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The Use of Reinforced Concrete in Modernism - The usage of concrete was explored by the Early Christian and Roman architects but fell out of use throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance period. The material was only fully explored again in the later half of the 19th century but only for mundane purposes where the material was cheap, easy to work with, and versatile, but most importantly it’s fireproof characteristic. In 1870, the idea of reinforcing the concrete was born; steel rods were to be inserted to increase its strength. Taking this principle, Ernest Ransome (America) and Francois Hennebique (France) both developed frame systems....   [tags: Ernst Ransome, architecture, concrete]
:: 17 Works Cited
2583 words
(7.4 pages)
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Concrete Poetry - A Unique Genre - Concrete poetry presents its readers with a unique and often confounding situation. In addition to using language or parts of language in non-traditional ways, concrete poetry also uses elements that are more commonly associated with visual art. However, concrete poetry is not visual art. It is still concerned, primarily, with the use of language, generally to communicate some meaning to the reader in a way that is undeniably linguistic in nature. Concrete poetry is therefore an especially unique genre that draws upon and incorporates many different concepts from a variety of disciplines in order to fill in the gaps left when traditional grammar and syntax are eschewed....   [tags: Concrete Poetry Analysis]
:: 8 Works Cited
2413 words
(6.9 pages)
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Properties Of High–lime Fly Ash Concrete - PROPERTIES OF HIGH–LIME FLY ASH CONCRETE ABSTRACT Fly ash is a waste product from coal based thermal power stations. About seven million tons of fly ash is being produced annually from these thermal power stations in Turkey. Concerted efforts are needed to make the material used to a great extent. These paper give the results of an investigation on the performance of fly ash concrete made with ASTM C class fly ashes from two sources. PC42,5 cement used in the experiments conforms to TS19 (Turkish Standards)....   [tags: Concrete]
:: 2 Works Cited
1756 words
(5 pages)
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The History of Concrete - It is common knowledge that steel structures revolutionized building design during the early 20th century. It is less well known, however, the impact concrete has had on building design - particularly in skyscrapers. Concrete is an old building material, dating well back into prehistoric times. Yet its application for building tall structures was only truly begun to realized in the early 20th century. Concrete systems in skyscrapers are a unique brand of structure. They incorporate many different elements, and have a variety of different requirements....   [tags: ancient romans, building design] 703 words
(2 pages)
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Alternatives to Concrete - Concrete today is considered by many modern engineers and architects as a more efficient and effective alternative to steel n regards to the creation of buildings, ranging from low-story apartments to neck-breaking skyscrapers. Through the rapid growth and development of the world's major metropolises and growing cities, concrete today has become one of the most important building materials to date. According to the World Business Counsel for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), “it has become the most consumed substance on earth, only superseded by water, with three tons for each person used annually” (World)....   [tags: Recycled Waste, Carbon Emissions]
:: 8 Works Cited
949 words
(2.7 pages)
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Fundamentals of Building Construction: The Concrete - What is concrete. Concrete is a composite material used widely in the construction industry. Concrete is basically a mixture of cement, water, aggregates and admixture (sometimes). Cement is a fine gray powder that consists of oxidizes calcium, silicon and aluminum. The aggregate used is normally gravel, crushed stone or sand. Admixture is a solid or liquid substance that gives a certain characteristics of the concrete. The cement reacts with water chemically and binds the aggregates together through a process called hydration during hardening or curing of concrete....   [tags: cement, construction industry, powder]
:: 10 Works Cited
1653 words
(4.7 pages)
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The Constituent Materials of Concrete - Portland Cement Association (n.d.) stated that in the simplest form, a blend of paste, stone, sand and water is a concrete. Concrete is one of the fundamental building block of the civilization, contributing to all the structures across the world. Concrete can be viewed in details in term of its constituent materials, properties, durability and concrete mix design and quality control. Constituent materials are the fundamental materials required to produce concrete. The constituent materials of concrete consist of mainly three materials which are cement, aggregate and water, with admixtures included as addictive to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Scalenghe et al., 2011)....   [tags: Quality, Constituent Materials]
:: 18 Works Cited
1067 words
(3 pages)
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Concrete for Water Retaining Structure - Concrete for Water Retaining Structure Author: Aritra Pal; Entry No. 2013CEC8314 1.0 Introduction: The Aim of this study is to select a better choice of water tight concrete for the water proofing construction of water retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, swimming pools etc. This paper includes the study of early age & later age properties of concretes with Chemical Admixtures & Supplementary cementecious materials, from the aspect of water tightness & durability. 2.0 Principle of Water Tightness: • Concrete should be dense & durable • Concrete must have the capacity to withstand hydrostatic pressure without water seepage....   [tags: waterproofing construction] 2055 words
(5.9 pages)
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Nanosilica and Microsilca in Concrete - Introduction Concrete is most widely used material for various applications in this world. India is second largest producer of concrete in world. As this is used in various applications its base properties which are obtained by preparing concrete with required raw materials must be enhanced by adding some other material to it. There comes the role of admixtures by which one can extract required property from concrete. There are various two basic classifications of admixtures. Chemical and Mineral admixture....   [tags: silicon industry, cement mortars] 1613 words
(4.6 pages)
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Proportions and Strength of Concrete - Contents 1. Introduction .....3-4 2. Proportions and Strength 4-5 3. Admixtures .......5 4. Aggregate . ...6 5. Cement ...7 6. Curing 7 7. Workability 8 8. Tests…………………………………………………………………………………9-11 9. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...12 10. References…………………………………………………………………….........13 1. Introduction The Romans used concrete at least 500 years before the time of Christ, and they were probably not the only ones or the earliest ones. Although concrete technology has advanced a little since those remote days, it is still used in modern building projects - from foundations for giant structures, to nuclear power stations, to sky-scrapers in our cities, to garage and patio floors, r...   [tags: aggregate, mixture, portland]
:: 5 Works Cited
2296 words
(6.6 pages)
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Design of Concrete Structure with Staad.pro - Figure 3 11. BBS of a Beam Bar Bending Schedule of Columns The column’s reinforcement are not particularly similar on all floors, therefore all columns were studied floor wise. The columns are also divided in two phases per floor, similar to that of beams. The values derived from the STAAD.Pro results re percentage of steel and stirrup spacing. The percentage is multiplied with the gross area of section and the reinforcement area is achieved. STAAD.Pro aims at lesser number of bars with higher diameter, but it cannot always be sufficient, therefore the number of bars were calculated manually for all columns....   [tags: foundation, columns, reinforcement] 1386 words
(4 pages)
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Sustainable Development of Concrete Production - Sustainable Development in Concrete Production According to the Department of Environment (Environ, 2007), sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. For example, the use of sustainable concrete in future developments leads to a more durable and economical structure, with significant environmental benefits. Concrete, a crucial material in building construction, is the world’s most produced material....   [tags: department of environment, sustainability]
:: 20 Works Cited
1962 words
(5.6 pages)
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Characteristics of Reactive Powder Concrete - Reactive powder Concrete 1. Introduction Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was developed by P. Richard and M. Cheyrezy and was first produced at Bouygues’ laboratory in France2 early 1990s. In July 1997, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Quebec, Canada3, became the world’s first structure to be constructed entirely out of Reactive Powder Concrete. Due to its extreme low permeability it is also being used for containment of nuclear waste in Europe4. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is basically a special concrete where the microstructure is optimized by precise gradation of all the constituent particles to produce a maximum possible density....   [tags: modern construction materials]
:: 4 Works Cited
1050 words
(3 pages)
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Water Carrying Concrete Core - ... As for discharging, it happens in a complete passive way without any external influence as 60% of energy is transferred by radiations and 40% by convection. Structure of concrete core Water pipes are directly casted in the concrete core of the slabs generally in the center of the concrete slab to benefit from the concrete thermal capacity characteristics or near to the ceiling as around two third of heat transfer occurs through the ceiling and the rest through the floor. Generally heat flows from the water pipes in the direction of the slab surface in case of heating and opposite in case of cooling....   [tags: pipes, efficient system] 941 words
(2.7 pages)
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Structural Lightweight Concrete - ... In addition to that, other improvements came in the form of grinding equipment, the introduction of the rotary kiln, and closer scientific control in the manufacturing process. (Expanded Shale Clay and Slate Institute, 2010) Although today most uses of lightweight concrete is in skyscrapers and other large-scale land based structures, one of the first large scale uses of modern lightweight concrete was in the construction of Atlantis, an American World War I ship. Following this it was then used for the Oakland Bay Bridge, which was constructed shortly before WWII, and is still in use to this day....   [tags: proportional mix, aggregate materials] 1831 words
(5.2 pages)
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Improving the Durability of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Hybrid Concrete Systems - • Introduction and Background: Reinforced concrete deterioration induced by corrosion of steel reinforcement is considered one of the well-known and costly problems associated with concrete bridges (Sohanghpurwala 2006). The deterioration problems are steadily increasing as one or a combination of many factors such as poor design, inappropriate used materials, and severe environmental changes accelerate the deterioration process in concrete structures (Broomfield 2007). The durability problems of concrete bridges and its consequences are countless in terms of annual maintenance cost and service life....   [tags: civil engineering and construction] 1223 words
(3.5 pages)
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Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Its Application - ...  The role of fibers in concrete is to bridge across the cracks that develop some post cracking ductility and to increase it toughness and types of loading. The uses of reinforced concrete help to increase the strength and ductility but it requires skilled labour.  BODY: Concrete is known as the most widely used structural materials in the world, because of this reasons concrete get cracked. The reason while concrete get cracked is because of the Economical , Structural or Environmental factors, but most of the cracks are formed because they can resist the tensile forces due to the weakness of the material....   [tags: construction materials, resistance] 833 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Roman’s Extensive Use of Concrete - THESIS STATEMENT The Roman’s extensive use of concrete is portrayed through their massive architectural feats. PURPOSE STATEMENT Through the critical analysis of works dealing with the concrete of Ancient Rome it is evident that Rome used concrete to build massive structures. INTRODUCTION What would our world be like today if we did not have concrete. Could we imagine a life of stone built houses. The ancient people of world did just that. But then in Rome concrete was invented and the Romans used it to construct an enormous amount of architecture....   [tags: Building and Construction] 1673 words
(4.8 pages)
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Concrete Bridge Project - In the past, it is not much pedestrian traffic along the street because of the lower population. However, due to the population increasing in 1960-70s.The government considerate that the number of pedestrian traffic such as footbridge is so important, so the government have to increase the total number of all pedestrian traffic like footbridge. With the time changed, the safety and technical of bridge structure form has also changed and improved. Nowadays, almost footbridge in Hong Kong is made by concrete including prestressed concrete bridge....   [tags: Pedestrians, Tension, Architecture] 749 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Empty Concrete - The Empty Concrete Throughout the adventures of Concrete there are many times where he shows his loneliness in a story. The one story that I find this most evident in is "next Best". In this story Concrete goes through a number of let downs during the course of his day. The story starts off with Concrete having a surreal dream, a fantasy of Maureen and him being together. He admits his love to her. He is transformed into a human being by a god like structure that I believe was the Senator. Setting him free....   [tags: Papers] 480 words
(1.4 pages)
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Concrete - According to major supplies, “Use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing concrete is continuously, increasing. The increase has been considerable since 1980, but slowed somewhat in 1990, a year of substantial construction cutbacks. Apparently the construction community believes there are advantages in the use of synthetic fibers in concrete.” (Schupack) Synthetic fibers are used to improve crack control in concrete. Some reports say that synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) would replace welded wire fabric in many slab-on-grade applications....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 2 Works Cited
605 words
(1.7 pages)
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Concrete 5: A simple CMS to Cement Your Website - Summary: Concrete 5 can be considered as one of the best CMS after Joomla and Drupal, when it comes to PHP based CMS. This article would be discussing about Concrete 5 in a vivid manner. The website development in today’s world is highly dependent on frameworks. The developers of our times take open source content management system to be the magic wand which can help their clients to update, manage as well upload content without taking any external help. Concrete 5 is the new kid in the block when it comes to PHP framework....   [tags: Joomla, Drupal, website development] 697 words
(2 pages)
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RURAL PARADISE OR A CONCRETE JUNGLE? - RURAL PARADISE OR A CONCRETE JUNGLE. Over the course of the semester we have watched numerous movies (Heartland Reggae, The Harder They Come, Countryman, Dancehall Queen, Third World Cop, Rockers, and Land of Look Behind) that depict Rastafarians living in both the country and the city. Not knowing much about either Jamaican setting, I decided to take a closer look at both the urban and rural areas in which Rastafarians live and practice their beliefs. I wanted to see if the different settings had much influence on Rastafarians....   [tags: essays papers]
:: 13 Works Cited
4872 words
(13.9 pages)
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Ando in the perspective of critical regionalism: Concrete Resistance - Through this paper a comparative representation on the definition and background of the evolution of critical regionalism will be explored. Moreover through this essay, the arguments of how ‘Ando’s’ architectural approach is of a ‘critical regionalist’ manner will be examined significantly. The definition of critical regionalism is a direct approach to architecture that strives to oppose ‘placelessness’ and the apparent lack of identity and character in modern architecture through the use of building's geographical context....   [tags: Architecture]
:: 12 Works Cited
1824 words
(5.2 pages)
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The Importance of Having a Concrete Concept in Product Advertising - ... Aside from the concept, more than any factors of advertising, what we look at first about the information of the advertisement is the usage of the color. But, not to overlook the importance to having the concrete concept, every person has a different idea to decide which product to buy. For example, those who are more conscious about the grade or rank of the product would never choose the one which looks more reasonable but the other one which looks like more luxurious and vice versa. For this reason, selecting colors with the clear concept like who to sell or features which sellers really want to emphasize is also vital for them....   [tags: color, text, consumers] 638 words
(1.8 pages)
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Self-Compacting Concrete - Self-compacting concrete (SCC), also known as self-consolidating concrete, is a specialized high performance concrete that does not need to be compacted by vibration as it compacts into every corner and space of a formwork as a result of its own weight. The most laudable property of SCC is that it leaves no void in the formwork, and that too, without the need of mechanical vibration (De Schutter, 2007; Okamura & Ouchi, 2003; Hurd, 2002). SCC, therefore, has superior engineering properties that make it a highly versatile and immensely useful material for construction....   [tags: Product Analysis ]
:: 6 Works Cited
1595 words
(4.6 pages)
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Measuring Thickness of Concrete - Measuring Thickness of Concrete Measuring Thickness of Concrete Elements Using Drilled Concrete Cores When doing construction one of the major concerns is that the work being done complies with the design specifications. In this ASTM test, C 174M-97, the thickness of a concrete pavement, slab, or structural element is determined by measuring the length of a core drilled from a concrete structure. This allows the contractor, as well as the owner, to see that the concrete is being poured to meet the requirements....   [tags: essays research papers] 690 words
(2 pages)
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Arizona Concrete - Arizona Concrete According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona, cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks. Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969, namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County, near Tucson, and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale, in Yavapai County (52-53). The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin, a builder in Leeds, England, who obtained a patent for it in 1824....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 2 Works Cited
1361 words
(3.9 pages)
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Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete - Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete is a powerful narrative of the struggles and culture of New York’s Italian immigrant laborers in the early twentieth century. Jerre Mangione and Ben Morreale, in their historical work La Storia, state that "Never before or since has the aggravation of the Italian immigrant been more bluntly expressed by a novelist" (368). A central component of this "aggravation", both for DiDonato as an author and for his protagonist Paul, is the struggle to reconcile traditional religious beliefs and customs with the failure of that very same faith to provide any tangible improvement in the immigrants’ lives....   [tags: Essays Papers] 2766 words
(7.9 pages)
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Note to Educators: Hope Required when Growing Roses in Concrete - We live in a world that is always changing and as such creates inequality and suffering. Many people feel the need to change this and hope for a better world. Even though people have different religions and beliefs, we all have some hope,which motivates us to wake up everyday and make a difference in this world. Hope is what brings us together to fight for a common cause. As Duncan-Andrade explains throughout his article, “Note to Educators: Hope Required When Growing Roses in Concrete,” it is not enough to hope for a better future, especially for young people of color because hoping will not bring the needed change we expect....   [tags: Duncan-Andrade article analysis] 617 words
(1.8 pages)
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Advanced Techniques in Construction in Sri Lanka - ... Pre-stressing is where the slab is stressed before concreting and post tensioning is where the slab is stressed after the concreting. Over the last few years, post tension concrete has taken the world by storm. Most developed countries have already started using this technology and developing countries are slowly getting into the trend. Post tensioning promotes higher loading concentrations, longer spans, thinner slabs, lighter structures and rapid constructions. With the help of post tensioning, engineers can minimize, if not eliminate, shrinkage cracking....   [tags: concrete, engineers, tension]
:: 8 Works Cited
840 words
(2.4 pages)
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Using Lunar Soil for Construction in Space - It is a well known fact that concrete is considered as the globally accepted construction material on earth. On the other hand, concrete in space was still mysterious when the researchers wrote this paper. However, some prior research indicated that there is possibility of lunar soil could be utilized as a construction material in space. A team of Master Builders, Inc. and Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS), a student group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville instigated such unique, ongoing, fundamental research program for concrete in space, particularly in moon....   [tags: materials, concrete, sources, environment] 568 words
(1.6 pages)
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Anicent Roman Buildings and There Affect on Modern Day Architecture - When people travel to government buildings you may notice that they look like european works, that is because they were influenced by Ancient Rome. The Romans developed unique techniques on buildings which were used in some of the most greatest achievements in Ancient Rome. One of the most influential buildings was the Pantheon which remained durable and lasted for years. Roman works are adapted from Greek architecture and made a major impact on modern buildings....   [tags: architecture, concrete, framework] 710 words
(2 pages)
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Building and Construction Authority: CEMEX and Sustainable Construction - CEMEX is a global building materials company. The company produces and sells cement, ready-mix concrete. At CEMEX, building materials are distributed in more than 50 countries worldwide [1]. It was founded innorthern Mexico in 1906 by opening the first cement plant whereby the world headquarters is also located in the city of San Pedro Garza Garcia. Within forty years, CEMEX could increase its production of cement to about 124,000 tons daily[2]. By 1989, CEMEX has become the top 10 cement producers in the world....   [tags: cement, ready-mix concrete] 1393 words
(4 pages)
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My School Activity: Chalk the Block - ... I turned and there they were; both of my partners staring flabbergasted at my work, not making a single move to collaborate. I wondered how long they had been there, just staring blankly at my working hands. After a few seconds of frowning at their clueless faces, I stood up, gathered a couple pieces of chalk, and handed each a chunk. The original design on paper was resting right in the middle of the tile, so they got to work. I kept my focus on the specific segment of the painting I had already started, oblivious to what the other girls were doing until I finished my part and looked at the rest....   [tags: chalk painiting on concrete tiles] 576 words
(1.6 pages)
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Alkali Reactive Aggregates. What Happens When Alkali Cement is Low - Considerable bad experience has been encountered when alkali reactive aggregates have been used.Low alkali cement is normally required to protect against disruptive Expansion of concrete which occurs generally due to alkali-aggregate reaction.(a chemical reaction between alkali’s in the cement and reactive aggregates.Another means of of controlling alkali-aggregate reactions is by the use of suitable fly ash or natural pozzolan.If a highly reactive aggregate have to be used then it is necessary to use a low alkali cement and a pozzolan....   [tags: type 2 cement, concrete, uniformity] 918 words
(2.6 pages)
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Roman and Islamic Art and Architecture - When walking around a city, you may notice that the architecture and art look similar to other works. Many of these designs have changed along the course of history and time whilst others have not. The designs that many people still see in society and day to day living is from two of the many cultures of the old civilizations, Roman and Islamic. The art and architecture forms from the Islamic and Roman cultures have many comparisons and contrasts between them. They, the Islamic and Roman nations, have both adopted from other cultures and have made their own discoveries in the art and architecture worlds....   [tags: culture, adopted, traditions, society, concrete] 527 words
(1.5 pages)
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Development Material: The Cement - COCONUT SHELLS AS AGGREGATE REPLACEMENT IN CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Cement is world's most broadly utilized development material. The use of cement is expanding at a higher rate because of improvement in foundation and development exercises all as far and wide as possible. The climbing expense of development material is a matter of concern. The purpose behind increment in expense is popularity of cement and shortage of crude material. Thus the solid technologists must look for some temperate elective to the coarse total....   [tags: coconut shells, concrete, natural fibre]
:: 5 Works Cited
1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete - The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete Nicknames. They are something that everyone is familiar with in one way or another. However, most people have little, if any, personal experience with nicknames. In Italian-American culture, nicknames play a major role in everyday life. Nicknames are formed with a certain unspoken format, and they have a particular importance. In Italian-American culture nicknames, even though to others they may seem harsh and cruel, are terms of endearment and give a sense of belonging....   [tags: Essays Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited
2050 words
(5.9 pages)
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Analizing Emily Dickinson's Poetry - Emily Dickinson’s poetry goes where most poets refuse to go: the fear beyond death. Being surrounded by death, due to the Civil War it comes to no surprise that Dickinson would express such a morbid topic. However, it is the way that she expresses death that is significant. Her writings tend to go against her Puritan heritage by not suggesting an afterlife. In Dickinson’s poems, “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain”, “I heard a Fly buzz—when I died” and “Because I could not stop for Death” oblivion is the object to fear, not death....   [tags: abstract concepts with concrete images]
:: 7 Works Cited
1064 words
(3 pages)
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Precast, Prestressed Contrete in Beam Design - Beam design: The design selected for the beam element encompasses the use of precast prestressed concrete. Two symmetrical beams supporting a cast in-situ slab was used so as to provide longitudinal torsional restraint. All in-situ concrete and formwork shall be carried out in accordance to SANS 10100 specifications as described by the calculations attached herein. Precast design was selected since the beam can be produced under factory conditions and not necessarily cast on-site. Quality can be controlled and costs reduced since there is no need for complex scaffolding, and hence erection time and labour is lowered....   [tags: construction, support, calculations] 684 words
(2 pages)
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History of the US Since 1865 - ... He formed his group "The Duke's Serenaders" during this time, which consisted of childhood friend Otto Hardwick, who started on string bass, then moved to C-melody sax and finally settled on alto saxophone; Arthur Whetsol on trumpet; Elmer Snowden on banjo; and Sonny Greer on drums. His group was a rarity in the sense that they were hired by African American and Caucasian cliental. Duke would continue to do this until his drummer Sonny Greer got an offer to move to Harlem and play, which persuaded Duke to quit his painting job and join him in Harlem....   [tags: renaissance, sacred concrets] 941 words
(2.7 pages)
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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modif...   [tags: Construction] 1659 words
(4.7 pages)
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Three Gorges Dam - Name:Three Gorges Dam Location:Located on Yangtze river in Sandouping,South China. Co-ordinates:30 49’ North 111 00’ South. Dam Type:Concrete Gravity Dam. Length of the dam:2.3 Km. Height of the dam:185 m Materials used are:Cement(10.82 million tons),Concrete(26.4 million cu.m),Rolled Steel (1.92 million tons),Timber(1.6 million cu.m). Construction Period:1993-2009 Construction Cost:25 billion US Dollars. Expected Life:100 years....   [tags: Yangtze river, south china] 960 words
(2.7 pages)
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Structural Makeup of the Commercial Building - Contents • Introduction • Site Analysis • Structural Make-up • Beam Calculations • Load Trace • Choice of Materials • Conclusion  Introduction This report will investigate the structural makeup of the commercial building we are working on as part of the Studio 2 module. The building has a single-storey basement that is to be used for car parking, with 5 upper storeys comprising of a café and open plan offices. This report investigates firstly the site that the building is situated on, secondly, the structural make-up of the building, thirdly the load trace and finally, materials used along with reasons for choosing them....   [tags: beam caculation, load trace] 1057 words
(3 pages)
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How the Stucture of Skyscrapers Was Started - Supertall buildings are a relatively recent addition to the history of the cities around the world. Technology of the nineteenth century made their development possible. Steel, concrete and masonry materials have existed for a long time in the history of civilization but not in such a configuration. Masonry is the oldest material. Concrete in its present form is the youngest of these three basic structural materials of construction. Research shows that early societies used lime as a binding element in mortar....   [tags: framework, skill, materials, build, steel] 764 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Role of Limestone and Gravel in Buildings - ... The east half of the basement is completely underground, while the west half is only partially underground with the top 1.8 m of the walls above grade. The buildings have an extremely high amount of thermal mass with large south and east facing windows. The building shells are poured concrete construction with 20.3 cm exterior walls, 30.5 cm flat roofs, and 15.25 cm basement slab floors. The windows are all located on the south, southeast, and east facing walls and made of low-E glass. The windows have aluminum frames with a thermal break and clear double pane low-E glazing units....   [tags: environment, engineers] 1134 words
(3.2 pages)
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Innovative Seismic Retrofitting of Bridge: A Perspective Study - In recent year, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) emerged as innovative material and has gain popularity due to its unique properties to the field of structural retrofitting. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a special class of alloys, which can provide structures with smart self-centering capabilities to return to their original positions after large inelastic deformation. SMA will undergo with two phases under different temperatures: Austenite in the high-temperature phase while Martensite in the low-temperature phase....   [tags: Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)]
:: 4 Works Cited
645 words
(1.8 pages)
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Deep Foundation: Bored Pile Construction - DEEP FOUNDATION Deep-foundation elements comprise piles and piers and are like slender columns buried in the ground. They are prevented from buckling because they are confines by the soil. Piles and piers transfer the load either to bedrock or to soil of high bearing capacity while passing through unsuitable soil. As previously stated, deep foundation are used where shallow foundation cannot be used because the topsoil is expansive or has a low bearing capacity or where the frost line is deep. They are also used in buildings that house items or instrumentation sensitive to settlement of shallow foundations....   [tags: civil engineering] 612 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Construction Process of Bored Piles - BORED PILES CONSTRUCTION Bored piles construction is done using the suitable rotary drills depending on the diameter, depth, condition of the soil and construction method. Usually bore-holes are stabilized with a temporary or permanent casing. The common material used for the casing is steel and it is also normal called as steel casing. The length of the steel casing is also determined from the soil conditions that are discovered at the actual site. SETTING OUT The location of the bored piles must be set out and marked by the subcontractor’s surveyor according to the approved setting out drawings given by the Consultant....   [tags: civil engineering techniques] 806 words
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Ancient Greek and Roman Architecture - Roman Architecture Roman architecture implemented many characteristics of Ancient Greek architecture. The Romans showed the influence of their engineering skills and secular monuments, while Greek architecture exhibited the influence of their gods and ideas of physical perfection. The use of arches, the dome and concrete permitted the ancient Romans to attain extraordinary achievements in the construction of imposing structures for public use. While showing the magnificence of the Greeks and their practical application, as well as their creativity, the Romans established architectural features that remain to this day....   [tags: columns, post, lintel, monuments]
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Climate and Urban Approach - Climate and Urban Approach Analysis of the climate and urban geography of the area pointed out that, summers are to a certain extent hot and gentle, with cooling night gentle winds. The regular temperatures in July are 93° F whereas winter has an average temperature of 44° F in January. This brings cool temperatures and 17 inches rains in January. The city is outlined in a grid where tree lined streets create a shady environment. The area takes landscape and the water table is comparatively high (Louw)....   [tags: Architecture, energy efficiency]
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Daniel Libeskind - The Jewish Museum in Berlin - The success of architects is defined not so much by the problems they face as the act of their creative and practical responses. Located in once the bombarded Berlin, a new language of architecture emerged. It appears with multiple contradictions, yet not confliction, from itself to the surroundings and within its own construction. That is the Berlin Jewish Museum, submitted by the young Daniel Libeskind in a competition to provoke the unsavory history of Berlin very soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989....   [tags: Berlin Jewish Museum] 1829 words
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Building A Metalwork Shop on a Budget - Improving workshop efficiency through layout “Once you have decided that setting up a metalworking workshop will provide you with the facilities for an interesting pastime, you will naturally be keen to make progress with the idea quickly. However, there is no point in purchasing a lathe if you do not have a suitable place to house it” (Hall 5). First you need to decide what the main purpose for the workshop and what is your budget. Do you want to make model engines or restore a full-size locomotive....   [tags: business plan, financial analysis]
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Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle - David Kolb published his learning styles theory, in 1984, after many years of development. His theory stated that people learn in two different steps, inputting information and processing information. How people do this is also different. Think of inputting information on a vertical line, one person may prefer concrete examples at the top and abstract concepts at the bottom. Processing information is on a horizontal line with active experimentation on the left and reflective observation on the right....   [tags: Learning Styles]
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Stress, Strain and Stress Ribbon Structures - Stress and Strain Relationships on Stress Ribbon Structures A bridge is a type of transportation infrastructure that is built to join two separate points of land together. Bridges often undergo construction in order to provide passage over certain obstacles such as bodies of water or geographical depressions. They can be classified in several different ways including by their intended use or by the materials used to make them. A bridge built solely for people to cross over is classified as a pedestrian bridge....   [tags: Civil Engineering]
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The Great Mystery of the Pyramids - The Great pyramids of Egypt are undoubtedly one of the most recognized and admired landmarks in the world. Built to pay tribute to gods and pharaohs, the pyramids were of great importance to the Egyptians, and the mystery of their construction continues to amaze us today. Many theories pertaining to how the pyramids were built have been suggested, however, none are as well supported or intelligible as the heave-ho method of quarrying and cutting limestone. Joseph Davidovits’ theory disproving this, in which states the pyramids were moulded, is not plausible....   [tags: History, Building and Construction] 1812 words
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Board Breaking in Martial Arts - Board breaking is often exhibited as an incredible talent performed by martial artists at demonstrations or tournaments in order to show off strength. This isn’t true, however, as breaking is an illustrated example of a perfected technique as one would use in a real situation. The accuracy, strength, and power of these techniques is demonstrated through the break. Many people are amazed by breaking, but don’t fully understand how truly easy it is. Breaking can be explained by both the physics behind the act and the mental aspects of the preparation of the break....   [tags: Board Breaking, Martial Arts, ] 1203 words
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Climate Change: Turning Carbon Dioxide in Cement - ... This process is intended to mimic sea cement. Sea cement is produced by coral when making their reefs and shells by taking the calcium and magnesium in seawater and using it to form carbonates at normal temperatures and pressures. The process is turning the CO2 carbonic acid and then making carbonate, which means that water and pollution are the basic necessities of turning the CO2 emissions into cement. Figure 2 shows the process of converting Carbon Dioxide into self-cement and other chemicals....   [tags: calcium silicales, limestone] 946 words
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The Sri Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara - The Sri Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara was produced from cast in-situ reinforced concrete and stone panels that were designed to be load bearing such as the external skin of the cavity wall. Each stone panel rests above one another, bonding with epoxy resin to ensure a weather tight fitting is present while being tied back to the concrete structure with stainless steel ties. To ensure Part L requirements are covered, a 100mm cavity filled with high-performance insulation between the stone and concrete is present....   [tags: Architecture, India]
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Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. - 1. Introduction Construction industry in most countries amounts to 10–20% of the GNP, making it the largest economic employing sector. Construction work is labor intensive. Robots are used widely to help human workers in construction sites. They demonstrate an autonomous and simple approach to construction. Therefore, construction robotics has been a very hot research area in the construction industry [1]. The main goal of this paper is to convince the entire construction world to incorporate robotic systems when managing modern buildings to save manpower and improve efficiency....   [tags: technolgy, automatization]
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The Millau Viaduct and The Hampden Bridge - ... One of the great engineering feats when building this bridge was the use of steel. Despite its maximum height of 343m span of 2.46km, 280m above the valley floor, the bridge is actually quite light. 242,000 tonnes seems like a lot but without the use of steel on the structure, this bridge would have been more than twice as heavy. Steel is a much stronger material than concrete, so can support more weight with less mass. The actual road deck, which is comprised almost entirely of steel, only weighs 36,000 tonnes....   [tags: tallest suspension bridge, wagga] 775 words
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The Effects of Imagery on Recall - Which word is easier to picture, house or honor. Both begin with the letter h, both are five letters long and most people would like to possess both. However, the word house is a concrete idea, meaning that it is a physical item that can be perceived with our senses. This is not true of honor which is an abstract concept with no physical properties and therefore beyond our senses. Studies have shown that concrete words are easier to imagine and therefore to recall (Binder, Westbury, McKiernan, Possing, & Medler, 2005; Fliessbach, Weis, Klaver, Elger, & Weber, 2006; Walker & Hulme, 1999)....   [tags: Neuroscience]
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The Hoover Dam and Its Construction - Outside of China, the United States is the most-dammed country on the planet. Counting only dams taller than fifty feet high, the U.S. has some 5,000 dams that range from giant hydroelectric dams such as the Grand Coulee in Washington State to flood control dams in the southeast and dams that provide water for irrigation in California. Overall the United States has as many as 2.5 million dams of one sort or another. The design and construction of many of these dams took place between 1930 and 1975....   [tags: Hoover Dam Research Paper]
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The Grounds and the Grave Mistake - The Grounds and the Grave Mistake The fall weather was perfect for this. It was moist and foggy. The suns rigid rays cut across the sky and its tungsten glow illuminated the grit that separated our boards’ wheels and the cold damp ground. Kick, push, kick, push went my feet with each pace increasing my speed. Cool, crisp air gently brushed against me, caking my shirt to my sweaty chest. I flew across the concrete, hit the bowls side and ollied over the half pipes gap. I had it. I almost had it. Mid-air, the double kick flip not quiet finished, I was coming down, landing perfectly, until I slipped....   [tags: Creative Writing Examples] 1404 words
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Architecture: Critical Regionalism - From my opinion off what I have gathered, I came to an understanding that Critical regionalism can be seen as an approach to architecture that tries to stand up for places culture and identifies the identity of a place where Modern Architecture has failed to, by using the building's geographical context and reference of vernacular architecture. The term critical regionalism was first used by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre and, with a somewhat different meaning, by Kenneth Frampton. Critical regionalism could be considered as a particular kind of post-modern response....   [tags: le corbusier, building types] 2119 words
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The Spirit of the Times: Progress and Industrialization During Stalin’s Five-Year Plans - In the USSR, during the first of Joseph Stalin’s five-year plans, it was a cutthroat, hard working place in time. Stalin was forced to put this plan in place because he wanted to have a competitive industry with the rest of the world. Stalin himself said it best when he was quoted saying, ”We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they will crush us.” In order to have a better incite for what it was like for the workers of this time, a great resource would be the book Time, Forward....   [tags: Soviet Union, Socialist Realism]
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An Plan for the Construction of a Building, An Outline - Introduction 1. This annex outlines a concise scope of works for the proposed Military Guard Service (MGS) Facility. A detailed Engineer Plan (DEP) should be produced in a later date prior to commencing the construction task. The sequences and details in this annex are for the guidance only and should be assessed by relevant person while producing DEP. 2. There is feasibility of undertaking concurrent activity, however careful assessment and consideration should be given to the Health and Safety of all personnel on site....   [tags: scope of work, foundations, floors, safety] 1268 words
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The Collapse of the Westgate Bridge, Located in Melbourne, Australia - ... II. HISTORY The first time that a bridge was considered to cross the Yarra River was as early as 1957 to replace the Williamstown ferry service. Between then and 1961, there was lots of discussion, up until the Lower Yarra Crossing Company was founded. Discussions with the government about a new bridge across the Yarra River were held, but not much was agreed upon, until 1965, the Lower Yarra Crossing Company went bankrupt, and thus emerged the Lower Yarra Crossing Authority, whom in 1967 entered into an agreement with Melbourne based Maunsell & Partners, as well as London based Freeman Fox & Partners to be joint consulting engineers....   [tags: poor communication, engineering] 843 words
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The Research Support Facility is a Green Building - A Sustainable Leed Platinum Building A sustainable development could be defined as a self-sufficient project that can meet actual and future demand without compromising future resources. A sustainable development can be defined as the Research Support Facility in Golden, Colorado. This ultra-high performance building incorporates several design innovations, renewable strategies and excellent performance, so high, that it will only use 50% of the energy it will use if designed under traditional methods....   [tags: Characteristics of a Sustainable Development] 1050 words
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Fly Ash Bricks in the Indian Market - This research study focuses on finding the scope of fly ash bricks in Indian market. As with changing modes of construction and time new construction material and new technologies are in demand. Bricks are the most important material of construction and they are mostly facing the changes and without bricks any type of construction is incomplete. The convectional red bricks were used for a very long period of time but now people are facing many problems because of disturbance in the environment, as these bricks are very hazardous for the eco system....   [tags: Indian Market]
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The Fall of the Berlin Wall - Between 1961 and 1989, the Berlin Wall was known as a barrier between west Berlin and east Germany. The Berlin Wall was symbolic for the division between democracy and communism during the Cold War. Thus, the Berlin Wall served as a barrier for twenty eight years keeping east Germans from fleeing to the west. At the end of the World War II, Allied powers divided and conquered Germany into four different areas. Each area was occupied by either the United States, France, Great Britain, or the Soviet Union, and the same happened to Germany’s capital city, Berlin....   [tags: symbol for the fall of communism] 1108 words
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A Modern Marvel: The Hoover Dam - The Hoover Dam is a modern marvel and a testament to American ingenuity. At over six million six hundred thousand tons and jetting seven hundred sixty feet from the canyon floor, six hundred sixty feet across the bottom and, one thousand two hundred forty four feet across the top, the structure is awe inspiring even to a modern audience. Three quarters of a century since its completion it still stands as a symbol of one of the greatest construction projects of the ages. The need for a dam to block the Colorado River was not a new idea when construction began in 1931, but had been mulled around since the dawn of the century....   [tags: dam, power, project] 1203 words
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Social Responsabilities of Civil Engineers - To someone, the job of civil engineers may just be designing how to build a building or an infrastructure. To civil engineers, however, their works are far beyond that point. In fact, engineers do not only construct a building. As a civil engineering project has close relationship with the people and environment, engineers should be considerate and responsible to the above sectors. This essay will discuss the social responsibilities of civil engineers. The foremost purpose of a civil engineering project is probably to serve human, to whom engineers have to responsible....   [tags: professional codes of practice]
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The Human Preception of Reality in Borges' The Library of Babel - Reality is something that we humans have a hard time comprehending. We don’t know the exact reason why we live and why we exist but we have many theories that could be the reason. For example, Christians believe that God made the world in six days and that we live as his creations, to worship and adore him. Jose Luis Borges likes to conduct thought experiments with his stories and one theme he uses quite often is the nature of reality. Borges created a perplexing universe in “The Library of Babel” that plays with the idea of never being able to grasp certain concepts because of the limit of what one can perceive....   [tags: philosophy, mysticism, idealism] 769 words
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Protecting Against Terrorist Attacks in Urban Environments: Explosion Protection for Buildings - Introduction Blast protection, until recently, has only needed to be considered when constructing underground shelters and military bunkers. Currently, however, there is a need for urban buildings and similar structures used consistently by the general public to withstand forces from nearby explosions. This need is due to the recent climb in terrorist attacks in urban or crowded environments. These attacks have used the lack of blast resistance in these buildings as a means for creating widespread havoc through detonating an improvised explosive device (IED)....   [tags: Blast Protection]
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Building Information Modeling Protocol Exhibit by the American Institute of Architects - ... Lastly, an as built model can be finalized so as to represent the model as it has been physically constructed by the contractor. This is also an important responsibility because an as built model would provide important information for future reference and to the possible operation and maintenance of the dormitory. Overall, the importance of establishing the responsibilities of each model element is clearly shown within the Protocol Exhibit and specifically shown through levels of development within the model element table....   [tags: compliance, dormitory, model, development] 2408 words
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Using Diversity and Science to Effectively Educate Students - Diversity is when individuals differ in race, ethnicity, gender, class, language, religion, ability, geography, and/or age. Teachers will be required to teach in diverse classrooms with a variety of inclusion students, gender, and cultures. Each and every person learns differently and at different rates. According to Culyer and Ebert (2008), “There is no age which all people are on the same intellectual level either at a starting point or as a level of attainment. Thus, you can expect that all students in your classroom will represent a range of intellectual ability” (p.84)....   [tags: Education, teachers, teaching]
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History and Construction of the Roman Colosseum - Introduction The Roman Colosseum is one of the most familiar and notable constructions in the world. It was given the name The Colosseum during the middle ages. This wonderful construction remains standing nearly 2 century’s after it had been originally constructed. One of the noticeable thing behind the Colosseum's charm is its architectural design. In this report I will look at the history of the The Colosseum, how it constructed and what is happening to it today. The History Construction of The Colosseum was authorized by the emperor Vespasian in 70 A.D, and finished by his son Titus about 10 years later in 80 A.D....   [tags: ancient mega-structures]
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Legal Responsability of Civil Engineers in Hong Kong - Building structure and bridge structure, though built with well-considered design, may still have structural problem or even collapse with time. In this regard, the designer of the structure, which is the civil engineer, may have to bear of responsibility of professional negligence. Nonetheless, most of the engineers should be professional and have followed good control of structure quality, code of practice and good on-site supervision, despite the structure built may fail after the construction....   [tags: codes of practice for building & bridge structures]
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