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The Use of Reinforced Concrete in Modernism - The usage of concrete was explored by the Early Christian and Roman architects but fell out of use throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance period. The material was only fully explored again in the later half of the 19th century but only for mundane purposes where the material was cheap, easy to work with, and versatile, but most importantly it’s fireproof characteristic. In 1870, the idea of reinforcing the concrete was born; steel rods were to be inserted to increase its strength. Taking this principle, Ernest Ransome (America) and Francois Hennebique (France) both developed frame systems....   [tags: Ernst Ransome, architecture, concrete]
:: 17 Works Cited
2583 words
(7.4 pages)
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Concrete Poetry - A Unique Genre - Concrete poetry presents its readers with a unique and often confounding situation. In addition to using language or parts of language in non-traditional ways, concrete poetry also uses elements that are more commonly associated with visual art. However, concrete poetry is not visual art. It is still concerned, primarily, with the use of language, generally to communicate some meaning to the reader in a way that is undeniably linguistic in nature. Concrete poetry is therefore an especially unique genre that draws upon and incorporates many different concepts from a variety of disciplines in order to fill in the gaps left when traditional grammar and syntax are eschewed....   [tags: Concrete Poetry Analysis]
:: 8 Works Cited
2413 words
(6.9 pages)
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Properties Of High–lime Fly Ash Concrete - PROPERTIES OF HIGH–LIME FLY ASH CONCRETE ABSTRACT Fly ash is a waste product from coal based thermal power stations. About seven million tons of fly ash is being produced annually from these thermal power stations in Turkey. Concerted efforts are needed to make the material used to a great extent. These paper give the results of an investigation on the performance of fly ash concrete made with ASTM C class fly ashes from two sources. PC42,5 cement used in the experiments conforms to TS19 (Turkish Standards)....   [tags: Concrete]
:: 2 Works Cited
1756 words
(5 pages)
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The History of Concrete - ... In the Neolithic era, phrases such as "burning of limestone, slaking the lime, mixing the mortar, spreading the concrete, and finishing the surface" (CITATION). Early societies would use lime as a binding element in mortar, which is perhaps the earliest relative to concrete. Structures found as early as 1200 BC had polished lime-concrete floors and surfaces of hardened plaster. One of the best examples of early concrete creation is the Roman times, which had many basic concrete buildings. While other materials were also used to keep these concrete buildings upright, at the basic level concrete is the major building material....   [tags: ancient romans, building design] 703 words
(2 pages)
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Alternatives to Concrete - Concrete today is considered by many modern engineers and architects as a more efficient and effective alternative to steel n regards to the creation of buildings, ranging from low-story apartments to neck-breaking skyscrapers. Through the rapid growth and development of the world's major metropolises and growing cities, concrete today has become one of the most important building materials to date. According to the World Business Counsel for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), “it has become the most consumed substance on earth, only superseded by water, with three tons for each person used annually” (World)....   [tags: Recycled Waste, Carbon Emissions]
:: 8 Works Cited
949 words
(2.7 pages)
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Fundamentals of Building Construction: The Concrete - What is concrete. Concrete is a composite material used widely in the construction industry. Concrete is basically a mixture of cement, water, aggregates and admixture (sometimes). Cement is a fine gray powder that consists of oxidizes calcium, silicon and aluminum. The aggregate used is normally gravel, crushed stone or sand. Admixture is a solid or liquid substance that gives a certain characteristics of the concrete. The cement reacts with water chemically and binds the aggregates together through a process called hydration during hardening or curing of concrete....   [tags: cement, construction industry, powder]
:: 10 Works Cited
1653 words
(4.7 pages)
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Sustainability and Quality of Precast Concrete - ... This helps minimize the negative impact to the construction site while maximizing quality. Precast concrete does not require onsite storage or staging, and is delivered to the project as needed. It is typically erected with a crane and a relatively small crew, which allows for construction within a tight perimeter of a project. This can greatly decrease the footprint of a project site, and help minimize disruption to the surrounding areas. Precast concrete arrives to the project ready for installation, and typically does not require additional cutting or modification, thereby reducing dust and waste....   [tags: civil engineering] 804 words
(2.3 pages)
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The Purpose and Make up of Concrete - ... More over This paper exhibits a design a structural lightweight high strength concrete (SLWHSC) made with and without mineral admixtures as a piece of the effects of a progressing lab work did to plan a structural lightweight high quality solid concrete [1][2].The outcomes demonstrate that the broad solid filled steel tubular columns (Cfets) have the amost noteworthy bond quality and compressive high and good quality at the age of 7 days. However, both bond quality and compressive quality of Cftfcs turn into the most elevated at the age of 28 days....   [tags: fly ash, composite beams, cement] 1326 words
(3.8 pages)
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The Constituent Materials of Concrete - Portland Cement Association (n.d.) stated that in the simplest form, a blend of paste, stone, sand and water is a concrete. Concrete is one of the fundamental building block of the civilization, contributing to all the structures across the world. Concrete can be viewed in details in term of its constituent materials, properties, durability and concrete mix design and quality control. Constituent materials are the fundamental materials required to produce concrete. The constituent materials of concrete consist of mainly three materials which are cement, aggregate and water, with admixtures included as addictive to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Scalenghe et al., 2011)....   [tags: Quality, Constituent Materials]
:: 18 Works Cited
1067 words
(3 pages)
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Concrete for Water Retaining Structure - Concrete for Water Retaining Structure Author: Aritra Pal; Entry No. 2013CEC8314 1.0 Introduction: The Aim of this study is to select a better choice of water tight concrete for the water proofing construction of water retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, swimming pools etc. This paper includes the study of early age & later age properties of concretes with Chemical Admixtures & Supplementary cementecious materials, from the aspect of water tightness & durability. 2.0 Principle of Water Tightness: • Concrete should be dense & durable • Concrete must have the capacity to withstand hydrostatic pressure without water seepage....   [tags: waterproofing construction] 2055 words
(5.9 pages)
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Nanosilica and Microsilca in Concrete - ...  It is also called as microsilica (MS), condensed silica and fumed silica. Nano-silica (NS) It is synthetically produced ultrafine siliceous material containing amorphous silica. It is 1000 times smaller than cement particle and 10 times smaller than silica fume. Effect of addition of NS/MS on properties of cement mortars and concrete  Water demand It increases by increasing the content of NS. As these particles are very fine particles with higher surface area demands more water than normal cement pastes [2]....   [tags: silicon industry, cement mortars] 1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Proportions and Strength of Concrete - Contents 1. Introduction .....3-4 2. Proportions and Strength 4-5 3. Admixtures .......5 4. Aggregate . ...6 5. Cement ...7 6. Curing 7 7. Workability 8 8. Tests…………………………………………………………………………………9-11 9. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...12 10. References…………………………………………………………………….........13 1. Introduction The Romans used concrete at least 500 years before the time of Christ, and they were probably not the only ones or the earliest ones. Although concrete technology has advanced a little since those remote days, it is still used in modern building projects - from foundations for giant structures, to nuclear power stations, to sky-scrapers in our cities, to garage and patio floors, r...   [tags: aggregate, mixture, portland]
:: 5 Works Cited
2296 words
(6.6 pages)
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Design of Concrete Structure with Staad.pro - ... Otherwise, the option is set to calculate dimensions. Figure 5 1. Properties Area in STAAD.Foundation Then, the design is run and results are obtained. STAAD.Foundation gives the schedule of drawings, structure drawings, and concrete design calculations. The data can be complied to make the Bar Bending Schedule for the footings. The BBS for Isolated footings is attached in Appendix ABC. The design has been cross checked with the manual results. Isolated Footing There are 9 different sizes of isolated square footings, with sizes ranging from 1.65 × 1.65 m to 3.65 × 3.65 m....   [tags: foundation, columns, reinforcement] 1386 words
(4 pages)
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Sustainable Development of Concrete Production - Sustainable Development in Concrete Production According to the Department of Environment (Environ, 2007), sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. For example, the use of sustainable concrete in future developments leads to a more durable and economical structure, with significant environmental benefits. Concrete, a crucial material in building construction, is the world’s most produced material....   [tags: department of environment, sustainability]
:: 20 Works Cited
1962 words
(5.6 pages)
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Characteristics of Reactive Powder Concrete - Reactive powder Concrete 1. Introduction Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was developed by P. Richard and M. Cheyrezy and was first produced at Bouygues’ laboratory in France2 early 1990s. In July 1997, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Quebec, Canada3, became the world’s first structure to be constructed entirely out of Reactive Powder Concrete. Due to its extreme low permeability it is also being used for containment of nuclear waste in Europe4. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is basically a special concrete where the microstructure is optimized by precise gradation of all the constituent particles to produce a maximum possible density....   [tags: modern construction materials]
:: 4 Works Cited
1050 words
(3 pages)
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Water Carrying Concrete Core - ... As for discharging, it happens in a complete passive way without any external influence as 60% of energy is transferred by radiations and 40% by convection. Structure of concrete core Water pipes are directly casted in the concrete core of the slabs generally in the center of the concrete slab to benefit from the concrete thermal capacity characteristics or near to the ceiling as around two third of heat transfer occurs through the ceiling and the rest through the floor. Generally heat flows from the water pipes in the direction of the slab surface in case of heating and opposite in case of cooling....   [tags: pipes, efficient system] 941 words
(2.7 pages)
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Structural Lightweight Concrete - ... In addition to that, other improvements came in the form of grinding equipment, the introduction of the rotary kiln, and closer scientific control in the manufacturing process. (Expanded Shale Clay and Slate Institute, 2010) Although today most uses of lightweight concrete is in skyscrapers and other large-scale land based structures, one of the first large scale uses of modern lightweight concrete was in the construction of Atlantis, an American World War I ship. Following this it was then used for the Oakland Bay Bridge, which was constructed shortly before WWII, and is still in use to this day....   [tags: proportional mix, aggregate materials] 1831 words
(5.2 pages)
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Improving the Durability of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Hybrid Concrete Systems - ... These materials have high resistance to the corrosion, high strength characteristics, and normal construction procedure. However, they are much expensive than commonly used materials such as prestressing and non-prestressing steel reinforcements. Also, they require special quality control in the storage, handling, and placement. Since FRP composite materials or epoxy-coated reinforcement have a higher material cost than conventional steel reinforcement, hybrid systems containing both materials can be developed to combine the benefits of each in a cost-effective way....   [tags: civil engineering and construction] 1223 words
(3.5 pages)
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Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Its Application - ...  The role of fibers in concrete is to bridge across the cracks that develop some post cracking ductility and to increase it toughness and types of loading. The uses of reinforced concrete help to increase the strength and ductility but it requires skilled labour.  BODY: Concrete is known as the most widely used structural materials in the world, because of this reasons concrete get cracked. The reason while concrete get cracked is because of the Economical , Structural or Environmental factors, but most of the cracks are formed because they can resist the tensile forces due to the weakness of the material....   [tags: construction materials, resistance] 833 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Roman’s Extensive Use of Concrete - THESIS STATEMENT The Roman’s extensive use of concrete is portrayed through their massive architectural feats. PURPOSE STATEMENT Through the critical analysis of works dealing with the concrete of Ancient Rome it is evident that Rome used concrete to build massive structures. INTRODUCTION What would our world be like today if we did not have concrete. Could we imagine a life of stone built houses. The ancient people of world did just that. But then in Rome concrete was invented and the Romans used it to construct an enormous amount of architecture....   [tags: Building and Construction] 1673 words
(4.8 pages)
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Concrete Bridge Project - In the past, it is not much pedestrian traffic along the street because of the lower population. However, due to the population increasing in 1960-70s.The government considerate that the number of pedestrian traffic such as footbridge is so important, so the government have to increase the total number of all pedestrian traffic like footbridge. With the time changed, the safety and technical of bridge structure form has also changed and improved. Nowadays, almost footbridge in Hong Kong is made by concrete including prestressed concrete bridge....   [tags: Pedestrians, Tension, Architecture] 749 words
(2.1 pages)
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Care and Maintenance for Painted Concrete Walls - ... Every home we paint is treated with the care and professionalism that we would expect in our own homes. We aim to help homeowners create beautiful dwellings (that they can be proud of). In line with that commitment, we give you these useful home improvement tips. Read on and learn how to care for and maintain painted or coloured concrete walls to keep it in excellent condition. • Clean – Keeping painted concrete walls clean is fairly simple as long as no stubborn dirt or grime has clung to the surface....   [tags: home improvement] 550 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Empty Concrete - The Empty Concrete Throughout the adventures of Concrete there are many times where he shows his loneliness in a story. The one story that I find this most evident in is "next Best". In this story Concrete goes through a number of let downs during the course of his day. The story starts off with Concrete having a surreal dream, a fantasy of Maureen and him being together. He admits his love to her. He is transformed into a human being by a god like structure that I believe was the Senator. Setting him free....   [tags: Papers] 480 words
(1.4 pages)
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Concrete - According to major supplies, “Use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing concrete is continuously, increasing. The increase has been considerable since 1980, but slowed somewhat in 1990, a year of substantial construction cutbacks. Apparently the construction community believes there are advantages in the use of synthetic fibers in concrete.” (Schupack) Synthetic fibers are used to improve crack control in concrete. Some reports say that synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) would replace welded wire fabric in many slab-on-grade applications....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 2 Works Cited
605 words
(1.7 pages)
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Concrete 5: A simple CMS to Cement Your Website - ... 2. The toolbar of Concrete 5 is one thing, which has to be looked for. Packed with various functionalities and shortcuts, this toolbar focuses on making the work a cake walk even for the novice PHP application developer. 3. The Concrete 5 is armed with an automated developmental dashboard, which helps the programmers to include add-ons without any kind of programming or using FTP operations. 4. When it comes to searching and ordering files, the Concrete 5 has a file manager, which can help you out without any hassles....   [tags: Joomla, Drupal, website development] 697 words
(2 pages)
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RURAL PARADISE OR A CONCRETE JUNGLE? - RURAL PARADISE OR A CONCRETE JUNGLE. Over the course of the semester we have watched numerous movies (Heartland Reggae, The Harder They Come, Countryman, Dancehall Queen, Third World Cop, Rockers, and Land of Look Behind) that depict Rastafarians living in both the country and the city. Not knowing much about either Jamaican setting, I decided to take a closer look at both the urban and rural areas in which Rastafarians live and practice their beliefs. I wanted to see if the different settings had much influence on Rastafarians....   [tags: essays papers]
:: 13 Works Cited
4872 words
(13.9 pages)
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Ando in the perspective of critical regionalism: Concrete Resistance - Through this paper a comparative representation on the definition and background of the evolution of critical regionalism will be explored. Moreover through this essay, the arguments of how ‘Ando’s’ architectural approach is of a ‘critical regionalist’ manner will be examined significantly. The definition of critical regionalism is a direct approach to architecture that strives to oppose ‘placelessness’ and the apparent lack of identity and character in modern architecture through the use of building's geographical context....   [tags: Architecture]
:: 12 Works Cited
1824 words
(5.2 pages)
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The Importance of Having a Concrete Concept in Product Advertising - ... Aside from the concept, more than any factors of advertising, what we look at first about the information of the advertisement is the usage of the color. But, not to overlook the importance to having the concrete concept, every person has a different idea to decide which product to buy. For example, those who are more conscious about the grade or rank of the product would never choose the one which looks more reasonable but the other one which looks like more luxurious and vice versa. For this reason, selecting colors with the clear concept like who to sell or features which sellers really want to emphasize is also vital for them....   [tags: color, text, consumers] 638 words
(1.8 pages)
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Self-Compacting Concrete - Self-compacting concrete (SCC), also known as self-consolidating concrete, is a specialized high performance concrete that does not need to be compacted by vibration as it compacts into every corner and space of a formwork as a result of its own weight. The most laudable property of SCC is that it leaves no void in the formwork, and that too, without the need of mechanical vibration (De Schutter, 2007; Okamura & Ouchi, 2003; Hurd, 2002). SCC, therefore, has superior engineering properties that make it a highly versatile and immensely useful material for construction....   [tags: Product Analysis ]
:: 6 Works Cited
1595 words
(4.6 pages)
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Measuring Thickness of Concrete - Measuring Thickness of Concrete Measuring Thickness of Concrete Elements Using Drilled Concrete Cores When doing construction one of the major concerns is that the work being done complies with the design specifications. In this ASTM test, C 174M-97, the thickness of a concrete pavement, slab, or structural element is determined by measuring the length of a core drilled from a concrete structure. This allows the contractor, as well as the owner, to see that the concrete is being poured to meet the requirements....   [tags: essays research papers] 690 words
(2 pages)
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Arizona Concrete - Arizona Concrete According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona, cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks. Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969, namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County, near Tucson, and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale, in Yavapai County (52-53). The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin, a builder in Leeds, England, who obtained a patent for it in 1824....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 2 Works Cited
1361 words
(3.9 pages)
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Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete - Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete is a powerful narrative of the struggles and culture of New York’s Italian immigrant laborers in the early twentieth century. Jerre Mangione and Ben Morreale, in their historical work La Storia, state that "Never before or since has the aggravation of the Italian immigrant been more bluntly expressed by a novelist" (368). A central component of this "aggravation", both for DiDonato as an author and for his protagonist Paul, is the struggle to reconcile traditional religious beliefs and customs with the failure of that very same faith to provide any tangible improvement in the immigrants’ lives....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2766 words
(7.9 pages)
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Note to Educators: Hope Required when Growing Roses in Concrete - ... “Growing Roses in Concrete”(Duncan-Andrade 5) is not an easy task because of the many circumstances and policies that create inequality in these schools and in the society as a whole. In urban schools in the United States, there is more disparately and inequality among young people of color and while educators have tried to solve such issues through different means, the problem still prevails and this has just created “false hope”. Duncan-Andrade states that this “False Hope” and three components; Hokey hope, mythical hope and hope deferred, (p....   [tags: Duncan-Andrade article analysis] 617 words
(1.8 pages)
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Advanced Techniques in Construction in Sri Lanka - ... Pre-stressing is where the slab is stressed before concreting and post tensioning is where the slab is stressed after the concreting. Over the last few years, post tension concrete has taken the world by storm. Most developed countries have already started using this technology and developing countries are slowly getting into the trend. Post tensioning promotes higher loading concentrations, longer spans, thinner slabs, lighter structures and rapid constructions. With the help of post tensioning, engineers can minimize, if not eliminate, shrinkage cracking....   [tags: concrete, engineers, tension]
:: 8 Works Cited
840 words
(2.4 pages)
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Using Lunar Soil for Construction in Space - ... As mentioned in the paper, the research program was divided in to four major phases commenced from preliminary feasibility study of experiment to concluding testing and evaluation of intended material properties. In this study, finding prospective microgravity environment with enough time for experiment (basically for concrete mixing and curing) and flexible hardware interface for specialized experimental devices were the foremost challenges for the successful research. The author’s state that they explored four earth based microgravity environment from the different sources, NASA Space Shuttle was the most convenient one because it could provide sufficient time of microgravity environme...   [tags: materials, concrete, sources, environment] 568 words
(1.6 pages)
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Anicent Roman Buildings and There Affect on Modern Day Architecture - ... The Pantheon had the most largest circular dome in the world and was used as a temple to worship the gods. Living in Rome the people went to the Roman Forum which was a place used for public meetings, religious spectacles, courts, and much more. It was built in 203 AD. Even though these structures are greatly made they would not have survived through many of the years without building materials. The Romans used a certain material to make these buildings last. They invented a new kind of building material called concrete which was also called opus caementicium....   [tags: architecture, concrete, framework] 710 words
(2 pages)
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Building and Construction Authority: CEMEX and Sustainable Construction - CEMEX is a global building materials company. The company produces and sells cement, ready-mix concrete. At CEMEX, building materials are distributed in more than 50 countries worldwide [1]. It was founded innorthern Mexico in 1906 by opening the first cement plant whereby the world headquarters is also located in the city of San Pedro Garza Garcia. Within forty years, CEMEX could increase its production of cement to about 124,000 tons daily[2]. By 1989, CEMEX has become the top 10 cement producers in the world....   [tags: cement, ready-mix concrete] 1393 words
(4 pages)
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Piaget's Stage Theory of Cognitive Development - ... Firstly, the stage of pre operational, which lasts until about age seven, in which the children have the ability of many feats that they could not achieve prior. For instance, they commence to making to believe in play, achieving simple routines, such as venturing to eat or get to kip. However, in order to organize play, they must symbolize those actions mentally and convert them into the overt actions. The children in the preoperational stage have the absence of understanding of the comparative terms, such as darker, bigger, and harder....   [tags: operational, concrete, effective learners] 655 words
(1.9 pages)
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My School Activity: Chalk the Block - ... I turned and there they were; both of my partners staring flabbergasted at my work, not making a single move to collaborate. I wondered how long they had been there, just staring blankly at my working hands. After a few seconds of frowning at their clueless faces, I stood up, gathered a couple pieces of chalk, and handed each a chunk. The original design on paper was resting right in the middle of the tile, so they got to work. I kept my focus on the specific segment of the painting I had already started, oblivious to what the other girls were doing until I finished my part and looked at the rest....   [tags: chalk painiting on concrete tiles] 576 words
(1.6 pages)
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Alkali Reactive Aggregates. What Happens When Alkali Cement is Low - ... When accelerators are used added care will be necessary to prevent cold joints during placing of concrete.Air entraining agents are used to increase the durability of the structure when it is exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing.Good quality pozzolans can be used as replacement for cement without sacrificing later age strength.Pozzolans are less expensive than cement and economically good to use.Since the properties of pozzolans vary widely if it has to be used in the construction of dam it is necessary obtain one that will not introduce adverse qualities into the concrete.Concrete containing pozzolans requires thorough curing to assure good resistance to freezing and thawing The...   [tags: type 2 cement, concrete, uniformity] 918 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Aqueducts of the Ancient Romans - ... The Romans developed the dome as a roof to cover large spaces with more durable materials such as stones instead of wood. The physics principle behind the dome are the same as in the arch. Another important invention is the Roman concrete. The Roman concrete was stronger and more durable than the Greek concrete because they used as a binding agent the pozzolona. Pozzolona is a fine volcanic ash. The advantages were: “it was exceptionally strong and could span great distances when shaped into arches, vaults and domes; b) it had greater flexibility in molding space since concrete was virtually "poured" (or layered) into a formwork and took the shape of its container -- concrete is that sen...   [tags: military and civil arquitecture, concrete, greeks] 1352 words
(3.9 pages)
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Roman and Islamic Art and Architecture - ... The Roman sculptors then decided to also start making statues alongside the Greeks. The statues that the Romans created were realistic looking with, sometime, unpleasant details of the body. The Greeks made statues with, what they thought of, ideal appearances in the statues figure. Sculpture was possibly considered the highest form of art by the Romans, but figure painting was very high considered as well. Very little of Roman painting has survived the tests of time. Islamic art and architecture is a blend from three or more different cultural traditions from the east....   [tags: culture, adopted, traditions, society, concrete] 527 words
(1.5 pages)
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Development Material: The Cement - COCONUT SHELLS AS AGGREGATE REPLACEMENT IN CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Cement is world's most broadly utilized development material. The use of cement is expanding at a higher rate because of improvement in foundation and development exercises all as far and wide as possible. The climbing expense of development material is a matter of concern. The purpose behind increment in expense is popularity of cement and shortage of crude material. Thus the solid technologists must look for some temperate elective to the coarse total....   [tags: coconut shells, concrete, natural fibre]
:: 5 Works Cited
1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete - The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete Nicknames. They are something that everyone is familiar with in one way or another. However, most people have little, if any, personal experience with nicknames. In Italian-American culture, nicknames play a major role in everyday life. Nicknames are formed with a certain unspoken format, and they have a particular importance. In Italian-American culture nicknames, even though to others they may seem harsh and cruel, are terms of endearment and give a sense of belonging....   [tags: Essays Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited
2050 words
(5.9 pages)
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Analizing Emily Dickinson's Poetry - Emily Dickinson’s poetry goes where most poets refuse to go: the fear beyond death. Being surrounded by death, due to the Civil War it comes to no surprise that Dickinson would express such a morbid topic. However, it is the way that she expresses death that is significant. Her writings tend to go against her Puritan heritage by not suggesting an afterlife. In Dickinson’s poems, “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain”, “I heard a Fly buzz—when I died” and “Because I could not stop for Death” oblivion is the object to fear, not death....   [tags: abstract concepts with concrete images]
:: 7 Works Cited
1064 words
(3 pages)
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Precast, Prestressed Contrete in Beam Design - ... Design specifications: • Two 1200 x 400mm beams supporting a composite insitu slab. • Beam concrete properties of 50 MPa characteristic strength with an elastic modulus of 35GPa. Unit weight of 24kN/m3 is used. A minimum cover of 30mm must be provided to all reinforcing. • Class 1 beam, i.e. no tensioned induced throughout the beam in transfer and service conditions. Permissible stresses in accordance to design code specifications. The compressive strengths obtained according to the grade of concrete used is 20MPa in transfer and 16.5 MPa in service conditions....   [tags: construction, support, calculations] 684 words
(2 pages)
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History of the US Since 1865 - ... He formed his group "The Duke's Serenaders" during this time, which consisted of childhood friend Otto Hardwick, who started on string bass, then moved to C-melody sax and finally settled on alto saxophone; Arthur Whetsol on trumpet; Elmer Snowden on banjo; and Sonny Greer on drums. His group was a rarity in the sense that they were hired by African American and Caucasian cliental. Duke would continue to do this until his drummer Sonny Greer got an offer to move to Harlem and play, which persuaded Duke to quit his painting job and join him in Harlem....   [tags: renaissance, sacred concrets] 941 words
(2.7 pages)
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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modif...   [tags: Construction] 1659 words
(4.7 pages)
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Three Gorges Dam - ... Average Min Temperature:2 deg. Some Statistics about the dam: Reservoir Capacity:1.39 trillion cu.ft. Electricity Production:18,000 megawatts. Gravity Dams: A gravity dam is made from concrete or masonry,or sometimes both.It is called gravity dam because gravity holds it down to the ground stopping the water in the reservoir Pushing it over.Cross-section of gravity dam look similar to a triangle.Gravity dams are built mostly on wide or narrow valleys,but they need to be built on strong rocks....   [tags: Yangtze river, south china] 960 words
(2.7 pages)
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Structural Makeup of the Commercial Building - ... Also connected to the basement and forming part of the monolithic structure are two cast-in-situ concrete cores that house lift shafts, stairwells and sanitary facilities. These project vertically from basement level to roof level and form an essential part of the upper structural system. Atop the concrete box sits the rest of the structural system. Steel frame was chosen with columns connecting at their base to the secant pile perimeter and to the top of concrete columns coming from the basement which carry the loads down to the subsoil below....   [tags: beam caculation, load trace] 1057 words
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How the Stucture of Skyscrapers Was Started - ... In the early centuries as now, time, money and human ability were important factors in choosing building materials [2]. Skill was required for building formwork--skill that may have been difficult to identify within large groups of slave laborers. Projects involving elaborate arches and utilitarian structures were supplemented in their strength by bricks and left-in-place forms as they attempted to economize and conserve skilled labor [3]. With the decline of the Roman Empire, society lost the ability to mold the ingredients into cementitious materials....   [tags: framework, skill, materials, build, steel] 764 words
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The Role of Limestone and Gravel in Buildings - ... The east half of the basement is completely underground, while the west half is only partially underground with the top 1.8 m of the walls above grade. The buildings have an extremely high amount of thermal mass with large south and east facing windows. The building shells are poured concrete construction with 20.3 cm exterior walls, 30.5 cm flat roofs, and 15.25 cm basement slab floors. The windows are all located on the south, southeast, and east facing walls and made of low-E glass. The windows have aluminum frames with a thermal break and clear double pane low-E glazing units....   [tags: environment, engineers] 1134 words
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Slavery and Pre-Civil War Issues - ... The northern manufacturing city’s contrasted with widespread slavery which led to the call for change. Concrete Detail 3: Farmers were a large form of support for the Republican support. They believed that the federal government should use its power to enforce tariffs and help support American business. Topic Sentence 3: The Republicans increased in popularity because of the hope for political change in regards to slavery in the United States. Concrete Detail 1: Many that joined the Republican Party were unhappy with the compromise in the Kansas-Nebraska Act....   [tags: African American culture survival, oral traditions] 2073 words
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Innovative Seismic Retrofitting of Bridge: A Perspective Study - ... It had been identified that a common bridge column failure caused by insufficient ductility which results in lack core confinement. The confined core of the concrete cross section was increased the ductility capacity intensely (Bassem Andrawes et al 2010). A common retrofitting technique used to improve the ductility capacity of vulnerable columns by using jacketing or external wraps that offer additional confinement. There are two methods for confine, which are active and passive confinement....   [tags: Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)]
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Deep Foundation: Bored Pile Construction - ... Wood piles are limited in their load capacity because of the nature of the material and the limitations on the cross-sectional are of tree trunks. Steel piles consist of H-shape, or shallow, pipes. Hollow steel piles are filled with concrete after being driven. Steel piles are susceptible to corrosion in some environments. Precast concrete piles are generally solid, but hollow precast concrete sections have been used. Concrete piles are subject to attack by sulfur present in some soil, requiring the use of sulfate-resistant Portland cement....   [tags: civil engineering] 612 words
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The Construction Process of Bored Piles - ... Rotary Kelly bar and the auger or bucket method are used to carry out excavation of the soil inside the casing or bored holes. Once the drilling process begins, the auger or drilling bucket is then used to drill into the ground until the required depth or till it hits a hard rock which is capable of load bearing. The point of when encountering a hard rock while boring as it is defined in the contract specification, for example, once the auger or drilling bucket reached the rock head level where the drilling tools are unable to penetrate further, the boring should be stopped until further notice from the client’s representative about the occurrence and confirmation of the rock socketing c...   [tags: civil engineering techniques] 806 words
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Ancient Greek and Roman Architecture - Roman Architecture Roman architecture implemented many characteristics of Ancient Greek architecture. The Romans showed the influence of their engineering skills and secular monuments, while Greek architecture exhibited the influence of their gods and ideas of physical perfection. The use of arches, the dome and concrete permitted the ancient Romans to attain extraordinary achievements in the construction of imposing structures for public use. While showing the magnificence of the Greeks and their practical application, as well as their creativity, the Romans established architectural features that remain to this day....   [tags: columns, post, lintel, monuments]
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Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Control - ... As part of wolfs commitment to Constance improvement, focusing on our clients and all their requirements, wolf quality program is based on the following. • Provide excellent service and reliability to our client • Provide best value for saving money by using suitable quality martial • Meet all customers requirement • Wolf Provide all it service in a professional and ethically responsible manner • Listens properly to clients, depicting an understanding of diverse client needs and cherish effective two-way communication....   [tags: danger explicit audits] 1140 words
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Climate and Urban Approach - Climate and Urban Approach Analysis of the climate and urban geography of the area pointed out that, summers are to a certain extent hot and gentle, with cooling night gentle winds. The regular temperatures in July are 93° F whereas winter has an average temperature of 44° F in January. This brings cool temperatures and 17 inches rains in January. The city is outlined in a grid where tree lined streets create a shady environment. The area takes landscape and the water table is comparatively high (Louw)....   [tags: Architecture, energy efficiency]
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Daniel Libeskind - The Jewish Museum in Berlin - The success of architects is defined not so much by the problems they face as the act of their creative and practical responses. Located in once the bombarded Berlin, a new language of architecture emerged. It appears with multiple contradictions, yet not confliction, from itself to the surroundings and within its own construction. That is the Berlin Jewish Museum, submitted by the young Daniel Libeskind in a competition to provoke the unsavory history of Berlin very soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989....   [tags: Berlin Jewish Museum] 1829 words
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Building A Metalwork Shop on a Budget - Improving workshop efficiency through layout “Once you have decided that setting up a metalworking workshop will provide you with the facilities for an interesting pastime, you will naturally be keen to make progress with the idea quickly. However, there is no point in purchasing a lathe if you do not have a suitable place to house it” (Hall 5). First you need to decide what the main purpose for the workshop and what is your budget. Do you want to make model engines or restore a full-size locomotive....   [tags: business plan, financial analysis]
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Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle - David Kolb published his learning styles theory, in 1984, after many years of development. His theory stated that people learn in two different steps, inputting information and processing information. How people do this is also different. Think of inputting information on a vertical line, one person may prefer concrete examples at the top and abstract concepts at the bottom. Processing information is on a horizontal line with active experimentation on the left and reflective observation on the right....   [tags: Learning Styles]
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Stress, Strain and Stress Ribbon Structures - Stress and Strain Relationships on Stress Ribbon Structures A bridge is a type of transportation infrastructure that is built to join two separate points of land together. Bridges often undergo construction in order to provide passage over certain obstacles such as bodies of water or geographical depressions. They can be classified in several different ways including by their intended use or by the materials used to make them. A bridge built solely for people to cross over is classified as a pedestrian bridge....   [tags: Civil Engineering]
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The Great Mystery of the Pyramids - The Great pyramids of Egypt are undoubtedly one of the most recognized and admired landmarks in the world. Built to pay tribute to gods and pharaohs, the pyramids were of great importance to the Egyptians, and the mystery of their construction continues to amaze us today. Many theories pertaining to how the pyramids were built have been suggested, however, none are as well supported or intelligible as the heave-ho method of quarrying and cutting limestone. Joseph Davidovits’ theory disproving this, in which states the pyramids were moulded, is not plausible....   [tags: History, Building and Construction] 1812 words
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Board Breaking in Martial Arts - Board breaking is often exhibited as an incredible talent performed by martial artists at demonstrations or tournaments in order to show off strength. This isn’t true, however, as breaking is an illustrated example of a perfected technique as one would use in a real situation. The accuracy, strength, and power of these techniques is demonstrated through the break. Many people are amazed by breaking, but don’t fully understand how truly easy it is. Breaking can be explained by both the physics behind the act and the mental aspects of the preparation of the break....   [tags: Board Breaking, Martial Arts, ] 1203 words
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Climate Change: Turning Carbon Dioxide in Cement - ... This process is intended to mimic sea cement. Sea cement is produced by coral when making their reefs and shells by taking the calcium and magnesium in seawater and using it to form carbonates at normal temperatures and pressures. The process is turning the CO2 carbonic acid and then making carbonate, which means that water and pollution are the basic necessities of turning the CO2 emissions into cement. Figure 2 shows the process of converting Carbon Dioxide into self-cement and other chemicals....   [tags: calcium silicales, limestone] 946 words
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The Sri Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara - The Sri Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara was produced from cast in-situ reinforced concrete and stone panels that were designed to be load bearing such as the external skin of the cavity wall. Each stone panel rests above one another, bonding with epoxy resin to ensure a weather tight fitting is present while being tied back to the concrete structure with stainless steel ties. To ensure Part L requirements are covered, a 100mm cavity filled with high-performance insulation between the stone and concrete is present....   [tags: Architecture, India]
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Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. - 1. Introduction Construction industry in most countries amounts to 10–20% of the GNP, making it the largest economic employing sector. Construction work is labor intensive. Robots are used widely to help human workers in construction sites. They demonstrate an autonomous and simple approach to construction. Therefore, construction robotics has been a very hot research area in the construction industry [1]. The main goal of this paper is to convince the entire construction world to incorporate robotic systems when managing modern buildings to save manpower and improve efficiency....   [tags: technolgy, automatization]
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The Millau Viaduct and The Hampden Bridge - ... One of the great engineering feats when building this bridge was the use of steel. Despite its maximum height of 343m span of 2.46km, 280m above the valley floor, the bridge is actually quite light. 242,000 tonnes seems like a lot but without the use of steel on the structure, this bridge would have been more than twice as heavy. Steel is a much stronger material than concrete, so can support more weight with less mass. The actual road deck, which is comprised almost entirely of steel, only weighs 36,000 tonnes....   [tags: tallest suspension bridge, wagga] 775 words
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The Effects of Imagery on Recall - Which word is easier to picture, house or honor. Both begin with the letter h, both are five letters long and most people would like to possess both. However, the word house is a concrete idea, meaning that it is a physical item that can be perceived with our senses. This is not true of honor which is an abstract concept with no physical properties and therefore beyond our senses. Studies have shown that concrete words are easier to imagine and therefore to recall (Binder, Westbury, McKiernan, Possing, & Medler, 2005; Fliessbach, Weis, Klaver, Elger, & Weber, 2006; Walker & Hulme, 1999)....   [tags: Neuroscience]
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The Grounds and the Grave Mistake - The Grounds and the Grave Mistake The fall weather was perfect for this. It was moist and foggy. The suns rigid rays cut across the sky and its tungsten glow illuminated the grit that separated our boards’ wheels and the cold damp ground. Kick, push, kick, push went my feet with each pace increasing my speed. Cool, crisp air gently brushed against me, caking my shirt to my sweaty chest. I flew across the concrete, hit the bowls side and ollied over the half pipes gap. I had it. I almost had it. Mid-air, the double kick flip not quiet finished, I was coming down, landing perfectly, until I slipped....   [tags: Creative Writing Examples] 1404 words
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The Hoover Dam and Its Construction - Outside of China, the United States is the most-dammed country on the planet. Counting only dams taller than fifty feet high, the U.S. has some 5,000 dams that range from giant hydroelectric dams such as the Grand Coulee in Washington State to flood control dams in the southeast and dams that provide water for irrigation in California. Overall the United States has as many as 2.5 million dams of one sort or another. The design and construction of many of these dams took place between 1930 and 1975....   [tags: Hoover Dam Research Paper]
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Architecture: Critical Regionalism - From my opinion off what I have gathered, I came to an understanding that Critical regionalism can be seen as an approach to architecture that tries to stand up for places culture and identifies the identity of a place where Modern Architecture has failed to, by using the building's geographical context and reference of vernacular architecture. The term critical regionalism was first used by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre and, with a somewhat different meaning, by Kenneth Frampton. Critical regionalism could be considered as a particular kind of post-modern response....   [tags: le corbusier, building types] 2119 words
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The Spirit of the Times: Progress and Industrialization During Stalin’s Five-Year Plans - In the USSR, during the first of Joseph Stalin’s five-year plans, it was a cutthroat, hard working place in time. Stalin was forced to put this plan in place because he wanted to have a competitive industry with the rest of the world. Stalin himself said it best when he was quoted saying, ”We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they will crush us.” In order to have a better incite for what it was like for the workers of this time, a great resource would be the book Time, Forward....   [tags: Soviet Union, Socialist Realism]
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An Plan for the Construction of a Building, An Outline - Introduction 1. This annex outlines a concise scope of works for the proposed Military Guard Service (MGS) Facility. A detailed Engineer Plan (DEP) should be produced in a later date prior to commencing the construction task. The sequences and details in this annex are for the guidance only and should be assessed by relevant person while producing DEP. 2. There is feasibility of undertaking concurrent activity, however careful assessment and consideration should be given to the Health and Safety of all personnel on site....   [tags: scope of work, foundations, floors, safety] 1268 words
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The Collapse of the Westgate Bridge, Located in Melbourne, Australia - ... II. HISTORY The first time that a bridge was considered to cross the Yarra River was as early as 1957 to replace the Williamstown ferry service. Between then and 1961, there was lots of discussion, up until the Lower Yarra Crossing Company was founded. Discussions with the government about a new bridge across the Yarra River were held, but not much was agreed upon, until 1965, the Lower Yarra Crossing Company went bankrupt, and thus emerged the Lower Yarra Crossing Authority, whom in 1967 entered into an agreement with Melbourne based Maunsell & Partners, as well as London based Freeman Fox & Partners to be joint consulting engineers....   [tags: poor communication, engineering] 843 words
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The Research Support Facility is a Green Building - A Sustainable Leed Platinum Building A sustainable development could be defined as a self-sufficient project that can meet actual and future demand without compromising future resources. A sustainable development can be defined as the Research Support Facility in Golden, Colorado. This ultra-high performance building incorporates several design innovations, renewable strategies and excellent performance, so high, that it will only use 50% of the energy it will use if designed under traditional methods....   [tags: Characteristics of a Sustainable Development] 1050 words
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Fly Ash Bricks in the Indian Market - This research study focuses on finding the scope of fly ash bricks in Indian market. As with changing modes of construction and time new construction material and new technologies are in demand. Bricks are the most important material of construction and they are mostly facing the changes and without bricks any type of construction is incomplete. The convectional red bricks were used for a very long period of time but now people are facing many problems because of disturbance in the environment, as these bricks are very hazardous for the eco system....   [tags: Indian Market]
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The Fall of the Berlin Wall - ... Many individuals packed their belongings and headed to West Berlin. However, for some individuals it wasn’t as easy as packing up and leaving. Some individuals unfortunately would be stopped on their way. Nonetheless, hundreds of thousands of individuals made it across the border. In the early 1960’s, East Germany was quickly losing it’s population, as well as its labor force. The East Germans had easy access to the West, thus forcing the obvious solution of putting up a barricade; a wall separating the sides and preventing from crossing over the border....   [tags: symbol for the fall of communism] 1108 words
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A Modern Marvel: The Hoover Dam - ... The construction management team faced a three thousand dollar per day fine if they did not meet their October 1933 deadline. The only times the Colorado was low enough to divert were in late fall and early winter because the water level would otherwise be too high to complete the colossal task. Excavation began in earnest in May 1931 on the Nevada side of the river with the Arizona tunnels beginning shortly afterward. Nearly a year later the teams began to line them with concrete. Gantry cranes were installed along the entire lengths of the tunnels to place the aforementioned concrete....   [tags: dam, power, project] 1203 words
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