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The Coastal Ecosystem of Bay of Bengal - ... These are software packages that explicitly describe trophic relationships between marine species and simulate changes over time. Thus, Ecosim is the procedure developed in the Ecopath model to depict future fisheries state. By converting the linear equations of Ecopath models to differential equations, Ecosim provides a dynamic mass-balance approach, suitable for simulation (Walters et. al. 1997). However, there is widespread recognition of the need to move toward ecosystem-based approaches in fish¬eries management....   [tags: Environment, Ecosystem ] 2658 words
(7.6 pages)
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Ecosystem Services - ... 2) Provisioning services: These include the goods or products obtained from ecosystem such as foods (crops, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture, and wild foods), Fibre (timber, cotton, silk, wood fuel, genetic resources, biochemical, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals and fresh water. 3) Regulating: The benefits obtained from ecosystem by controlling the natural processes. These include water regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation....   [tags: Environmental Science]
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809 words
(2.3 pages)
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Wetland Ecosystem - ... It is often the case that the provision of goods and services is indicated in a meta-analysis merely by binary variables, and that quality is not captured at all (Brander et al., 2007). This limitation may lead to generalisation errors and therefore to benefit transfer errors, which would probably lead to error in policy making for wetland sustainable development. This paper is aimed at finding a more accurate and valid meta-regression function by introducing the wetland quality factor, a critical yet frequently missed factor, in a meta-analysis, where other wetland site characteristics, study characteristics and socio-economic context are included as well....   [tags: Environment, Sustainable Development] 2088 words
(6 pages)
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Ecosystem Literature Review - ... Another component of proper ecosystem function is nutrient cycling. Nutrient cycling is important to an aquatic ecosystem because certain recourses in an ecosystem cannot reenter the ecosystem, like energy, from an outside source. In order to maintain their presence within an ecosystem, certain resources can be recycled indefinitely. This "cycling" of nutrients occurs through different compartments within an ecosystem, including the atmosphere, biota, water, and soil (DeAngelis 1980). One source of nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem can be seen when "nutrient cycling by animals can support a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers." Furthermore, the cycling of resources to primary producers can affect the biodiversity within this group (Vanni 2002)....   [tags: Environment]
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1777 words
(5.1 pages)
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Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem - ... For our opinion, this happened because Banda Acheh received no protection from the natural ecosystem, against tsunami. So we can conclude that to protect the areas or coastline from fury of tsunami and reduce the number of human death, we must be planted the mangrove trees in several area or along the tropical coastlines. Supporting the fishes and wildlife populations Mangrove ecosystems are playing a role of providing habitats for marine life such as fishes and shellfishes. This is because mangrove habitats usually contains a rich species of fish because the water itself provides ideal niche for the fish as it is less water motion, large amount of food, excellent shelter and protection from predator....   [tags: Ecology ]
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2143 words
(6.1 pages)
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How Humans Impact the Ecosystem - ... Many fertilizers used on agricultural crops contain phosphates and when used it can raise the level of phosphates in the soil to heights that can actually kill plants. Phosphates are a limiting factor. It can be a matter of the plant not having enough or when it comes to fertilization, having too much. Fertilizers are actually the most prominent form of human interference in the phosphorus cycle. Phosphates like iron, calcium and potassium are mined in many locations and then used in fertilizers, animal feeds and detergents....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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1185 words
(3.4 pages)
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Asian Carp's Harm to the Ecosystem - ... This is ironic considering that the common carp was introduced to the United States as a game fish. Unfortunately for those who introduced the carp it is now a nuisance and is actually pushing out desirable native game fish by their sheer numbers. It has been suggested to expose the invasive Carp to the Koi herpes virus which is fatal to Carp species, but there are questions about whether this virus could evolve into something that could affect all native Cyprinids. Then, the broad spectrum of the Carp diet allows it to take advantage of the resources other creatures use to survive, and some resources other fish can’t....   [tags: Environmentalism]
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983 words
(2.8 pages)
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Chapter 9 Review: Biodiversity and the Ecosystem - ... Three more tourists were ill from the chemicals but were able to recover (Time). This article reveals that dangers that chemicals and pesticides in our food create for our health. In Chapter 11 we study how water makes up over 71% of our planet, so we should be better stewards of this resource as well, but we are not sad to say (Miller & Spoolman, 2010). Water is so powerful, visiting a huge water source like Niagara Falls or the Hoover Dam puts the power of water in perspective. Dams can be beneficial to a region, but they can cause harm as well....   [tags: Literature Review ]
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2605 words
(7.4 pages)
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Predators And Ecosystem Management - Predators and Ecosystem Management Natural Resources Management Predators have an everlasting effect on different kinds of ecosystems. They influence there ecosystems by controlling the abundance of lower species certain habitats. In this article, “Predators and Ecosystem Management” by (James A. Estes). He explains results of case studies that indicate important ecological roles for predators in a huge coastal ecosystem. The main challenge in this article is to determine if there are recurrent patterns else where in nature and to also understand when and where they occur....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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424 words
(1.2 pages)
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The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study - The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study word count (excluding references) 1492 Introduction The Hubbard Brook Study in New Hampshire takes place in a deciduous northern hardwood forest and is involved in important environmental research to improve the planet's ecosystem. There are inputs (light, precipitation, chemicals) and outputs (water and nutrients) used to discover how a fully integrated ecosystem functions. (Bormann and Likens 1979).There are long-term studies carried out, as short-term observations give false trends of data that is not realised at the time of study....   [tags: Environmental] 1620 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Florida Everglades ? A Wetlands Ecosystem - The Florida Everglades — A Wetlands Ecosystem The Everglades, a vast wetlands ecosystem made up of marshes and swamps, begins at Lake Okeechobee, a large lake in the center of Florida, and ends in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay. It is nearly 50 miles across and 110 miles long (Hinrichsen), and when viewed from the air, appears to be miles and miles of shallow water flowing through thick mats of grass. This perception has earned it the name “River of Grass”. Although it does flow like a river, the flow is so incredibly slow that, from a distance, it doesn’t seem to move at all....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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2060 words
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The Main Features of a Savanna Ecosystem - The Main Features of a Savanna Ecosystem For most of the year in this part of Kenya, the climate is very warm and very dry. However for a short season of three months (April, May and June), there is abundant rainfall and then a shorter period known as the 'little rains' (November and December). Both of these periods of rain follow quite soon after the overhead sun has past right over the equator. The temperatures throughout the year are generally high, the cooler part of the year occurs when the sun is overhead in the opposite hemisphere....   [tags: Papers] 1585 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef - The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc)....   [tags: Papers] 519 words
(1.5 pages)
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Mapping Ecosystem Services in Colombia’s Putumayo Region - ... The most biodiversity areas were located at higher elevations, which were farther away from roads and infrastructure development (WWF Colombia and Corpoamazonia 2010). In order to take the increasing influences of development and climate change into account, WWF used a climate chance scenarios from the regional climate change model – PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for impact Studies from the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research), developed by the Environmental Ministry of Ecuador and the Meteorological Institute of Cuba (MAE, INSMET 2008), that estimate changes in precipitation and temperature under A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
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2255 words
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A Ecosystem Centric Socio-Technical Framework for the iOS Platform - ... & Bell, E., (2007): ‘Business research methods’, (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press Caves. E. (2000), Creative Industries: Contracts between Art and Commerce, Harvard Univ. Press C. Dixon, R. Mahajan, S. Agarwal, A. J. Brush, B. Lee, S. Saroiu, and V. Bahl. (2010). The home needs an operating system (and an app store). In Proceedings of the Ninth ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, pages 1-6. ACM, Charland, A., & Leroux, B. (2011). Mobile Application Development: Web vs. Native....   [tags: Information Technology ]
:: 89 Works Cited
2765 words
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The Mississippi Delta and Oil: Ecosystem Services and Human Health - ... Work on the Mississippi River has been done as early as 1953, but it was in 1973 when the decision to actually channel the Mississippi River into one channel, and not allow it to move from side to side as it had been doing. When making the decision, it was between allowing the river to have its own way and displace communities, fisheries, and oyster reefs or setting a man-made course for the river. This has resulted in wetland loss, at a rate of about 75 square kilometers annually. Scientists predict that at the current rate, Louisiana will lose its habitat in 200 years or less (USGS)....   [tags: Environmental Issues]
:: 11 Works Cited
1101 words
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The Strength and the Weaknesses of Pay for Ecosystem Services (PES) - ... With the materials from both plants and animals humans have been able to cure a cough, help cuts and bruises heal, induce hallucinations, protect from the heat and help fight cancer, but all of these have been discovered buy humans and are used to benefit humans. As technology and the whole global economic market have begun there has been a fight over these plants and animals and whether or not they can be patented and sold to the buying public. This issue of patenting a plant or the active ingredient of the plant or the certain material from a living organism is called bio-prospecting (Asquith et al....   [tags: Ecology ]
:: 13 Works Cited
2190 words
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The Effects Of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem - The Effects of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem The effects of foreign species introduction into an ecosystem are very profound. From small microorganisms to species of large mammals, many foreign species introductions occur every day. New implications of their introduction are found just as often. When a foreign species is introduced into an ecosystem, often the ecosystem contains no natural predators for the new species. This lack of predators sometimes leads to; in conjunction with a supply of food suitable for the new species, a period of exponential growth of the species....   [tags: essays research papers] 652 words
(1.9 pages)
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Ecosystem Instability: The Incumbent Problems and Possible Solutions - Ecosystem Instability: The Incumbent Problems and Possible Solutions Thesis Ecosystem instability is a problem that we can no longer put off to the side. We are being confronted with this problem and we need to find ways to resolve the present situations. The forms of confrontation are through foriegn invaders and lack of apex predators (to name a few). We must realize that through research as well as changes in lifestyle we can save our planet. These changes must occur individually for them to be a true success....   [tags: Environment Environmental Essays]
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3169 words
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Reintroducing Bison Restores the Great Plains Ecosystem - Reintroducing Bison Restores the Great Plains Ecosystem Great Plains history The Great Plains offer a familiar story of overexploitation and the emergence of the need to fix the damage. Today rural areas are showing the decline of traditional agriculture and extractive land uses that have left the area barren and unproductive. Restoration projects, in particular those involving the reintroduction of the bison, give an example of bringing the native ecosystem of an area back to life. Grasslands once covered 40% of our nation, the bison once ranged over 48 of our states....   [tags: Environment Animals Nature Ecology Essays]
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1056 words
(3 pages)
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The Invasion of the Florida Everglades Ecosystem by the Brazilian Pepper - The Invasion of the Florida Everglades Ecosystem by the Brazilian Pepper It was as if the class had just stepped out onto the moon the way the limestone craters pockmarked the area's surface. It looked most uninhabitable indeed. Yet, here and there tufts of sawgrass had naturally reseeded and sprung up to reclaim the land. Like the American flag hoisted in place by Neil Armstrong on the moon, the tufts of sawgrass seemed to be saying, “One small step for sawgrass, one giant leap for the Everglades ecosystem!” Indeed, to witness the success of the Hole-in-the-Donut Restoration Project is like being the captain of a boat lost at sea catching a break in the fog long enough to glimpse a beacon's light before it becomes shrouded again in the mist of politics, economics and bureaucracy....   [tags: Environment Nature Descriptive Essays]
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1614 words
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How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem - How Acid Rain Affects the Aquatic Ecosystem Abstract This paper shows that acid rain is a reality. It is destroying our freshwater ecosystems and must be stopped in order to save them. If the problem is not fixed soon the aquatic ecosystems will be destroyed. Table of Contents 1. What is acid rain. 2. Acidification of Freshwater 3. Effects of Freshwater Acidification 4. Where is Affected the most. 5. What is being done to fix it. 6. Conclusion 7. References What is acid rain. Acid rain is polluted rain, snow, or fog....   [tags: Geology]
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1383 words
(4 pages)
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Differences in the Woodland Ecosystem as the Result of Different Management Strategies - Differences in the Woodland Ecosystem as the Result of Different Management Strategies Introduction: In this piece of work, I am studying the hypothesis, "Differences in woodland ecosystems are the result of different management strategies." This means the way woodlands are managed affect the ecosystems. Places like Bishops wood, need to be looked after and carefully managed, if they are to remain attractive. Bishops wood is very large park and attracts over 90 million visitors a year....   [tags: Papers] 546 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Effects of Mono Lake's Hydrology on its Ecosystem - The Effects of Mono Lake's Hydrology on its Ecosystem Situated at the foothills of the Eastern Sierra Nevada, Mono Lake has an unusual and unique hydrology that is highly influential in shaping the water chemistry (specifically the water's salinity and alkalinity) and biological life that survives there. Mono Lake is a hypersaline, highly alkaline, hydrographically closed basin in which the only natural means of water export is through evaporation. The basin itself was carved out by faulting of tectonic plates that occurred atleast 500,000 years ago....   [tags: Environment Biology Essays]
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2788 words
(8 pages)
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Ecology Lab Report: Creating an Ecosystem in a Bottle - Objective: To create an ecosystem contained in a bottle with both terrestrial and aquatic environments sealed to the outside world. Hypothesis/Predictions: I predict the fish will last for 3 days. I predict the crickets will last for a week. Materials: 1. fish 2. Water 3. 2 plants 4. Soil 5. Rag 6. Graphite 7. 2 Liter Bottle (2) 8....   [tags: essays research papers] 1929 words
(5.5 pages)
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Bioerosion and Reef Ecology - Bioerosion and Reef Ecology The breakdown of calcareous substrates among coral reefs, or bioerosion, is a facet of reef ecology too often forgotten. The process plays a much more important role than it is usually credited with. Bioeroding species, consisting of many different types of organisms that act on the environment in a seemingly endless variety of ways, interact with the ecosystem and with each other as part of the reef growth and degradation cycle. The degradation portion of this cycle, the part that is most often overlooked, is essential for the development of reefs as the diverse and beautiful habitats that we know them as....   [tags: Bioeroding Ecosystem Ecology Essays]
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3565 words
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Biodiversity - Biodiversity Imagine this: you step outside and feel the barren, rough, red Earth beneath your feet. There’s not a single plant in sight—no rustling of the leaves, no mighty towering trees to block the severe winds, and the scorching heat of the sun searing upon your face because there’s no shade. And when you take a whiff of air, you feel nothing filling up the space inside your lungs, liberating your body’s activities. What’s wrong with this picture. It’s not possible, of course. Even though plants aren’t the building blocks of life, they’re pretty close and without them, most of life wouldn’t exist—YOU wouldn’t exist....   [tags: plants extinction ecosystem]
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1083 words
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Grazing Versus Ecosystem Conservation: Managed Grazing Techniques Must be Implemented - Grazing Versus Ecosystem Conservation: Managed Grazing Techniques Must be Implemented One of the major issues confronting western America is that of environmental conservation and protection versus agricultural essentials and needs. This issue includes the environmentalists' fight against herbicides and pesticides, reservoirs for irrigation water, and livestock grazing on public land. The controversy that this essay confronts will be that of the desire to use public land for livestock grazing versus the importance of preserving the rangeland ecosystem....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive]
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3829 words
(10.9 pages)
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Value of Biodiversity and the Preservation of Species - Value of Biodiversity and the Preservation of Species As a result of the increasing environmental awareness of scientists and laymen, new issues have evolved around pressing ecological problems. Ecologists have discovered how important retaining biodiversity really is to humanity. While politicians often have other economic agendas, environmentalists are working hard to push this relatively new knowledge through political institutions using economic arguments. The preservation of our surroundings can create new jobs and promote economic efficiency, more so than the jobs which are currently destroying our ecosystem....   [tags: Nature Ecosystem Science Biology Papers]
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4519 words
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Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems - Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems Amid growing concerns about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, mitigation techniques that reduce levels of greenhouse gases are receiving attention as a possible remedy for climate change. Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but there are still questions about how significant of a role they play and how manipulating management plans affects a forested area’s carbon sequestration potential. Various factors such as land-use history, age of a forest stand, and potential feedback processes must all be taken into account when determining if forests are a feasible method of climate change mitigation....   [tags: Ecosystems] 2418 words
(6.9 pages)
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Coral Bleaching: Potential Mechanisms and Observed Adaptations - Coral Bleaching: Potential Mechanisms and Observed Adaptations Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse marine ecosystems. Driving this diversity are cnidarian corals which are obligate mutualistic symbioses between coral animals and dinoflagellate algae of the genus symbiodinium. These algae are commonly called zooxanthellae. This symbiosis between heterotrophic hosts and photosynthetic symbionts allows coral to thrive in nutrient poor seas and deposit calcium carbonate to build reefs (Toller et al....   [tags: Sea Coral Corals Ecosystem Papers]
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2776 words
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Fishing Disaster - Fishing Disaster Background: The ocean around the rocky shores of Newfoundland were once so full of cod that explorer John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually blocked his ship. In the centuries to follow, fish became the one of the only reasons anyone ever came to Newfoundland, or stayed. Cod was the center of life in the Canadian Maritimes from the beginning. Starting in the 1950's, Huge European trawlers began to travel across the Atlantic to fish the waters off Newfoundland. Some refered to these super-ships as "Fish Factories"....   [tags: Environment Ecosystem Environmental Essays] 581 words
(1.7 pages)
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ecosystems - Factors of Community: 1. Interactions between the climate and topography a. “Rainfall, soil, temperature” 2. The food and resources that grow 3. Other specific resources necessary for a species to survive and adapt to. (Ecological niche) 4. Species interaction 5. Physical disturbances, addition/removal of certain species -These factors determine population sizes of an ecosystem. -Conditions of arctic regions don’t allow many animals to live there due to the low temperature. Niches: (all relationships in which species engage in order to survive and reproduce) -Fundamental Niche is a theoretical niche, where there are no constraints or limited resources) -Realized Niche is the actual niche, where there are constraints on resources) Symbiosis: (“living together” Species interacting in +, -, and = ways) Mutualism (++) -Both species in interaction benefit -Obligatory Mutualism -One species cannot grow/reproduce without another species EX....   [tags: essays research papers] 2403 words
(6.9 pages)
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Value in Nature - Our classical humanist ethic requires that all duty attach itself to an individual “self”, a value-able entity with rights and duties of its own. But nature operates on a different basis: “there are no rights in the wild, and nature is indifferent to the welfare of particular animals” (Rolston, p.75). In order to formulate an autonomous environmental ethics, then, we must be able to move beyond the humanist focus on the self, towards a new source of value and a new type of value. In this essay, I intend to examine the idea of value in nature, drawing especially on Holmes Rolston III’s concept of systemic value and ecosytemic ethics and Aldo Leopold’s land aesthetic (as presented by J....   [tags: Ecosystems] 1994 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Loss of Biodiversity on the Ecosystems - ... (EPA, 2011) An example of this is climate. Climate is a fundamental component of ecosystems and organisms have adjusted to their local climate over a period (EPA, 2011). Climate change is a source that has the caliber to change ecosystems, also the numerous properties and benefits they give humankind. Humankind depends on ecosystems for the recreational, natural, aesthetic, spiritual, and resources the ecosystems provide. Moreover, besides effecting humans, these alterations may bring about catastrophic or favorable consequences on species....   [tags: Environment, Environmental Protection Agency] 981 words
(2.8 pages)
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Ecosystems at Risk - Ecosystems at Risk The ecosystem at risk that I have chosen to research is the Himalayan Mountain range. Considering the mountain range covers a very large area, the ecosystem type has been narrowed down to the Alpine variety. The 2 500 kilometre long Himalayas stretch across three countries; India, Nepal and China (Tibet). The width of the mountain range varies from 100-400 kilometres, giving a total area of 594 400 square kilometres. [IMAGE] http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=asia&Rootmap=nepal 2....   [tags: Papers] 1504 words
(4.3 pages)
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The Differences between Natural Ecosystems and Agro-Ecosystems - The Differences between Natural Ecosystems and Agro-Ecosystems An ecosystem is by definition the processes and interactions of the biotic community (living organisms) and inorganic component (physical and chemical features) of a particular environment. In a natural setting a stable, or climax ecosystem represents a state of natural equilibrium, whereby all occupant species compete for resources, and energy and nutrient cycles are balanced. Human farmers effectively out-compete most natural species for resources, and through select harvested species export energy and nutrients for consumption elsewhere; this is an agro-ecosystem or plagioclimax....   [tags: Papers] 2214 words
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Learning Within E-learning Ecosystems - ABSTRACT This paper evaluates the critical success factors within an e-learning ecosystems namely the principles and methods, processes and systems, and substance and content of teaching and learning. A qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate the critical success factors involving two principal data collection methods; a thorough and systematic review literature and in-depth interviews with e-learning providers. The interviewees corroborated the need for an effective model of e-learning in which, each of these factors provide impetus to each other by functioning as a unit, contributing to overall e-learning success....   [tags: E-Learning] 1468 words
(4.2 pages)
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Animal Disturbances in Eastern Deciduous Forests - ... To better understand the impacts of the disturbances caused by ecosystem engineers, both the varieties of ecosystem engineers and the general trends that have been established as to the results of their presence on biodiversity may be examined. Two basic types of ecosystem engineers, autogenic and allogenic, were identified by Jones, Lawton, and Shachack in 1994 (Jones 1994). Autogenic engineers change the ecosystem by the effects of their presence, the form of the organism and the space that the organism is occupying creating the impact....   [tags: Ecology, Ecosystems] 2592 words
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an Ecosystems Disturbance By A Pollutant - An Ecosystem's Disturbance by a Pollutant Freedman defines a pollutant as "the occurrence of toxic substances or energy in a larger quality then the ecological communities or particular species can tolerate without suffering measurable detriment" (Freeman, 562). Although the effects of a pollutant on an organism vary depending on the dose and duration (how long administered). The impact can be one of sublethality to lethality, all dependent upon the factors involved. These factors need to be looked at when determining an ecosystem's disturbance by a pollutant....   [tags: essays research papers] 3005 words
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Ecosystems and Environmental Discourse - Ecosystems and Environmental Discourse What is an ecosystem. At first glance, this seems to be a straightforward question, one to be answered by environmental scientists. However, the concept of an ecosystem, or more specifically, the action that posits the existence of an ecosystem, raises a series of questions that challenge some basic assumptions about the environment. For instance, is an ecosystem a concrete object in the same way that a stone or a tree is. Or instead, is an ecosystem a set of interactions between such objects....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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4091 words
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The Impact of Invasive Species on Ecosystems - The Impact of Invasive Species on Ecosystems             Influence on ecosystems range from human causes like the bulldozing of a forest to natural causes like a fire or a flood.  In recent times, the introduction and spread of invasive species has transformed native communities rapidly and, in some cases, created irreversible damages.  In the Earth’s history, changes have often occurred in the ecosystems.  For example, glaciers and the retreat of glaciers cause wide-spread changes.  However, although change is a constant in ecosystems, animals and habitats often cannot adapt to the rapid alterations of non-natural stresses....   [tags: Environment Environmental Pollution Preservation]
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2975 words
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The Significance of the Nitrogen Cycle in Ecosystems - The Significance of the Nitrogen Cycle in Ecosystems Nitrogen makes up about 80 per cent of the Earth's atmosphere as a gas. However the gaseous molecule is very stable and has to be transformed before it can be used by most organisms as it is only available to them when it is ammonium or nitrate. It can only be removed from the atmosphere in two ways: by lightning and by nitrogen fixation. Only a few species can convert nitrogen by nitrogen fixation to biologically useful forms....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
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Effects of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems - Ecological Restoration of Forests and Fires One of the most predominate ecosystems is the forest community. Covering about one-fourth of the land area on Earth, forests consist mainly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing closely together. The trees can be large and densely packed, as they are in the coastal forests of the Pacific Northwest, or they can be relatively small and sparsely scattered, as they are in the dry tropical forests of sub-Saharan Africa. Forests are complex ecosystems that also include “soils and decaying organic matter, fungi and bacteria, herbs and shrubs, vines and lichens, ferns and mosses, insects and spiders, reptiles and amphibians, birds and mammals, and many other organisms” (Audesirk, 2003)....   [tags: essays research papers] 1979 words
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Microphytic Soil Crusts and Desert Ecosystems - Microphytic Soil Crusts and Desert Ecosystems Communities of micro-organisms create crusts on soils throughout semi-arid and arid regions of the world. These microphytic (also called cryptogamic) crusts are formed when all or some of a diverse array of photosynthetic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), fungi, bacteria, lichens and mosses, bind together with inorganic particles in the first few millimeters of a soil. Microphytic crusts are dominant feature in desert soils; they are estimated to represent approximately 70% of desert soil biomass world wide (Belnap 1993)....   [tags: Soil Soils Agriculture Ecology Papers]
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Uganda: A Land of Pristine Beauty and Astonishing Ecosystems - ... There have been several changes in the types of governments that have existed however; there have been democracies, tyrannical dictatorships, and an independent people’s party all in the wake of structuralism that the colonist left behind. In the late 1950s, as a few political parties emerged, the African population concentrated its attention on achieving self-government, with focus on the legislative council (Bohannan and Curtin 1995). Discussions in London in 1961 led to an internal self-government under Benedicto Kiwanuka, a Roman Catholic Ganda who was a former chief minister, became the first prime minister until elections in April of 1962 in which he was displaced by Milton Obote....   [tags: International Government ]
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1875 words
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Mass Destruction of Ecosystems to Accommodate the Automobile - Mass Destruction of Ecosystems to Accommodate the Automobile Mitigation, to the dismay of some, has become publicly synonymous with notions of preservation and conservation. Mitigation is neither the ‘preservation’ nor is it the ‘conservation’ of habitat. Mitigation is the creation of new habitat, or the guarding of an existing habitat to "make up" for the destruction of similar habitat somewhere else. It was the infamous environmental buzz word of the nineties, notorious for its criticism and praise by developers....   [tags: Environment Environmental Mitigation Essays]
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3789 words
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The Negative Effects of Humans and Nature on Florida’s Marine Ecosystems - Nature designed Florida to be one large marine ecosystem. Florida is one big sand peninsula located below the 40th longitudinal North American line. Three bodies of salt water (Gulf of Mexico, Strait of Florida and Atlantic Ocean) surround three out of four directions of Florida. Man-made canals, natural lakes, rivers and estuaries are confined within the State of Florida’s physical boundaries. All of these form an interlocking system of waterways that impact the interconnected marine environment (marine ecosystem)....   [tags: Environment, Pollution, Recycling]
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Effects of Illegal Whaling in The Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary on Benthic and Pelagic Ecosystems - ... However, It is not just whaling inside of the Southern Ocean Whale Santuary that is causing concern. Baleen whales are a migratory species, and therefore will often venture outside of the Southern Ocean because there is no physical barrier keeping the whales inside of the sanctuary (Zacharias, Gerber, & Hyrenbach, 2006). Once outside the sanctuary, the whales are no longer protected from whalinig. Outside of the sanctuary, there is a much greater number of countries that hunt whales, including Norway, Iceland, Russia, Denmark, and the United States (Miller, & Dolsak, 2007)....   [tags: Ecology]
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Feedback Effects of Soil Carbon Cycling in Northern Ecosystems - Feedback Effects of Soil Carbon Cycling in Northern Ecosystems Global warming will be greatest in mid-continental North America and Eurasia, where temperatures are predicted to increase 4 - 12_C during the winter and 2 - 6_ C in summer (Kasischke et. al, 1995). This warming will shift the boreal forest, bog, and tundra biomes that dominate these areas northward as much as 500 km in the first hundred years of warming (Toward...1988, qtd. in Varallyay, 1990). Alaskan studies indicate that these changes are already influencing ecosystem function and carbon balance in northern ecosystems (Grulke et al....   [tags: Science Chemistry Essays]
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Review of Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems? - In this article, authors William Ripple and Robert Beschta focus on the issue of predation and the way it affects biodiversity and otherwise alters ecosystems. While many other studies have stressed the lethal effects of predation by carnivores, the authors of this study have chosen to focus on how nonlethal outcomes of predation affect the structure and function of ecosystems. The authors give two main objectives to their study: first to provide a short synthesis of the potential ecosystem responses to predation risk in a three-level trophic cascade involving large carnivores, hoofed animals, and vegetation; and secondly to present research that centers on wolves, elk, and woody browse species in the northern area of Yellowstone National Park....   [tags: Ecology] 744 words
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How Pollution Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate - How Pollution Affects Ecosystems and the Global Climate Introduction The main theme of our lesson is how pollution affects ecosystems and the global climate. We aim to teach 4th and 5th grade students about erosion in order for them to gain awareness about the anthropogenic (human-induced) impacts on the environment and global climate change as well as to generate ideas on how they can reduce their own ecological footprints. We feel this is important because the lesson not only educates students, but also motivates them to take action....   [tags: Lesson Plan Teaching Pollution Essays Papers]
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Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems - The Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems Introduction Throughout the years, advances in technology and scientific development have greatly influenced our global community. Various anthropogenic factors, such as the increased combustion of fossil fuels and widespread usage of manmade chemicals, have greatly affected the planet's atmosphere and it's ozone layer. Ozone Depletion The stratospheric ozone layer is the Earth's natural means of protection from the Sun's damaging ultraviolet rays....   [tags: Geology] 834 words
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The Effect of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation on Marine Ecosystems - The Effect of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation on Marine Ecosystems Abstract Nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water, nearly all of it being in the form of oceans. Therefore, any environmental changes that are sensed on a global scale are certainly expressed in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature by which one aspect of the changing environment, ultraviolet radiation, affects the sensitive balance of the oceans. Specifically, the focus will be on the relationship between increasing ultraviolet radiation and the survival of phytoplankton, fish, and other aquatic animals....   [tags: Geology] 906 words
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Adverse Impacts of Landscape Fragmentation on Biodiversity - Adverse Impacts of Landscape Fragmentation on Biodiversity Landscape fragmentation can impose devastating and irreversible consequences on the biodiversity of ecosystems. Because of the conflicting interests between ecology and human economic benefit, it has become increasingly important to find solutions for a harmonic balance. It is imperative for people to recognize the impacts of biodiversity loss and increased extinction of many species. These impacts must be understood in order to protect landscapes and the immense biodiversity they contain....   [tags: Environmental Ecosystems Essays]
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The Importance of Riparian Areas - Riparian areas are the areas that surround rivers, streams, lakes, etc. The word “ripa” is Latin for bank. They are the transition zone between aquatic and on land ecosystems. It wasn’t until recently that riparian areas have been viewed as important places, rather than ‘sacrifice’ areas that could be given up for livestock and crops. They take up a small part of our earth, but they are vital to ecosystems and to the water they surround. The roles of riparian areas are rather simple, but they are extremely important to vegetation, wildlife, water, and us....   [tags: Ecosystems] 615 words
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Kānuka and Gorse as Ecosytem Engineers: A Study on Motutapu - Kānuka (Kunzea ericoides) is the primary successional plant used on Motutapu island for regeneration of original native species assemblages. This study investigates contrasts floral and invertebrate diversity between kānuka and gorse (Ulex europaeus), a plant which has been used elsewhere as an efficient primary successional shelter, and as an equivalent harbour for invert diversity. Six stands, three of gorse, three of kanuka, were sampled using transects totalling five samples per stand. The stands measured were too immature to support understory, but kānuka was significantly more diverse in invert fauna than gorse....   [tags: Ecology]
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The Importance of Fire in Ecosystems - The Importance of Fire in Ecosystems Fire is an important part of many ecosystems, affecting wildlife populations in various ways, such as by changing habitat, affecting food supply or quality, or by altering interactions of species. Fire suppression has allowed forested areas to achieve a climax state, which provides less forage for wildlife. While terrestrial wildlife is benefited by fire, large fires through the increase in sediment flow negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Fire is essential in maintaining biological diversity in the Northern Rocky Mountain forests....   [tags: Papers] 942 words
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Coral Reef Ecosystems - Coral Reef Ecosystems What is a coral reef. Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse marine eco-systems on earth, rivaled only by the tropical rainforests on land. Corals grow over geologic time and have been in existence about 200 million years. Corals reached their current level of diversity 50 million years ago. The delicately balanced marine environment of the coral reef relies on the interaction of hard and soft corals, sponges, anemones, snails, rays, crabs, lobsters, turtles, dolphins and other sea life....   [tags: Papers] 894 words
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The Effects of Off-Shore Drilling on Marine Ecosystems - The environmental impact of the planet is closely related to a problem that arose from the increasing use of Oil: the reduction of emission levels of toxic chemicals and so-called "greenhouse gases", and reducing oxygen levels. Man has caused disasters on ecosystems by killing large number of species of all kinds. Among the most serious disasters that threaten biodiversity are oil spills in the seas and oceans. The contamination by crude oil or refined oil (diesel, gasoline, kerosene and other products obtained by fractional distillation and chemical processing of crude oil) is accidentally or deliberately generated from different sources....   [tags: Environment, Environmental] 1765 words
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Hunting is Important to the Environment - Hunting is Important to the Environment It is early in the morning; the majestic Elk bugles in the distance. The sun is kissing the tops of the peaks with the most beautiful gold, and painting the clouds rose red. The men and women who enjoy the outdoors whether it is hunting or just hiking help make these types of moments possible. Hunting and the ecosystem is tied closely to conservation of land and animals. The articles of “Hunting and the ecosystem” written by the South Dakota Game Fish and Parks Department (SDGFP), and “Facts and statistics on wildlife conservation” written by Roger Holmes, director of the Fish and Wildlife, touch on how hunting is important in the environment to keep a good balance in the ecosystem....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers] 913 words
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Forest Restoration - ... Once planted, the area is assessed for about three years following the restoration site (Cole). When an area is seeded it is usually mulched with either bark, straw or some other type of mulch blanket however, is not always necessary or effective in the recovery process of the plot. Mulch blankets are generally more effective on higher elevation areas (Cole). The mortality rates of seed of seedlings are affected by multiple factors but the most evident is the climate. Once the seedlings are established they will developed, cotyledons; the mortality rates for seedlings are more often higher than the mortality rates of volunteer plants....   [tags: Conservation ]
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Wolves: An Unwanted Predator - Wolves: An Unwanted Predator Vigorous as a predator, affectionate toward its pack, the gray wolf elicits both fear and admiration among humans. This fear, along with ignorance, inspired a movement to eradicate the gray wolf from the lower forty-eight states in the early 1900’s. By the early 1930’s, gray wolf populations had been completely eliminated from the Rocky Mountains (Bangs, et al 147). In 1973, congress passed the Endangered Species Act that protected any wolves that naturally migrated from Canada (Bangs, et al 147)....   [tags: Wildlife Animals Gray Wolf Essays]
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Pollution Essay: Forests Counter-Act Global Warming - An important ecosystem service provided by forests is the ability to counter-act the effects of global warming. Carbon dioxide, a contributing factor to global warming, is taken up by the plants and vegetation contained in forests through photosynthesis and the resulting carbon is stored in both living and dead plant biomass. This process, known as carbon sequestration, greatly reduces the potential for global climate change (IPCC 2001). Forest cover also affects the albedo, that is, the proportion of incident solar radiation that is reflected by the earths surface....   [tags: Environment, Climate Change]
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Save the Rainforest! - We are supposed to be good stewards of this earth while we are still living on it. God gave us this planet to inhabit and have dominion over everything on and in it. That means that we are responsible for keeping it clean, for protecting it from harm or depletion and we have to preserve and replenish the earth. It is sad to say but humans have played their part in deteriorating the earth. We have polluted and killed the very thing that takes care of us. If you ride by any lake or river you find trash and debris around it....   [tags: Ecology ] 995 words
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Protecting the Daintree Rainforest - 1. Destroying the habitat of different plants and animals, they no longer have a place to live. Their food source and nutrients are taken away and have nowhere else to go. These organisms will die out and there will be a loss in the diversity of that ecosystem. That ecosystem can then start to crumble as the habitats are taken away and the plants and animals have no home. With no habitat in which the organisms can live in, there is going to be very little diversity. 2. a) The Daintree rainforest at Cape Tribulation, in far north Queensland is diverse in many ways....   [tags: Ecology]
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Gulf Oil Crisis - ... Overall there are no good effects on wildlife from the oil spill. The wildlife is largely affected, but this is because their habitat is affected even more. The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem “spans 600,000 square miles” (Robinson, 2010). An estimate made on April 30th put the oil spread as covering 3,850 square miles (CBS, 2010). The oil made the water slick and gooey (See figure 2). Fig. 2 oily residue comes ashore in the surf in Gulf Shores, Ala. From “AP Images” (Dave Martin, 2010). This oil causes harm to the gulf ecosystem....   [tags: Oil]
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Can Logging Help the Enviorment - ... E.O. Wilson states that pine plantations contain 90-95% fewer species than the natural forests that preceded them (Williams, 2000). Secondary forests have been substituted for the natural forests before them for numerous reasons. First, many believe that if these secondary forests can replace the rich in biodiversity forests with monoculture forests then all is well in the world. And by planting these forests they can turn a profit without waiting for the forest to naturally re-grow itself which at times can take generations to do so....   [tags: Environment, Saving Forests ] 1949 words
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Lesson Plan Background: Pollution and Global Climate Change - Lesson Plan Background: Pollution and Global Climate Change Introduction: This lesson about pollution focuses on greenhouse gases. Students will learn about greenhouse gases and how they affect ecosystems. The students will understand the greenhouse affect and how their actions relate increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In the lesson, students will define the properties of an ecosystem, learn to identify the ecosystems they live in and how they interact within an ecosystem....   [tags: Lesson Plan Global Warming Teaching Essays]
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Permaculture: A New Way of Growing - Permaculture: A New Way of Growing Permaculture is a term created in 1978 by Bill Mollison and one of his students, David Holmgren. Bill Mollison is an Australian ecologist who combined the words "permanent" and "agriculture." Holmgren and he defined permaculture as: "An integrated, evolving system of perennial or self-perpetuating plant and animal species useful to man." (Holmgren xix).A newer definition of permaculture that Holmgren mentions in his book is "Consciously designed landscapes which mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature, while yielding an abundance of food, fiber, and energy for the provision of local needs." (Holmgren xix).Both definitions leave room for the evolution of the agricultural system....   [tags: Agriculture Farming Environment Essays]
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Sustainability of Agriculture - ... In the old days, the small fields were never left bare, being a rich and dense mish-mash of short-, middle- and long-term crops of varying heights (corn, beans, tree cotton, castor bean, pumpkins, native cucumbers, cowpeas, sesame, sunflowers, peanuts, cassava; some of these crops reached tree height). Thus the overall destructive effects of the slash-and-burn were limited to small areas, and compensated for by this mixture of crops. The Polyculture Model is, in part, an adaptation of the old model which in itself is an imitation of the local ecosystem, including the factors of density, biodiversity, and dynamism....   [tags: Environmentalism / Economics / Agriculture]
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Returning the Wolves to the Wild - Returning the Wolves to the Wild A beautiful, clear night in the Rocky Mountain backcountry, stars fill the moonless night sky, and one can not help to think of how peaceful it is. Traveling through the backcountry, you have encountered more wildlife than you have people. Suddenly, the silence of the evening is interrupted by the howl of a wolf, alerting all to its presence. The howl is soon answered by another, closer howl. You can feel the hair stand up on the back of your neck as you realize that you are not alone in the wilderness, with the top predator lurking nearby....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Animals Essays]
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Construction in Sustainable Design - Construction in Sustainable Design In a time faced with an energy crisis, water shortages, soaring housing costs, economic instability, dwindling natural resources, critical levels of air pollution and an inordinate amount of waste produced each day it is essential to begin taking steps to prevent this pattern from continuing down the road of environmental destruction. The engineers, architects and developers of today, more than ever, share an obligation to create new and innovative structures that turn this cycle around....   [tags: Greenhouses Ecosystems Energy Essays]
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The Florida Everglades - The Florida Everglades The Florida Everglades have been adversely impacted for decades because of human attempts to control this historical ‘River of Grass’. The reason for our insistence on attempting to control and manage the area can be defined in one word: water. There has always been plenty of water available within the Everglades’ ecosystem, but no logical way to extract it. Our extraction efforts eventually led to devastating results. My paper will focus on the initial policy and practices involved in the extensive downgrading of this once biologically unequaled ecosystem; as well as discuss recent policy initiatives that have been implemented in order to restore the Everglades to its once magnificent status....   [tags: Geography Environmental Nature Essays]
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Economics and the Environment - Economics and the Environment Mainstream economic thought of the 20th has been dominated by the principle of ‘more is better’, this thinking is dangerously misguided. Concentrating on maximizing real GNP has been brought about by economists who are working on the assumption that growth is always justified, because of the infinite wants of the population. These economists also see growth as a solution to the problems of the world today. Even those who propose ‘sustainable growth’ are false in that they assume that it is possible to continue with the growth of the last two centuries....   [tags: essays papers]
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Mimicking the Natural Environment - Mimicking the Natural Environment In Clifford Geertz’s article, Two Types of Ecosystems, he suggests that the uneven distribution of the Indonesian population is in direct correlation with the different methods of agriculture used by those in the densely populated area and those in the less populated area. Geertz explores the distinct characteristics of two methods of cultivation in Indonesia, swidden and sawah agriculture. Swidden agriculture, as described by Geertz, is when the forest is burned and cleared so new crops can be sowed....   [tags: Agriculture Nature Essays]
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Personal Environmental Ethics - There are some people who believe that the United States' strictly forced endangered species laws seriously hamper our economy. I on the other hand must disagree. The endangered species laws were created for an important reason: to protect our earth's biological diversity. Whenever humanity interferes with the ecosystem for the purpose of economic growth it tears it apart piece by piece. It is for reasons like these we must have such tough laws, as in the Endangered Species Act. The fact of the matter is that a problem still exists today....   [tags: essays research papers] 437 words
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How many wolves are too many? - In 1922 the federal government passed a law that allowed wolves in Yellowstone National Park to be hunted. In just four years later the last wolf was hunted. In 1995, the gray wolf was reintroduced to the park. The government started off by introducing 31 wolves in the Montana and Wyoming parts of the park. Now 116 wolves now live and more then 75 pups. The controversy surrounding the reintroduction of the wolves are many from both sides. Some local farmers are against it because some wolves hunt their animals....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Global Warming and the Depletion of the Ozone (O3) Layer - Global Warming and the Depletion of the Ozone (O3) Layer The average surface temperature on Earth has increased approximately 1.0°F in the past century, and it is projected that it will again increase somewhere two and nine degrees by the year 2100. This is the expected effect of increased greenhouse gases, which contain the Sun's energy (heat) in the lower atmosphere (troposphere). Much of the increase in these gases can be considered a natural occurrence, however, at least some of it is human induced....   [tags: Environmental Greenhouse Gases]
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Landcare Revegetation - Rehabilitation is the process of reclaiming land for economical or conservation purposes. This process usually involves re-vegetation. The main aim in rehabilitation is to either return the land to a self-sustaining ecosystem or prepare the land for human use, i.e. crops, pastures and plantations. Rehabilitation should take place at a rate that is significantly higher than natural succession. Several principles are implemented for successful rehabilitation. Of these principles includes the need for preventing disasters and anticipating problems before they arise, if this is taken to consideration then rehabilitation will be less costly and trouble free....   [tags: essays research papers] 1410 words
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