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Deductive Databases - \subsection{Deductive Databases} In the field of deductive databases there has been extensive research on the optimization of queries for Datalog (and its variants). The major interest has been the optimization of recursive queries. Ceri et al~\cite{ceri-gottlob-tanca-1989} provide an excellent summary of the field. The evaluation or comparison of optimization strategies is typified by Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan~\cite{br1986,br1988} who develop analytical cost models for the optimization strategies when applied to four queries (related to the parent and ancestor relations) and then generate numerical data from the analytical models using synthetic data driven by three shapes -- tree, invert...   [tags: Information Technology] 1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Introduction to Solve Math Problems Deductive Reasoning - Introduction to solve math problems deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning is one of the two essential forms of suitable reasoning. The reasoning constructs or evaluates deductive reasoning. While deductive reasoning argues from the general to exacting , similarly inductive reasoning argues from the specific to a general instance. Deductive arguments may be valid or invalid,and sound or unsound, but that are not true or false. Whenever we turn up for the conclusion using facts, definitions, rule, or properties, then it is so called Deductive Reasoning....   [tags: Math] 508 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Deductive Problem of Evil - The Deductive Problem of Evil      One of the major philosophical debates concerning God's existence involves the problem of evil.  The problem has two basic formulations, one is deductive, the other inductive.  The deductive form of the problem asks the following:  Is the existence of evil logically compatible with a necessarily benevolent and necessarily omnipotent being?  One of the philosophers who discusses the problem is Richard Gale.  I will begin this essay by outlining the deductive problem of evil according to Gale.  I will then try to refute the deductive argument and prove that the existence of evil is indeed logically compatible with a benevolent and omnipotent being.  A conc...   [tags: Philosophy essays]
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Probabilist - Deductive Inference in Gassendi's Logic - ‘Probabilist’ Deductive Inference in Gassendi's Logic* ABSTRACT: In his Logic, Pierre Gassendi proposes that our inductive inferences lack the information we would need to be certain of the claims that they suggest. Not even deductivist inference can insure certainty about empirical claims because the experientially attained premises with which we adduce support for such claims are no greater than probable. While something is surely amiss in calling deductivist inference "probabilistic," it seems Gassendi has hit upon a now-familiar, sensible point—namely, the use of deductive reasoning in empirical contexts, while providing certain formal guarantees, does not insulate empirical arguments...   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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3534 words
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Reasoning Research Paper - Tables of Content Inductive Reasoning ……………………………...………………………………...……….…….3 Deductive Reasoning …………….....…………………………………………………………….3 Critical Thinking.……………….………...…………………………………………………..…...4 Role of Inductive Reasoning………………………………………………………………………5 Role of Deductive Reasoning……………………………………………………………………..5 Roles of Critical Thinking ………………..………………………………………………………6 References…………………………………………………………………………………………8 Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is logical reasoning where people have a lot of the information and use that to reach a conclusion....   [tags: education, deductive, inductive]
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1223 words
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The Possibility of Proving the Existence of God Using Inductive and Deductive Arguments - The Possibility of Proving the Existence of God Using Inductive and Deductive Arguments Many philosophers have attempted to prove the existence of God, although there is no argument as yet which proves without any doubt that God exists. A proof is the demonstration that something is true or, in this case, that God exists. There are 3 types of proof; direct, deductive, and inductive. A direct proof is when something is immediately obvious, so therefore, it cannot be used to prove God's existence....   [tags: Papers] 1209 words
(3.5 pages)
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Review on What Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge Do Textbooks Give Attention To - Introduction This paper is devoted to the discussions about three main areas of the selected article-- What aspects of vocabulary knowledge do textbooks give attention to. In first place, an examination of the possible philosophical assumption, which seems existing ontologically and epistemologically behind the research approach. Greener(2011) suggests knowing of some widely debated philosophical ideas would give researchers more chances accomplishing good researches. Because such knowledge could throw a light in the way scholars choose and organise certain methods....   [tags: Education Methods, Deductive Research] 1932 words
(5.5 pages)
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Argument Classification - An inference is a way to yield a conclusion from statements that are presumed to be true—called premises. The conclusion includes new knowledge that the premises did not make explicit. For example, we could have two statements which are presumed to be true. 1.) “Steve is in choir.” 2.) “Everyone in choir sings.” From these two statements, we can infer a conclusion of 3.) “Steve sings.” We were able to reasonably put forth a new piece of information from two previously established pieces of information....   [tags: Logic] 1046 words
(3 pages)
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Teaching Conditional Sentences through C-R Tasks - A. Introduction Conditional sentences are dedicated to expressing a possible situation and its consequences. Teaching of conditional sentences is a difficult point in secondary school English education. In mainland China, students begin the learning of the first and zero type of conditional sentences in the eighth grade, and learn the rest of second and third type of condition sentences in the eleventh grade. The long learning period of conditional sentence can reflect the great importance and difficulty of teaching this grammar....   [tags: education, grammar, teaching method]
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2198 words
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The Allegory of The Cave, by Plato - Plato’s logical strategy in the allegory of the cave is of deductive reasoning. Plato uses a cave containing people bound by chains which constrict their neck and legs in such a way that they are unable to turn around and there is a fire roaring behind them casting shadows on the wall. Since the prisoners cannot turn their heads to see what is casting the shadow the only thing they can perceive are the shadows and the sounds that seem to becoming from them. This is what Plato argues in the allegory of the cave “To them, I said, the truth would literally be nothing but the shadows of the images.”(The Allegory of the Cave Plato)....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Rhetoric]
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868 words
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Richard Dawkin's Essay on Darwin's Wasp - In Richard Dawkins’s essay about Darwin’s wasp, he makes an argument that nature’s role is to ensure DNA survival. The inductive argument begins by observing the behavior of the wasp. As Dawkins observes, the wasp inserts its stinger into the central nervous system of the caterpillar and paralyzes it. Then the wasp implants larva. The larvae eat the caterpillar alive. This may seem cruel to the human mind if we apply the concept of suffering to this process, but ultimately, this is nature at work....   [tags: Aquinas, Utility Function]
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844 words
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On Explanation: Aristotelean and Hempelean - On Explanation: Aristotelean and Hempelean ABSTRACT: Given the great historical distance between scientific explanation as Aristotle and Hempel saw it, I examine and appraise important similarities and differences between the two approaches, especially the inclination to take deduction itself as the very model of scientific knowledge. I argue that we have good reasons to reject this inclination. In his recent studies showing Galileo's knowledge of and adherence to the deductive standards of explanation in science set forth by Aristotle, Wallace (1) remarks that this Aristotelean theory must not be confused with the contemporary deductive-nomological theory of Hempel and Oppenheim....   [tags: History Science Scientific Papers]
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2763 words
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Finite Evidence and Universal Propositions - Finite Evidence and Universal Propositions There is a lot of empirical evidence supporting the proposition '‘All metals expand when heated’. For example on many, many occasions we have observed metals expanding when heated. Because of this large amount of evidence we take the proposition to be true (or highly likely to be true). The proposition '‘All metals expand when heated’ is caled a universal proposition. A universal proposition mentions al things of a certain kind. The proposition '‘Al metals expand when heated’ is about al metals, not just some of them; it is about al pieces of metal, not just some pieces....   [tags: Ampliative Logic] 4413 words
(12.6 pages)
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Teaching Science In The Twenty-First Century - Botanist, zoo director, orthodontist, and park ranger. These are only four of the many, many jobs that need their employees to have a good background in the sciences. It is very important that children begin to be taught about science when they are introduced to the other fundamental subjects. If a child has a good understanding of science and scientific thinking, they can use these processes in everyday life. Science is also important for kids to know because it can open their eyes to an abundance of occupations....   [tags: Science]
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702 words
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Intellectual Ability in the Workplace - Intellectual is associated to our mind which we use our mind creatively and able find solutions to solve the problem through reason and thinking. Ability is an individual capacity, talent or skills that he or she enables to perform a job successfully when under take a certain responsibility. According to Gabriel (n.d.), intellectual ability means the skills required to perform mental tasks and apply to both academic and work settings. So that, intellectual ability play an important role in workplace....   [tags: Number Aptitude, Inductive Reasoning]
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1087 words
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Use of Logic in Monty Python and the holy grail - Monty Python and the Holy Grail Logic affects our lives everyday. We use it both subconsciously and consciously to make decisions which can be as important as our careers, or as insignificant as what to eat for lunch. Logic can also be used in other ways. Ironically, others’ bad logic can result in us learning something just as much as we learn from our own bad decisions. This is shown in Monty Python’s Quest for the Holy Grail. One example of this ironic use of logic is with the trial of the witch....   [tags: essays research papers] 444 words
(1.3 pages)
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Abstract Geometry - Abstract Geometry The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians discovered abstract Geometry. They developed these ideas that were used to build pyramids and help with reestablishing land boundaries. While, the Babylonians used abstract geometry for measuring, construction buildings, and surveying. Abstract geometry uses postulates, rules, definitions and propositions before and up to the time of the Euclid. Abstract geometry is deductive reasoning and axiomatic organization. Deductive reasoning deals with statements that have already been accepted....   [tags: Free Essays] 402 words
(1.1 pages)
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Using Diversity and Science to Effectively Educate Students - Diversity is when individuals differ in race, ethnicity, gender, class, language, religion, ability, geography, and/or age. Teachers will be required to teach in diverse classrooms with a variety of inclusion students, gender, and cultures. Each and every person learns differently and at different rates. According to Culyer and Ebert (2008), “There is no age which all people are on the same intellectual level either at a starting point or as a level of attainment. Thus, you can expect that all students in your classroom will represent a range of intellectual ability” (p.84)....   [tags: Education, teachers, teaching]
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1702 words
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My Life, My Fantasy, My Philosophy - My Life, My Fantasy, My Philosophy - Descartes' Fourth Meditation, Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, Sir Francis Bacon's The Four Idols, and Walt Disney Every day is a process of discovery, and I have stumbled upon one about myself: I am a hypocrite; I live in a world of hypocrites, and here, on this earth, lies not one soul who can live happily otherwise. We have developed a defense mechanism against all that is unknown in this world and acquired a false sense of security of having control and actually knowing how it is that this world works....   [tags: Philosophy] 1968 words
(5.6 pages)
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Max Black and Humean Skepticism - Max Black and Humean Skepticism In this essay I will argue that the Humean problem of induction is only truly problematic when a strange, impossible definition is given to the term “reasonable”. I will begin by explaining what it is I understand Hume’s induction problem to be, and to try to flesh out the issues relevant to my case. I will then examine Max Black’s proposed solution to the problem, and show in what ways this solution is useful and why it is ultimately unconvincing. In this latter context I will invoke the work of Wesley Salmon, and then try to solve the problem that Salmon poses....   [tags: Max Black Hume Essays]
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1546 words
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René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God - René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God The problem with René Descartes' argument about the existence of God has to do with his rationalist deductive reasoning. Descartes deduces that truth about the existence of God lies within his idea of a perfect God and God's essence (as a perfect being who must exist in order to be perfect). A rationalist philosopher, Descartes discounts human knowledge as a product of our sensory data (our senses) but supports the epistemological stance that our knowledge is obtained through the reasoning processes of our own minds....   [tags: Philosophy God Existence Religion Essays]
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1537 words
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Problem of Induction - In the selection, ‘Skeptical doubts concerning the operations of the understanding’, David Hume poses a problem for knowledge about the world. This question is related to the problem of induction. David Hume was one of the first who decided to analyze this problem. He starts the selection by providing his form of dividing the human knowledge, and later discusses reasoning and its dependence on experience. Hume states that people believe that the future will resemble the past, but we have no evidence to support this belief....   [tags: Philosophy / Logic]
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1208 words
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Research and Design - ……….RESEARCH DESIGN As it has been already indicated, this study has examined each of our six research questions via the interviews of colleagues in the health field and through my experiences with my clients. The Research Method Our research method is concerned with inferential procedures. That is to say, information that we obtained can be used to make inference about a much larger set of measurements called population (OTT 1988). Three health practitioners with a minimum of ten years of experience formed our sample....   [tags: Research Analysis ]
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Teaching Passive Voice - A. Introduction As guides, teachers play a significant role in imparting grammar knowledge to students. They use their existing knowledge to enhance students’ learning ability during the process of their teaching. As regard to which method should teachers adopt, many researchers hold different views. In this article, the author mainly discusses the strategies in teaching passive voice by evaluating Miss Wong’s pedagogical approach. In the second part, the author will write a proposal to suggest an alternative teaching method regarding passive voice....   [tags: education, language, grammar, student]
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1975 words
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What´s Academic Writing? - Academic writing is a critical part of your success as a college student, many professors require the kind of components that are included within academic writing. A rhetorical situation can be the sole factor that determines the key components within any piece of writing. It is also a way to show differences in pieces in academic writing, A rhetorical situation requires many elements this includes a properly composed thesis, ample research sources, carefully crafted citations and thorough checks for plagiarism through application, summarization and paraphrasing....   [tags: thesis statement, college career]
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An Evaluation of Workers’ and Students’ Performance: Effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on Performance Appraisals - Throughout life, people inevitably are evaluated based on their different positions, duties, and situations. As a student studying at school, school performance directly affects the level of academic achievement, while job performance strongly influences the livelihood and financial income of a hired employee. Every person in society is closely subjected to performance appraisal, which is the measurement of performance among individuals. In order to measure peoples’ performance, there are many different kinds of performance appraisals that evaluate how well people are doing with their tasks, and their performance can be rated by everyone including the workers themselves....   [tags: Competence, Work Ethic]
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The Best Way to Learn Semantic Chinese Radicals For Adult Second Language Learners - The children and adults learn the languages differently. Children learn implicitly or automatically acquire complex grammatical structures of their first language based on experience, but adults already need more additional resources of the rules (explicit) learning (Ellis, 2005). However, the teaching Chinese semantic radicals might be taught implicitly or explicitly. Nearly every person experienced the second language learning. The great amount of research in second language acquisition was done after World War II....   [tags: education, international culture]
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Discuss the Perception that Financial Accounting Appears to be Transforming - This essay is going to discuss the perception that financial accounting appears to be transforming. It demonstrates that why the financial accounting theories appears and the difference between descriptive and prescriptive methods of research; the reason why researches might shift from one method to another and how the accounting theories influence by some famous researchers contribution such as Paton, Littleton and Chambers. Accounting is a human activity; therefore accounting theories should consider people’s behavior with respect to accounting information....   [tags: Finance ]
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F/CFAT : An Approach for Combined Safety and Security Analysis - I. INTRODUCTION System safety is a complex concept, which is represented by multiple attributes and which requires diverse sources of evidence to demonstrate its achievement. Safety-critical systems, which provide safety-critical services to their users, must be designed to be safe. This means that despite their complexities and despite variable environmental conditions, their operation should be demonstrably safety. A fundamental difficulty in measuring system safety arises due to the complexity of the notion – it is made up of multiple, potentially conflicting attributes, and difficult trade-offs may need to be made between these attributes....   [tags: Information Technology]
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1413 words
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Overlapping Methods or Developing a New Approach? Understanding Methodological Commonalities - Grounded Theory (GT) and Content Analysis (CA) are widely known methodologies applied within multiple scientific communities, sharing a close background with social sciences. Each of these approaches has been developed and tested throughout distinct historical pathways, both shaped by different aims, results and theoretical constructions. Whereas GT belongs to what could be described as “inductive science”, CA is tagged under the motto of “deductive sciences”, assuming essentially different epistemological positions (Bernard & Ryan, 2009)....   [tags: content analysis,grounded theory,data exploration]
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Science Revolution: Separating Modern Science With Theological Speculations - During the 17th century, European philosophy and religion was challenged with the introduction of the scientific revolution. Through the three factors that incorporate science: a body of knowledge, a system of inquiry, and thinkers to support their findings (494); old and new worldviews were being questioned. While some thinkers of the era were not intentionally trying to separate religion and science, their ideas created controversy, which in some areas slowed down the growth of scientific experimentation and knowledge....   [tags: scientific experimentation, planets, sun]
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878 words
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Causes of Temporary Labor Migration from Fiji - Fiji is an island nation in Melanesia, in the South Pacific Ocean. The estimated population of the country is about 849,000, with a total area of about 7,056 square miles. Labor migration is one of the key forces of socioeconomic development. Migration of skilled people with high levels of human capital leads to a shortage of skilled labor in the home country as well as provides an opportunity to the unemployed youths to be engaged in the labor market hence it helps in the economic growth and development of many developing countries such as Fiji....   [tags: melanesia, fiji migrants, fiji economy]
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Research Article Analysis: Juveniles in Prison - Research Article Analysis This research analysis is meant to measure the effects of this particular program against the goals it set out to accomplish as a means of contributing to subsequent decision making about the program and improving future programming. This applied research study is an evaluation research project of social science that is intended to supply scientifically valid information with which to guide public policy. The goals of this evaluation research are to provide feedback to policy makers in concrete and measurable terms....   [tags: jain, research paper, criminology] 2016 words
(5.8 pages)
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Teaching Conditional Sentences to Chinese Students - Part A 1. Introduction Teaching English If-conditional sentences to Chinese students is always a challenge for English teachers. English teachers are still continuously seeking for an effective method to make the language point more understandable for students. The probability approach put forward by Mei Wu (2012) provides a clear classification of conditional sentences. Based on her theory, conditional sentences can be mainly divided into four types. In terms of probability, type 1 is the factual conditionals (zero condition) which mean the event is definitely happen to meet the condition stated in the if-clause....   [tags: education, grammar, language learning]
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1978 words
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The Impact of a Changing Climate - The main purpose of this research is exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture trends and socioeconomic life of Nepalese farmers. In addition, it helps to identify key elements that support to develop alternative cultivation methods in changing environment. Furthermore, farmers will be understood to adopt distinct agricultural techniques and management process to utilize local resources that lessen the effect of climate change in agriculture. 3.1 Topic Impacts of climate change on agriculture in Nepal....   [tags: VDC, CAQDAS, Nepal]
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1463 words
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Skilled but Classic Techniques in the Movie - Overall, I found the visual techniques of this film to be fairly basic. Not to say that it was boring or underachieving in any way, but more of a skilled implementation of classic technique. I think that with initial visual impact of stop motion animation, coupled with an intense soundtrack, and the distinctive use of color, the addition of any really abstract visual manipulation may have pushed this film over the edge. In terms of overall visual approach, this film leans more towards the inductive, although deductive scenes are used intermittently as well....   [tags: movies, directors, ] 501 words
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Theory of Acute Pain Management - Theory of Acute Pain Management Marion Good, PhD, RN, has focused her study, “A Middle-Range Theory of Acute pain Management: Use in Research,” on complementary medicine for pain and stress, acute pain, and stress immunity. The purpose of this theory is to put into practice guidelines for pain management. Good, 1998, noted the need for a balance between medication usage and side effects of pain medications. The theory also promoted patient education related to pain management following surgery and encouraged plan development for acceptable levels of pain management....   [tags: Health, Medicine, Morfine, Demerol] 1261 words
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Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods - In this paper, I will define quantitative and qualitative research methods and provide examples in the context of social issues which will hopefully provide insight into how this methods are properly applied. Social issues are very broad and diverse and are usually made up of factors or consequences which directly or indirectly affect a person or many members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies or both and are related to moral values, therefore their immediate social environment may become vulnerable in some respect which may also effect several individuals environment and in turn society....   [tags: Qualitative Research in Education]
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Quantitative vs Qualitative Research Design - The foundational difference between the two methodologies of quantitative and qualitative research is that they stem from differing ideas on the nature of ‘reality’. Whereas the quantitative concept of reality is an objective one proven to be true by empirical evidence, qualitative’s concept of ‘reality’ is based on personal perception. Qualitative methodology suggests that as ways of perceiving the would are unique that reality itself is subjective (Alston & Bowles, 2012, pp. 12-16). In other words, “reality is ‘socially constructed” (Alston & Bowles, 2012, p.13)....   [tags: reality, research methodology, research]
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Rhetoric: The Declaration’s of Marxism - The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson between June 11th and 28th of 1776. This document was created to demonstrate a new concept of government, resonating the thirteen colonies’ reasons for separating from England and declaring war. Moreover, to dissolve the political relationship that America had with England’s laws. This document’s rhetoric was directed at King George the third. Jefferson constructs a philosophical statement that carries the peoples voice and appeals to his readers through fundamental beliefs....   [tags: fundamental beliefs, influences, government]
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Nature and Logic - Philosophy 103: Introduction to Logic The Nature of Logic Abstract: Some of the uses of logic are illustrated, and deductive arguments are briefly distinguished from inductive arguments. I. Logic is the study of the methods and principles used in distinguishing correct from incorrect reasoning. B. Logic differs from psychology in being a normative or a prescriptive discipline rather than a descriptive discipline. 1. I.e., it prescribes how one ought to reason; it's not concerned with how one actually does reason....   [tags: essays research papers] 1010 words
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Theory Of Knowledge - Theory Of Knowledge In today’s society, science is regarded as being the most trusted form of knowledge, leading to many claiming it to be the supreme form of knowledge. To investigate whether or not this is justified we must compare science to other forms/areas of knowledge and consider what they each contribute. The strongest argument science has to claim this title, is the objectivity and empirical nature of its method and in particular its verifying processes; mainly based on inductive and deductive reasoning....   [tags: Papers] 1519 words
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Thinking and Decision-Making - Thinking and Decision Making In decision-making, many different thinking methods must be considered. Some people like to think outside the box or use abstract, creative thoughts to make decisions. This is known as creative thinking. Others prefer to use a style of thinking built on a solid foundation, known as persuasive thinking. Some thinkers prefer to rely on reasoning to make decisions. This is known as logical thinking. When considering these three different thinking styles, many similarities and differences are apparent....   [tags: Thinking Styles Decisions] 1910 words
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The Schelling Segregation Model - Introduction In this essay, I aim to show that given Carl Hempel’s (1942) deductive-nomological (DN) theory of explanation and Bas C. van Fraassen’s (1980) pragmatic theory of explanation, Schelling only partially explains neighbourhood segregation, because multiple causal factors and background conditions ought to be taken into account. I will first outline how Schelling explains neighbourhood segregation, and then discuss the following aspects to show my conclusion: 1. Schelling’s model in the context of the DN theory of explanation 2....   [tags: Neighborhood Racial Segregation]
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Quantitative versus Qualitative Research - Quantitative and qualitative research are two methods to gather and synthesize data. When discussing these two research methods, one might ask what are the differences. If so, this paper answers the questions surrounding the differences including what the research involves. The purpose of the research can dictate which method would be the most beneficial. Qualitative research is open-ended whereas; quantitative research is more structured. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research and the application within an article....   [tags: trends, frequency, data]
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Entertainment, Media and Desensitization - People of the 21st century have reached a point where violence such as the shooting of John F. Kennedy is being viewed as nothing more but entertainment. There is not one day in the year where graphical violence is not being viewed in some way or the other. Violence has grown to a point where it has attached itself to people’s everyday lives. It has gotten to the point where it has made a home within everyone’s mind. Murder cases, shootings, and even bar fights no longer affect people’s emotions the same way anymore....   [tags: t.v. programs, modern media, violence]
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1896 words
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Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle - David Kolb published his learning styles theory, in 1984, after many years of development. His theory stated that people learn in two different steps, inputting information and processing information. How people do this is also different. Think of inputting information on a vertical line, one person may prefer concrete examples at the top and abstract concepts at the bottom. Processing information is on a horizontal line with active experimentation on the left and reflective observation on the right....   [tags: Learning Styles]
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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" - Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]
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4123 words
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The Approach to Nature of Descartes and White - The Approach to Nature of Descartes and White The approach to nature which René Descartes takes is distinct from that of Gilbert White. Descartes and White have similar key methods of examining nature. It is mainly in Descartes’ deductive reasoning and beliefs that lead him to the method of approaching nature internally (mind and body)....   [tags: Papers] 769 words
(2.2 pages)
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Having a Definite Answer to a Question - Having a Definite Answer to a Question Some questions do not have definite answers and are usually judgments of value. This means that they cannot be proved true or false, they include; religious judgments, aesthetic judgments and moral judgments. They aspire to be as definite as judgments of fact. However it is debatable as to whether them not having a definite answer makes them more or less important. We find that as we discover the answers to new scientific questions we can expand our knowledge....   [tags: Papers] 1199 words
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Sir Karl Popper's Falsifiability Claim - Sir Karl Popper's Falsifiability Claim Popper's claim that "the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability" (Klemke, 1988) may be viewed as an observation of, rather than a complete departure from, earlier criteria for science. Klemke states in his introduction to part one (p. 16) that defining science (or the scientific method) has traditionally consisted of utilizing seven criteria that must be met in a specific order. Criteria number (5) and (6) refer to deduction rather than induction, and will negate criterion (4) if not met....   [tags: Sir Karl Popper Science Essays] 765 words
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Faithful and Fruitful Logic - Faithful and Fruitful Logic Appropriate for a conference relating philosophy and education, we seek ways more faithful than the truth-functional (TF) hook to understand and represent that ordinary-language conditional which we use in, e.g., modus ponens, and that conditional’s remote and counterfactual counterparts, and also the proper negations of all three. Such a logic might obviate the paradoxes caused by T-F representation, and be educationally fruitful. William and Martha Kneale and Gilbert Ryle assist us: "In the hypothetical case in which p, it is inferable, on the basis that p and at least in the given context, that q." "Inferable" is explained....   [tags: Logic Philosophy Papers] 3200 words
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Research Framework - Research Framework 3 Research Methodology: 3.1 Research philosophy: The philosophy of research can be divided into two broad methods of reasoning; deductive and inductive researches. These two methods of reasoning are different in a way to conduct research. Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and used to understand of new or unknown phenomena. The theory usually follows data and the finding is difficult to replicate. In contrast, deductive reasoning is narrower in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses....   [tags: Business Management ] 1951 words
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Research Philosophy - Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design and sampling (Malhotra, 2009). It is very important to have a clear understanding of the research philosophy so that we could examine the assumptions about the way we view the world, which are contained in the research philosophy we choose, knowing that whether they are appropriate or not (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009)....   [tags: Ontology, Epistemology] 745 words
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Comparing Scientific Theories - Carl G. Hempel was of the most influential proponents of what is now regarded as the classic view of explanation in science. In his work, Philosophy of Natural Science, he created the deductive-nomological model which is the following account of scientific explanation, where an explanation is set out as a formalized argument. This is the principle format for works such as Aristotle’s Physica, Ptolemy’s Almagest, Newton’s Principia and Opticks, Franklin’s Electricity, Lavoisie’s Chemistry, and Lyell’s Geology....   [tags: Science] 1458 words
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Communication and Collaboration - Communication and Collaboration Strategy Paper Many people have different ways of absorbing information. Whether it is work, school, or recreational activities, people learn in various ways at different paces. According to Howard Gardner, a professor from Harvard University, there are eight unique intelligences everyone possesses. (Gardner, 1993) After completing the Multiple Pathways to Learning assessment, three traits stood out as moderately to highly developed. The Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence champions the ability to process information through physical activity....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Stockbroker's Career Exploration - Being a future master of the universe has always been a dream of mine. The opportunity of becoming a stockbroker leads to an unparalleled lifestyle cherished by numerous individuals. It is a chance to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships with customers while at the same time make them money. I have always been fond of the stock market and fascinated by the skills it requires an individual to become a stockbroker. Furthermore, the job entails a unique ability to persuade, deliver, and sell a stock for investors to buy....   [tags: investments,trading firms,stocks,mutual funds]
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Thoughts of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle - Thoughts of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Three Athenian philosophers flourish in Greece from 470 B. C. until 320 B. C. These philosophers were famous for their "schools of thought." The first of these is Socrates who lived from 469 until 399 B. C. He did not leave any writings behind; therefore, we know about his ways of thinking from those of whom he taught. His famous method of instruction called the Socratic method is still used today. In this method, the teacher allows students to use their own deductive reasoning to see things for themselves through a series of questions and answers....   [tags: Ancient Greece Greek History] 347 words
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The Scientific Method -      The scientific method is a process that outlines a number of principles for answering questions. Many people in day-to-day situations use the scientific method. For example, if I were to try to start my car and it doesn’t work, my first reaction would be to think of reason my car is not starting. This is just a brief example of scientific method. The principles in Scientific method should be used in an orderly manner to answer your questions. Scientific method lets people research true things as well as false....   [tags: Observation Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion]
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Early American Literature - Early American Literature (1620-1820) In the first half of the 17th century the New World found two groups of people colonizing. The first group, the Puritans, had left England after years of exile due to their lack of faith in the Church of England. With the reading and understanding of the Bible almost completely laid in the hands of the preacher, the congregation was forced to believe all the words that the preacher said. This all came to an end with John Calvin. His ideas were that God likes certain people better than others and those "chosen" ones would get more land and more money....   [tags: essays papers] 1040 words
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Outlining the Ontological Arguments and Their Success as Proofs of God's Existence - Outlining the Ontological Arguments and Their Success as Proofs of God's Existence The ontological argument is a perfect example of a priori argument. For example, it uses logic to prove an initial definition to be correct. The term refers to a whole series of arguments within a thought. The arguments aim is to prove God’s existence from the meaning of the word God. St Anselm was the man who suggested that deductive reasoning could be used to prove God’s existence - a priory argument....   [tags: Papers] 1071 words
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The Bayesian Theory of Confirmation, Idealizations and Approximations in Science - The Bayesian Theory of Confirmation, Idealizations and Approximations in Science ABSTRACT: My focus in this paper is on how the basic Bayesian model can be amended to reflect the role of idealizations and approximations in the confirmation or disconfirmation of any hypothesis. I suggest the following as a plausible way of incorporating idealizations and approximations into the Bayesian condition for incremental confirmation: Theory T is confirmed by observation P relative to background knowledge where I is the conjunction of idealizations and approximations used in deriving the prediction PT from T, PD expresses the discrepancy between the prediction PT and the actual observation P, and...   [tags: Scientific Papers]
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Teleological Argument for the Existence of God - This paper will examine the argument put forward by William Paley in 1802, in his Natural Theology. Paley offers an argument from design that purports to show a clear and distinct reason why one should hold a belief in God, due to the inherent features of the world. It is attempted in this paper to firstly: show that the argument should be rejected on the grounds of lacking a rationally flowing set of premises and conclusions; and secondly: that the criticisms made by David Hume concerning the argument hold more weight than is generally granted by other philosophers, and should have convinced one even before the advent of Darwinian theory....   [tags: Natural Theology, William Paley] 2089 words
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Holmes Is Made Possible By Watson. - Holmes Is Made Possible By Watson. Sherlock Holmes is one of the most popular characters in literature. I read the three stories; ‘The Speckled Band,’ ‘The Engineer’s Thumb’ and ‘The Beryl Coronet.’ I have looked at; how the stories were structured, Dr Watson as the narrator, language used in the stories and the difference between Dr Watson and Sherlock Holmes as characters in the stories. Most crime fiction stories are structured in the same way. Sherlock Holmes stories usually employ this structure; the crime is committed, an investigation is launched, a solution is thought up and an explanation is given....   [tags: Free Essay Writer] 755 words
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Comparing Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky - Methods and approaches to teaching have been greatly influenced by the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Both have contributed to the field of education by offering explanations for children's cognitive learning styles and abilities. While Piaget and Vygotsky may differ on how they view cognitive development in children, both offer educators good suggestions on how to teach certain material in a developmentally appropriate manner. Piaget proposed that cognitive development from infant to young adult occurs in four universal and consecutive stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations (Woolfolk, A., 2004)....   [tags: Educational Psychology, cognitive development]
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Nature of Logic and Perception - According to the American Heritage dictionary, the definition of Logic is “the study of the principles of reasoning, especially of the structure of propositions as distinguished from their content and of method and validity in deductive reasoning”. It also says that logic is “valid reasoning.” I believe that logic and critical thinking are closely related in that logic is used in the process of thinking critically. Perception, as stated in the American Heritage dictionary, is “the process, act, or faculty of perceiving”....   [tags: essays research papers] 391 words
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Life Of A Computer Programmer - Imagine having a computer without running software. Computers would be slightly pointless without programs to run it. There would be no directions in the computer to tell it how to run, where to run, and what to do. A computer would have the ability to turn on, but a blank screen would be the only thing to appear on a monitor. I am sure that the question of "Who creates these programs?" has run through many minds in the past. These programs aid you in typing papers, connect you to the Internet, send information to other computers, or provide an interface for games that help to occupy your time....   [tags: Careers Jobs] 407 words
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