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The Coastal Ecosystem of Bay of Bengal - ... These are software packages that explicitly describe trophic relationships between marine species and simulate changes over time. Thus, Ecosim is the procedure developed in the Ecopath model to depict future fisheries state. By converting the linear equations of Ecopath models to differential equations, Ecosim provides a dynamic mass-balance approach, suitable for simulation (Walters et. al. 1997). However, there is widespread recognition of the need to move toward ecosystem-based approaches in fish¬eries management....   [tags: Environment, Ecosystem ] 2658 words
(7.6 pages)
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Ecosystem Services - ... 2) Provisioning services: These include the goods or products obtained from ecosystem such as foods (crops, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture, and wild foods), Fibre (timber, cotton, silk, wood fuel, genetic resources, biochemical, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals and fresh water. 3) Regulating: The benefits obtained from ecosystem by controlling the natural processes. These include water regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation....   [tags: Environmental Science]
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809 words
(2.3 pages)
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Wetland Ecosystem - ... It is often the case that the provision of goods and services is indicated in a meta-analysis merely by binary variables, and that quality is not captured at all (Brander et al., 2007). This limitation may lead to generalisation errors and therefore to benefit transfer errors, which would probably lead to error in policy making for wetland sustainable development. This paper is aimed at finding a more accurate and valid meta-regression function by introducing the wetland quality factor, a critical yet frequently missed factor, in a meta-analysis, where other wetland site characteristics, study characteristics and socio-economic context are included as well....   [tags: Environment, Sustainable Development] 2088 words
(6 pages)
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The Rainforest Ecosystem - The Rainforest Ecosystem Where: [IMAGE]The rainforests are highlighted on the map. They consist in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America; however in this report we will be focusing on the Brazilian rainforest. The Brazilian rainforest is located in the tropic of cancer. What: [IMAGE]The rainforest is not one ecosystem but millions of unique ecosystems. It is the central nervous system of our planet, a hot bed of evolution, life and diversity. Its home to over half of the worlds species and home to hundreds of humans....   [tags: Papers] 1421 words
(4.1 pages)
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Ecosystem Literature Review - ... Another component of proper ecosystem function is nutrient cycling. Nutrient cycling is important to an aquatic ecosystem because certain recourses in an ecosystem cannot reenter the ecosystem, like energy, from an outside source. In order to maintain their presence within an ecosystem, certain resources can be recycled indefinitely. This "cycling" of nutrients occurs through different compartments within an ecosystem, including the atmosphere, biota, water, and soil (DeAngelis 1980). One source of nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem can be seen when "nutrient cycling by animals can support a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers." Furthermore, the cycling of resources to primary producers can affect the biodiversity within this group (Vanni 2002)....   [tags: Environment]
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1777 words
(5.1 pages)
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Predators And Ecosystem Management - Predators and Ecosystem Management Natural Resources Management Predators have an everlasting effect on different kinds of ecosystems. They influence there ecosystems by controlling the abundance of lower species certain habitats. In this article, “Predators and Ecosystem Management” by (James A. Estes). He explains results of case studies that indicate important ecological roles for predators in a huge coastal ecosystem. The main challenge in this article is to determine if there are recurrent patterns else where in nature and to also understand when and where they occur....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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424 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study - The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study word count (excluding references) 1492 Introduction The Hubbard Brook Study in New Hampshire takes place in a deciduous northern hardwood forest and is involved in important environmental research to improve the planet's ecosystem. There are inputs (light, precipitation, chemicals) and outputs (water and nutrients) used to discover how a fully integrated ecosystem functions. (Bormann and Likens 1979).There are long-term studies carried out, as short-term observations give false trends of data that is not realised at the time of study....   [tags: Environmental] 1620 words
(4.6 pages)
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Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem - ... For our opinion, this happened because Banda Acheh received no protection from the natural ecosystem, against tsunami. So we can conclude that to protect the areas or coastline from fury of tsunami and reduce the number of human death, we must be planted the mangrove trees in several area or along the tropical coastlines. Supporting the fishes and wildlife populations Mangrove ecosystems are playing a role of providing habitats for marine life such as fishes and shellfishes. This is because mangrove habitats usually contains a rich species of fish because the water itself provides ideal niche for the fish as it is less water motion, large amount of food, excellent shelter and protection from predator....   [tags: Ecology ]
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2143 words
(6.1 pages)
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The Florida Everglades ? A Wetlands Ecosystem - The Florida Everglades — A Wetlands Ecosystem The Everglades, a vast wetlands ecosystem made up of marshes and swamps, begins at Lake Okeechobee, a large lake in the center of Florida, and ends in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay. It is nearly 50 miles across and 110 miles long (Hinrichsen), and when viewed from the air, appears to be miles and miles of shallow water flowing through thick mats of grass. This perception has earned it the name “River of Grass”. Although it does flow like a river, the flow is so incredibly slow that, from a distance, it doesn’t seem to move at all....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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2060 words
(5.9 pages)
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How Humans Impact the Ecosystem - ... Many fertilizers used on agricultural crops contain phosphates and when used it can raise the level of phosphates in the soil to heights that can actually kill plants. Phosphates are a limiting factor. It can be a matter of the plant not having enough or when it comes to fertilization, having too much. Fertilizers are actually the most prominent form of human interference in the phosphorus cycle. Phosphates like iron, calcium and potassium are mined in many locations and then used in fertilizers, animal feeds and detergents....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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1185 words
(3.4 pages)
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The Main Features of a Savanna Ecosystem - The Main Features of a Savanna Ecosystem For most of the year in this part of Kenya, the climate is very warm and very dry. However for a short season of three months (April, May and June), there is abundant rainfall and then a shorter period known as the 'little rains' (November and December). Both of these periods of rain follow quite soon after the overhead sun has past right over the equator. The temperatures throughout the year are generally high, the cooler part of the year occurs when the sun is overhead in the opposite hemisphere....   [tags: Papers] 1585 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef - The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc)....   [tags: Papers] 519 words
(1.5 pages)
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Asian Carp's Harm to the Ecosystem - ... This is ironic considering that the common carp was introduced to the United States as a game fish. Unfortunately for those who introduced the carp it is now a nuisance and is actually pushing out desirable native game fish by their sheer numbers. It has been suggested to expose the invasive Carp to the Koi herpes virus which is fatal to Carp species, but there are questions about whether this virus could evolve into something that could affect all native Cyprinids. Then, the broad spectrum of the Carp diet allows it to take advantage of the resources other creatures use to survive, and some resources other fish can’t....   [tags: Environmentalism]
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983 words
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The Effects Of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem - The Effects of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem The effects of foreign species introduction into an ecosystem are very profound. From small microorganisms to species of large mammals, many foreign species introductions occur every day. New implications of their introduction are found just as often. When a foreign species is introduced into an ecosystem, often the ecosystem contains no natural predators for the new species. This lack of predators sometimes leads to; in conjunction with a supply of food suitable for the new species, a period of exponential growth of the species....   [tags: essays research papers] 652 words
(1.9 pages)
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Chapter 9 Review: Biodiversity and the Ecosystem - ... Three more tourists were ill from the chemicals but were able to recover (Time). This article reveals that dangers that chemicals and pesticides in our food create for our health. In Chapter 11 we study how water makes up over 71% of our planet, so we should be better stewards of this resource as well, but we are not sad to say (Miller & Spoolman, 2010). Water is so powerful, visiting a huge water source like Niagara Falls or the Hoover Dam puts the power of water in perspective. Dams can be beneficial to a region, but they can cause harm as well....   [tags: Literature Review ]
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2605 words
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Mapping Ecosystem Services in Colombia’s Putumayo Region - ... The most biodiversity areas were located at higher elevations, which were farther away from roads and infrastructure development (WWF Colombia and Corpoamazonia 2010). In order to take the increasing influences of development and climate change into account, WWF used a climate chance scenarios from the regional climate change model – PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for impact Studies from the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research), developed by the Environmental Ministry of Ecuador and the Meteorological Institute of Cuba (MAE, INSMET 2008), that estimate changes in precipitation and temperature under A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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2255 words
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A Ecosystem Centric Socio-Technical Framework for the iOS Platform - ... & Bell, E., (2007): ‘Business research methods’, (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press Caves. E. (2000), Creative Industries: Contracts between Art and Commerce, Harvard Univ. Press C. Dixon, R. Mahajan, S. Agarwal, A. J. Brush, B. Lee, S. Saroiu, and V. Bahl. (2010). The home needs an operating system (and an app store). In Proceedings of the Ninth ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, pages 1-6. ACM, Charland, A., & Leroux, B. (2011). Mobile Application Development: Web vs. Native....   [tags: Information Technology ]
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2765 words
(7.9 pages)
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Ecosystem Instability: The Incumbent Problems and Possible Solutions - Ecosystem Instability: The Incumbent Problems and Possible Solutions Thesis Ecosystem instability is a problem that we can no longer put off to the side. We are being confronted with this problem and we need to find ways to resolve the present situations. The forms of confrontation are through foriegn invaders and lack of apex predators (to name a few). We must realize that through research as well as changes in lifestyle we can save our planet. These changes must occur individually for them to be a true success....   [tags: Environment Environmental Essays]
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3169 words
(9.1 pages)
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Reintroducing Bison Restores the Great Plains Ecosystem - Reintroducing Bison Restores the Great Plains Ecosystem Great Plains history The Great Plains offer a familiar story of overexploitation and the emergence of the need to fix the damage. Today rural areas are showing the decline of traditional agriculture and extractive land uses that have left the area barren and unproductive. Restoration projects, in particular those involving the reintroduction of the bison, give an example of bringing the native ecosystem of an area back to life. Grasslands once covered 40% of our nation, the bison once ranged over 48 of our states....   [tags: Environment Animals Nature Ecology Essays]
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1056 words
(3 pages)
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The Invasion of the Florida Everglades Ecosystem by the Brazilian Pepper - The Invasion of the Florida Everglades Ecosystem by the Brazilian Pepper It was as if the class had just stepped out onto the moon the way the limestone craters pockmarked the area's surface. It looked most uninhabitable indeed. Yet, here and there tufts of sawgrass had naturally reseeded and sprung up to reclaim the land. Like the American flag hoisted in place by Neil Armstrong on the moon, the tufts of sawgrass seemed to be saying, “One small step for sawgrass, one giant leap for the Everglades ecosystem!” Indeed, to witness the success of the Hole-in-the-Donut Restoration Project is like being the captain of a boat lost at sea catching a break in the fog long enough to glimpse a beacon's light before it becomes shrouded again in the mist of politics, economics and bureaucracy....   [tags: Environment Nature Descriptive Essays]
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1614 words
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How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem - How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem Abstract This paper shows that acid rain is a reality. It is destroying our freshwater ecosystems and must be stopped in order to save them. If the problem is not fixed soon the aquatic ecosystems will be destroyed. Table of Contents 1. What is acid rain. 2. Acidification of Freshwater 3. Effects of Freshwater Acidification 4. Where is Affected the most. 5. What is being done to fix it. 6. Conclusion 7. References What is acid rain. Acid rain is polluted rain, snow, or fog....   [tags: Geology]
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1383 words
(4 pages)
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The Strength and the Weaknesses of Pay for Ecosystem Services (PES) - ... With the materials from both plants and animals humans have been able to cure a cough, help cuts and bruises heal, induce hallucinations, protect from the heat and help fight cancer, but all of these have been discovered buy humans and are used to benefit humans. As technology and the whole global economic market have begun there has been a fight over these plants and animals and whether or not they can be patented and sold to the buying public. This issue of patenting a plant or the active ingredient of the plant or the certain material from a living organism is called bio-prospecting (Asquith et al....   [tags: Ecology ]
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2190 words
(6.3 pages)
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The Mississippi Delta and Oil: Ecosystem Services and Human Health - ... Work on the Mississippi River has been done as early as 1953, but it was in 1973 when the decision to actually channel the Mississippi River into one channel, and not allow it to move from side to side as it had been doing. When making the decision, it was between allowing the river to have its own way and displace communities, fisheries, and oyster reefs or setting a man-made course for the river. This has resulted in wetland loss, at a rate of about 75 square kilometers annually. Scientists predict that at the current rate, Louisiana will lose its habitat in 200 years or less (USGS)....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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1101 words
(3.1 pages)
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Differences in the Woodland Ecosystem as the Result of Different Management Strategies - Differences in the Woodland Ecosystem as the Result of Different Management Strategies Introduction: In this piece of work, I am studying the hypothesis, "Differences in woodland ecosystems are the result of different management strategies." This means the way woodlands are managed affect the ecosystems. Places like Bishops wood, need to be looked after and carefully managed, if they are to remain attractive. Bishops wood is very large park and attracts over 90 million visitors a year....   [tags: Papers] 546 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Effects of Mono Lake's Hydrology on its Ecosystem - The Effects of Mono Lake's Hydrology on its Ecosystem Situated at the foothills of the Eastern Sierra Nevada, Mono Lake has an unusual and unique hydrology that is highly influential in shaping the water chemistry (specifically the water's salinity and alkalinity) and biological life that survives there. Mono Lake is a hypersaline, highly alkaline, hydrographically closed basin in which the only natural means of water export is through evaporation. The basin itself was carved out by faulting of tectonic plates that occurred atleast 500,000 years ago....   [tags: Environment Biology Essays]
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2788 words
(8 pages)
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Ecology Lab Report: Creating an Ecosystem in a Bottle - Objective: To create an ecosystem contained in a bottle with both terrestrial and aquatic environments sealed to the outside world. Hypothesis/Predictions: I predict the fish will last for 3 days. I predict the crickets will last for a week. Materials: 1. fish 2. Water 3. 2 plants 4. Soil 5. Rag 6. Graphite 7. 2 Liter Bottle (2) 8....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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Grazing Versus Ecosystem Conservation: Managed Grazing Techniques Must be Implemented - Grazing Versus Ecosystem Conservation: Managed Grazing Techniques Must be Implemented One of the major issues confronting western America is that of environmental conservation and protection versus agricultural essentials and needs. This issue includes the environmentalists' fight against herbicides and pesticides, reservoirs for irrigation water, and livestock grazing on public land. The controversy that this essay confronts will be that of the desire to use public land for livestock grazing versus the importance of preserving the rangeland ecosystem....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive]
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3829 words
(10.9 pages)
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Assessing the Impact of the Environmental Stresses on the Pattern of Biodiversity Present within an Ecosystem - Assessing the Impact of the Environmental Stresses on the Pattern of Biodiversity Present within an Ecosystem On 2nd November, we went to have a field trip in Sam A Chung. The aim of our field trip was to assess the impact of the environmental stresses on the pattern of biodiversity present within an ecosystem. We were allowed to use a modified transect method to assess the diversity of plants on a hillside and in a valley. We were divided into small groups, each group contains four students, to do this project....   [tags: Papers] 1822 words
(5.2 pages)
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Bioerosion and Reef Ecology - Bioerosion and Reef Ecology The breakdown of calcareous substrates among coral reefs, or bioerosion, is a facet of reef ecology too often forgotten. The process plays a much more important role than it is usually credited with. Bioeroding species, consisting of many different types of organisms that act on the environment in a seemingly endless variety of ways, interact with the ecosystem and with each other as part of the reef growth and degradation cycle. The degradation portion of this cycle, the part that is most often overlooked, is essential for the development of reefs as the diverse and beautiful habitats that we know them as....   [tags: Bioeroding Ecosystem Ecology Essays]
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3565 words
(10.2 pages)
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Biodiversity - Biodiversity Imagine this: you step outside and feel the barren, rough, red Earth beneath your feet. There’s not a single plant in sight—no rustling of the leaves, no mighty towering trees to block the severe winds, and the scorching heat of the sun searing upon your face because there’s no shade. And when you take a whiff of air, you feel nothing filling up the space inside your lungs, liberating your body’s activities. What’s wrong with this picture. It’s not possible, of course. Even though plants aren’t the building blocks of life, they’re pretty close and without them, most of life wouldn’t exist—YOU wouldn’t exist....   [tags: plants extinction ecosystem]
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1083 words
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Value of Biodiversity and the Preservation of Species - Value of Biodiversity and the Preservation of Species As a result of the increasing environmental awareness of scientists and laymen, new issues have evolved around pressing ecological problems. Ecologists have discovered how important retaining biodiversity really is to humanity. While politicians often have other economic agendas, environmentalists are working hard to push this relatively new knowledge through political institutions using economic arguments. The preservation of our surroundings can create new jobs and promote economic efficiency, more so than the jobs which are currently destroying our ecosystem....   [tags: Nature Ecosystem Science Biology Papers]
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4519 words
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Fishing Disaster - Fishing Disaster Background: The ocean around the rocky shores of Newfoundland were once so full of cod that explorer John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually blocked his ship. In the centuries to follow, fish became the one of the only reasons anyone ever came to Newfoundland, or stayed. Cod was the center of life in the Canadian Maritimes from the beginning. Starting in the 1950's, Huge European trawlers began to travel across the Atlantic to fish the waters off Newfoundland. Some refered to these super-ships as "Fish Factories"....   [tags: Environment Ecosystem Environmental Essays] 581 words
(1.7 pages)
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Coral Bleaching: Potential Mechanisms and Observed Adaptations - Coral Bleaching: Potential Mechanisms and Observed Adaptations Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse marine ecosystems. Driving this diversity are cnidarian corals which are obligate mutualistic symbioses between coral animals and dinoflagellate algae of the genus symbiodinium. These algae are commonly called zooxanthellae. This symbiosis between heterotrophic hosts and photosynthetic symbionts allows coral to thrive in nutrient poor seas and deposit calcium carbonate to build reefs (Toller et al....   [tags: Sea Coral Corals Ecosystem Papers]
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Hunting is Important to the Environment - Hunting is Important to the Environment It is early in the morning; the majestic Elk bugles in the distance. The sun is kissing the tops of the peaks with the most beautiful gold, and painting the clouds rose red. The men and women who enjoy the outdoors whether it is hunting or just hiking help make these types of moments possible. Hunting and the ecosystem is tied closely to conservation of land and animals. The articles of “Hunting and the ecosystem” written by the South Dakota Game Fish and Parks Department (SDGFP), and “Facts and statistics on wildlife conservation” written by Roger Holmes, director of the Fish and Wildlife, touch on how hunting is important in the environment to keep a good balance in the ecosystem....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers] 913 words
(2.6 pages)
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an Ecosystems Disturbance By A Pollutant - An Ecosystem's Disturbance by a Pollutant Freedman defines a pollutant as "the occurrence of toxic substances or energy in a larger quality then the ecological communities or particular species can tolerate without suffering measurable detriment" (Freeman, 562). Although the effects of a pollutant on an organism vary depending on the dose and duration (how long administered). The impact can be one of sublethality to lethality, all dependent upon the factors involved. These factors need to be looked at when determining an ecosystem's disturbance by a pollutant....   [tags: essays research papers] 3005 words
(8.6 pages)
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Animal Disturbances in Eastern Deciduous Forests - ... To better understand the impacts of the disturbances caused by ecosystem engineers, both the varieties of ecosystem engineers and the general trends that have been established as to the results of their presence on biodiversity may be examined. Two basic types of ecosystem engineers, autogenic and allogenic, were identified by Jones, Lawton, and Shachack in 1994 (Jones 1994). Autogenic engineers change the ecosystem by the effects of their presence, the form of the organism and the space that the organism is occupying creating the impact....   [tags: Ecology, Ecosystems] 2592 words
(7.4 pages)
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Changes in Ecosystems - Changes in Ecosystems Ecosystems undergo changes in their structure and function as time passes. Some of these changes are minor and only affect a small area, others are the cause of major changes in the species present and affect the ecosystem as a whole. Major changes can be caused by changes in climate, external factors such as fire, trampling or pollution and development due to the system itself. Succession is a result of these changes and is defined as a series of progressive changes in an area with one community replacing the other until a climax community is created....   [tags: Papers] 974 words
(2.8 pages)
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Wolves: An Unwanted Predator - Wolves: An Unwanted Predator Vigorous as a predator, affectionate toward its pack, the gray wolf elicits both fear and admiration among humans. This fear, along with ignorance, inspired a movement to eradicate the gray wolf from the lower forty-eight states in the early 1900’s. By the early 1930’s, gray wolf populations had been completely eliminated from the Rocky Mountains (Bangs, et al 147). In 1973, congress passed the Endangered Species Act that protected any wolves that naturally migrated from Canada (Bangs, et al 147)....   [tags: Wildlife Animals Gray Wolf Essays]
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Comparing Biodiversity in Two Ecosystems - Comparing Biodiversity in Two Ecosystems AIM: To see if there is a difference in biodiversity between two different ecosystems, and to see which one is best at supporting life INTRODUCTION: In this experiment I have looked at two different ecosystems at my school. The first ecosystem was behind the English block. Its up on a hill, higher than any other site in the school grounds. It gets lots of sunlight because its up on a hill, also there are not many trees in the ecosystem so the sunlight can reach the ground to the plants below....   [tags: Papers] 2294 words
(6.6 pages)
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Ecosystems and Environmental Discourse - Ecosystems and Environmental Discourse What is an ecosystem. At first glance, this seems to be a straightforward question, one to be answered by environmental scientists. However, the concept of an ecosystem, or more specifically, the action that posits the existence of an ecosystem, raises a series of questions that challenge some basic assumptions about the environment. For instance, is an ecosystem a concrete object in the same way that a stone or a tree is. Or instead, is an ecosystem a set of interactions between such objects....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Permaculture: A New Way of Growing - Permaculture: A New Way of Growing Permaculture is a term created in 1978 by Bill Mollison and one of his students, David Holmgren. Bill Mollison is an Australian ecologist who combined the words "permanent" and "agriculture." Holmgren and he defined permaculture as: "An integrated, evolving system of perennial or self-perpetuating plant and animal species useful to man." (Holmgren xix).A newer definition of permaculture that Holmgren mentions in his book is "Consciously designed landscapes which mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature, while yielding an abundance of food, fiber, and energy for the provision of local needs." (Holmgren xix).Both definitions leave room for the evolution of the agricultural system....   [tags: Agriculture Farming Environment Essays]
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The Florida Everglades - The Florida Everglades The Florida Everglades have been adversely impacted for decades because of human attempts to control this historical ‘River of Grass’. The reason for our insistence on attempting to control and manage the area can be defined in one word: water. There has always been plenty of water available within the Everglades’ ecosystem, but no logical way to extract it. Our extraction efforts eventually led to devastating results. My paper will focus on the initial policy and practices involved in the extensive downgrading of this once biologically unequaled ecosystem; as well as discuss recent policy initiatives that have been implemented in order to restore the Everglades to its once magnificent status....   [tags: Geography Environmental Nature Essays]
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3148 words
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Returning the Wolves to the Wild - Returning the Wolves to the Wild A beautiful, clear night in the Rocky Mountain backcountry, stars fill the moonless night sky, and one can not help to think of how peaceful it is. Traveling through the backcountry, you have encountered more wildlife than you have people. Suddenly, the silence of the evening is interrupted by the howl of a wolf, alerting all to its presence. The howl is soon answered by another, closer howl. You can feel the hair stand up on the back of your neck as you realize that you are not alone in the wilderness, with the top predator lurking nearby....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Animals Essays]
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2363 words
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Economics and the Environment - Economics and the Environment Mainstream economic thought of the 20th has been dominated by the principle of ‘more is better’, this thinking is dangerously misguided. Concentrating on maximizing real GNP has been brought about by economists who are working on the assumption that growth is always justified, because of the infinite wants of the population. These economists also see growth as a solution to the problems of the world today. Even those who propose ‘sustainable growth’ are false in that they assume that it is possible to continue with the growth of the last two centuries....   [tags: essays papers]
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2767 words
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Lesson Plan Background: Pollution and Global Climate Change - Lesson Plan Background: Pollution and Global Climate Change Introduction: This lesson about pollution focuses on greenhouse gases. Students will learn about greenhouse gases and how they affect ecosystems. The students will understand the greenhouse affect and how their actions relate increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In the lesson, students will define the properties of an ecosystem, learn to identify the ecosystems they live in and how they interact within an ecosystem....   [tags: Lesson Plan Global Warming Teaching Essays]
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Forest Restoration - ... Once planted, the area is assessed for about three years following the restoration site (Cole). When an area is seeded it is usually mulched with either bark, straw or some other type of mulch blanket however, is not always necessary or effective in the recovery process of the plot. Mulch blankets are generally more effective on higher elevation areas (Cole). The mortality rates of seed of seedlings are affected by multiple factors but the most evident is the climate. Once the seedlings are established they will developed, cotyledons; the mortality rates for seedlings are more often higher than the mortality rates of volunteer plants....   [tags: Conservation ]
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2208 words
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The Loss of Biodiversity on the Ecosystems - ... (EPA, 2011) An example of this is climate. Climate is a fundamental component of ecosystems and organisms have adjusted to their local climate over a period (EPA, 2011). Climate change is a source that has the caliber to change ecosystems, also the numerous properties and benefits they give humankind. Humankind depends on ecosystems for the recreational, natural, aesthetic, spiritual, and resources the ecosystems provide. Moreover, besides effecting humans, these alterations may bring about catastrophic or favorable consequences on species....   [tags: Environment, Environmental Protection Agency] 981 words
(2.8 pages)
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Personal Environmental Ethics - There are some people who believe that the United States' strictly forced endangered species laws seriously hamper our economy. I on the other hand must disagree. The endangered species laws were created for an important reason: to protect our earth's biological diversity. Whenever humanity interferes with the ecosystem for the purpose of economic growth it tears it apart piece by piece. It is for reasons like these we must have such tough laws, as in the Endangered Species Act. The fact of the matter is that a problem still exists today....   [tags: essays research papers] 437 words
(1.2 pages)
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Counter-Acting the Effects of Global Warming - ... This clean water can be captured and stored in watersheds that in turn, can be used for variety of purposes including agriculture, municipal drinking water, recreational activities and habitat for wildlife. Global forests provide habitat for wildlife, which in turn, contribute to the maintenance of ecological processes. Wildlife is directly utilized by humans for hunting, observation and ecotourism. However wildlife is considered an important ecosystem service because of its indirect contribution to many other ecological processes....   [tags: Climate Change, Argumentative Essay]
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Mimicking the Natural Environment - Mimicking the Natural Environment In Clifford Geertz’s article, Two Types of Ecosystems, he suggests that the uneven distribution of the Indonesian population is in direct correlation with the different methods of agriculture used by those in the densely populated area and those in the less populated area. Geertz explores the distinct characteristics of two methods of cultivation in Indonesia, swidden and sawah agriculture. Swidden agriculture, as described by Geertz, is when the forest is burned and cleared so new crops can be sowed....   [tags: Agriculture Nature Essays]
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How many wolves are too many? - In 1922 the federal government passed a law that allowed wolves in Yellowstone National Park to be hunted. In just four years later the last wolf was hunted. In 1995, the gray wolf was reintroduced to the park. The government started off by introducing 31 wolves in the Montana and Wyoming parts of the park. Now 116 wolves now live and more then 75 pups. The controversy surrounding the reintroduction of the wolves are many from both sides. Some local farmers are against it because some wolves hunt their animals....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Global Warming and the Depletion of the Ozone (O3) Layer - Global Warming and the Depletion of the Ozone (O3) Layer The average surface temperature on Earth has increased approximately 1.0°F in the past century, and it is projected that it will again increase somewhere two and nine degrees by the year 2100. This is the expected effect of increased greenhouse gases, which contain the Sun's energy (heat) in the lower atmosphere (troposphere). Much of the increase in these gases can be considered a natural occurrence, however, at least some of it is human induced....   [tags: Environmental Greenhouse Gases]
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The Differences between Natural Ecosystems and Agro-Ecosystems - The Differences between Natural Ecosystems and Agro-Ecosystems An ecosystem is by definition the processes and interactions of the biotic community (living organisms) and inorganic component (physical and chemical features) of a particular environment. In a natural setting a stable, or climax ecosystem represents a state of natural equilibrium, whereby all occupant species compete for resources, and energy and nutrient cycles are balanced. Human farmers effectively out-compete most natural species for resources, and through select harvested species export energy and nutrients for consumption elsewhere; this is an agro-ecosystem or plagioclimax....   [tags: Papers] 2214 words
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Learning Within E-learning Ecosystems - ABSTRACT This paper evaluates the critical success factors within an e-learning ecosystems namely the principles and methods, processes and systems, and substance and content of teaching and learning. A qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate the critical success factors involving two principal data collection methods; a thorough and systematic review literature and in-depth interviews with e-learning providers. The interviewees corroborated the need for an effective model of e-learning in which, each of these factors provide impetus to each other by functioning as a unit, contributing to overall e-learning success....   [tags: E-Learning] 1468 words
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Protecting the Daintree Rainforest - ... This ecosystem contributes to the overall health of this plant in many ways. The diversity contributes in the breakdown of pollution and helps to control the climate to name a few. This rainforest also is a great ‘carbon sink’. It has many photosynthesising plants and this allows the control of carbon dioxide (CO2). The plants take in the CO2 from the atmosphere and return oxygen (O2) b) Logging has impacted this special ecosystem. There are trees that are hundreds of years old and their timber is being pushed to be sold for high prices....   [tags: Ecology]
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Gulf Oil Crisis - ... Overall there are no good effects on wildlife from the oil spill. The wildlife is largely affected, but this is because their habitat is affected even more. The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem “spans 600,000 square miles” (Robinson, 2010). An estimate made on April 30th put the oil spread as covering 3,850 square miles (CBS, 2010). The oil made the water slick and gooey (See figure 2). Fig. 2 oily residue comes ashore in the surf in Gulf Shores, Ala. From “AP Images” (Dave Martin, 2010). This oil causes harm to the gulf ecosystem....   [tags: Oil]
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Can Logging Help the Enviorment - ... E.O. Wilson states that pine plantations contain 90-95% fewer species than the natural forests that preceded them (Williams, 2000). Secondary forests have been substituted for the natural forests before them for numerous reasons. First, many believe that if these secondary forests can replace the rich in biodiversity forests with monoculture forests then all is well in the world. And by planting these forests they can turn a profit without waiting for the forest to naturally re-grow itself which at times can take generations to do so....   [tags: Environment, Saving Forests ] 1949 words
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Alfred W. Crosby's Article The Columbian Voyages, The Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians - In his article “The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians”, Alfred W. Crosby seems to think that much of the Columbian voyages and what came out of them was detrimental to many cultures, most of all the Native Americans. Crosby brings up many institutions and ideologies to re-enforce his opinion, such as the slave trade and the conquest of many Native American cultures. One of the major effects of the Columbian exchange was the decimation of the Native American population....   [tags: essays research papers] 770 words
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Landcare Revegetation - Rehabilitation is the process of reclaiming land for economical or conservation purposes. This process usually involves re-vegetation. The main aim in rehabilitation is to either return the land to a self-sustaining ecosystem or prepare the land for human use, i.e. crops, pastures and plantations. Rehabilitation should take place at a rate that is significantly higher than natural succession. Several principles are implemented for successful rehabilitation. Of these principles includes the need for preventing disasters and anticipating problems before they arise, if this is taken to consideration then rehabilitation will be less costly and trouble free....   [tags: essays research papers] 1410 words
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Tropical Rain Forest Desert - Tropical Rain Forest Desert [IMAGE] [IMAGE] B - Biomass P - Precipitation L - Litter W - Weathering S - Soil Ro - Run off The rainforest is an energetic ecosystem. This means that the rainforest vegetation grows quickly and when dead, decomposes extremely quickly. This is why the tropical rainforest spider diagram looks the way it does. The amount of nutrients in which the rainforest litter (dead leaves, bark, trees, plants etc) store holds is quite small reason being is that when it falls to the ground because of the energetic ecosystem it decomposes quickly into the soil therefore the litter gives nutrients to the soil and this is why the soil has more nutrients in its structure (this is shown by it having a larger circle)....   [tags: Papers] 1404 words
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Ecosystems at Risk - Ecosystems at Risk The ecosystem at risk that I have chosen to research is the Himalayan Mountain range. Considering the mountain range covers a very large area, the ecosystem type has been narrowed down to the Alpine variety. The 2 500 kilometre long Himalayas stretch across three countries; India, Nepal and China (Tibet). The width of the mountain range varies from 100-400 kilometres, giving a total area of 594 400 square kilometres. [IMAGE] http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=asia&Rootmap=nepal 2....   [tags: Papers] 1504 words
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Save the Rainforest! - ... We need to limit our consumption of plastics and make sure that they are disposed of in their proper places. Scientists have begun to say that we have to do more to protect our ecosystem, because our very existence is depending upon it. When the ecosystem is not functioning properly the continuation of plant, animal and human life ecosystems would be impossible. Life cycles can not function without ecosystems. The ecosystem provides us with clean air, water, habitats for fish and other services....   [tags: Ecology ] 995 words
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Micke Grove Zoo - ... The zoo provides shelter some of the animals that are nearly extinct. For instance, the zoo shelters birds such as Marbled Teal which is mainly found in eastern and western Mediterranean, western and southern Asia, north and sub-Saharan west Africa, Iran, Pakistan, and northwest India. Micke Grove provide home to other birds such as the Swainson’s Hawks that are also threatened in the wild. Animals such as Black-handed Spider Monkeys [from Mexico, Central America, and, Bolivia], Black Tufted-ear Marmoset [from South Central Brazil], Ring-Tailed Lemur [South and Southwestern Madagascar], and Hamadryas Baboon [from Ethiopia, Somalia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Abyssinia] are also kept at the zoo and are endangered in the wilderness....   [tags: Zoology]
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Heal The World: Exploring Palmers "the Case For Human Beings" - Human beings. We are an exclusive species. Humans are able to achieve abstract thought, while most of the creatures in the animal kingdon have an attention span of only minutes. We are able to extract the purest elements from the most barren lands. We are also able to destroy the fragile biodiversity that has taken the earth millions of years to create. Should humankind, however, be punished for pushing so many different species into extinction by becoming extinct itself. In Thomas Palmer's essay, "The Case For Human Beings", Palmer explores the topics of human accomplishment, the diversity of humankind, and the havoc that said diversity has caused on the environment....   [tags: essays research papers] 416 words
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Succession - Succession Succession is where a pioneer species colonise an area, and gradually bring about changes so that other more complex species may also colonise the area, replacing the pioneers. The presence of the pioneer species signifies primary succession, which is basically the colonisation of bare rock. The abiotic conditions are extreme, with a very harsh climate which can only be survived by the pioneer species. An example of a pioneer species is lichen, which are found in the splash zone of a shore....   [tags: Papers] 369 words
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Coral Reefs - Coral Reefs A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem. They are the largest animal-made structures in the world. Coral reefs occur in mainly nutrient-deficient waters in tropical regions, which have warm waters of about 18-30°C. A coral is a living organism because it consumes food, excretes, breathes and reproduces. The coral has a white skeleton made up of limestone rock, which also helps to keep it rigid. Reef-building corals are brightly coloured organisms built by small animals called coral polyps....   [tags: Papers] 433 words
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Land Ethic - The land ethic is a holistic view of ecosystems. It entails an entire view of a biotic community to include all of nature, not just the individualistic components which incorporate our environment. Great efforts would be taken by supporters of the ‘land ethic’ to support an ecosystem that was threatened. The individual components that comprise the ecosystem are not of great concern to supporters of this theory; they would argue that a threat to an individual organism, even protected or endangered, should be evaluated on whether or not the protected or endangered species does endanger the integrity of the whole system....   [tags: essays research papers] 396 words
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Deforestation and Biodiversity - Deforestation and Biodiversity While the loss of forests is clearly visible, a decline in biodiversity has a less apparent effect. The subtle loss of biodiversity fails to indicate the significance that fewer species in the ecosystem increases the fragility of life for all species. Despite the negative effects of deforestation and the consequential decline of biodiversity, trees are cut down for an economic and consumer benefit. Members of society need to determine how much economic cost they are willing to spend in order to preserve plant and animal species....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Recreation and Power vs. the Environment - Recreation and Power vs. the Environment The emptying of Lake Powell has now been an issue for years. The sierra club strongly supports the draining of the lake for environmental issues. One side of the debate argues for recreation, water and power supplied from the lake. The other argues for the saving of an environment that is now being destroyed by the existence of the lake. Both sides carry strong support, and the debate sees no clear end coming any time soon. Lake Powell was created in the 1950’s with the building of the Glen Canyon Dam, as part of the Colorado River Restoration Project....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Adverse Impacts of Landscape Fragmentation on Biodiversity - Adverse Impacts of Landscape Fragmentation on Biodiversity Landscape fragmentation can impose devastating and irreversible consequences on the biodiversity of ecosystems. Because of the conflicting interests between ecology and human economic benefit, it has become increasingly important to find solutions for a harmonic balance. It is imperative for people to recognize the impacts of biodiversity loss and increased extinction of many species. These impacts must be understood in order to protect landscapes and the immense biodiversity they contain....   [tags: Environmental Ecosystems Essays]
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Norfolk Broads Environments - Norfolk Broads Environments Case Study of q A wetland ecosystem q Management of an ecosystem q Impact of people on an environment Norfolk Broads - Key facts ========================== q 41 Lakes set in 2,000 hectares of farmland along valleys of Rivers Bure, Yare, Waveney q There are 200 kilometres of navigable rivers within the Broads. q It was the 11th National Park to be designated in England and Wales. It is the only lowland National Park. q There are 3 National Nature Reserves and 36 Sites of Special Scientific Interest....   [tags: Papers] 1244 words
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Saving the Cheetahs of the Serengeti from Extinction - Saving the Cheetahs of the Serengeti from Extinction Cheetahs have been evolving and adapting themselves to the deserts of the Serengeti for many years. However, cheetahs have never been common in the wild, but they're now in grave danger of becoming extinct, due to loss of habitat, high infant mortality, and hunting by humans for hides. Cheetahs can and should be saved because they have a difficult time surviving on there own due to poor parenting skills, cub mortality, and energy demands. The cheetah is also a very important part of the ecosystem and will be disrupted if the cheetah becomes extinct....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
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Minnesota Wetland Restoration - Minnesota Wetland Restoration *Missing Works Cited* ".. and from the swamp came the SWAMPTHING. The ugliest, scariest and fowl smelling creature you could ever imagine." This is how many wetlands are perceived: as dank, smell places and breeding grounds for diseases. But that is untrue. Wetlands are a vital and very important part of our environment. In the past 10 years over 10 million acres of wetlands have been destroyed, having a negative impact on lakes and rivers and other aspects of the ecosystem....   [tags: Papers] 1538 words
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Helping Brazil - Helping Brazil The tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, Asia and the north of Australia are all distributed evenly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The Equator run through some of these rainforests and is also close to some of them. The map below illustrates all the rainforests in the world. The tropical rainforests of the world are all global ecosystems....   [tags: Papers] 1918 words
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Sustainability of Agriculture - ... In the old days, the small fields were never left bare, being a rich and dense mish-mash of short-, middle- and long-term crops of varying heights (corn, beans, tree cotton, castor bean, pumpkins, native cucumbers, cowpeas, sesame, sunflowers, peanuts, cassava; some of these crops reached tree height). Thus the overall destructive effects of the slash-and-burn were limited to small areas, and compensated for by this mixture of crops. The Polyculture Model is, in part, an adaptation of the old model which in itself is an imitation of the local ecosystem, including the factors of density, biodiversity, and dynamism....   [tags: Environmentalism / Economics / Agriculture]
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Marine Pollution: Causes and Solutions - ... The wetlands are important in their job to protect the species they contain and for stabilizing coastlines. Storms are increasing in magnitude and severity, causing the transport of nutrients to marine life to be disturbed. As shores move further inland animals will have to move and adapt, history has shown how this can decrease populations. In the future both rare and abundant species could become locally extinct, with rare species on the verge of becoming totally extinct. Marine garbage Another cause of marine pollution is the discarding of garbage into oceans, rivers and dams....   [tags: Marine Biology ]
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Pollution and Environment Essay - Man Must Dominate Nature and the Environment - Man Must Dominate Nature and the Environment      How shall we deal with the environment. is an ethical question much discussed, but rarely answered with any well-thought-out justifications. Rather, individuals attempting to answer it have often made claims stating that certain things are "obvious." In this paper, I intend to analyze one of these ethical principles which is considered to be inherently obvious. For every culture has regarded certain things as "obvious" and needing no further explanation -- and every culture differs vastly on what it considers to be an "obvious truth." Thus, it seems that these "truths" are not, in themselves, "obvious." Rather, they require further scrutiny to determine their validity....   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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Early Humans and their Environment - Early Humans and their Environment Humans have been present on this Earth for nearly 3.5 million years when “Homo erectus” first evolved with an upright posture enabling the use of hands (Ponting). “Homo erectus” evolved into “Homo sapiens” one hundred thousand years ago and both lineages lived in small, mobile groups. For nearly two million years, their way of life was based around hunting and gathering food until ten to twelve thousand years ago when agriculture evolved. Early humans depended upon their knowledge of crops and seasons in order for survival....   [tags: Environment Environmental Pollution Preservation]
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To Save the Earth - To Save the Earth I wonder how much the front yard of my childhood home is worth. Of course, it's worth less now than before. Once, a stately tree stood in each corner: a tall lilac, a pine, a cherry tree, and a droopy evergreen. My favorite tree lived in the middle. I never knew what kind it was, but every spring it blossomed in delicate pink, and on warm afternoons, I read under its canopy. The front yard no longer looks like that, however. My father removed the lilac bush because it made the lawn too difficult to mow, and cut many of the branches from the pine and my pink-flowered tree so that friends could park their cars on our lawn rather than getting ticketed for parking on the street....   [tags: Environment Environmental Ecology Essays]
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Renewable Power Policy and Hydroelectric Dams - Renewable Power Policy and Hydroelectric Dams There has been much controversy over changes in the environment due to the placement of hydroelectric dams, and also due to the pollution caused by other power plants which use non-renewable sources of energy. The arguments which come from certain groups against both sides seem rather strange. The purpose of this paper is to explore the environmental and other effects from both energy sources, and the arguments which are presented by different groups who lobby for and against the two sources of power....   [tags: Environment Expository Papers, alternative energy]
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