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Your search returned 200 essays for "enzymes":
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Effects of pH on Enzyme Activity - ... Graph 2: averages and standard deviation of volume of foam produced It is clearly shown that the maximum variation in the volume of foam produced is seen in the trials involving a basic pH and the lowest variation is seen in the trials involving and acidic pH T-test Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference of the enzyme activity between the trials with acidic and basic pH compared to the neutral pH (the control) t-test with TI84: stat → edit → L1: average foam volume of foam for acidic pHs in ml; L2: average volume of foam for neutral pHs in m → stat → tests → 2-sample TTest t=22.08 t-test with TI84: stat → edit → L1: average volume of foam for alkaline pHs in ml; L2:...   [tags: research question, investigation]
:: 1 Works Cited
1693 words
(4.8 pages)
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Creating New Enzyme Actions De Novo - ABSTRACT Enzymes are molecules, specifically proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, accelerate the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy. Nucleic acid RNA molecules called ribozymes can also act as enzymes and catalyze reactions. The development of new enzymes for the synthesis of chemical reactions, pharmaceuticals, and tools for molecular biology is a new and upcoming interest. Work has previously been done in the development for modifying and improving already existing enzymes....   [tags: Biology Catalyst] 1726 words
(4.9 pages)
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Enzyme - The plot of enzyme activity Vs. pH is often "bell shaped" since two different amino acid groups of the enzyme are being titrated to different states of ionization at the different pH values. This means that only one of the two possible ionization states of the amino acid side chain is effective in enzyme catalysis - in other words, if an acidic side chain like Glu is involved in catalysis, it probably only works when it is ionized; since Glu side chain carboxylic acid groups have a pK around pH 5, at pH values below this pK, the enzyme will be less active; while at pH values above the pK, the enzyme will be most active....   [tags: essays research papers] 1727 words
(4.9 pages)
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A Scientific Study of the Lactase Enzyme - Section 1: Introduction Enzymes are proteins that are used to accelerate bio chemical reactions. Enzymes can only react with what is called a substrate. This is because the enzyme has a specific working property, such as having a distinct shape that only allows a perfect fit of a substrate. This substrate locks itself to the enzyme and produces a product. Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, a milk disaccharide of galactose and glucose. Lactase can only be found inside the inner walls of the small intestine....   [tags: enzymes, lactase, environmental factors]
:: 3 Works Cited
1737 words
(5 pages)
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Milk and Rennin - Research into Enzymes &#8211; For Biology Rennin Rennet, substance found in the gastric juices of young milk-drinking mammals. Rennet contains a milk-coagulating enzyme, called rennin or chymosin, the active principle of rennet preparations used in making cheese and junket. Rennet extracts are commercially prepared from the inner lining of the fourth stomach of calves. Enzymes Enzymes are large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. In their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place....   [tags: essays research papers] 1739 words
(5 pages)
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Taking a Look at Chymotrypsin - ... It was found that the reaction of chymotrypsin with its substrate takes place in two stages, an initial “burst” phase at the beginning of the reaction and a steady-state phase following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. It is also called "ping-pong" mechanism. The mode of action of chymotrypsin explains this as hydrolysis takes place in two steps. First acylation of the substrate to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and then deacylation in order to return the enzyme to its original state. This occurs via the concerted action of the three amino acid residues in the catalytic triad....   [tags: digestive enzyme components] 1745 words
(5 pages)
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The Enzyme Catalase Experiment - The Enzyme Catalase Experiment Aim A series of experiments involving the enzyme Catalase has been performed in order to determine some of the enzyme's properties. The enzyme had its reaction rate found in different conditions. Variation of enzyme concentration, variation of pH, variation of temperature, and the effect of different concentrations of inhibitors were all tested. Increasing the enzyme concentration increased the reaction rate. An optimum pH and temperature were found for the enzyme, outside of this optimum the reaction rate would be lower....   [tags: Papers] 1751 words
(5 pages)
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Lactase Enzyme Lab Report - ... Quickly add 1 mL of lactase to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Lactase” and “Sucrose + Lactase, “ and 1 mL of water to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Water” and “Sucrose + Water.” Once each tube has their proper solutions start the 2-minute timer. Once the 2-minute timer stops, place one glucose strip into each test tube to test for the glucose levels in each solution. The glucose strips were placed into the tubes only for a few seconds and then removed. Use the test strips indicator to test the levels of glucose and record the amount of glucose you see....   [tags: biochemistry in dairy products]
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1772 words
(5.1 pages)
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Enzyme Activity in the Catalase - The purpose of this experiment was to see if there would be enzyme activity that is in catalase, which is found in potatoes. How my partner and me did the experiment was very simple, we put the filter paper filled with catalase concentration in to five sets of hydrogen peroxide. We found that the more concentration of hydrogen peroxide there was the faster it would take for the filter paper to reach the top, and the lower to no concentration level of hydrogen peroxide was the slower it would go to reach the top....   [tags: catalyst, potatoes, experiment] 1803 words
(5.2 pages)
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Enzymes as Methods of Treatment for Human Conditions - Practically all biological reactions are orchestrated by enzymes. Although there are a few nucleic acids as enzymes, typically they are globular proteins. The function of any enzyme is to act as a catalyst, lowering the energy of activation and increasing the rate of a reaction. Enzymes increase reaction rates by magnitudes of as much as trillions. Such extreme control over reaction rates gives enzymes the ability to decide which reactions will or will not occur. Because of this fact many drugs used for therapeutic purposes act by inhibiting enzyme activities; thus, some enzymes are actually drug targets, and can be seen as methods of treatment for conditions such as hypertension, inflamm...   [tags: hypertension, HIV, inflammation] 1867 words
(5.3 pages)
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Enzymes in Brewing Industry - Enzymes in Brewing Industry Bioengineering Research Paper Enzymes are catalysts or proteins that are produced by a living cell, but in process are independent of the cell itself. There are two types of enzymes i.e 1) Cell Independent enzymes 2) Non-enzymic enzymes Enzymes are long chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. They exist in all living cells, usually controlling the metabolic process whereby nutrients are converted into energy. Enzymes are also catalyst, this mean that enzymes can speed up chemical processes that would normally move very slowly....   [tags: essays papers]
:: 4 Works Cited
1894 words
(5.4 pages)
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Investigating Amylase - Investigating Amylase Aim: The aim of the experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures, and therefore to find the optimum temperature that amylase digests starch. Introduction: Thousands of chemical reactions take place in our cells and those reactions need to happen quickly in order to keep us active. These chemicals are called ENZYMES. Enzymes make reactions happen at a much faster rate. Enzymes come in two main types, breakers and builders....   [tags: Papers] 1938 words
(5.5 pages)
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Purification of Milk Process and Chemical Reactions - In this study, a three step purification of alkaline phosphatase from non-pasteurized milk was reported. It included cream extraction, n-butanol treatment and acetone precipitation. Different parameters like buffer concentration, temperature, pH, substrate concentration, acetone and n-butanol treatment were optimized to maximize the enzyme activity. The enzyme was fruitfully purified upto homogeneity from the milk, with percentage recovery and fold purification of 56.17 and 17.67 respectively. The kinetic parameter were determined to be 0.927 (Km) and 55.86 (Vmax), with specific activity of 11.31 U/mg....   [tags: alkaline phosphatase, enzyme extraction]
:: 16 Works Cited
1955 words
(5.6 pages)
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The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Protease on Photographic Film - The Effect of Temperature on the Action of Protease on Photographic Film Aim: to show the effect of temperature on the action of protease on photographic film Prediction: I predict that as the temperature of the enzyme increases, so will the rate of reaction. However, I only predict this until a certain temperature and beyond perhaps 60(optimum temperature) the enzyme will stop working as well and both the enzyme and the substrate will become slightly deformed. As the temperature rises, molecules move much faster and as a result have more energy....   [tags: Papers] 1955 words
(5.6 pages)
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The Effect of Changing the Concentration of the Enzyme Catalyst on the Rate of Reaction on Hydrogen Peroxide - The Effect of Changing the Concentration of the Enzyme Catalyst on the Rate of Reaction on Hydrogen Peroxide Planning -------- Hydrogen Peroxide Water + Oxygen 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 Introduction - Background Information ------------------------------------- To help me understand what a chemical reaction is or involves I did some research. A chemical reaction is a process by which atoms or groups of atoms are redistributed, resulting in a change in the molecular composition of substances....   [tags: Papers] 1965 words
(5.6 pages)
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The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase - The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase A Level Biology Project Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. Introduction This is a real A-level school project and as such is intended for educational or research purposes only. Extracts of this project must not be included in any projects that you submit for marking. Doing this could lead to being disqualified from all the subjects that you are taking....   [tags: biology experiment, chemistry experiment] 2003 words
(5.7 pages)
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Activity of the Enzyme Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide - Activity of the Enzyme Catalase with Hydrogen Peroxide Background Information: An enzyme (Catalase) is a biological catalyst. It can modify the rate of reaction without being changed itself. Enzymes are also globular proteins that have a three-dimensional specific shape; among with a pocket known as the active site, this has a precise shape to link with the exact substrate. Every enzyme are capable of converting one kind of substrate molecule into one kind of product molecule, which forms the enzyme-substrate complex....   [tags: Papers] 2153 words
(6.2 pages)
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Enzyme Lab Report - ... The test tubes were labeled as follows: A. Milk and lactase, B. Milk and water, C. Sucrose and lactase, and D. Sucrose and water. We then label our four micropipettes using a sharpie as: milk, lactase, sucrose, and water. Paper towels to rest the micropipettes may be an efficient way to keep the area clean and the micropipettes, and a timer to keep track of time. The four glucose strips to determine the results at the end of the experiment are by far the most important, and of course a lab bench to place the test tubes on....   [tags: function under environmental factors] 2179 words
(6.2 pages)
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Cloning and Sequencing a Portion of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene from the Leaves of Soleirolia Soleirolii -  Cloning and Sequencing a Portion of Glyceraldehyde-3-phospate Dehydrogenase Gene from the Leaves of Soleirolia Soleirolii December 13, 2013 Introduction Without energy, plants cease to exist. Energy is a vital part in the process known as photosynthesis. In this pathway of photosynthesis, glycolysis helps yields ATP and NADH. The ATP released through glycolysis is energy that is reused to go through another production of photosynthesis. The Glyceraldehyde 3-phsophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene is important in the process of glycolysis....   [tags: glycolysis, photosynthesis, cancer, enzyme]
:: 7 Works Cited
2187 words
(6.2 pages)
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Enzymes Investigation - Enzymes Investigation In this investigation, I will assess how changing the concentration of substrate affects the rate at which an enzyme-catalysed reaction occurs. An enzyme is a biological catalyst. It speeds up a reaction but does not react itself. Enzymes usually catalyse the breakdown of substances into less complex substances. The substance an enzyme acts on is known as the substrate. Each enzyme is specific to one substrate. Enzymes work best in specific conditions of temperature and pH....   [tags: Papers] 2251 words
(6.4 pages)
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Rate of Reaction Using Enzymes - Rate of Reaction Using Enzymes In this bit of coursework I will be investigating the rate of reaction in which enzymes are the catalyst breaking down a substrate. The substrate I am going to use is Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2, water with another Oxygen), this molecule usually breaks down on its own accord, but also the rate of decomposition can be increased with the use of a catalyst; in this case the catalyst is a biological one called an enzyme. Hydrogen Peroxide slowly breaks down on its own accord into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2): 2 H2O2 à 2H2O + O2 Hydrogen Peroxide à Water + Oxygen In my experiment, I want to investigate the rate of reaction with an...   [tags: Papers] 2254 words
(6.4 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysed Reaction - Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Catalysed Reaction To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reaction I must know all the factors that affect it in order to investigate in this. Here are all the factors: Temperature- Enzyme like it warm but not too hot. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which speed up chemical reactions. They work most efficiently at the optimum point (37°C). If they are below 37°C they will work slower....   [tags: Papers] 2265 words
(6.5 pages)
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Investigating Oxygen Produced From a Reaction - Investigating Oxygen Produced From a Reaction The objective of this coursework is to investigate how the surface area of the potato affects the amount of oxygen produced from the reaction: Hydrogen peroxide [IMAGE] water + oxygen Potato (Catalyst) Catalase Introduction: Enzymes are found in every living organism. An enzyme is a biological catalyst which speeds up a chemical reaction in an organism. Catalase is found in the liver but it is also found in potatoes....   [tags: Papers] 2314 words
(6.6 pages)
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Investigation on the Enzyme Trypsin - Investigation on the Enzyme Trypsin An Investigation determining a factor affecting the rate of digestion of gelatin by the protease trypsin. Introduction An enzyme is a biological catalyst, which speeds up reactions. An example of this in the human body is trypsin (a protease produced in the pancreas and used in the stomach), which catalyses the digestion of gelatine, a protein. For this investigation, a photographic film will be the source of the gelatine. I will be able to identify when the gelatine is digested, when the photographic film turns from a dark brown colour, to being transparent....   [tags: Papers] 2374 words
(6.8 pages)
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Investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction - To investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction PREDICTION: An enzyme is a biological catalyst. They speed up the rate of a reaction however they do not affected themselves whilst doing this, which is why they are catalysts. Enzymes are made to be specific, this means that they can have only one substrate that they will work on. Each enzyme has an active site that is where their own specific substrate’s molecule will fit into. The enzymes catalyze chemical reactions beginning with the binding of the substrate to the active site on the enzyme....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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2404 words
(6.9 pages)
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Quantity of Enzymes and the Rate of Reaction with the Substrate - Is there a relationship between the quantity of enzymes and the rate of reaction with the substrate. Hypothesis Using my scientific knowledge my hypothesis is that as the quantity of enzymes increases so will the rate of reaction. Reasons for this hypothesis I am basing my hypothesis on a hypothesis known as the ‘lock and key hypothesis.’ It explains that when an enzyme substrate complex forms by means of a spontaneous reaction the substrate fits into the active site like a key fits a lock. It is known as a spontaneous reaction not because it happens spontaneously but because it requires initial energy in order for the reaction to take place and the products have less energy than the reac...   [tags: essays research papers] 2466 words
(7 pages)
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Comparing Free to Immobilised Amylase Enzyme in Its Catalysis Rate - Comparing Free to Immobilised Amylase Enzyme in Its Catalysis Rate Method: First of all, the Immobilised enzymes need to be made. The method used to create these immobilised enzymes would be Micro encapsulation. This means that the enzyme used, in this experiment being Amylase, is encapsulated inside Sodium alginate. The enzyme was believed to act quickly, so the enzyme would have to be slightly diluted in order to get a good range of results. !0cm³ of Amylase will be added to 20cm³ of Sodium alginate, and then mixed....   [tags: Papers] 2467 words
(7 pages)
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The Rate of Hydrolysis of Sucrose - The Rate of Hydrolysis of Sucrose Hypothesis - The digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose is carried out by the presence of the enzyme Sucrase. The activity of the enzyme will be greatest at its optimum temperature since at this temperature the enzyme's tertiary structure will be correct to allow the formation of the substrate-enzyme complex quickly and efficiently. This should be at 37°C (body temperature), which is the temperature of the ileum where Sucrase is secreted and naturally functions....   [tags: Biology Science Experiments Essays] 2531 words
(7.2 pages)
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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ - Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule] 2578 words
(7.4 pages)
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Analysis of the Enzyme Sucrase for Optimum Temperature, pH, and Concentration - Analysis of the Enzyme Sucrase for Optimum Temperature, pH, and Concentration ABSTRACT Enzymes react differently under different conditions and concentrations, being the most productive at the enzymes specific optimum condition and concentration. The enzyme sucrase, extracted from yeast, breaks down the complex sugar sucrose into the simple sugar glucose. Testing for sucrase’s optimum environment, multiple reactions were ran using varying amounts and concentrations of sucrose and sucrase at different pHs and temperatures....   [tags: Biology]
:: 4 Works Cited
2819 words
(8.1 pages)
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Immobilized Enzymes (Yeast) - Immobilized Enzymes (Yeast) Abstract Catalase is an enzyme found in living cells and is used to break down peroxides. Yeast cells, which contain catalase, are used to catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution into water and oxygen gas. The yeast cells were immobilized in sodium alginate beads in this experiment. Immobilized enzymes are widely used in biotechnology processes. They can be reused and is more stable at extremes of temperature and pH, thus improves the economy of the process....   [tags: Papers] 2880 words
(8.2 pages)
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The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase - The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions without undergoing any physical change. They are neither used up in the reaction nor do they appear as reaction products. All enzyme catalysed reactions are reversible. Enzymes effectively lower the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to start. Some enzymes weaken covalent bonds within the substrate molecule, whereas in other cases this lowering of the activation energy seems to take place because the enzyme holds the substrate molecules in a particular p...   [tags: Papers] 3145 words
(9 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity - Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity Aim The aim of my experiment is to observe the affect on amylase when adding copper sulphate to a starch solution. Introduction Enzymes are that act as catalysts, in other words they increase the rate of chemical reactions. Consider the following general reaction between two substances, A and B, which react together to form a product, substance C: A + B = C In biological systems, this reaction might occur very slowly, or not at all, in the absence of an enzyme....   [tags: Papers] 3341 words
(9.5 pages)
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Following the Progress of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction - Following the Progress of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction Plan ---- Enzymes are a widely used source of biological catalyst; they are used in widely in industry as in the biological aspects. Enzymes are biological catalyst; this means that they will speed up a reaction with out becoming used up. The enzymes for this by not actually interfering with the reaction its self but basically align the two substrates on the active site of the enzyme. Amylases are widely spread enzymes that hydrolyse starch to maltose....   [tags: Papers] 3587 words
(10.2 pages)
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Exploring the Properties and Functions of Enzymes - Exploring the Properties and Functions of Enzymes Introduction In this experiment I will attempt to investigate how the change in temperature effects the catalyse reaction and what the optimum temperature is. Key factors Key factor (variable) Reason for controlling How it is going to be controlled Temperature of hydrogen peroxide H202 I am going to control this variable because if the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide was higher or lower then the right temperature the test wouldn’t be fair and my results could be affected because a different temperature would r...   [tags: Papers] 3628 words
(10.4 pages)
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How Hydrogen Peroxide Affects the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Catalase - How Hydrogen Peroxide Affects the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Catalase Introduction: Catalase, like all enzymes, is made up of protein molecules. It can be found in the cytoplasm of living tissue. It speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide, a metabolic waste product, into water and oxygen that can safely be removed from the cell. The type of reaction involved is known as a catabolic reaction (i.e. substrate broken down.)This is simply because the substrate enters the active site and is broken down, and leaves as 2 separate products, in this case water and oxygen: 2H2O2> 2H20 + O2 [IMAGE] Like all enzymes, the rate at which the enzyme works is af...   [tags: Papers] 3805 words
(10.9 pages)
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Catalase Investigation - Catalase Investigation Introduction This investigation aims to determine the effect that varying the pH of the conditions in which a reaction between an enzyme and a substrate takes place. In particular the reaction of hydrogen peroxide being broken down into water and oxygen by an enzyme, catalase. 2H2O2 à2H2O + O2 This reaction would normally occur naturally, but in the presence of the enzyme catalase the reaction occurs much more rapidly and vigorously. Enzymes An enzyme is a biological catalyst....   [tags: Papers] 3933 words
(11.2 pages)
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Investigating Enzyme Activity - Investigating Enzyme Activity Aim: To investigate how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide effects the rate of reaction of an enzyme (catalase) Variables: These factors could effect the rate of reaction on an enzyme: · pH · Concentration · Temperature · Surface Area pH - Enzymes function at different pH values. In neutral conditions the amount of oxygen gas given of in an enzyme-catalysed reaction will increase. An enzyme is affected by how much acid or alkali is present....   [tags: Papers] 3981 words
(11.4 pages)
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Enzymes - Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts. Most are proteins. (A few ribonucleoprotein enzymes have been discovered and, for some of these, the catalytic activity is in the RNA part rather than the protein part. Link to discussion of these ribozymes.) Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants of the reaction they catalyze. In doing so, they lower the amount of activation energy needed and thus speed up the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 4006 words
(11.4 pages)
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Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase - Investigating the Effect of Enzyme Concentration on the Hydrolysis of Starch with Amylase Aim: Investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. Using amylase and starch as my example. Introduction: I am investigating the effect of the concentration of the enzyme, amylase on the time taken for the enzyme to fully breakdown the substrate, starch to a sugar solution. The varied variable will be the concentration and all other variables are going to be fixed....   [tags: Papers] 4181 words
(11.9 pages)
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Your search returned 200 essays for "enzymes":
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