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Investigating how PH Affects the Activity of Potato Catalase - Investigating how PH Affects the Activity of Potato Catalase The aim of this experiment is to investigate how PH affects the activity of potato catalase. This enzyme occurs in many plant and animal tissues. Its role is to break down toxic hydrogen peroxide (a metabolic waste product) into water and oxygen Catalase catalyses the following reaction: ========================================== [IMAGE]2H2O2(l) 2H2O(l) + O2(g) =============================== Oxygen is the only gas given off in the experiment so this will be measured when the hydrogen peroxide is broken down at different PHs....   [tags: Papers] 690 words
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The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme - The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids. Enzymes catalyze thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Enzymes are highly specific so each one speeds up only one particular chemical reaction. Many kinds of enzymes are found in each cell but because they are used over and over there may be only a small amount of each enzyme present....   [tags: Papers] 691 words
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The Five Basic Activities of the Digestive System - The Five Basic Activities of the Digestive System The five basic activities of the digestive system are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. How does the digestive system work. Food enters the (1) mouth, which contains salivary glands that produces a carbohydrase enzyme called salivary amylase. The food is transported down the oesophagus (2) to the stomach (3), which pummels the food with its muscular walls; it produces the protease enzyme and hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work....   [tags: Papers] 692 words
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Tay-sachs Disease - Tay-sachs Disease Tay-sachs disease is perhaps a very dramatic disease because it strikes most keenly at small children and babies. The disease is very rare and fatal. Tay-sachs is a genetic disorder in which harmful amounts of fatty lipids, known as ganglioside GM2, is built up in the nerve cells in the brain. Infants who with Tay-sachs disease, who are not carriers, appear to develop normally for the first few months since their birth, but as the nerve cells become swollen with the fatty material, a severe decline of mental and physical abilities occurs....   [tags: Papers] 692 words
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Environmental Pollutants and The Human Body - ... Through further investigation, Duncan found that there are particular genes that help to produce certain enzymes which expel metals from cells. If these genes, GCLM and GSTP1, become mutated, it “may indicate a slower elimination of methylmercury from cells.” (Duncan) According to Matthew Rand, a mercury toxicologist at the University of Vermont, much more extensive research needs to be done “before concluding that a genotype is a risk factor.” (Duncan) From these findings, it is suggested that there is a link between the environment, genes, and disease....   [tags: Pollution] 693 words
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Advantages and Uses of Biofuels - Definition: According to Dr Andrew Zimmerman Jones, the Definition of energy is: Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, electrical, or other forms (1) A simpler definition is: Energy is the ability to do work and cause change (2) Renewable vs. non renewable: The definition of bio fuels: “Bio fuel is defined as solid, liquid or gaseous fuel obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological material and is different from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material....   [tags: environment, energy sources, fuel] 693 words
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Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Growing up in the 80's I remember my mother questioning President Reagan's politics, policies, morality, and even his sanity. Though I would not wish a debilitating disease on anyone, I had to laugh at the irony when I heard Reagan had Alzheimer's Disease(AD). To think that his "I do not recall" line during the Contra scandal may have been true. The idea of the President of the United States suffering the early stages of a disease causing dementia, confusion, irritability, and memory loss(1) during the very dangerous Cold War gives me the heebie jeebies....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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How Light Intensity Affects the Photosynthesis of a Canadian Water Weed - How Light Intensity Affects the Photosynthesis of a Canadian Water Weed Photosynthesis happens in all types of plants, whether on land or in the water. Photosynthesis is a process that plants use every minute in order to survive. They create the food that they need from Carbon Dioxide and Water. Here is the full, balanced chemical equation; [IMAGE]Carbon Dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose CHLOROPHYLL Or the chemical equation: [IMAGE]6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6 With these equations, we are going to see that at what rates photosynthesis happens in this Elodea....   [tags: Papers] 694 words
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The Digestive System - The Digestive System What are the main functions in digestion of the a) mouth b) stomach c) small intestine The mouth takes in the food and uses the teeth and the salivary glands do break down the food so it could move onto the next phase. The teeth chew food while the salivary glands, liver, bile duct and pancreas produce digestive juices to break down food. The stomach is a L shaped, organ situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. At either end of this organ is a sphincter muscle which contracts and relaxes to control the movement of food in and out of he stomach....   [tags: Papers] 696 words
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Exploring Carbohydrates - Exploring Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain 3 elements: 1. Carbon (C) 2. Hydrogen (H) 3. Oxygen (O) Carbohydrates are found in one of three forms: 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides (both sugars) 3. Polysaccharides Monosaccharides --------------- General formula: (CH2O)n where n is a number between 3 and 9. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms. The monosaccharides you will have to know fall into these categories: C = 3 = triose C = 4 = tetrose C = 5 = pentose C = 6 = hexose Trioses: (e.g....   [tags: Papers] 696 words
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Affects of Smoking on Plants - Cigarettes contain more than 4,000 different chemicals, including arsenic, acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Some of these chemicals actually may benefit the plant. Smoke of all kinds, including cigarette smoke, increases the amount of carbon dioxide where it is present. Plants use carbon dioxide to make sugars during photosynthesis. Its increased abundance, therefore, makes it easier for the plant to obtain. Smoke also contains carbon monoxide which plants are able to convert into carbon dioxide.....   [tags: Smoking, informative, expository] 703 words
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GMF and Effects on Human Health - Effects on Human Health       With the way technology has grown, especially in the field of genetic engineering, has led scientists to figure out a way to alter how food is made. This raises concerns and lot of questions regarding the methods they are using. From what possible side effects can occur to the risks it poses to everyone and everything. Unfortunately, there has been limited research and testing done. With that in mind there is not enough information available about the hazards of genetically modified foods....   [tags: genetic engineering genetically modified foods]
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The Rate of Reaction of Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide - The Rate of Reaction of Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide AIM: An investigation into the factors that affect the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase when reacted with Hydrogen Peroxide at various temperatures, to produce a volume of oxygen and water as products of this reaction. In this experiment I will attempt to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. By varying the temperature of the different reactions it will test the rate of reaction....   [tags: Papers] 704 words
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Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis Photosynthesis produces energy in the form of glucose it uses water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the suns light. Photosynthesis takes place in all plants that contain chlorophyll. Photosynthesis mainly takes place in the palisade mesophyll cell in the leaves of plants. The main reaction is to produce oxygen and glucose, glucose is stored in the form of starch and does not affect osmosis, taking place in the plant. As plants respire both night and day this starch is often used up during the night when photosynthesis cannot take place....   [tags: Papers] 708 words
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Rate of Catalase Activity - Rate of Catalase Activity Background Information Enzymes such as catalyse are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalyse is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Catalyse speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. It is able to speed up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide because of the shape of the Hydrogen Peroxide molecule....   [tags: Papers] 710 words
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Being Young & Pregnant - Being Young & Pregnant “Human beings are like tea bags. You don’t know your own strength until you get into how water”- Bruce Laingen, U.S. diplomat. Through out my teenage years I always had it made. I had security, support of my family, and other things. When I turned 16 I had found out something that would change my life forever, I was pregnant. Being pregnant at a young age is a very difficult thing to go through. It can be hard mentally, financially and also physically. Everyday, people are faced with choices....   [tags: Original Writing Personal Narrative] 714 words
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Diastase Experiment - Diastase Experiment Diastase is an enzyme that digests starch. It is most active at a normal pH (almost neutral), diastase comes from the Greek word diastases; A natural group of enzymes (Amylase and Amylase) that have the ability to break down starchy carbohydrates into simpler sugars acceptable to the yeast. Enzyme, having physiological, commercial, and historical significance, also called Amylase. Amylase, like other enzymes, works as a catalyst, i.e. it is unchanged by the reaction, but makes the reaction easier by reducing the energy required for it to happen....   [tags: Papers] 717 words
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Genetic Defects in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator - GENETIC DEFECTS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR (CFTR) Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to explain what Cystic Fibrosis is and also to explain what the causes of Cystic Fibrosis are. Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutation in a gene called Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Cystic Fibrosis is known as one of the most common life-shortening disease. More that 1,000 mutations in the CFTR gene have been found in people with Cystic Fibrosis....   [tags: Biology Medical CFTR Cystic Fibrosis]
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The Industrial Uses of Enzymes - The Industrial Uses of Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts made up of polymers of Amino Acids, and they’re very useful inside and outside our body. Enzymes, like other catalysts, speed up chemical reactions, and over 700 of their kind are known in today’s world, since being discovered in the 1850s. There are many industrial applications of enzymes, and they speed up processes that could take years to be completed. FERMENTATION: Making beer and whisky was known to humans for the past 8,000 years....   [tags: Papers] 718 words
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Cells and their parts - Cells are some of the smallest organisms around. All living things consist of cells, and yet they are invisible to the naked eye. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. Cells are made up of many different parts which allow them to function properly. All cells are separated from their surrounding by a cell membrane. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also aids in the protection and support of the cell. A cell membrane is similar to the walls surrounding your house....   [tags: essays research papers] 721 words
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Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria - Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicines....   [tags: Biology Science Biological Essays]
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Investigation of Enzymes and How They Work - Investigation of Enzymes and How They Work Aim:- The aim of this experiment is to see how long amylase takes to break down starch at different temperatures. What we must do to keep test fair:- The planning of this experiment is crucial. To make sure the test is kept fair we will need to:- Use the same volume of solutions each time Repeat each temperature at least 3 times We must wash the glass rod thoroughly after each time it’s put into the mixture The only thing that should change each time is the temperature....   [tags: Papers] 725 words
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Myogenic Cell Lines - ... A significant induction of apoptotic cells, overlapping the frequencies of non viable cells, was already observed after 1h of H2O2 exposure for both C2C12 and L6C5 cells, reaching about 25% ± 4.1 and 27% ± 3.6 in C2C12 and L6C5 cells, respectively (p < 0.05 with respect the untreated cultures). After 24 hrs of H2O2 - treatment the apoptotic index was 39% (C2C12) and 49% (L6C5). The combination between hGH and H2O2 showed not statistical differences with respect the treatment with H2O2 alone, either for the cytotoxic and the apoptotic effects (Fig....   [tags: Chemistry] 725 words
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Factors Affecting the Growth and Size of a Population - Factors Affecting the Growth and Size of a Population A population is defined as a number of organisms of the same species living together such that they influence each other's lives, e.g. they can reproduce, protect each other, compete with each other for food, shelter, space, light, water, etc. The population size of organisms changes over time, it increases with births and immigrants but decreases with deaths and emigrants. Below is a diagram that shows a population growth curve....   [tags: Papers] 728 words
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The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice - The Enzyme Concentration and The Volume of Juice As the enzyme concentration increases so too does the volume of juice. This is because as the concentration of enzyme molecules increase there is more chance of a collision with an apple substrate molecule. If the chance of a collision is increased then the number of collisions will increase resulting in a higher rate of reaction. The enzyme combines with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex. Enzyme + Substrate ¬¬¬> Enzyme-Substrate Complex The enzyme-substrate complex then breaks down to give the product and releases the enzyme in an unchanged form: Enzyme-Substrate Complex ¬¬¬> Product + Enzyme So I can conclude that the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the enzyme....   [tags: Papers] 729 words
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Investigation on Enzymes - Investigation on Enzymes Introduction Sam and Sarah planned and carried out an experiment to see the effect of pH on the activity of the enzyme amylase which breaks down starch into sugar. They decided to investigate 5 different pH's 2,4,6,8 and 10. 1. The used a measuring cylinder to measure out 5cm3 of starch and placed it in a test tube. They then added acid or alkali until they got to pH2. They checked this using indicator paper 2. They placed the test tube in a rack on the bench and added 5cm3 of amylase which they had also measured using a measuring cylinder....   [tags: Papers] 730 words
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The Effects of Maintaining a High Constant Body Temperature in Mammals - The Effects of Maintaining a High Constant Body Temperature in Mammals Endothermic organisms maintain a stable core body temperature through their own adapted physiological mechanisms and appropriate changes in its behavioural patterns. The ability of an endotherm to keep its internal environment at a constant temperature allows the enzymes catalysing the vital biochemical reactions to be close to their optimum temperature, giving an efficient metabolic rate. The metabolic rate is defined as the rate at which all the cells in the body carry out their biochemical reactions....   [tags: Papers] 731 words
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Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia It is a frightening disorder that strikes about one percent of the world population. It surfaces most frequently during puberty and has the potential to forever destroy the lives of the people who are unfortunate enough to be its victim. The disorder is schizophrenia and it manifests itself by disturbing normal psychiatric behavior. The symptoms of schizophrenia are characterized by both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and other unusual or disorganized behavior....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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The Process of Glycolysis - The Process of Glycolysis Nine reactions, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme, makeup the process we call glycolysis. ALL organisms have glycolysis occurring in their cytoplasm. At steps 1 and 3 ATP is converted into ADP, inputting energy into the reaction as well as attaching a phosphate to the glucose. At steps 6 and 9 ADP is converted into the higher energy ATP. At step 5 NAD+ is converted into NADH + H+. The process works on glucose, a 6-C, until step 4 splits the 6-C into two 3-C compounds....   [tags: Papers] 735 words
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Commercial Uses of Enzymes - Commercial Uses of Enzymes The use of enzymes to modify foods has increased vastly and these fermentations are continuing to be important, however, a new type of enzyme industry has evolved which involves the use of harvesting enzymes from microorganisms. The production of enzymes from bacteria and fungi can be isolated from the growth media and cleansed and purified as necessary. Generally in industrial processes the enzyme is immobilised which allows t h enzyme to be re-used and also enable the products to be separated easily....   [tags: Papers] 735 words
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Urea Cycle - Urea Cycle Nitrogen containing compounds cannot be stored in the body and therefore any excess of these must be excreted to prevent poisoning. Most aquatic species, such as bony fishes, excrete amino nitrogen as ammonia and are thus called amonotelic animals; most terrestrials animals excrete amino nitrogen in the form of urea and are thus ureotelic; and birds and reptiles excrete amino nitrogen as uric acid and are called uricotelic....   [tags: Papers] 735 words
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Genetics and Teeth - “Boston team finds way to grow new teeth in lab” The article I read was about some scientists that were able to grow teeth inside rats’ bodies. This project was led by Pamela C. Yelick, a scientist for Forsyth Institute, and the project was conducted in Massachusetts. Joseph P. Vacanti, a tissue engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital, and Yelick had the idea for the experiment. Vacanti had previously worked with rats and he found that cells will naturally organize themselves into tissues and other complex structures if they are placed in the right environment....   [tags: essays research papers] 736 words
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The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals - The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. When amino acids are linked together, they form polypeptide chains and bonded together by peptide bonds. There are different structures of polypeptides primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The primary structure is a straight chain of polypeptides. Secondary structure is the polypeptide chain coiling to form an α helix or the polypeptide chain linking together to form a β pleated strand....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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An Analysis and Evaluation of Data from Photosynthesis Experiments - An Analysis and Evaluation of Data from Photosynthesis Experiments Graph analysis This is my analysis for the investigation in to the affect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis to the Canadian pondweed, elodea. In the results the pattern is that when the light intensity is higher the readings are generally higher. On the graph the less the light intensity the lower the gradient of the curve. the equation for the photosynthesis process is; CO2 + 2H2O + Light Energy ========> [CH2O} + O2 + H2O, This shows that when the light intensity is increased the rate of reaction will be more quicker he only anomalous result there was, is the one in the 100 watt result the reading after 5 minutes is anomalous because it does not follow the predicted pattern of increasing in the production of gas because it is lower I know from my own knowledge of photosynthesise that when the light intensity is increased the rate of reaction will be more quicker because many plants and trees photosynthesise quicker in stronger light and photosynthesise slower in dimly lit places....   [tags: Papers] 738 words
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Medicine and Industry - The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Medicine and Industry What is an enzyme. ================== In relative terms enzymes are biological catalysts; control the rate of chemical reaction, different temperatures and pH’s affect their optimum rate of reaction in living organisms. In detail; enzymes are globular proteins, which catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms, they are produced by living cells – each cell has hundreds of enzymes. Cells can never run out of enzymes as they or used up in a reaction....   [tags: Papers] 739 words
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The Role of Water in the Lives of Organisms - The Role of Water in the Lives of Organisms Water is perhaps the most important molecule for the survival and life of all living organisms because there is a wide spectrum of roles that it plays. The fact that the earth's surface consists of 70.8% water shows its significance and importance. ====================================================================== Firstly, water has the chemical formula Hg0 (two Hydrogen atoms to one Oxygen atom), the covalent bonds between which create cohesive forces....   [tags: Papers] 740 words
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The Biological Significance Of The Properties Of Water - The Biological Significance Of The Properties Of Water The human body 15% lipids, 12% proteins but by far the biggest % is water which makes up a massive 70% of the human body. This is the equivalent of 49kg in an average male adult human of mass 70kg. This is a good indication of just how important water is in the human life. Without water we would not be able to life and Earth is therefore the only planet in this galaxy with life as we know it except for Mars where ice has been discovered so water may have been present once....   [tags: Papers] 741 words
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The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast - The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast Aim:To investigate the effect of glucose concentration on anaerobic respiration in yeast. Equipment list: 2* conical flask Delivery tube with bung Dropper Yeast Glucose Limewater Water bath Stopwatch Measuring Cylinder Method:I am going to do 5 tests & each test will be performed 3 times to get an average result. In one conical flask, I will mix together 25ml of yeast & 25ml of a glucose solution, with a delivery tube with a bung in the top of it and leave it for 5 min so it gets acclimatised; in the other conical flask I will put enough water to cover the end of the delivery tube....   [tags: Papers] 750 words
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Viruses: Complex Molecules Or Simple Life Forms? - Viruses: Complex Molecules or Simple Life Forms. Viruses have been defined as "entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause the synthesis of specialised elements that can transfer the genome to other cells." They are stationaryand are unable to grow. Because of all these factors, it is debatable whether viruses are the most complex of molecules or the simplest life forms. While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms....   [tags: essays research papers] 752 words
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Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells - Gene expression is the ability of a gene to produce a biologically active protein. This process is regulated by the cells of an organism, it is very important to the survival of organisms at all levels. This is much more complex in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. A major difference is the presence in eukaryotes of a nuclear membrane, which prevents the simultaneous transcription and translation that occurs in prokaryotes. Initiation of protein transcription is started by RNA polymerase. The activity of RNA polymerase is regulated by interaction with regulatory proteins; these proteins can act both positively, as activators, and negatively as repressors....   [tags: essays research papers] 754 words
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Diabetes: An Overview - Diabetes: A Sugar Rush Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. It is a lifelong illness that can affect both adults and children. It is considered to be one of the leading causes of deaths in the United States right after heart attacks and cancer (medicinenet). Due to the life threatening nature of diabetes, the necessity of controlling it is absolutely essential. Diabetes is a very serious disease with many life threatening consequences, but if it is taken care of properly, diabetics can live a normal life....   [tags: medicine, medical conditions, informative] 754 words
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Mitochondria - Mitochondria Mitochondria are tiny organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They are rather large organelles ranging from 0.5µm to 10µm in length and 1µm in diameter. The mitochondria are the energy factories of the cell and are located in the cytoplasm. They are the sites of cellular respiration. The mitochondria are responsible for generating ATP from such organic fuels as simple sugars and fats in the process of cellular respiration. This doubled-membrane organelle has its own DNA and can reproduce by splitting itself....   [tags: essays research papers] 756 words
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Fermentation of Apple Cider - Fermentation of Apple Cider “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence.” – Louis Pasteur, Great French Scientist (1822-1892). Fermentation is chemical changes in organic substances produced by the action of enzymes. This general definition includes virtually all chemical reactions of physiological importance, and scientists today often restrict the term to the action of specific enzymes, called ferments, produced by minute organisms such as molds, bacteria, and yeasts....   [tags: Papers] 756 words
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How heat Influences the Production of Fatty Acids when Milk is Digested by the Enzyme Lipase - How heat Influences the Production of Fatty Acids when Milk is Digested by the Enzyme Lipase Preliminary experiment Plan & Cary Out a series of Experiments to Investigate One of the Variables that Influences the Production of Fatty Acids when Milk is Digested by the Enzyme Lipase My Experiment Plan & Cary Out a series of Experiments to investigate how heat Influences the Production of Fatty Acids when Milk is Digested by the Enzyme Lipase Equipment -Milk -Test Tube -Test Tube Rack -Pipettes -Beakers -Thermometer -Phenol Red (Phenolphthalein) -Sodium Carbonate Solution -Lipase Solution -Hot Water -A Kettle Fair Test / Control of Variables In order for my test many things must keep constant....   [tags: Papers] 761 words
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Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution - Experiment to Demonstrate the Action of Amylase on Starch Solution Plan ==== Scientific knowledge: Substances called catalysts speed up many chemical reactions. Catalysts called enzymes control the metabolic reactions in the body. Amylase is an enzyme; it is present in the digestive systems of many animals. Amylase speeds up the breakdown of long chain starch molecules. I know that the more common enzymes work best at around 37.c as this is our natural body temperature....   [tags: Papers] 764 words
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Genetic Engineering - Power of Gene Therapy - The Power of Gene Therapy Each day as our technology advances, we become aware of new diseases and disorders. We also find effective ways to alleviate a number of these problems. In the last decade, gene therapy has been found to treat a portion of life-threatening illnesses such as Cystic Fibrosis, Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID), and Alzheimer's disease. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that affects the exogenous secreting glands of the body and generates thickened secretions, therefore blocking certain functions of the lungs and pancreas....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Importance of Monera - Importance of Monera a)Production of food: cheese, yogurt, vinegar, wine, sour cream, etc. b)Industry : cleaning up petroleum, remove waste products from the water, synthesize drugs and chemicals. Symbiosis : The interdependence of different species, which are sometimes called symbionts. There are three main types of symbiosis, based upon the specific relationship between the species involved: mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. Symbiosis that results in mutual benefit to the interdependent organisms is commonly known as mutualism....   [tags: essays papers] 768 words
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Genetically Modified Foods - Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions....   [tags: essays research papers] 773 words
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Allotropes of Carbon - Allotropes of Carbon Allotropes are different forms of the same element in the same state. Carbon has 3 allotropes : diamond , graphite and buckminster fullerene. Diamond Graphite Buckminster Fullerene -------------------------------------- Properties and Uses =================== Diamond: Is extremely hard and can be used as jewelry or in cutting tools.It does not conduct electricity. Graphite: Is soft and can be used as a lubricant. It conducts electricity. Hydrocarbons ============ Any compound which is made up only of the elements hydrogen and carbon is called a hydrocarbon....   [tags: Papers] 773 words
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The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine - The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes have a wide range of applications and they are used in industry and in medicine to perform numerous different tasks to get specific results. The market for commercially produced enzymes is catalysts is very large because enzymes are used in reactions to speed up a specific process therefore making the process cheaper for the company since they work best in aqueous solutions at atmospheric pressure and at low temperatures....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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Exploration of Light Microscopes - Exploration of Light Microscopes What does the word microscope mean: The first part of the word "Micro" means tiny. The "scope" part means to look at or view. Microscopes are tools that are used too enlarge images of small objects so that they can be studied. A light microscope is an instrument made up of two lens they are eyepiece lens and the object lens combined they produce a much greater magnification that what is possible with just one single lens. The microscope also has a variety of knobs to focus the picture seen thought the microscope....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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The Effect of Temperature on the Respiration of Yeast - The Effect of Temperature on the Respiration of Yeast Aim I aim to find how temperatures effects the rate of respiration of yeast and there by finding the optimum temperature at which yeast respires and I aim to see if an increase in temperature has a positive or negative affect on the reaction. Prediction I predict that the optimum temperature at which yeast respires will be 40oC and so will release more Carbon Dioxide and much above that temperature, the yeast will not respire much at all and less Carbon Dioxide will be collected....   [tags: Papers] 774 words
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The Seven Categories of Disease - The Seven Categories of Disease The seven categories of disease are very difficult to define, because many diseases are multifunctional in both there symptoms and how someone comes about developing such diseases. In this essay I am going to attempt to separate them into some form of structure. Physical disease is when the body is physically unable to function. An example of a physical disease would be Cerebral palsy. This is a disease that is thought to be the result of trauma to a child's brain before, during or after birth....   [tags: Papers] 775 words
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Research on Mathematical Calculations of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues and CO2 Molecules - Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al....   [tags: molecules, science,] 777 words
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The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Peroxidase Enzyme - The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Peroxidase Enzyme Aim To find the effect of temperature on an enzyme in this case peroxidase, by studying it decomposing hydrogen peroxide. Planning I am measuring the amount of gas given off in the reaction. By collecting this figure I can determine the rate of reaction. If I know the rate of reaction I can find out what temperature peroxidase works best at. Equipment · Trough · Clamp · 100ml measuring cylinder · Stop clock · 10ml measuring cylinder · Delivery tubes · Bung · Conical flask Variables Change The temperature of the reactants: 60 50 40 30 20 10 Control Amount of peroxidase (10ml) Amount of hydrogen peroxide (20ml) Length of experiment (2min) Time between measurements (15sec) Equipment used Safety I will keep my safety goggles on at all times to prevent painful eye injury....   [tags: Papers] 779 words
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The unsuccesful use of ethanol - The Unsuccessful Use of Ethanol Current interest in ethanol fuel in the United States mainly lies in bio-ethanol, produced from corn, but there has been considerable debate about how useful bio-ethanol will be in replacing fossil fuels in vehicles. Concerns relate to the large amount of arable land required for crops, as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol production. I don't think the US could implement the use of ethanol or other alternate fuels successfully as Brazil has done for many reasons: firstly, ethanol production in the United States does not benefit the nation's energy security, its agriculture, economy or the environment because ethanol production requires large fossil energy input to produce these fuels than you get out from the combustion of these products....   [tags: Alternative fuel bio-ethanol] 779 words
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The Nature of the Genetic Code - The Nature of the Genetic Code “One of the most remarkable facts of life is that each cell in an organism contains all the information required to determine all the characteristics of that whole organism”[1]. This information is an organism’s genome, and is made up of the genetic code and is found in its DNA. The code determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein, the manufacture of which is one of the cell’s most important roles. All the proteins in an organism are determined by four bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine....   [tags: Papers] 781 words
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Investigating Respiration of Yeast - Investigating Respiration of Yeast Aim === To find out what the best temperature is for yeast to respire. Prediction ========== To first make a prediction I need to know what yeast actually is. Yeast is a fungus, but with a difference, it consists of single cells and thrives in places where there is plenty of sugar (which is why sugar is included in this investigation). Yeast can carry out anaerobic respiration, known as fermentation. Knowing that yeast is a living thing I can predict that: Yeast respires best at room temperature (35-37°C) I came to this prediction because most living things do respire best at this temperature....   [tags: Papers] 782 words
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Drinking Alcohol and Smoking Tobacco - A Deadly Duo - Alcohol and Tobacco: A Deadly Duo Cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts claimed over 23,000 lives in 1989 and 57,000 additional cases were diagnosed. The majority of individuals who fall prey to this type of cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. The Risk The fact that the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx or larynx, increases dramatically in people who are heavy users of alcohol and tobacco is substantiated by 30 years of collective research....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 783 words
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The Rate at Which Amylase can Change Starch to Glucose - The Rate at Which Amylase can Change Starch to Glucose This is going to be an investigation into the enzyme Amylase, an enzyme is a biological catalyst used for speeding up the rate of a reaction. In this experiment, I am going to see the amount of time it takes the enzyme to change starch to glucose, at different temperatures, up to 8 minutes. Aim: To find the rate at which Amylase can change starch to glucose at different temperatures Apparatus: I have decided to use the following equipment in order to carry out my experiment: Thermometer Ice Measuring Cylinder Gauze Bunsen Burner Beaker Tripod Iodine Heat-Proof Mat Boiling Tube 2 Stopwatch Test Tube Rack Spotting Tile 1% solution of amylase 10ml 1% solution of starch 10ml Variables: There will be certain other variables, aside from temperature, which I have chosen to study, I will be careful not to change 1) Concentration 2) Volume 3) Pollution 4) pH Fair Test: I am going to vary the temperature and control all of the other variables....   [tags: Papers] 784 words
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Dairy Products - ... Uses of animal rennet became limited for religious reasons .Most of Muslim people consider that cheese is produced by an enzyme which comes from an animal and slaughtered on the non Islamic way no halaal. And also soybean cheese for vegetarian people who did not eat animal product .. Calf rennet which prepared and obtained from the fourth stomach of calves sucking (Nagodawithana & Reed, 1993) one of the important enzymes is traditionally used for cheese making all over the world . Since 1960s....   [tags: Nutrition, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals] 786 words
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Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes. To start off, a protein is made in a ribosome. There are many cellular mechanisms involved with protein synthesis. Before the process of protein synthesis can be described, a person must know what proteins are made out of. There are four basic levels of protein organization. The first is primary structure, followed by secondary structure, then tertiary structure, and the last level is quaternary structure. Once someone understands the makeup of a protein, they can then begin to learn how elements can combine and go from genes to protein....   [tags: Protein Synthesis Biology DNA Essays] 787 words
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Cerebral Pasy vs Muscular Dystrophy - Cerebral Pasy vs Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is a rare inherited muscle disease in which the muscle fibers are unusually susceptible to damage. The muscles, primarily the voluntary muscles, become progressively weaker. In the late stages of muscular dystrophy, muscle fibers often are replaced by fat and connective tissue. There are several types of muscular dystrophy. The various types of the disease affect more than 50,000 Americans. Many are associated with specific genetic abnormalities.The most common muscular dystrophies appear to be due to a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein dystrophin....   [tags: essays papers]
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The Effect of pH on the Digestion of Casein by Trypsin - The Effect of pH on the Digestion of Casein by Trypsin When planning the experiment, the equipment and method had to be well thought-out in order for the experiment to be accurate and efficient. Firstly, I have chose to use a 1% trypsin concentration then altered it to 0.8%, because a higher concentration means more trypsin molecules in the solution and therefore more enzyme substrate complexes are likely to occur with the casein in the milk, causing digestion of the casein to be faster....   [tags: Papers] 789 words
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Inhibitory Potential Changes of Fluoxetine (Prozac) - Inhibitory Potential Changes of Fluoxetine (Prozac) Over the past several decades many scientists have explored the various possible links between the function of neurotransmitters in the brain and mood disorders. The neurotransmitter serotonin, found widely in plants, animals and humans has been a particular focus. Scientists who specialize in examining the function and effect of serotonin on the mind and body argue that imbalances in the levels and function of serotonin can be linked to disturbances in mood, anxiety, satiety, cognition, aggression and sexual drives (Tollefson and Rosenbalum, 2001)....   [tags: Biology Medicine Research Papers]
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Exploring Proteins - Exploring Proteins Different proteins can appear very different and perform diverse functions (e.g. the water-soluble antibodies involved in the immune system and the water-insoluble keratin of hair, hooves and feathers). Despite this, each one is made up of amino acid subunits. There about 20 different amino acids that all have a similar chemical structure but behave in very different ways because they have different side groups. Hence, stringing them together in different combinations produces very different proteins....   [tags: Papers] 792 words
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How Temperature Affects Enzyme Reactions - How Temperature Affects Enzyme Reactions I am planning to perform an experiment to find out how and if temperature affects the rate of which enzyme reacts. The enzyme I will be using will be amylase. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down starch so we will test at what temperature the amylase will break down the starch at the quickest time, therefore looking for the enzymes’ optimum temperature, at a temperature lower than the unknown optimum the amylase will work slower meaning more time taken to break down slower, how ever if heated too much, unlike in other reaction were heat usually speeds up reactions, but in an enzyme it will become less effective once the optimum temperature is passed until it stops working at which we can say the enzyme has become denatured....   [tags: Papers] 793 words
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Prokaryotic Cells - Prokaryotic Cells All living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest units that can be alive. Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells, and do not have a nucleus....   [tags: Papers] 794 words
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The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases - The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules within the body, each consisting of a unique three-dimensional shape. They make up approximately 50 % of the mass of each cell and consist of functions ranging from enzyme proteases in the stomach such as Trypsin, to hormones, which are transported in the blood such as Adrenaline....   [tags: Papers] 794 words
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Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria - Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria Introduction Urea was the first organic chemical to be synthetically produced1, previously it was thought that only living creatures could produce organic compounds Urea is naturally produced by the kidneys as waste from the degradation of amino acids. It is because of this that urea is commonly found in soils and is a useful nutrient source for bacteria that are able to utilise it, such as, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumonia, all species of Proteus and Micrococcus luteus....   [tags: Biology]
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The Peroxides Investigation - The Peroxides Investigation Introduction Peroxides is the incorrect name for this enzyme the correct term is catalase. It catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. It is present in all body cells especially LIVER cells which are very active. catalase [IMAGE]Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen catalase [IMAGE]2h2O2 2h2O+O2 Enzymes are biological catalysts and a catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of reaction during the reaction it gets changed e.g....   [tags: Papers] 797 words
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The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes Activity - The Effect of Temperature on Enzymes Activity Introduction During digestion, large insoluble molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are broken down into small soluble molecules by enzymes. An enzyme is a protein molecule made up of living cells, which speeds up or catalyses the rate of chemical reactions. We are going to investigate how temperature effects the way enzymes work. We are going to use the enzyme trypsin which digests protein. Enzymes are named according to the type of molecule they break down e.g....   [tags: Papers] 799 words
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Induction of B-galactosidase - Induction of B-galactosidase Background knowledge. DNA is reproduced by cells for each copy of cells that are made. The cell however, doesn’t need the entire DNA; and is able to turn certain bits that aren’t needed on and off. This is useful, as the cell doesn’t use up lots of energy making things that aren’t needed. For example, the enzyme amylase, which breaks down starch, doesn’t need to be made in the big toe. The cell does this in a number of ways, one way is by ‘super coiling’, where the unwanted DNA gets coiled up into an unreadable ball or coil....   [tags: Papers] 800 words
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Heart Attacks - A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to a portion of the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped. This happens when one of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle is blocked by an obstruction. This blockage can be due to a condition called atherosclerosis (a build up of fatty like substance along the wall of the artery), a blood clot or a coronary vessel spasm along with a total obstruction. If the blood supply to a portion of the heart stops, that area of the heart will no longer receive the oxygen or nutrients needed to carry out its function and will die....   [tags: essays research papers] 801 words
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Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes - Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes An experiment to investigate how temperature affects the Permeability of beetroot cell membranes Interpretation of Results: 0°C 20°C 30°C 40°C 55°C 0.24 0.28 0.75 0.79 0.22 0.26 0.35 0.41 0.81 From 0°C to 30°C there is a gradual increase of absorbency which shows that as the temperature increases it is denaturing the cell wall and cell membrane and allowing the beetroot pigment to leek out into the distilled water. As soon as the sample of beetroot is placed into the distilled water diffusion occurs naturally, which is the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration (beetroot sample) to a region of low concentration (distilled water)....   [tags: Biology Science Experiments Essays] 803 words
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Genetically Produced Insulin as the Right Way to Treat Diabetes - Genetically Produced Insulin as the Right Way to Treat Diabetes In this project I plan to research and evaluate different methods of producing human insulin for treating people with diabetes. The main methods I will research and evaluate are methods that use some sort of genetic modification process. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by beta cells. Insulin is necessary to remove excess sugar from the blood, by moving it into other body tissues where it is used as energy(9)....   [tags: Papers] 803 words
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Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase - Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Aim: An experiment to find out how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. Background Information: Enzymes such as catalase are globular protein molecules with catalytic properties. A catalyst is a substrate which can alter the rate of reaction without itself undergoing any permanent change. As they are not changed my reactions which they catalyse, enzymes can be used over and over again....   [tags: Papers] 804 words
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The Use of Enzymes in Industrial Processes - The Use of Enzymes in Industrial Processes 2. An enzyme is a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. Enzymes are used in industrial processes such as: Baking, Brewing, Detergents, Fermented products, Pharmaceuticals, Textiles, Starch processing. Here are a range of processes showing how enzymes are used Use in Baking-1 The wheat flour used to make bread contains naturally occurring enzymes that change the starch, protein and fibre in the flour when water is added....   [tags: Papers] 804 words
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An Account of Proteins and Their Structure - An Account of Proteins and Their Structure It is difficult to describe in a simple sentence the role of proteins. Let's say: When there is something to do, it is a protein that does it. Some examples of proteins * Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms. * Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell. * Enzymes: assemble or digest. The role (or function) of a protein depends on its shape, and chemical formula....   [tags: Papers] 807 words
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Action of Amylase on Starch - Action of Amylase on Starch Introduction All of the chemical reactions in our body require enzymes. Enzymes break down large molecules into smaller molecules. Starch, proteins and fats are large molecules, which are too large to pass through cell membranes. But simple sugars, amino acids and fatty acids (glycerol) are much smaller molecules that can easily pass through cell membranes. In order for these molecules to pass through the cell wall, they need to be broken down by the enzymes....   [tags: Papers] 813 words
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