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Fermentation of Apple Cider - Fermentation of Apple Cider “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence.” – Louis Pasteur, Great French Scientist (1822-1892). Fermentation is chemical changes in organic substances produced by the action of enzymes. This general definition includes virtually all chemical reactions of physiological importance, and scientists today often restrict the term to the action of specific enzymes, called ferments, produced by minute organisms such as molds, bacteria, and yeasts....   [tags: Papers] 756 words
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Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution - Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution Plan ==== Scientific knowledge: Substances called catalysts speed up many chemical reactions. Catalysts called enzymes control the metabolic reactions in the body. Amylase is an enzyme; it is present in the digestive systems of many animals. Amylase speeds up the breakdown of long chain starch molecules. I know that the more common enzymes work best at around 37.c as this is our natural body temperature....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Genetic Engineering - Power of Gene Therapy - The Power of Gene Therapy Each day as our technology advances, we become aware of new diseases and disorders. We also find effective ways to alleviate a number of these problems. In the last decade, gene therapy has been found to treat a portion of life-threatening illnesses such as Cystic Fibrosis, Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID), and Alzheimer's disease. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that affects the exogenous secreting glands of the body and generates thickened secretions, therefore blocking certain functions of the lungs and pancreas....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Importance of Monera - Importance of Monera a)Production of food: cheese, yogurt, vinegar, wine, sour cream, etc. b)Industry : cleaning up petroleum, remove waste products from the water, synthesize drugs and chemicals. Symbiosis : The interdependence of different species, which are sometimes called symbionts. There are three main types of symbiosis, based upon the specific relationship between the species involved: mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. Symbiosis that results in mutual benefit to the interdependent organisms is commonly known as mutualism....   [tags: essays papers] 768 words
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Genetically Modified Foods - Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions....   [tags: essays research papers] 773 words
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The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine - The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes have a wide range of applications and they are used in industry and in medicine to perform numerous different tasks to get specific results. The market for commercially produced enzymes is catalysts is very large because enzymes are used in reactions to speed up a specific process therefore making the process cheaper for the company since they work best in aqueous solutions at atmospheric pressure and at low temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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Exploration of Light Microscopes - Exploration of Light Microscopes What does the word microscope mean: The first part of the word "Micro" means tiny. The "scope" part means to look at or view. Microscopes are tools that are used too enlarge images of small objects so that they can be studied. A light microscope is an instrument made up of two lens they are eyepiece lens and the object lens combined they produce a much greater magnification that what is possible with just one single lens. The microscope also has a variety of knobs to focus the picture seen thought the microscope....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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Research on Mathematical Calculations of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues and CO2 Molecules - Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al....   [tags: molecules, science,] 777 words
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The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Peroxidase Enzyme - The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Peroxidase Enzyme Aim To find the effect of temperature on an enzyme in this case peroxidase, by studying it decomposing hydrogen peroxide. Planning I am measuring the amount of gas given off in the reaction. By collecting this figure I can determine the rate of reaction. If I know the rate of reaction I can find out what temperature peroxidase works best at. Equipment · Trough · Clamp · 100ml measuring cylinder · Stop clock · 10ml measuring cylinder · Delivery tubes · Bung · Conical flask Variables Change The temperature of the reactants: 60 50 40 30 20 10 Control Amount of peroxidase (10ml) Amount of hydrogen peroxide (20ml) Length of experiment (2min) Time between measurements (15sec) Equipment used Safety I will keep my safety goggles on at all times to prevent painful eye injury....   [tags: Papers] 779 words
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The unsuccesful use of ethanol - The Unsuccessful Use of Ethanol Current interest in ethanol fuel in the United States mainly lies in bio-ethanol, produced from corn, but there has been considerable debate about how useful bio-ethanol will be in replacing fossil fuels in vehicles. Concerns relate to the large amount of arable land required for crops, as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol production. I don't think the US could implement the use of ethanol or other alternate fuels successfully as Brazil has done for many reasons: firstly, ethanol production in the United States does not benefit the nation's energy security, its agriculture, economy or the environment because ethanol production requires large fossil energy input to produce these fuels than you get out from the combustion of these products....   [tags: Alternative fuel bio-ethanol] 779 words
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Drinking Alcohol and Smoking Tobacco - A Deadly Duo - Alcohol and Tobacco: A Deadly Duo Cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts claimed over 23,000 lives in 1989 and 57,000 additional cases were diagnosed. The majority of individuals who fall prey to this type of cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. The Risk The fact that the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx or larynx, increases dramatically in people who are heavy users of alcohol and tobacco is substantiated by 30 years of collective research....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 783 words
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Dairy Products - ... Uses of animal rennet became limited for religious reasons .Most of Muslim people consider that cheese is produced by an enzyme which comes from an animal and slaughtered on the non Islamic way no halaal. And also soybean cheese for vegetarian people who did not eat animal product .. Calf rennet which prepared and obtained from the fourth stomach of calves sucking (Nagodawithana & Reed, 1993) one of the important enzymes is traditionally used for cheese making all over the world . Since 1960s....   [tags: Nutrition, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals] 786 words
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Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes. To start off, a protein is made in a ribosome. There are many cellular mechanisms involved with protein synthesis. Before the process of protein synthesis can be described, a person must know what proteins are made out of. There are four basic levels of protein organization. The first is primary structure, followed by secondary structure, then tertiary structure, and the last level is quaternary structure. Once someone understands the makeup of a protein, they can then begin to learn how elements can combine and go from genes to protein....   [tags: Protein Synthesis Biology DNA Essays] 787 words
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Cerebral Pasy vs Muscular Dystrophy - Cerebral Pasy vs Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is a rare inherited muscle disease in which the muscle fibers are unusually susceptible to damage. The muscles, primarily the voluntary muscles, become progressively weaker. In the late stages of muscular dystrophy, muscle fibers often are replaced by fat and connective tissue. There are several types of muscular dystrophy. The various types of the disease affect more than 50,000 Americans. Many are associated with specific genetic abnormalities.The most common muscular dystrophies appear to be due to a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein dystrophin....   [tags: essays papers]
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The Effect of pH on the Digestion of Casein by Trypsin - The Effect of pH on the Digestion of Casein by Trypsin When planning the experiment, the equipment and method had to be well thought-out in order for the experiment to be accurate and efficient. Firstly, I have chose to use a 1% trypsin concentration then altered it to 0.8%, because a higher concentration means more trypsin molecules in the solution and therefore more enzyme substrate complexes are likely to occur with the casein in the milk, causing digestion of the casein to be faster....   [tags: Papers] 789 words
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Inhibitory Potential Changes of Fluoxetine (Prozac) - Inhibitory Potential Changes of Fluoxetine (Prozac) Over the past several decades many scientists have explored the various possible links between the function of neurotransmitters in the brain and mood disorders. The neurotransmitter serotonin, found widely in plants, animals and humans has been a particular focus. Scientists who specialize in examining the function and effect of serotonin on the mind and body argue that imbalances in the levels and function of serotonin can be linked to disturbances in mood, anxiety, satiety, cognition, aggression and sexual drives (Tollefson and Rosenbalum, 2001)....   [tags: Biology Medicine Research Papers]
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Exploring Proteins - Exploring Proteins Different proteins can appear very different and perform diverse functions (e.g. the water-soluble antibodies involved in the immune system and the water-insoluble keratin of hair, hooves and feathers). Despite this, each one is made up of amino acid subunits. There about 20 different amino acids that all have a similar chemical structure but behave in very different ways because they have different side groups. Hence, stringing them together in different combinations produces very different proteins....   [tags: Papers] 792 words
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How Temperature Affects Enzyme Reactions - How Temperature Affects Enzyme Reactions I am planning to perform an experiment to find out how and if temperature affects the rate of which enzyme reacts. The enzyme I will be using will be amylase. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down starch so we will test at what temperature the amylase will break down the starch at the quickest time, therefore looking for the enzymes’ optimum temperature, at a temperature lower than the unknown optimum the amylase will work slower meaning more time taken to break down slower, how ever if heated too much, unlike in other reaction were heat usually speeds up reactions, but in an enzyme it will become less effective once the optimum temperature is passed until it stops working at which we can say the enzyme has become denatured....   [tags: Papers] 793 words
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Prokaryotic Cells - Prokaryotic Cells All living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest units that can be alive. Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells, and do not have a nucleus....   [tags: Papers] 794 words
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The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases - The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules within the body, each consisting of a unique three-dimensional shape. They make up approximately 50 % of the mass of each cell and consist of functions ranging from enzyme proteases in the stomach such as Trypsin, to hormones, which are transported in the blood such as Adrenaline....   [tags: Papers] 794 words
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Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria - Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria Introduction Urea was the first organic chemical to be synthetically produced1, previously it was thought that only living creatures could produce organic compounds Urea is naturally produced by the kidneys as waste from the degradation of amino acids. It is because of this that urea is commonly found in soils and is a useful nutrient source for bacteria that are able to utilise it, such as, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumonia, all species of Proteus and Micrococcus luteus....   [tags: Biology]
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The Peroxides Investigation - The Peroxides Investigation Introduction Peroxides is the incorrect name for this enzyme the correct term is catalase. It catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. It is present in all body cells especially LIVER cells which are very active. catalase [IMAGE]Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen catalase [IMAGE]2h2O2 2h2O+O2 Enzymes are biological catalysts and a catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of reaction during the reaction it gets changed e.g....   [tags: Papers] 797 words
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Heart Attacks - A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to a portion of the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped. This happens when one of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle is blocked by an obstruction. This blockage can be due to a condition called atherosclerosis (a build up of fatty like substance along the wall of the artery), a blood clot or a coronary vessel spasm along with a total obstruction. If the blood supply to a portion of the heart stops, that area of the heart will no longer receive the oxygen or nutrients needed to carry out its function and will die....   [tags: essays research papers] 801 words
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Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes - Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes An experiment to investigate how temperature affects the Permeability of beetroot cell membranes Interpretation of Results: 0°C 20°C 30°C 40°C 55°C 0.24 0.28 0.75 0.79 0.22 0.26 0.35 0.41 0.81 From 0°C to 30°C there is a gradual increase of absorbency which shows that as the temperature increases it is denaturing the cell wall and cell membrane and allowing the beetroot pigment to leek out into the distilled water. As soon as the sample of beetroot is placed into the distilled water diffusion occurs naturally, which is the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration (beetroot sample) to a region of low concentration (distilled water)....   [tags: Biology Science Experiments Essays] 803 words
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The Use of Enzymes in Industrial Processes - The Use of Enzymes in Industrial Processes 2. An enzyme is a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. Enzymes are used in industrial processes such as: Baking, Brewing, Detergents, Fermented products, Pharmaceuticals, Textiles, Starch processing. Here are a range of processes showing how enzymes are used Use in Baking-1 The wheat flour used to make bread contains naturally occurring enzymes that change the starch, protein and fibre in the flour when water is added....   [tags: Papers] 804 words
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An Account of Proteins and Their Structure - An Account of Proteins and Their Structure It is difficult to describe in a simple sentence the role of proteins. Let's say: When there is something to do, it is a protein that does it. Some examples of proteins * Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms. * Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell. * Enzymes: assemble or digest. The role (or function) of a protein depends on its shape, and chemical formula....   [tags: Papers] 807 words
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Chemistry Investigation - Chemistry Investigation An investigation to find the optimum temperature that will produce the maximum amount of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide using the enzyme catalase Introduction Hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to all living things if it builds up in the cells but when it is introduced to the enzyme catalase the react between the two makes water and oxygen as byproducts. There are many factors witch affect the production of oxygen these are listed below. For this experiment the enzyme will be held in potato....   [tags: Papers] 817 words
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The Importance of Plants on Planet Earth - The Importance of Plants on Planet Earth Plants As We See Them --------------------- Plants are all around us, renowned for their aesthetic appeal; their colours and structures lend themselves to decoration. Plants are used in celebrations and commiseration's and are often celebrated in their own right- the annual Michigan potato festival being a good example. Plants are associated with national identity. The Scottish thistle; Irish Shamrock; Welsh leeks and daffodils. Many national flags feature plants, the Cedar tree on the Lebanese flag, and the Maple leaf on the Canadian flag....   [tags: Papers] 820 words
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the plant cell - The Plant Cell Cell Wall Size: Around 1µ Basic Function: * Hold the shape of the cell. * Strengthen the cell. Covering the cell membrane of the plant cell, there is the cell wall. The cell wall is composed of two layers of rigid, hard cellulose embedded in compounds like pectin and lignin. Pores in the cell wall allow molecules to pass through. The cell wall has two parts. The primary cell wall is formed during the growth of the cell. After the cell has stopped growing, a secondary cell wall forms....   [tags: essays research papers] 822 words
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Cirrhosis - Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a serious disease of the liver where scar tissue replaces normal healthy tissue, and affects the function and structure of the liver. Liver, which is the largest organ in the body, has a vital roles which are important to keep the body functioning well. Liver makes proteins and enzymes that regulate blood clotting. It also regulates cholesterol and stores the energy. In addition, the liver removes poisons from the blood. 30% of cirrhosis's victims are diagnosed will remain alive for 5 years....   [tags: science] 824 words
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The Relationship Between Light Intensity and the Rate of Photosynthesis - The Relationship Between Light Intensity and the Rate of Photosynthesis Investigate the relationship between light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is important because animals eat food, as it is a source of energy. All living things need a constant supply of energy if they are to grow, reproduce or move. Plants do not eat food but they do have some in the form of starch in their leaves. The symbol equation for photosynthesis is: 6 CO2+6 H2O-light C6 H12 06+6 02....   [tags: Papers] 826 words
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The Biological Importance of Water - The Biological Importance of Water Water is a substance whose molecule is made from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H20) and that is in a liquid state at room temperature. This is covalent bonding, where two hydrogen atoms share their electron with one oxygen atom. As the oxygen atom has more positively charged protons than the hydrogen is has pulls on the shared electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom therefore has a slightly negative charge while the hydrogen a slightly positive charge....   [tags: Papers] 827 words
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The Catalase Experiment - The Catalase Experiment Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out what affect the temperature has upon the speed of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide when a biological catalyst is used; the enzyme catalase. Back ground: ============ Hydrogen peroxide is a decomposition reaction. This means that the hydrogen peroxide, if left for long enough, will eventually decompose. Hydrogen peroxide → Hydrogen + Oxygen 2H2O2→2H2O + O2 (Aq) (L) (G) Using a catalyst can speed up this reaction....   [tags: Papers] 830 words
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Cystic Fibrosis: A Way of Life - Air the vital ingredient of life. Without air there will be no oxygen. Now imagine having lungs that will not fill correctly. People with cystic fibrosis (CF) live with this everyday of their life. With CF people lack the special enzyme to break up mucous. Without the mucous breaking up the person cannot breathe because the lungs are filled. In life the body cannot function with enough oxygen. Eventually the body starts to break down from the excessive amount of mucous. First the lungs become ineffective and other organs start to fail....   [tags: medical]
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The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine - The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes are proteins, made up of polypeptide chains of amino acids. They are biological catalysts to regulate the speed of many processes, and are used in industry and medicine, but in different ways. Enzymes are globular proteins, with their structure held together by hydrogen bonds and can therefore be denatured easily if these bonds are broken. This is because their structure is very important in the way they work. They have an active site, which is the area in which substrates are broken down into product molecules, and if this is altered the enzyme can no longer function....   [tags: Papers] 832 words
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How Temperature Affects the Degeneration of Proteins in Fish Food - Aim: to find out how different temperature affects the protein levels within Fish food (flakes) stuffs. 1. Introduction 1.1. Fish food Like humans do, fish also need proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals unfortunately there are not many food which contain all the necessities2. This is tackled by feeding fish a combination of flake, frozen and fresh food. Frozen food can cause problems for fish if the food is not defrosted thoroughly as their intestinal lining is very sensitive and does not tolerate cold food very well....   [tags: fish food, science experiment]
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The Effect Of A Temperature Increase On The Breathing Rate Of A Locus - The Effect Of A Temperature Increase On The Breathing Rate Of A Locus Introduction This investigation will attempt to prove, whether or not a change in temperature will affect the respiration rate (and therefore the breathing rate) of a locust. Locusts are 'poikilothermic' and I will be taking this factor into account when predicting the locust's reaction to a temperature change. Preliminary Testing Preliminary tests consisted of a 'mock experiment', a kind of trial run of the real thing....   [tags: Papers] 834 words
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Active Rubisco in Biotechnology - Active Rubisco is the proportion of enzyme that is catalytically competent and can contribute to the process of CO2 fixation by carboxylation (Carfts-Brandner and Salvucci 2000). For Rubisco to remain activated, it requires the ATPase Rubisco activator enzyme known as RCA to facilitate the removal of sugar phosphates from the active site. In the absence of a molecular 3D structure of RCA, understanding the precise interaction details between RCA and Rubisco remains obscure. Until the 3D structure details are available, researchers deal with RCA as an ATPase from AAA+ protein family (Neuwald et al....   [tags: science experiments, science, Biotechnology.] 838 words
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The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology - The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology is the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.(1) This is the process of using recombinant DNA technology to enable the rapid production of human protein from a single gene of insulin. Firstly the single gene required must be isolated. This can be done three ways: Either by working backwards from the protein- Finding the amino acid sequence for the protein needed, the order of bases can be established using known genetic code....   [tags: Papers] 840 words
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The Transport of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane - The Transport of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane or, the cell surface membrane, is made almost entirely of protein and lipid. The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of a cell. It is partially permeable so some substances cross more easily than others. The lipids found in the membrane are known as phospholipids. Phospholipids are fat derivatives in which one fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group and one of several nitrogen-containing molecules....   [tags: Papers] 840 words
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The Effect of Light on the Organic Plant Elodea - The Effect of Light on the Organic Plant Elodea Aim: To calculate the rate of photosynthesis from the number of oxygen bubbles produced by the plant. Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to build up carbohydrate reserves. Plants make their own organic food such as starch. Plants need Carbon dioxide, water, light and chlorophyll in order to make food; and starch and oxygen are produced. Carbon dioxide and water are the raw materials of photosynthesis....   [tags: Papers] 845 words
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What is Bio-fuel? - ... Another lesser known form of Bio-fuel is Biobutanol. Biobutanol is derived from a specialized fermentation process and utilized the same feedstocks as Bioethanol but produces a fuel fare more similar to gasoline and can be used in a traditional gasoline engine without modification (Butonaol). What is Bio-fuels impact on the environment. Bio-fuels have many environmental advantages over traditional petroleum based fuel. One, they’re what’s commonly referred to as carbon-neutral, meaning the net carbon impact on the environment is minimal or zero....   [tags: Energy ]
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Breast Cancer - Breast cancer is one of the most widespread cancers among women worldwide. In the US, it is the most common, and the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women between 45 – 64 years of age (Clegg et al., 2002; Ward et al., 2008). Early detection and improved treatment procedures have resulted in gradual decline in the number of deaths caused by the disease since 1990. Nevertheless, in 2009, the estimated death toll for the disease was 40,170 (American Cancer Society, 2009). The gravity of the disease therefore demands further research towards its early diagnosis, and for evaluating the prognosis of its course....   [tags: Disease] 850 words
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legalize - Cannabis is one of the most widely used drugs throughout the world. The psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Marijuana has been in use for over 4,000 years as a therapeutic and as a recreational drug. It can have both stimulant and sedative properties. In usual intoxicating doses, it produces a sense of well-being, relaxation, a loss of temporal awareness, slowing of thought processes, impairment of short term memory, and a feeling of achieving special insights....   [tags: essays research papers] 852 words
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The Pancreas - The pancreas is located in the middle of the abdomen. It’s surrounded by the stomach, small intestine, liver and spleen. It’s about six inches long and shaped like a thin pear, wide at one end. It has three sections: wider right end is the head, the middle is the body and the left end is the tail. The pancreas has two functions; to make enzymes that help digest fats and proteins and the other, to produce insulin that controls the blood sugar level called glucose. It consists of Islet cells (1 of 3 types), which are endocrine glands....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Relationship Between Time and Temperature and the Speed at which Amylase Works - The Relationship Between Time and Temperature and the Speed at which Amylase Works Coursework At the point 31 the time taken for the amylase to break down the starch into glucose is 35°C seconds. As the temperature increases to 34°C, the time taken decreases to 25seconds, this is what you would expect as the perfect temperature for the enzyme's to work is around 37°C so the nearer the temperature is to 37°C the less time will be taken to break down starch into glucose. At 37°C it takes the shortest time to break down the starch at 20 seconds, this is normal as this is around the body temperature at which the enzymes work best....   [tags: Papers] 855 words
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Newborn Nourishment - When people have children I wonder how much thought is put into what methods they will use to nourish their newborns. For instance, will the child be breast fed or formula fed. From the beginning of time I’m pretty sure breast feeding was the way to go. But if a child was motherless or no one else was available it was necessary to feed the baby by other means. “Feeding vessels” were created around 2000 B.C. and have since then matured into what we know as the “baby bottle”. Using manufactured formula and breastfeeding are the only ways to nourish a newborn, but they have undeniable differences that have been debated on throughout the world....   [tags: Pediatrics]
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Human Cloning is Against God's Will - Human Cloning is Against God's Will When I first began this essay, I held no stance on the subject of human cloning. After my initial research, I came to the conclusion that there was no real evidence that human cloning should be illegal. My first draft however lacked good arguments. I’ve since returned to the library and took a new look at the problem. And, after more research my stance was changed. Human cloning, while bringing some good, is not God’s will, and any God fearing human should consider human cloning wrong....   [tags: reproductive technology]
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The Uses and Concerns of Genetic Engineering in Society - The Uses and Concerns of Genetic Engineering in Society The idea of studying genetic engineering and revealing those results intrigues me thoroughly. Studying these coded proteins or genes brings about revolutionary advancements in the fields of medicine and bioengineering. The possibilities that genetic engineering make are endless. For example, genetic engineering can improve nutritious quality and enhance the flavor in foods. We can also look forward to new techniques in disease prevention and treatments, improve the quality of life....   [tags: Papers] 862 words
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Human Cloning - Human Cloning The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", created worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. The feat, cited by Science magazine as the breakthrough of 1997, also generated uncertainty over the meaning of "cloning" a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called reproductive cloning....   [tags: Papers] 863 words
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The Importance of Cortisol - ... Stress stimulus activates the nervous system which in turn stimulates the tropic hormone CRH in the hypothalamus. CRH stimulates the pituitary secretion of the hormone ACTH, which travels in the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex and stimulates the secretion of cortisol. When the concentration of cortisol in the blood reaches a certain level, CRH in the hypothalamus is inhibited, which in turn inhibits the secretion of ACTH in the pituitary gland, thus shutting off the secretion of cortisol. Cortisol is essential in maintaining homeostasis in the body....   [tags: Health ]
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Compulsive Disorder - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a lifelong disorder, which can cause a person to do things repeatedly. This disorder is identified by two general symptoms: obsessions and compulsions. An obsession can be defines as an unwelcome, distressing thought or mental image. (Schwartz, 1996) It is a thought that annoys you so much that it causes distress and anxiety. Compulsions are the behaviors that people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder perform in an attempt to get rid of the fears and anxieties caused by their obsessions....   [tags: essays research papers] 864 words
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What Affects the Rate of Breakdown of Hydrogen Peroxide by Enzymes - What Affects the Rate of Breakdown of Hydrogen Peroxide by Enzymes Aim === The aim of this experiment is to find out how temperature and concentration affect the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by an enzyme (yeast). I hope to achieve reliable results that will confirm my predictions. Prediction ========== I predict that if the concentration is high in the yeast then the speed of oxygen produced in the reaction with hydrogen peroxide will also be high. This is because the amount of yeast that can react with the hydrogen peroxide can get no higher and will have the maximum affect on the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 866 words
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An Investigation Into The Rate of Reaction of The Catalase Enzyme - An Investigation Into The Rate of Reaction of The Catalase Enzyme Introduction: In this experiment I will attempt to investigate the factors that effect the rate of reaction of the catalyse enzyme. Catalyse is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It is used for removing hydrogen peroxide because of the shape of the hydrogen peroxide molecule; this type of reaction is when a molecule Is broken down into smaller pieces called catabolic reaction. Enzymes are proteins e.g....   [tags: Papers] 866 words
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You Are What You Eat - You Are What You Eat It is indeed true that the quality of food that you take in will do a great deal to determine the quality of life that goes on in each cell of your body. Food has a huge effect on your health, and a diet rich in any one aspect would be an unhealthy diet, in the same way that a diet lacking in a certain nutrient would also affect your health. A balanced diet consists of carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. Carbohydrate provides us with energy....   [tags: Papers] 868 words
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Genetic Engineering - Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the artificial alteration of the genetic code. It is often described as a very precise method of changing the genetic makeup of an organism. Genes are a definite sequence of bases in the DNA chain which together code for the production of a particular protein. They are sections of the DNA which control traits of an individual, such as eye colour, which are different for each person. By natural breeding genes are passed down to offspring by the parents however, with new technology scientists are able to identify an individual gene and insert it into another organism which will then carry the trait of that gene....   [tags: Papers] 868 words
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Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts - ... 3. a) The rate of enzyme activity is the highest at 37 degrees. The rate of enzyme activity is the lowest at 100 degrees. b) Enzyme reaction is very slow due to the fact that the molecules have low to no kinetic energy. Molecular collision is minimal because molecules do not have enough activation energy for the reaction to occur. The increase in temperature causes particles to move around faster (more kinetic energy) therefore causing them to collide more often thus speed up the reaction. The lowered temperature causes molecules to collide less frequently, therefore delaying the reaction....   [tags: Scripture Analysis ]
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How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase - How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase Hypothesis: The optimum pH for the reaction of starch with amylase is pH 7. PH values lower or higher than this value will result in a slower rate of reaction. Amylase works in the range pH 3 to pH 11. Biological Knowledge ==================== PH changes affect the structure of an enzyme molecule and therefore affect its ability to bind with its substrate molecules. Changes in pH affect the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds that hold the enzyme together, which naturally affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme with the substrate....   [tags: Papers] 873 words
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How Temperature Affects the Rate of Respiration in Yeast Cells - How Temperature Affects the Rate of Respiration in Yeast Cells Aim: The aim of this investigation is to find out how temperature affects the rate of respiration in yeast cells. [IMAGE]Apparatus: The pieces of equipment I will be using are as follows: * Measuring Cylinder (10cm³ and 50cm³) [IMAGE] * Test Tubes * [IMAGE]Distilled Water * [IMAGE]Glucose solution (0.5g-1.0g) [IMAGE] * Yeast suspension (0.5g-1.0g) [IMAGE] * Water Baths (Electronic) [IMAGE] * [IMAGE]Test Tube racks * Gas Syringe (200ml) * Stop Clock [IMAGE] [IMAGE]Method: In a preliminary study, I found the best way for me to do this experiment is by measuring 10ml of distilled water into a measuring cylinder, and mixing glucose solution and yeast suspension....   [tags: Papers] 873 words
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Insulin, Glucagon and Somatostatin - Insulin, Glucagon and Somatostatin The principal role of the pancreatic hormones is the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism, principally by regulating the concentration and activity of numerous enzymes involved in catabolism and anabolism of the major cell energy supplies. The earliest of these hormones recognized was insulin, whose major function is to counter the concerted action of a number of hyperglycemia-generating hormones and to maintain low blood glucose levels....   [tags: Papers] 874 words
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Rate of Reaction Between Hydrogen Peroxide and the Potato - Rate of Reaction Between Hydrogen Peroxide and the Potato Prediction The predictions for the rate of reaction, between the Hydrogen Peroxide and the potato. For this experiment there are some vital factors referred to the rate of reaction between the hydrogen peroxide and potato slice. For this experiment I will predict what the affect of the concentration, particle size and temperature would be. The Concentration:Would a low concentration be better for the experiment or a high concentration....   [tags: Papers] 879 words
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The Advantages of a Vegetarian Diet - It would be beneficial both to the environment and to the general well-being of Americans if we would simply cut down our intake of meats and poultry. Vegetarianism is a rising trend in the United States today, especially among teenagers. A poll taken by the National Restaurant Association in 1991 found that about 20% of the population looks for restaurants that offer meals for vegetarians. Even Jeff Juliano, the original Ronald McDonald, spokes-clown for McDonald's fast food restaurants, has switched to a vegetarian diet (Robbins)....   [tags: Health] 880 words
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The Effect of the Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide - The Effect of the Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide Plan What is my Investigation about. In my investigation I will be investigating the effect of the Catalase on Hydrogen peroxide, I no that the higher the volume of the Catalase the faster it will react. For this reason I will be using a volume of 20 vol, from our preliminary experiment we found out that using this volume will give us the best set of results and will be easier to record the amount of gas given off. Catalase [IMAGE]Hydrogen Peroxide Water + Oxygen [IMAGE] H2O2 H2O + O2 What Can I Change....   [tags: Papers] 880 words
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How Various Mechanisms By Which Substances Cross The Cell Me - Homeostasis is essential to the cell&#8217;s survival. The cell membrane is responsible for homeostasis. The membrane has a selective permeability which means what moves in and out of the cell is regulated. Amino acids, sugars, oxygen, sodium, and potassium are examples of substances that enter the cell. Waste products and carbon dioxide are removed from the cell. All of these substances cross the membrane in a variety of ways. From diffusion and osmosis, to active transport the traffic through the cell membrane is regulated....   [tags: essays research papers] 882 words
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Investigation of Enzymes - Investigation of Enzymes The majority of the reactions that occur in living organisms are enzyme-controlled. Without them, the rate of the reactions would be so slow as to cause serious, if not fatal, damage. Without enzymes toxins would soon build up and the supply of respiratory substrate would decrease. Enzymes are proteins and thus have a specific shape. They are therefore specific in the reactions that they catalyse - one enzyme will react with molecules of one substrate....   [tags: Papers] 885 words
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The Effect of Temperature on the Permeability of Beetroot Membrane - The Effect of Temperature on the Permeability of Beetroot Membrane Analysis The graph shows the colorimeter readings increase as the temperature increases, they increase by the most at higher temperatures. This is shown by a smooth curve. This means that the beetroot samples release more dye at higher temperatures. This is because higher temperatures cause the membrane structure to break down. The membrane structure: Membranes have two layers of molecules called phospolipids to make up their structure....   [tags: Papers] 888 words
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Vitamin Acne Treatment - It is a fact that all illnesses are caused due to some imbalance in our body. With proper nutrition the skin can become healthy and radiant. According to a recent report by Center for Disease Control and Prevention, almost 40% of the people intake less than the required nutrition every day. The deficiency of vitamins and minerals can affect the body functions. The required vitamin acne treatments can be taken in form of supplements with our normal diet to compensate for the imbalance. Multivitamins should not be taken as a replacement for eating healthy foods....   [tags: Health Care] 888 words
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Munchies and More: The Effects of Marijuana on the Brain - Munchies and More: The Effects of Marijuana on the Brain To many, marijuana is seen as a horrible narcotic that causes many physical and social problems. To others, it's a harmless drug that gives the body a relaxing sensation. Marijuana can be found on many college campuses and high schools. It is estimated that at least 70 million Americans have tried it, and of those people, 10-14% become dependent of the drug (1). Marijuana is often referred to as the "gateway" drug, leading the user to more serious narcotics....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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How Enzymes Act in Different Conditions - How Enzymes Act in Different Conditions Method: first of all, all the equipment was collected, which was; a grinder, water bath was set up, test tubes, hydrogen peroxide, manganese dioxide, small pieces of liver, kidney, muscle, apple, and potato. In the first test, using 2 test tubes, one had o.1grams of sand and the other had 0.1grams of manganese dioxide, each was then filled with 2cm of depth of hydrogen peroxide, the results were then observed and recorded in a table. In the second test a piece 1cm3 of liver was placed in a test tube and then 2cm2 of hydrogen peroxide was added, the reaction was observed....   [tags: Papers] 890 words
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Intestinal Neoplasia Model - ... Developmentally, both the mammalian gut and Drosophila midgut are of endothelial in origin (Kedinger et al., 1987; Tepass and Hartenstein 1994). They comprise an epithelial monolayer of columnar or cuboidal cells called enterocytes. To maximize its surface area, mammalian intestinal epithelium has a series of crypts (crypts of Lieberkühn) along the intestine, this extensive folding does not occur in the Drosophila intestine. However, microvilli of the apical side of the intestinal cells (Shanbhag and Tripathi, 2009) function in the similar manner....   [tags: Biology, ] 890 words
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The Ethical, Social and Economic Benefits of the Commercial and Medical Use of Enzymes - The Ethical, Social and Economic Benefits of the Commercial and Medical Use of Enzymes This essay will be discussing the ethical, social and economic benefits of the commercial and medical use of enzymes. Firstly, an enzyme is a biological catalyst produced in cells, which is capable of speeding up reactions by reducing the activation energy for a reaction to take place. Enzymes are proteins that are highly specific due to its active site, which is formed by the specific folding of the tertiary structure of the protein....   [tags: Papers] 894 words
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Benefits and Restraints of Genetic Engineering and the Use of Recombinant DNA - Benefits and Restraints of Genetic Engineering and the Use of Recombinant DNA Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA have many useful purposes which benefit humans in many different ways in many different fields. The latest bio-technological breakthroughs allow the use of recombinant or 'mixed' DNA to be used more and more and in increasingly safer conditions. However there are still many problems and restrictions with using recombinant DNA such as side-effects or long term changes and the effect a new characteristic will have on its surrounding environment, be it the human body or a whole environmental ecosystem....   [tags: Papers] 896 words
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Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels - Describing the Filter Feeding of Invertebrates Such as Mussels This essay will be analysing the occurrence of filter feeding and demonstrating it as a unique adaptation for marine mammals. It will also analyse how filter feeding, combined with invertebrates such as mussels, produces a complex, yet distinctive foraging strategy. This essay will also discuss the features of molluscs and how they are adapted to use their features to aid their particular means of feeding, including the full process of how this form of consumption occurs....   [tags: Papers] 898 words
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Transport Across Plasma Membrane - Transport Across Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane covers all living cells, enabling the cells’ contents to be held together and controls movement of substances into and out of the cell. Plasma membranes are made of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. The phospholipids are essentially made out of two fatty acid chains and a phosphate-glycerol group. They are arranged in a bilayer with the hydrophilic phosphate head facing outwards and the hydrophobic fatty acid chains facing inwards and to each other in the middle of the bilayer....   [tags: Papers] 901 words
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macrophages - ... These cells differentiate into monocytes (Claire and Craig, 2005) which circulate in the bloodstream for 1-2 days before entering the tissue, to differentiate to resident tissue macrophages (Craig, Munitta, and Claire, 2005). Macrophages have a crucial role in host defence, because they are responsible for covering most of the work of recognition of pathogens prior to destroying them. They are also considered as part of the innate and adaptive immune when they respond to pathogens, or as a mediator in the inflammatory response....   [tags: ] 908 words
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The Factors that Affect the Rate of Breakdown of the Protein Gelatine by Trypsin - The Factors that Affect the Rate of Breakdown of the Protein Gelatine by Trypsin Aim To investigate factors that affects the rate of breakdown of the protein gelatine by trypsin. Key Factors: Possible factors that I could change- pH- Different types of enzyme work best at different pH level. The best pH level for an enzyme to be effective depends on its site of action. An example of this is; enzymes in the stomach have an optimum pH value of about 2. This is because the stomach is acidic, where as enzymes in intestines, have an optimum pH of about 7.5....   [tags: Papers] 910 words
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The Genetic Disease Familial Hypercholesterolemia - The Genetic Disease Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial Hypercholesterolemia, a very dangerous and deadly genetic disease, has the potential to be passed via the parent’s DNA from one generation to the next. Although it is not common, people who suffer from this genetic flaw often times lead very short lives, as it increases their susceptibility to a wide range of other complications that can ultimately lead to death (Varret, 1999). Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) operates by not allowing cholesterol to move into the cells via the blood stream....   [tags: Papers] 910 words
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The Immortal Cells - ... Little did they know, they were about to grow the first immortal human cells, using cells they removed from Henrietta Lacks. Rebecca Skloot includes not only the scientists’ theories to explain how they carried out cell research, but also explicitly reveals the underlying negative actions they took in order to go through with research. The author gives a true and honest account on the history of cell research, including the good, the bad, and the ugly. The reader comes away feeling both disturbed and reassured....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The Liver - The Liver:Facts, Functions, and Structure of The liver is the largest organ in the entire, normal human body. It weighs anywhere from 2.5 to 3.3 pounds. With its large size it is also a very resilient organ. Up to 3/4 of its cells can be removed before is ceases to function. It is red-brown organ roughly shaped like a cone. The liver is located in the upper right abdominal cavity immediately beneath the diaphragm. Without the liver, we could not survive. It serves as the body’s chemical factory and it regulates the levels of most of the main chemicals in the blood....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Polymerase Chain Reaction - PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is the quick and easy method of making unlimited copies of any fragment of DNA. Since it’s first introduction ten years ago, PCR has very quickly become an essential tool for “improving human health and human life (TPCR)”. Medical research and clinical medicine are profiting from PCR mainly in two areas: detection of infectious disease organisms, and detection of variations and mutations in genes, especially human genes. Because PCR can amplify unimaginably tiny amounts of DNA, even that from just one cell, “physicians and researchers can examine a single sperm or track down the elusive source of a puzzling infection” (TPCR)”....   [tags: essays research papers] 912 words
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