant discoveries in genetics in the past fifteen years. split genes were discovered when lack of relation between DNA sequences were seen during. DNA- mRNA hybridation. For all new mRNA, they must be transcribed by RNA polymerase enzymes. The transcription begins at the promoter sequence on the DNA and works down, thus the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is complimentary to the one of DNA. In eukaryotes the mRNA is processed in the nucleus before transport to the cytoplasm for translation....   [tags: essays research papers] 663 words
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How Light Intensity Affects the Photosynthesis of a Canadian Water Weed - How Light Intensity Affects the Photosynthesis of a Canadian Water Weed Photosynthesis happens in all types of plants, whether on land or in the water. Photosynthesis is a process that plants use every minute in order to survive. They create the food that they need from Carbon Dioxide and Water. Here is the full, balanced chemical equation; [IMAGE]Carbon Dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose CHLOROPHYLL Or the chemical equation: [IMAGE]6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6 With these equations, we are going to see that at what rates photosynthesis happens in this Elodea....   [tags: Papers] 694 words
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The Digestive System - The Digestive System What are the main functions in digestion of the a) mouth b) stomach c) small intestine The mouth takes in the food and uses the teeth and the salivary glands do break down the food so it could move onto the next phase. The teeth chew food while the salivary glands, liver, bile duct and pancreas produce digestive juices to break down food. The stomach is a L shaped, organ situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. At either end of this organ is a sphincter muscle which contracts and relaxes to control the movement of food in and out of he stomach....   [tags: Papers] 696 words
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Factors Affecting the Growth and Size of a Population - Factors Affecting the Growth and Size of a Population A population is defined as a number of organisms of the same species living together such that they influence each other's lives, e.g. they can reproduce, protect each other, compete with each other for food, shelter, space, light, water, etc. The population size of organisms changes over time, it increases with births and immigrants but decreases with deaths and emigrants. Below is a diagram that shows a population growth curve....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
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The Role of Water in the Lives of Organisms - The Role of Water in the Lives of Organisms Water is perhaps the most important molecule for the survival and life of all living organisms because there is a wide spectrum of roles that it plays. The fact that the earth's surface consists of 70.8% water shows its significance and importance. ====================================================================== Firstly, water has the chemical formula Hg0 (two Hydrogen atoms to one Oxygen atom), the covalent bonds between which create cohesive forces....   [tags: Papers] 740 words
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Cell Membrane/ Electron Transport Chain / Biochemical Pathway - 1. The cell membrane structure is vital to the life of the cell. The cell membrane is shaped as having a phosphate head at the very outer surface, and two fatty acid tails hanging from it. The membrane is double, so at the tip of the fatty acid tails, there are two more fatty acid tails attached to another phosphate head. This is what it looks like: The reason the cell membrane is shaped like this is mainly to control the water flow in and out of the cell. Water is very important to the cell: if too much water enters the cell, the cell will explode, and if too much water leaves the cell, the cell will shrivel up and die....   [tags: essays research papers] 674 words
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Research on Mathematical Calculations of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues and CO2 Molecules - Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al....   [tags: molecules, science,] 777 words
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Myogenic Cell Lines - GH is not able to modulate H2O2-induced apoptosis in myogenic cell lines Different studies have already shown the induction of apoptosis by H2O2 in myogenic cell lines (6, 33). To ascertain whether hGH modulates the induction of apoptosis, we treated C2C12 and L6C5 myogenic cells for 1 h or 24 hrs with H2O2 500 and 200 µM, respectively, in presence or not of hGH, and evaluated the resulting cell death, morphological changes and specific markers related to the activation of the apoptotic process....   [tags: Chemistry] 725 words
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Diabetes: An Overview - Diabetes: A Sugar Rush Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. It is a lifelong illness that can affect both adults and children. It is considered to be one of the leading causes of deaths in the United States right after heart attacks and cancer (medicinenet). Due to the life threatening nature of diabetes, the necessity of controlling it is absolutely essential. Diabetes is a very serious disease with many life threatening consequences, but if it is taken care of properly, diabetics can live a normal life....   [tags: medicine, medical conditions, informative] 754 words
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Development and Aging - Below, I will describe many factors that are related to development and aging. First, I will talk about how getting older is not a time to sit out, and think life is over. Second, I will define primary and secondary aging. Third, I will talk about how a good healthy diet can help with many diseases in relation to development and old age. Lastly, I will talk about how technology will help many individuals to live a long and health life. Many times when people think of getting older and the aging process they tend to think of turning gray and sitting in a rocking chair watching their life pass them by....   [tags: essays research papers] 662 words
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The Cell - The Cell Theory The cell theory states that all living matter is made up of cells and some living organisms consist of a single cell. Other cells serve a special purpose within advanced organisms like nerve cells. One theory of a cell states that the first form of life on this earth consisted of a lot of different types of small protocells. Protocells are cell like organism. These organisms were able to reproduce in a very limited environment because they are so simple. After many years some of the protocells came together and shared their DNA with each other....   [tags: essays research papers] 686 words
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Cells and their parts - Cells are some of the smallest organisms around. All living things consist of cells, and yet they are invisible to the naked eye. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. Cells are made up of many different parts which allow them to function properly. All cells are separated from their surrounding by a cell membrane. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also aids in the protection and support of the cell. A cell membrane is similar to the walls surrounding your house....   [tags: essays research papers] 721 words
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Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells - Gene expression is the ability of a gene to produce a biologically active protein. This process is regulated by the cells of an organism, it is very important to the survival of organisms at all levels. This is much more complex in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. A major difference is the presence in eukaryotes of a nuclear membrane, which prevents the simultaneous transcription and translation that occurs in prokaryotes. Initiation of protein transcription is started by RNA polymerase. The activity of RNA polymerase is regulated by interaction with regulatory proteins; these proteins can act both positively, as activators, and negatively as repressors....   [tags: essays research papers] 754 words
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The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast - The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast Aim:To investigate the effect of glucose concentration on anaerobic respiration in yeast. Equipment list: 2* conical flask Delivery tube with bung Dropper Yeast Glucose Limewater Water bath Stopwatch Measuring Cylinder Method:I am going to do 5 tests & each test will be performed 3 times to get an average result. In one conical flask, I will mix together 25ml of yeast & 25ml of a glucose solution, with a delivery tube with a bung in the top of it and leave it for 5 min so it gets acclimatised; in the other conical flask I will put enough water to cover the end of the delivery tube....   [tags: Papers] 750 words
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Tay-sachs Disease - Tay-sachs Disease Tay-sachs disease is perhaps a very dramatic disease because it strikes most keenly at small children and babies. The disease is very rare and fatal. Tay-sachs is a genetic disorder in which harmful amounts of fatty lipids, known as ganglioside GM2, is built up in the nerve cells in the brain. Infants who with Tay-sachs disease, who are not carriers, appear to develop normally for the first few months since their birth, but as the nerve cells become swollen with the fatty material, a severe decline of mental and physical abilities occurs....   [tags: Papers] 692 words
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Albinism - Albinism ALBINISM Albinism. The word albinism refers to a group of inherited conditions. People with albinism have little or no pigment in their eyes, skin, or hair. Recently a test has been developed to identify carriers of the gene for ty-neg albinism and for other types in which the tyrosianase enzyme does not function. The test uses a sample of blood to identify the gene for the tryrosinase enzymes by its code in DNA. The above test does not apply to to one type of albinism, called X-linked ocular albinism....   [tags: essays research papers] 679 words
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The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of a Reaction - The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of a Reaction Aim and Hypothesis The investigation that we have chosen to do is how the effect of temperature affects the rate of reaction of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen using the enzyme catalase. I predict that the higher the temperature the faster the rate of reaction will be and the more oxygen there will be given off....   [tags: Papers] 664 words
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Rate of Catalase Activity - Rate of Catalase Activity Background Information Enzymes such as catalyse are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalyse is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Catalyse speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. It is able to speed up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide because of the shape of the Hydrogen Peroxide molecule....   [tags: Papers] 710 words
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The Process of Glycolysis - The Process of Glycolysis Nine reactions, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme, makeup the process we call glycolysis. ALL organisms have glycolysis occurring in their cytoplasm. At steps 1 and 3 ATP is converted into ADP, inputting energy into the reaction as well as attaching a phosphate to the glucose. At steps 6 and 9 ADP is converted into the higher energy ATP. At step 5 NAD+ is converted into NADH + H+. The process works on glucose, a 6-C, until step 4 splits the 6-C into two 3-C compounds....   [tags: Papers] 735 words
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Genetic Engineering: Power of Gene Therapy - The Power of Gene Therapy Each day as our technology advances, we become aware of new diseases and disorders. We also find effective ways to alleviate a number of these problems. In the last decade, gene therapy has been found to treat a portion of life-threatening illnesses such as Cystic Fibrosis, Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID), and Alzheimer's disease. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that affects the exogenous secreting glands of the body and generates thickened secretions, therefore blocking certain functions of the lungs and pancreas....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Role of Water in Living Organisms - The Role of Water in Living Organisms Water is one of the most abundant molecules on planet earth; it is found in vast amounts not only in earthly enviroments (oceans, lakes and rivers), but is also present in the atmosphere, and as solid ice in the two poles. Consequently it is rather logical that water plays an important role in biological life: the origins of life occurred in water and life itself wouldn't be able to continue in it's absence . I will now describe the structure of a water molecule....   [tags: Papers] 679 words
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Glucosamine/Chondroitin - Do you know what the dietary supplement glucosamine/chondroitin is, does or can do. Do you know what the side effects are or if there are any. Do you know how it’s made or what it’s derived from. I didn’t think so, so that’s what I am here to tell you. I was playing lacrosse one day when I made a sudden move and that’s when it all went down hill. I tore the cartilage in my knee, the meniscus - a piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion - to be exact. A few days later I was talking to my Aunt Marie, a podiatrist, when she mentioned the dietary supplement glucosamine/contortion....   [tags: essays research papers] 662 words
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Gene Therapy Bioethics - Bioethics of Gene Therapy A genome is all of the DNA in a given organism. The DNA is split up into smaller groups of nucleotides called genes. Every gene contains the information for the production of a different protein. The human genome was once thought to have over 100,000 genes but it was recently found to have around 30,000 genes. The proteins produced by the genes determine different characteristics of the organism such as hair color, the ability to fight infection, some aspects of behavior, all enzymes, hormones, and almost all other characteristics of the organism....   [tags: Papers] 663 words
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The Advent of Penicillin - The Advent of Penicillin The advent of penicillin forever changed the world of medicine at its discovery with its ability to treat diseases, deadly at the time, that are now considered commonplace and easily treatable. Penicillin was one of the greatest discoveries of the twentieth century, as antibiotics are one of the most highly prescribed drugs in the world today. Although its discovery is often described as serendipitous, the process by which it was cultivated was quite meticulous, and continued attention has been paid to penicillin's further development....   [tags: Papers] 665 words
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Explore the Medicinal Benefits of Green Tea - Explore the Medicinal Benefits of Green Tea Tea, especially green tea, has been touted in many sources as having a plethora of medicinal properties. Much of the hype surrounding tea is in fact true. Tea is not a wonder drug, but it can combat some of the causes of the most deadly diseases in the United States. For over 4000 years it has been used as a medicine in China (Cheng 2397). By taking a cue from the Asian cultures, we in America are beginning to discover the benefits of this drink....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis is the process whereby DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) codes for the production of essential proteins, such as enzymes and hormones. Proteins are long chains of molecules called amino acids. Different proteins are made by using different sequences and varying numbers of amino acids. The smallest protein consists of fifty amino acids and the largest is about three thousand amino acids long. Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell but is controlled by DNA located in the nucleus....   [tags: Papers] 674 words
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Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Growing up in the 80's I remember my mother questioning President Reagan's politics, policies, morality, and even his sanity. Though I would not wish a debilitating disease on anyone, I had to laugh at the irony when I heard Reagan had Alzheimer's Disease(AD). To think that his "I do not recall" line during the Contra scandal may have been true. The idea of the President of the United States suffering the early stages of a disease causing dementia, confusion, irritability, and memory loss(1) during the very dangerous Cold War gives me the heebie jeebies....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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GMF and Effects on Human Health - Effects on Human Health       With the way technology has grown, especially in the field of genetic engineering, has led scientists to figure out a way to alter how food is made. This raises concerns and lot of questions regarding the methods they are using. From what possible side effects can occur to the risks it poses to everyone and everything. Unfortunately, there has been limited research and testing done. With that in mind there is not enough information available about the hazards of genetically modified foods....   [tags: genetic engineering genetically modified foods]
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Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis Photosynthesis produces energy in the form of glucose it uses water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the suns light. Photosynthesis takes place in all plants that contain chlorophyll. Photosynthesis mainly takes place in the palisade mesophyll cell in the leaves of plants. The main reaction is to produce oxygen and glucose, glucose is stored in the form of starch and does not affect osmosis, taking place in the plant. As plants respire both night and day this starch is often used up during the night when photosynthesis cannot take place....   [tags: Papers] 708 words
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Being Young & Pregnant - Being Young & Pregnant “Human beings are like tea bags. You don’t know your own strength until you get into how water”- Bruce Laingen, U.S. diplomat. Through out my teenage years I always had it made. I had security, support of my family, and other things. When I turned 16 I had found out something that would change my life forever, I was pregnant. Being pregnant at a young age is a very difficult thing to go through. It can be hard mentally, financially and also physically. Everyday, people are faced with choices....   [tags: Original Writing Personal Narrative] 714 words
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The Effects of Maintaining a High Constant Body Temperature in Mammals - The Effects of Maintaining a High Constant Body Temperature in Mammals Endothermic organisms maintain a stable core body temperature through their own adapted physiological mechanisms and appropriate changes in its behavioural patterns. The ability of an endotherm to keep its internal environment at a constant temperature allows the enzymes catalysing the vital biochemical reactions to be close to their optimum temperature, giving an efficient metabolic rate. The metabolic rate is defined as the rate at which all the cells in the body carry out their biochemical reactions....   [tags: Papers] 731 words
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Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia It is a frightening disorder that strikes about one percent of the world population. It surfaces most frequently during puberty and has the potential to forever destroy the lives of the people who are unfortunate enough to be its victim. The disorder is schizophrenia and it manifests itself by disturbing normal psychiatric behavior. The symptoms of schizophrenia are characterized by both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and other unusual or disorganized behavior....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Genetics and Teeth - “Boston team finds way to grow new teeth in lab” The article I read was about some scientists that were able to grow teeth inside rats’ bodies. This project was led by Pamela C. Yelick, a scientist for Forsyth Institute, and the project was conducted in Massachusetts. Joseph P. Vacanti, a tissue engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital, and Yelick had the idea for the experiment. Vacanti had previously worked with rats and he found that cells will naturally organize themselves into tissues and other complex structures if they are placed in the right environment....   [tags: essays research papers] 736 words
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An Analysis and Evaluation of Data from Photosynthesis Experiments - An Analysis and Evaluation of Data from Photosynthesis Experiments Graph analysis This is my analysis for the investigation in to the affect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis to the Canadian pondweed, elodea. In the results the pattern is that when the light intensity is higher the readings are generally higher. On the graph the less the light intensity the lower the gradient of the curve. the equation for the photosynthesis process is; CO2 + 2H2O + Light Energy ========> [CH2O} + O2 + H2O, This shows that when the light intensity is increased the rate of reaction will be more quicker he only anomalous result there was, is the one in the 100 watt result the reading after 5 minutes is anomalous because it does not follow the predicted pattern of increasing in the production of gas because it is lower I know from my own knowledge of photosynthesise that when the light intensity is increased the rate of reaction will be more quicker because many plants and trees photosynthesise quicker in stronger light and photosynthesise slower in dimly lit places....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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Importance of Monera - Importance of Monera a)Production of food: cheese, yogurt, vinegar, wine, sour cream, etc. b)Industry : cleaning up petroleum, remove waste products from the water, synthesize drugs and chemicals. Symbiosis : The interdependence of different species, which are sometimes called symbionts. There are three main types of symbiosis, based upon the specific relationship between the species involved: mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. Symbiosis that results in mutual benefit to the interdependent organisms is commonly known as mutualism....   [tags: essays papers] 768 words
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Genetically Modified Foods - Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions....   [tags: essays research papers] 773 words
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Rubisco Subunits - Recent studies have shown that reconstructing Rubisco subunits can help to enhance the catalytic properties by increasing its specificity and affinity to CO2. Rubisco can be reconstructed by using different subunits from different photosynthetic organisms (Read and Tabita 1992; Whitney and Sharwood 2007; Satagopan and Sprietzer 2008) or by using subunits from different plant species (Sharwood et al. 2007). Chimeric Rubisco proteins had better qualities in terms of its affinity to CO2 as a substrate in vitro but not in vivo because of the assembly complications (Zhang et al....   [tags: Rubisco subunits, science,] 774 words
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How Life Evolved in Hydrothermal Vents Deep Under the Sea: 10 Steps to the First Cells - How life evolved: 10 steps to the first cells Was our oldest ancestor a proton-powered rock. We may never be able to prove beyond any doubt how life first evolved. But of the many explanations proposed, one stands out - the idea that life evolved in hydrothermal vents deep under the sea. Not in the superhot black smokers, but more placid affairs known as alkaline hydrothermal vents. This theory can explain life's strangest feature, and there is growing evidence to support it. Earlier this year, for instance, lab experiments confirmed that conditions in some of the numerous pores within the vents can lead to high concentrations of large molecules....   [tags: evolution, biology, microbiology] 705 words
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Type II Diabetes - ... Recent studies with intensive investigations suggesting that elevated glucose along with circulating free fatty acids distributed especially from the intra abdominal fat are the major culprits of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction [6, 7]. But the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of gluco-lipotoxicity contribute to ß- cell dysfunction and loss in type II diabetes remains debated. A recent observation from experimental, clinical and genetic evidence suggests endoplasmic reticulum was responsible for molecular mechanism of gluco-lipotoxicity which may contribute to ß - cell dysfunction in type II diabetes [8, 9]....   [tags: Health, Diseases] 748 words
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Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever - Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Should we fear another outbreak. Ebola hemorrhagic fever, also know as Ebola HF, is not a common disease. However, this disease is severe and often fatal in humans and also primates such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Ever since it’s initial recognition in 1976, there have been four reported sporadic outbreaks in humans around the world. “The first two, in Zaire and in western Sudan, were large outbreaks that resulted in more than 550 cases and 340 deaths. The third outbreak, in Sudan, was smaller, with 34 cases and 22 deaths” (2)....   [tags: essays research papers] 770 words
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Plant Research - It has been reported that general down regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian and yeast cells is regulated by phosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) during environmental stress such as heat stress, nutrient starvation, or viral infection (Wek et al., 2006). However, the mechanism in plants has not been well characterized (Lageix et al., 2008). Recently, a GCN2-like enzyme (AtGCN2) has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana which has been shown to compliment a yeast GCN2 null mutant (Scgcn2 ) (Zhang et al, 2003), the homolog, AtGCN2, was shown to be activated and phosphorylate eIF2α in response to several environmental stresses such as amino acid and purine starvation, UV irradiation, cold shock, and wounding (Lageix et al, 2008)....   [tags: Research Analysis] 733 words
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Spanish Language The Key to Opportunity - ... Furthermore, comprehension of the Spanish language allows individuals to gain insight about current situations in the Spanish-speaking world; in-depth understanding of these issues could undoubtedly lead to peaceful resolution of political disputes such as the ongoing separatist movement in Cataluña. Knowledge of Spanish bridges the gap between Spanish and American cultures and promotes world peace and international security by means of global awareness. Additionally, knowledge and mastery of the Spanish language opens the door to the appreciation of Spanish literary and artistic works....   [tags: informative essay] 777 words
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Spanish: The Key to Opportunity - ... Furthermore, comprehension of the Spanish language allows individuals to gain insight about current situations in the Spanish-speaking world; in-depth understanding of these issues could undoubtedly lead to peaceful resolution of political disputes such as the ongoing separatist movement in Cataluña. Knowledge of Spanish bridges the gap between Spanish and American cultures and promotes world peace and international security by means of global awareness. Additionally, knowledge and mastery of the Spanish language opens the door to the appreciation of Spanish literary and artistic works....   [tags: informative essay] 777 words
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Chocolate is Good for You! - Chocolate is Good for You. Did you know that getting a daily dose of dark chocolate may be beneficial to your health. Not only is chocolate the perfect gift for your sweetie on Valentine’s Day, it also may benefit your heart. The ingredients in chocolate are not only delicious, but dark chocolate and cocoa powders also contain disease-fighting antioxidants. The key to gaining the most benefits from dark chocolate is to enjoy it in moderation. According to cnn.com (2000), in addition to antioxidants, one of the fats found in chocolate, called stearic acid, may increase healthy cholesterol (HDL), and make bad cholesterol levels (LDL) less susceptible for oxidation, which leads to clogged arteries....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Serotonin as an Antidepressant - Serotonin as an Antidepressant Until 1920, the action at a synapse was thought to be electrical. Otto Loewi, a German physiologist, aroused from sleep, with an idea to demonstrate the action at a synapse is chemical. He did so by taking fluid from one frogs' heart and transferred it to another frogs' heart to find that the heart rate increased. He also did this with another fluid, which decreased the heart rate. From this, he concluded that nerves send messages by releasing chemicals. These chemicals are the neurotransmitters that are synthesized by neurons, which are derived from the foods we eat....   [tags: Papers] 683 words
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The Uses of Biotechnology - The Uses of Biotechnology The scientific rules of genetics were not known until the nineteenth century, when Gregor Mendel determined from his study of plants that particles that can not be seen carry traits that are passed on from generation to generation. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick made the makeup of the genetic code called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the genetic material that is in all living cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid encodes the order of amino acids that have peptides and proteins....   [tags: Papers] 684 words
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The Properties of Water - The Properties of Water Over two thirds of the Earth today is water, and living organisms are 80% water by mass, they must retain this to survive. Water is a vital solvent and reactant in everyday life. The formula for water is H20. Compared to other molecules H20 is very small. Two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons in outer energy levels of atoms....   [tags: Papers] 688 words
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Blue People of Troublesome Creek - The Blue people of Troublesome Creek, sounds like a title of fiction novel, but the Blue Fugates were no fictional characters, but they were real humans that lived not too far from where we are today. The Blue Fugates were a very close family live on the banks of eastern Kentucky's Troublesome Creek. Martin Fugate, a French orphan settled in Troublesome Creek and astonishingly Martin somehow managed to find a woman who carried the same, very rare disease. The disease, later discovered, was methemoglobinemia, a very rare heredity blood disorder caused by an inheritance of a gene as a simple recessive allele....   [tags: essays research papers] 688 words
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The Rise in Popularity of Alternative Medicine over Mainstream Medicine - The Rise in Popularity of Alternative Medicine over Mainstream Medicine There is a growing phenomenon in the world which is very diverse and yet can be grouped collectively under a single name: alternative medicine. What this term basically represents is any health care that is not part of the mainstream medical establishment and it includes all such therapies form chiropractic to aromatherapy. Those that consume these medicines believe that being herbal they are not as invasive on the body as mainstream medicines are or cause as many drastic side effects and therefore the alternative medicines are becoming very popular....   [tags: Papers] 690 words
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The Biological Importance of Water - The Biological Importance of Water Biological Life as it is today, evolved mainly due to the dynamics of water. Most scientists maintain that ‘were there is water, there life may exist’. Hence, its significance as an indicator of life is used when scientist study other planets of our solar system. Fundamentally, the physical and chemical properties of water, interactively have played and still play a major role in developing the five kingdoms: Animalia, Plante, Fungi, Protoctista and Prokaryotae....   [tags: Papers] 719 words
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Understanding Alzheimer's Disease - Understanding Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States. Alzheimer's creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families every year. Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer's disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer's disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects....   [tags: Medicine] 726 words
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Detemination of Behavior - Detemination of Behavior "Culture determines behavior" This essay aims to look into the evidence regarding the above statement and to come to a conclusion whether culture really does determine our behaviour. Before we can fully understand the statement we must understand what some of the terms mean. Culture There is no one definition of the word culture. It has many meanings and values....   [tags: Papers] 733 words
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Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide - Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Aim: My aim in this experiment is to investigate the effect of changing the concentration of the substance (Hydrogen Peroxide) in an enzyme controlled reaction. Prediction: I predict that the higher the amount of Hydrogen Peroxide I use then the faster the displacement reaction will be. Therefore, the less substrate I use then the slower the displacement reaction will be. Hypothesis: I performed a preliminary experiment to distinguish the amount of yeast I will use for the actual experiment....   [tags: Papers] 737 words
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The Ethics of Stem Cell Research - Embryonic stem cell research can be easily defined. A stem is defined as something that is developed from. A cell is defined as a microscopic living organism. According to Dennis Hollinger, "Embryonic stem cell research uses from the embryo's inner cell mass that give rise to each of the human body's many different tissue types"(1). In our modern day society, stem cell research has become a controversial topic. Several people strongly oppose the idea of the research, but many are struggling for the continuance of the program....   [tags: Current Events] 745 words
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dynamics of founder effect - dynamics of founder effect Populations are divided by geographic boundaries, confining a specific region/group of people to share and distribute its genetic traits within themselves without outward influence. The size of these populations is dependant upon whether certain mountains, rivers, deserts, oceans, or other extreme geographical, cultural, or technological conditions determine the tendency for isolation or migration. Most modern populations were originally settled by a relatively small handful of people that for whatever reason migrated to a new uninhabited area, and then multiplied....   [tags: essays papers] 754 words
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Alcohol and its Effects - Alcohol and its Effects Alcohol is a substance that has become a part of the social settings in today’s world. Many people can say they have drunk alcohol and most can even remember their first sip of beer. Whether it was given to us by our parents or at a social engagement, everyone has encountered alcohol in their lives. But as responsible people, have we ever stopped to realize that we are taking a drug in to our system that is both harmful and addictive. Alcohol affects a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as inflammation of pancreas and cirrhosis of the liver....   [tags: essays research papers] 757 words
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Alcoholism - Alcoholism Alcoholism addiction is a stigmatized disorder. The alcoholic is a sick person Suffering from a disease for which there is, no known cure in the sense that he or she will ever be able to drink moderately. I have learned that the alcoholic must learn to stay away from alcohol completely in order to lead a normal life. Fundamentally, alcoholism is a health problem, a physical and emotional disease rather that a question of too little willpower or of moral weakness. “The Son of man has come eating and drinking; and You say, ‘Behold a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of Tax collectors and sinners!” Luke 7:34 Alcoholism takes many routes and has an adaptive stage....   [tags: Papers] 766 words
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Bordetella pertussis - Bordetella pertussis "Whooping Cough" Encounter and Colonization Bordetella pertussis is a highly communicable agent and is transmitted person-to-person via airborne droplets or direct contact with discharges from the respiratory mucous membranes of an infected person. This small, gram-negative coccobacillus is non-motile, aerobic and fastidious. B. pertussis colonizes the respiratory tract including the mouth, nose, throat and beginning of the lungs of young children worldwide. The bacteria bind to ciliated cells in the respiratory mucosa by producing adhesions....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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