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Characteristic of Organic Compounds - What are organic compounds, you may ask. Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbon dioxide, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thyocyanates, which are all considered inorganic....   [tags: Carbon Atoms, Chemical Compounds]
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1017 words
(2.9 pages)
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Understanding the Way Atoms Connect Together to form Compounds - The whole world is made up of Chemical and Physical bonds and one of the greatest advancements in history is understanding the way atoms connect together to form compounds. In chemical bonding there are two types of bonds that are called Ionic and Covalent bonds. Ionic bonds form when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms called Ions. Covalent bonds form when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Atoms either share pairs of electrons between them or transfer one or more electrons from one atom to another....   [tags: compounds, chemical bonding, atoms] 715 words
(2 pages)
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Taking a Look at Coordinating Compounds - ... In writing the formulae of metal complexes it's typical to incorporate the complete coordination complex within square brackets, an example being provided by [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, during which the coordination complex is [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ with two chloride counter ions. A ligand is an ion that is bound to central metal atom to form a coordination compound. These may be straightforward ions like Cl-, tiny molecules like binary compounds or NH3, larger molecules like H2NCH2CH2NH2 or N(CH2CH2NH2)3, or even macromolecules, like proteins....   [tags: dvandva, chemistry] 892 words
(2.5 pages)
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Covalent and Ionic Compounds - ... While both Ionic and Covalent Compounds contain atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios, their physical properties differ considerately. For instance, Ionic compounds tend to be very hard, brittle solids at room temperature. Generally, when Ionic compounds are struck with a hard object, like a hammer, they shatter. “They break or shatter because their ions are arranged in a repeating three-dimensional pattern called a “crystal lattice.” Each ion in the lattice is bonded to the surrounding ions of the opposite charge.” (2) When the compound is hit, the ions move and the lattice’s pattern changes....   [tags: chamical analysis] 571 words
(1.6 pages)
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Analytical Chemists and Chemical Compounds - ... This works because electrons in atoms can only exist in particular energy levels. An electron moves from a lower to a higher energy level by absorbing electromagnetic radiation. An electron will also emit radiation as it drops from a higher energy level to a lower one. Each element's electrons emits and absorbs specific frequencies of radiation and it is this that allows individual elements to be determined, even when other elements are present. AAS is able to measure extremely small concentrations of elements, such as parts per million (ppm) and occasionally parts per billion (ppb)....   [tags: cereal, inorganic, material chemist] 1525 words
(4.4 pages)
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Analysis of Adsorbable Organic Halogens Compounds - Introduction “AOX” is the abbreviation of the sum parameter for water soluble “adsorbable organic halogens” in which ‘A’ stands for adsorbable, ‘O’ for organic and ‘X’ for the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine. After the introduction of the AOX in 1976, this parameter has been correctly used for “real” AOX constituents (DDT and its metabolites, PCBs, etc.); but also misused for non-adsorbable adsorbed OX-compounds, mostly high molecular organohalogens in plants and even to inorganic compounds being neither organic nor adsorbable....   [tags: aox, wastewater, paper mill, pulp]
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1430 words
(4.1 pages)
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Identifying Volatile Compounds Not on the Gatorada Label - ... The mass spectrometry detector can be used to identify any species that is an ion or can form ions or identify species based on unique fragmentation patterns. The mass spectrum produces peaks based on the abundance of ions that have a specific mass-to-charge ratio. The majors peaks that are produced are identified using a library of spectra compiled from standards. The MS was run through the library and the top result was chosen for each peak. Solid state ion selective electrodes (ISE), uses an electrode that is sensitive to chloride....   [tags: chloride, gas chromatography, procedure] 971 words
(2.8 pages)
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Total Synthesis of CP Compounds - Total Synthesis of CP Compounds Man's fascination with the many uses that can be found with the exploitation of natural substances has been demonstrated time and again throughout history, but the stage was set at the turn of the century for organic chemists to begin to focus on utilizing natural compounds for the benefit of medicinal and industrial uses. The discoveries of penicillin, aspirin, and other naturally occurring useful compounds in the earlier parts of the century set the stage for the utilization and exploitation of biologically active compounds as a molecular science....   [tags: Papers] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Anticancer Properties of Piper Betle Leaves Active Compounds - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world (World Cancer Research Fund International). Colostomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and biological therapy are among the most common treatment for colorectal cancer. These treatments may be used by itself or in combination. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of colorectal cancer is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FU is a cell cycle–specific, S-phase–dependent fluorinated pyrimidine analogue (Yim, et al., 2006). Due to its short biological half-life, it is always used in combination with other drugs to enhance its drug effect....   [tags: HTS assay types,colorectal cancer,PBL]
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1618 words
(4.6 pages)
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Our Experiment to Separate a Mixture of Organic Compounds - ... The inorganic salts favor the aqueous phase, but the organic compounds prefer the nonpolar organic solvent. By using a separatory funnel, two to three extractions of an aqueous-organic mixture is enough to methodically transfer the organic acid (benzoic acid) from the organic solvent (diethyl ether) to the aqueous phase. Initially, the organic carboxylic acid becomes a charged species after it is deprotonated by a base like sodium hydroxide, producing a carboxylic salt. After completing the extraction, an acid, such as hydrochloric acid, is added to the basic aqueous solution causing the sodium carboxylate salt to change back to the default carboxylic acid, which will precipitate out of...   [tags: acid, melting point, reaction] 1302 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Number of Volatile Compounds in Sea Buckthorn Juice - 3.1 Qualitative Analysis The total number of volatile compounds found in sea buckthorn juice varies according to published data [8-12] and this study reports the highest number of compounds found so far, but there is an annual variation. In 2011, a total of 74, 89, 72 volatile compounds were extracted from 3 varieties (Hergo, wild and Frugana) of sea buckthorn berries (figure 1 and 2, table 1). A significant decline in the number of volatiles was seen in the 2012 harvest with only 17, 39, 9, 20 volatile compounds extracted in four varieties of berries (Hergo, wild, Frugana, Askola), (figure 3, and table 1)....   [tags: chemical analysis]
:: 38 Works Cited
1525 words
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Pervaporation for Treating Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater - Introduction “Pervaporation is a process in which a liquid stream containing two or more components is placed in contact with one side of a nonporous polymeric membrane, while a vacuum or gas purge is applied to the other side. The components in the liquid stream sorb into the membrane, permeate through the membrane, and evaporate into the vapor phase” (Freeman 6.59). The term pervaporation is derived “from the two major operations, involved in the separation process, namely, permeation and evaporation” (Peng Ming 815-820)....   [tags: water treatment methods] 2351 words
(6.7 pages)
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Bioactive and Medical Compounds of Pytosomes, Liposomes, and Nanoparticles - 1. PHYTOSOMES The term “phyto” means that plant whereas “some” means that cellular. Phytosomes are very little cell like structure. This is often advanced kinds of herbal formulations that contain the bioactive phytoconsituents of herb extract surrounds and certain by a supermolecule. Most of the bioactive constituents of phytomedicines are water soluble compounds like flavonoids, glycosides; terpenoids throughout which flavonoids are serious category of bioactive compounds possesses broad therapeutic activities....   [tags: herbal, pharmacology, solubility] 1499 words
(4.3 pages)
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Importance of Degradation in the Fate of Selected Organic Compounds in the Environment - Organic substances can enter the environment by several sources and pathways. One of the pathways is introduced through waste water or rain water flow into surface water. According to Abwasserverband Braunschweig (2014), approximately 700 liters of waste water per second with annual quantity of 22 million m3 waste water, mainly from household activity, are admitted to Steinhof Waste Water Treatment Plant in Braunschweig, Germany. The waste water treatment plant carries out mechanical and biological treatment for this waste water in multiple stages of processes....   [tags: waste water, organic substances, anion exchange]
:: 32 Works Cited
1785 words
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Ionic and Covalent Compounds - Ionic and Covalent Compounds Pre-Lab 1. List the properties of ionic compounds. - Solids at room temperature. - Soluble in water. - Conduct electricity (while in solution). - Very high melting and boiling points. 2. List the properties of covalent compounds. - Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. - May or may not be soluble in water. - Most do not conduct electricity (except for acids) - Low melting and boiling points. 3. Give the name and formula for: a) 3 ionic compounds NaCl—Sodium Chloride FeCl3—Iron (III) Chloride MgO—Magnesium Oxide b) 3 covalent compounds NO—Nitrogen Monoxide CBr4—Carbon Tetrabromide N2O5—Dinitrogen Pentoxide Laborato...   [tags: Papers] 370 words
(1.1 pages)
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Photosynthesis Converts Inorganic Compounds to Organic Matter - ... (cited in Andrade and Costa, 2007) Most of microalgae are photo-autotrophs, while some microalgae can use organic carbon substances as a source of energy and carbon for cell growth. Organic carbon metabolism may exert an opposing influence on photosynthesis. Heterotrophy is the use of organic compounds synthesized by not heterotroph organisms to provide substrate and energy needs based on the study by Kaplan et al., 1986 (cited in Battah, El-Sayed, and El-Sayed, 2013). According to (Kaplan et al., 1986; Lee, 2004 ( cited in Perez-Garcia, O., M....   [tags: energy, pigment, photo-autotrophs] 1348 words
(3.9 pages)
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Flame-Retardant Compounds Increase Smoke Production - ... It is important to understand that the species formed during pyrolysis are a major factor in smoke formation. The smoke production is dependent on the burning conditions, the amount and chemical structure of polymeric material burnt. In general, polymers that are largely aliphatic and contain oxygen have a tendency of low smoke production [47]. On the other hand, polymers containing aromatic groups generate high amount of smoke on decomposition. Poly (vinyl chloride) and poly (vinylidene chloride) are exceptions, although they contain aromatic groups resulting in little smoke formation on decomposition....   [tags: combustion, cotton, decomposition] 561 words
(1.6 pages)
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Carbon Compounds - Carbon Compounds 23.1 What is carbon Compounds.  carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements  there are millions of different carbon compounds  most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens  some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :  non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes  low melting points  compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water 23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from....   [tags: Papers] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds - Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds Aspirins and Oil of Wintergreen Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to prepare two organic compounds (aspirin and oil of wintergreen) and to illustrate the typical organic reactions. Students will also learn some techniques commonly used in organic synthesis and the meaning of the terms theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield. Both Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) are commonly used organic compounds....   [tags: Science Experiment, Chemistry] 327 words
(0.9 pages)
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The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds - The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium. These are known as the ‘Group Two elements’ because of their unique electron division. Each one of these elements, consists of two outer shell electrons. Because of the lack of outer electrons, these elements are highly reactive. Group two electrons have a positive Two charge or +ve. The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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How Inorganic Compounds Impact the Functionality of Signaling Pathways in Mammalian Cells - Signals are an object present in everyday life. Signals don’t just come in forms of traffic lights and signs. Signals happen on the molecular level every second. Signals can tell organisms’ cells to grow, feed, expel waste, move, undergo mitosis, or even die. These signals mystified people for the longest time. However, Earl W. Sutherland’s experiment gave humanity clarity on the matter (Urry 109). Sutherland was investigating the process by which the hormone epinephrine, or adrenaline, causes the breakdown of glycogen, a sugar, in liver and skeletal muscle cells (Urry 109)....   [tags: signals at a molecular level]
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1592 words
(4.5 pages)
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Food Chemistry Focuses on the Production of Processed Food - ... There are different techniques available for identification of aroma compounds, and different techniques are also used for quantification of these compounds. One technique used is dynamic headspace gas chromatography (DHGC), in which a sample is analyzed through a method that vaporizes and separates its components and can be coupled with a mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer can further separate the components by its mass and charge and results can be displayed and analyzed. This paper will focus on why dynamic headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are best served for use in the quantification of aroma compounds....   [tags: aroma, nourishment, compounds] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance - The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance An Ergogenic aid is known as an enhancing quality in sporting performance. Compounds such as bee pollen, caffeine, glycine, carnitine, lecithin, and gelatin are claimed through anecdotal evidence to improve strength or endurance. The use of drugs and other substances has persisted for nearly a century....   [tags: Papers] 1616 words
(4.6 pages)
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Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds - Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds Starch is a complex carbohydrate, it's a mixture of amylose and amylopectin both of which are polysaccharides containing α-glucose molecules linked via a condensation reaction. Amylose is a long, straight chain of α-glucose molecules, these are linked together by a 1,4 glycosidic bond, where 1 & 4 are carbon reducing centres. + +… α-glucose molecule α-glucose molecule = + H20 amylose These chains of α-glucose coil to form spirals and these are held in place by hydrogen bonds....   [tags: Papers] 621 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Haber Bosh Process and the Importance of Making Ammonia - ... Nitrogen fixation is essential for all sorts of life because nitrogen is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants and animals. Nitrogen fixation through the Haber process is important for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer as the ammonia acts as the precursor to various ammonium salts that provide usable nitrogen to plants and then to animals. So why produce ammonia. The Haber process is important today because the fertilizer made from ammonia is responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population....   [tags: conversion of nitrogen into other compounds]
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601 words
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QSAR Pharmacophore Model Hypo1 - ... Further we passed these filtered molecules for the docking analysis. 3.6 Molecular Docking study For further refining the retrieved hits and evaluating the binding mode between compounds and proteins, all compounds and compound_1 were docked into the binding site of PDK1[26] (PDB entry:1UU7)[27] by using LigandFit [28] docking method implemented in Discovery Studio 2.5 program package. Before docking the all the molecules, compound_1(most active compound of training set ) was docked in to the active site of PDK1.Compound_1 has shown the docking energy of - 64.5 kcal/mol and RMSD value of 0.841.It showed the hydrogen bond interactions with important residues of like Lys111, Asp 230, Al...   [tags: compounds, molecules, method, docking] 548 words
(1.6 pages)
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Alcohol and Nutrition: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? - Out of all the organic compounds, few spark as much attention as alcohol. Alcohol is complex and volatile, when referring to alcoholic beverages it is known as ethanol. Pure ethanol in its most basic state has the molecular formula C2H6O. Ethanol is a toxin to the human body and when concentrations peak to a dangerous level the body induces vomiting. Vomiting is a primary defense against many ingestible poisons. Ethanol is a clear and odorous liquid that affects living organisms by acting as a lipid solvent....   [tags: ethanol, organic compounds, drinking ]
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1256 words
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Ancient Gilding Methods and Their Chemical Structure - ... Why did they choose the artifacts in the article specifically. How were they able to figure out the gilding methods. Vocabulary list: 1. photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)- measuring the chemical composition of an object by the energy of electrons freed from the surface by a laser. (Merriam Webster) 2. secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) -A machine uses primary ions to push the ions in the object to the surface so they can be examined (Fraunhofer-Center Nanoelectronic Technologies) 3. optical emission spectrometry (GDOES)- a machine that uses emissions to examine the surface of an object....   [tags: technology, roman, compounds] 644 words
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The Material Known as PVC - ... This is because it is known for being less expensive and a material you can count on. It is safe to use, the quality is great and contributes to lower environmental impacts. An example of this would the use of PVC in pipes. These pipes will not degrade to damage the environment and suffer fewer breaks and leaks than other alternatives (iom3.org). Second we talk about the use of PVC in the health industry. PVC is known to be flexible so it is used for tubing and as a container. The containers such as ones that are used to take samples of blood or urine and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets are made from PVC....   [tags: Polyvinyl chloride, chemical compounds] 849 words
(2.4 pages)
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Types of Fat-Soluble Vitamins - ... There are several of the food sources that rich in vitamin A such as animal liver, carrot, dairy products and egg. If a person that lack in their intake of vitamin A, they might lead to loss of twilight vision due to a decreased amount of rhodopsin in the eye (Donald & Klaus, 2012). Furthermore, Alfred and Keith (1996) stated that the deficient in vitamin A in the human body will lead to weight loss and retard of growth. Vitamin D is the second type of fat-soluble vitamin. Reinhold (1994) pointed out that vitamin D acts as both a vitamin and also hormone....   [tags: organic compounds and vital nutrients] 925 words
(2.6 pages)
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What's Organic Chemistry - ... Photo-initiators include compounds that break down into free radicals when exposed to ultra violet radiation. There are two ways for the compounds (benzoin) to break down during photo polymerization. The first way is for the chemical compounds to undergo an uni-molecular bond cleavage while experiencing irradiation to yield free radicals. The second method for the benzoin to break down is to experience a bi-molecular reaction. In that reaction, the excited state of the photo-initiator (benzoin) interacts with a second molecule to generate the free radials....   [tags: carbon compounds, benzoin]
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980 words
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What is Nitrogen? - ... It is non-metallic chemical element, tasteless and an odourless. Difficult soluble in water and cannot react easily with many other elements. A daily basis, most organisms consume nitrogen in their food. It makes up about 80% of the atmosphere, but oxygen gas only covering 20% of the atmosphere. It can be condensed to liquid nitrogen. The boiling point of nitrogen is at a temperature of 195.8 m and freezes at -9. 209 m. So nitrogen gas is very plentiful and common. It is the seventh most abundant in the universe....   [tags: fertilizer, compounds, chemical elements] 967 words
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The Processes of Photosynthesis and Fermentation - Introduction: “Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle”(Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx) . “Yeasts were discovered to have connection with fermentation as observed by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “However, fermentation does not have to always occur in anaerobic condition” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Yeasts still prefer to undergo fermentation to process organic compounds and generate ATP even in the presence of oxygen” (Biology Online, 2008, p....   [tags: Biology, Organic Compounds, Bacteria, Fungi]
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3094 words
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Use of Gold Complexes to Treat Cancer - INTRODUCTION During recent years, platinum based drugs have been considered as a hallmark of cancer chemotherapy due to its considerable success in the treatment of a wide variety of cancer types. The most significant and commonly used form of platinum based drugs is cisplatin. Although treatment with cisplatin has found success on many occasions, its broad mode of action and overuse has led to toxic side effects in patients as well as increasing drug resistance in some tumor cells.1 For those reasons combined, scientists have redirected their investigation into other metal based drugs in attempt to find potential alternatives that can overcome cisplatin resistance and lessen the severity of...   [tags: Gold Compounds, AntiCancer]
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1441 words
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Fracking: The Water Problem - Ever since the process of hydraulic fracturing—or fracking—made its entrance to the oil industry, issues and problems surrounding the process have become a common occurrence. Fracking is the controversial process of horizontal drilling (see fig. 1), where millions of gallons of water mixed with sand and chemicals are pumped deep into an oil well to extract natural gas from the earth’s crust (Ehrenberg 20). This practice has even been banned in some places (see fig. 1). The methane that comes out of the earth and the water used—called fracking fluid—has the potential to cause problems with local ground water supplies....   [tags: Toxic Compounds, Oil Industry]
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Examination of Alkyl-Halide Formation as a Result of Substitution Reactions of Alcohol-Containing Organic Compounds - .This experiment was performed to determine the structure of alkyl-halides formed as a result of substitution reactions, and whether the reaction used an SN1 or SN2 mechanism. The structure of the starting alcohol determined the mechanistic pathway of the substitution reaction. Reaction 1 involved the substitution of a primary alcohol which produced one primary alkyl-halide via SN2 reaction. Reactions 2 and 3 began with a secondary alcohol, forming two products as the result of direct substitution and/or a hydride shift, via SN1 reaction....   [tags: Gravity Filtration, Racemic Mixture]
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2910 words
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What is a Volatile Organic Compound? - ... ImageImage Example of a VOC; Propane What types of intermolecular forces are present in the compound you selected in question #1. Explain how these forces account for the compound's properties. In propane the only intermolecular force present is only dispersion forces. These are the weakest intermolecular forces that occur due to the movement of electrons and induce a slight change in polarity. Since the force present in propane is a weak intermolecular force, the molecule can be broken apart very easily with minimum energy....   [tags: environment, gobal warming, harmful] 859 words
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Mixture and Compound Differences - Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds can only be separated if they are destroyed. But the elements in mixtures can be physically separated from each other easily....   [tags: Chemistry ] 634 words
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Diphenyl Ether: Organic Compound - ... After thermal decomposition, diphenyl ether produces hydrogen gas, hydrocarbons, and a mixture of various aromatic compounds, such as benzene. Cleavage reactions of diphenyl ether may result in benzene and a phenoxy radical or phenoxy and phenyl radicals. The cleavage reactions involving a hydrogen atom produce benzene and a phenoxy radical, whereas the dissociation of the compound results in phenoxy and phenyl radicals. Phenoxy radical, phenoxy, and phenyl radicals are derivatives of the phenyl rings of diphenyl ether....   [tags: ether organic functional group, molecular formula]
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1174 words
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An Investigation into the Identification, Properties, and Synthesis of an Unknown Ionic Compound - Abstract This paper describes the methods used in the identification, investigation of properties, and synthesis of an unknown compound. The compound was identified as calcium nitrate by a variety of tests. When the compound was received, it was already known to be one of twelve possible ionic compounds. The flame test identified the presence of the calcium anion in the compound. The compound tested positive for the nitrate cation using the iron sulfate test. At this point it was hypothesized that the compound was calcium nitrate....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene - Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene Once in a while there are discoveries of compounds which surprise the scientific community. In 1985 such a discovery took place; it was the discovery of the compound named Buckminsterfullerene. The compound was the first of its kind: a big 60-atom molecule resembling a soccer ball, composed of carbon, and arranged in a perfect geodesic sphere. This compound was unique in its nature because it was the first time carbon was observed in a very stable and solid three-dimensional structure....   [tags: Papers] 1044 words
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Strecker Degradation is a Step of Chemical Mechanism Known as a Mallard Reaction - ... Isolation of aroma can be a tricky process because not only do the volatile compounds needs to be isolated from the food in a manner to avoid any chemical changes, they also have to be separated from volatile compounds that do not contribute to the foods aroma.1 As previously mentioned, this would be one of the instances where an enzyme inhibitor would be beneficial to use. Because of the difficulties that may arise during the isolation process, several methods should be used for complete accuracy.1 When it comes to extraction the volatile compounds are collected via a distillation apparatus where the sample is on a heating bath and the vapors travel through a tube where they are then c...   [tags: enzymatic, compound, aroma] 532 words
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Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein - Animals and plants each require their own unique form of carbohydrates, fats, and protein to function. Humans have many chemical compounds found in the body, each classified as different macromolecules. Macromolecules include fats, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. Each performing their own unique function in the human body. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are used to spare the use of protein in the body and use it as energy. Carbs can be found in many foods, such as grains, fruits and milk products....   [tags: Humans, Chemical Compunds, Human Sciences]
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Analysis and Description of Photovoltaic Cells - Photovoltaic cells are found everywhere today: your home, work buildings, schools, and more. There are two types of Photovoltaic Cells: Organic and Inorganic. The type of cell that are most often found and used are inorganic cells. Inorganic cells are known to produce much more energy than organic cells. Although the main element used in these inorganic cells is Silicon, there are many more elements that are used in inorganic photovoltaic cells. There is monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and microcrystalline Si, the III-V compounds and alloys, CdTe, and the chalcopyrite compound, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)....   [tags: inorganic cells, chalcopyrite compound]
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1378 words
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Negative Effect Plastic has on the Environment - In 1862, Alexander Parkes unveiled an invention, a compound known as celluloid that would change modern history. This is the first known plastic compound to demonstrate the ability to mold when heated and maintain its shape once cooled. While the chemical compounds have evolved over the years, so have its uses and our dependency on them. If we look around our room today, we can see that nearly every product in our house either consists or was built by some form of plastic. This dependence raises some alarming questions....   [tags: celluloid, plastic compound, recycle]
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2524 words
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Physics in Bow and Arrow Shooting - ... With the invention of cams, came the very helpful let off. Unlike recurves, compounds have specifically shaped cams to allow for let off. This means, when you are drawing back your bow it is not a constant 60 to 70 pound pull back the whole time, it gives you a break. With a compound bow set on a 70 pound draw weight, you might only draw 70 pounds back have off your draw length, then the other half, depending on your let off, usually 65% to 80%, will come into affect when your cams rotate to a point where there is a downward angle allowing for less friction therefore an easier drawback....   [tags: kinetic energy, fletching, compound] 597 words
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Renewable Sources of Energy: Ethanol - ... When evolved in reactions, ethanol can produce different kinds of chemical compounds. Known as grain alcohol, ethanol is produced by crops, especially corn, since there is an abundant amount of corn in the United States. With this resource, the U.S. can become less dependent on foreign source of energy. Ethanol is also known as the most common biofuel. A biofuel is fuel made from renewable resources; in this case ethanol is made from the renewable resource of corn. Grain alcohol can be blended with gasoline and be used to power automobiles....   [tags: economic, friendly, chemical compound]
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1058 words
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Isomerization: A Chemical Composition - ... Chain isomers is a type of molecular isomerism seen in carbon compounds; as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule increases, the linkage between the atoms may be a straight chain or branched chains producing isomers that differ from each other by possessing different carbon skeletons. Position isomer is when functional groups are in different positions on the same carbon chain. Positional isomers of alcohols, alkenes, and aromatics are common. Functional group isomer is another kind of structural isomerism, occurs when substances have the same molecular formula but different functional groups....   [tags: Molecules, Carbon, Compound] 789 words
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The Plant Phosphoeriolyruvate Carboxylase - ... For instance the PEP carboxylases from leaves of C3, and C4 plants differed in several aspects. Although both enzymes are involved in the production of malate and aspartate within photosynthesis, but the metabolic role of these products in the two photosynthetic systems is completely different. Malate and aspartate In leaves of C4 plants are photosynthetic intermediates whiles in leaves of C3 plants these compounds are products of photosynthesis. The activity of the enzyme is controlled by various factors....   [tags: cells, compound, role] 831 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Hunger Games and The Compound - Mahatma Gandhi, a nationalist and spiritual leader was perceptive and objectively so, perhaps most eminently when he instructed his zealots, “First they ignore you. Then they laugh at you. Then they fight you. Then you win” (Mahatma). Gandhi has a remarkable sagacity at a young age and strengthened it throughout the succession of his life. Although the aforementioned quote merely previews the extent of his intellect, it effectively summarizes his political approach. After becoming a member of the Indian National Congress Gandhi had the potential to become a most influential leader for the Indian people, and he did....   [tags: dystopia, pacifism, government control, avox]
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Separation of Copper Compound - Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to use our knowledge from previous experiments to separate a copper compound and from there make calculations relevant to the experiment. The calculations that we had to make in this experiment had to do with finding the percentage of copper in copper compound and from there find the formula weight of the copper compound. Question or Problem The question that was proposed by the instructor for investigation was: Can the % composition of an element in a compound be determined accurately (Lab Manual 61)....   [tags: copper, chemical method, physical method]
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Zacharias Jansen and The First Compound Microscope - ... Spherical aberration is the blurred image of an object due to parallel light rays passing through the middle of the lens and focusing further away than light rays passing through the edges of the lens. The outcome is various focal points, giving a distorted/blurred image (Amazing-space.stsci.edu). Chromatic aberration is a common optical issue that occurs when either wavelengths of colour are focused at different points in the focal plane and/or when the lens is unable to bring all wavelengths of colour to the same focal plane....   [tags: resolution, scientists, objects] 900 words
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Compound Pharmacies Manufacturing Lethal Injections - ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate compound pharmacies. Many states have had shortages in the drugs necessary for lethal injection. Recently, the State of Missouri has allowed for the state to use compound pharmacies for manufacturing the drug pentobarbital, used for lethal injection. This decision however, has not been met without controversy, including from the state’s governor, Jay Nixon. Governor Nixon pushed for a pending execution using drugs from a compound pharmacy to be halted....   [tags: fungal meningitis outbreak, FDA regulation]
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Dissecting a Compound - I. Identifying an Unknown Compound Purpose/Problem: In this lab we had to figure out what our mystery compound was by performing two tests. One of the tests was called the Flame Test, which we use to find out the metal element in the compound. It is used to find the metal because each metal gives off its own unique flame color. The other test is called the Precipitate Test, which we use to find out the non-metal element in our compound by adding silver nitrate to it. It’s used to find the non-metal because each non-metal has its own unique reaction to silver nitrate....   [tags: essays research papers] 413 words
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Chloromethane- Methyl Chloride - Chloromethane, more commonly referred to as methyl chloride, is an organic compound categorized as a haloalkane functional group. Functional groups are atoms that control how the molecule will react with other molecues. Haloalkane functional groups consist of a carbon atom with four single bonds and one of the bonds in occupied by an element in the Halogen family; in this case chlorine. The structural formula is CH3Cl. This formula effects some of the physical properties which include the boiling point to be -22.22°C and the melting point to be -97.7°C....   [tags: haloalkane functional group. organic compound]
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Physics of the Compound Bow - A Brief History of the Bow * Arrowheads have been found in Africa that date back as far as 25,000 to 50,000 B.C. * Throughout the next few tens of thousands of years, humans had PLENTY of time to refine their techniques. Fire-hardening arrow heads, fletching arrow shafts to improve their flight characteristics, "tillering" bows so that the upper and lower limbs had the same bend radius, etc. All of these improvements helped increase the efficiency and accuracy of the bow and arrow, and helped humans to survive and advance throughout the ages....   [tags: physics weapon bow archery] 1069 words
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Mass Suicide by Jim Jones' Cult - ... They were very popular in this community because of the work they did for the poor and became very influential in politics. The increase in political influence and drug use caused Jones to become infatuated with power and have severe anxiety. There are reports that Jones once threw the bible on the ground, stomped on it, and denounce the "Sky God". He claimed to be the reincarnation of Christ. Jones believed in communal living and required that all property be turned over to the church. Some went as far as giving custody of their children to Jones....   [tags: religion, compound, behavior model] 1054 words
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English Linguistics: Compounding - Compounding belongs to the linguistic discipline of morphology, which is concerned with the study of the creation, structure and form of words and it is the most significant word formation process next to derivation and conversion. Compounds – the products of compounding - are word combinations of at least two free and already existing morphemes. Hence the basic compound structure is F + F, meaning a free morpheme + another free morpheme. Moreover, there are two different methods of categorizing compounds....   [tags: Linguistics Essays]
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Information of Macrocyclic Systems or Cyclophanes - ... For transition metal ions, features such as the nature and magnitude of crystal-field effects play also an important role [4] Various metal complexes especially those of the compartmental ligands like the end-off type, the side- off type and the macrocyclic types have been developed. Modifications such as provision of different substituent on the macrocyclic moety, introduction of various donor atoms improves the selectivity of these ligands toward specific metals and other charged or neutral centres and hence improve their biological activity [23-25]....   [tags: process, biochemical, macrocyclic] 1348 words
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Safe Discharge Ranges of Pharmaceuticals According Receiving Water Flows - Despite the increasing number of studies concerning the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the environment, gaps about the topic still numerous. The peculiar physical-chemical properties of these chemicals contribute to a more complex behaviour in aquatic environments. The main path for the discharge of these compounds in the environment are wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), notably know in being inefficient in remove these contaminants during conventional treatments. Most approaches to evaluate the concentration of these substances in WWTPs are based in national consumption estimative, which can with reasonable significance predict overall discharges [1], however are not to be suita...   [tags: wastewater, environment, results, issues] 587 words
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Characterization of Three Piperine Analogs of Dipeptidyl Boronic Acid - In the present study three piperine analogs of dipeptidyl boronic acid (1 to 3) were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies. All the compounds were screened for their antineoplastic activity against three cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and five fungal species. In vitro results showed that most of the compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activitiy on the tested cancer cell lines, among them compound 1 showed excelent antitumor activity where as Compound 3 was found to be potent antimicrobial agent against Asperigillus fumigates at a concentration of 62 µg/mL than other tested compounds and t...   [tags: antineoplastic, drug, anticancer] 582 words
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A Study on the Effectiveness of Biurets and Glucantime Against Leighmania - Background: Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoan disease comprises a wide range of clinical manifestations that is usually divided into visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis depending on leishmania parasite strains and host's immune system responses. Most of the drugs produced for the treatment of leishmanial, from the first used (Glucantime and pentostam) to the lately accepted (miltefosine), are toxic, resistance issues and poorly tolerated. The purpose of this In Silico and In vitro study is evaluating the effectiveness of some novel experimental biurets and Glucantime against Leishmania tropica promastigotes....   [tags: treatment, disease, resistance] 1866 words
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The Importance and Uses of Magnesium - ... For example, since magnesium is a lightweight metal and aluminum is a heavier metal magnesium can alloy with Aluminum. Magnesium and aluminum alloys create airplanes, automobiles, ladders, artificial limbs, vaccum cleaners, lawn mowers, some portable power and gardening tools, car wheels, soda cans, and skis. Since Mg is one of the lightest metals it is used in vehicles so that there can be less fuel (Uttley). “Magnesium is also found in lightweight frames for bicycles, car seats, and luggage” (“Magnesium” Periodic)....   [tags: elements, pure metals]
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Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake - In a world dominated by religion it was thought that the only place where perfection existed was within God. In some cases, for instance the ontological argument, it was the proof to his existence. But in a modern world the concept of perfection has been distorted and comes with an abundance of seemingly negative consequences, ultimately putting into question whether or not perfection is even possible. In Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake the concept of perfection is constantly challenged in a world run by corporations who are trying to package human perfection and profit from it....   [tags: oryx and crake, margaret atwood ]
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Bohr and the Periodic table - Bohr's Model There are three main parts of an atom the electrons, protons and the neutrons. Each part has charge. It is rather positive, negative, or neutral. An electron always has a negative charge. Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 474 words
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Illustrations of Poly-Pharmacology in Dietary Phyto-nutrient is Curcumin - ... This database can be employed in parallel virtual screening of chemical compounds to indentify the interacting partners from all the pre-characterized members of the receptor-ome. Past research studies have successfully demonstrated that the generation of QSAR models and subsequent model-based virtual screening of chemical libraries has led to the identification of chemically diverse molecules with high success rates in experimental validation tests [172-178]. Many other computational research groups have made attempts to predict polypharmacological effects of chemical molecules using different strategies [179-182]....   [tags: database, docking programs, cancer] 648 words
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Excretion And Elimination Of Toxicants And Their Metabolites - Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determines if a molecule will pass through the pores of the glomerulus is it's molecular weight....   [tags: essays research papers] 1083 words
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Separation of M-toluic Acid, Acetanilide, and NaCl - Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base....   [tags: Chemistry] 505 words
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QSAR Modeling for Predicting Aquatic Toxicity of Chemicals - ... J. Hazard. Mater. 165, 156–161. (25) Chen, C. Y., and Lin, J. H. (2006) Toxicity of chlorophenols to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under air-tight test environment. Chemosphere 62, 503–509. (26) Gramatica, P., Cassani, S., Roy, P. P., Kovarich, S., Yap, C. W., and Papa, E. (2012) QSAR Modeling is not ‘‘Push a Button and Find a Correlation’’: a Case Study of toxicity of (benzo-)triazoles on algae. Mol. Inf. 31, 817–835. (27) Cassani, S., Kovarich, S., Papa, E., Roy, P. P., vander Wal, L., and Gramatica, P....   [tags: Species, Experiment]
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Introduction of Petroleum - Introduction of petroleum: Petroleum is otherwise known as crude oil. It occurs naturally beneath the earth. Petroleum is also meaning of rock oil. The term petroleum is a generic name applied to the deposits of oil materials. Petroleum occurs beneath the earth. It is a flammable liquid and mainly composed of various hydrocarbons and its average composition is c 80-87%, H 11-15%, S 0.1-4%, N and O 0.1-0.55. Formation of petroleum Petroleum is evident from chromatographic, spectroscopic and analytical studies that a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds is present in petroleum....   [tags: Oil] 506 words
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Linear and Non-linear Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship Models on Indole Substitution Patterns as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Attachment - This study was performed to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model of the biological activity of indole glyoxamide derivatives as an inhibitor of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) glycoprotein gp120 and host cell CD4 receptors. In present study, forty different compounds were selected as a sample set. Combinations of multiple linear regressions (MLR), genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were then utilized to construct the QSAR models....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The Effects of Biotechnology - ... I would like to take some application of biotechnology in agriculture field. Some fungi can be used in place of chemical pesticides. Some fungi can produce fungi and cultivate it. So by use of biotechnology fungi can be cultivated for mass production. Some fungi produce metabolites and hormones, and these metabolites and hormones are useful for plant growth. Some aquatic fungi like Coelomomyces psorophorae and Aphanomyces astaci are chemo taxis. These chemo taxis compounds are toxic for insects....   [tags: fungi, agriculture, environment] 1213 words
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Chemicals and Pesticides Found in the Great Lakes - ... Pesticides can affect fish’s hormones. This causes endocrine disruption. It can affect population of fish which can be bad for the water environment. The Citarum River that is located in Indonesia is arguably the most polluted river in the river. It is covered in debris floating across Its surface. Textile factories populate the banks of the river which unleash its harmful chemicals in the river. Some of the dangerous chemicals in the river are lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and pesticides....   [tags: textile factories, alkylphenols ] 521 words
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Reactive Oxygen Species - The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence in aerobic organisms as by products during metabolic respiration (Han et al., 2007, Je et al., 2009). These highly reactive ROS can be considered as strong oxidants and have been shown to induce damage in all cellular macromolecules, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Over the years dietary polyphenols have been widely studied for their biological activities including antioxidant activity (Ahn et al., 2007, Heo et al., 2009, Kang et al., 2005, Li et al., 2009)....   [tags: Biology, Lipids, Proteins, DNA] 1182 words
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Chemical Weapons: Weapons of Mass Destruction - Chemical weapons, devices used for the sole purpose of hurting or killing humans, are widely considered one of the four types of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Chemical weapons are devices that spread a certain toxic chemical to incapacitate people. The two most dangerous kinds of chemical weapons are nerve agents and vesicant, or blister, agents. Types There five kinds of chemical agents. Lethal, Incapacitating agents, Riot control gases, Harassing agents, and Defoliants. (Hersh, 1) Lethal agents include Nerve agents, Vesicants, Blood agents, and Pulmonary agents....   [tags: nerve agents, vesicant, type]
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Larvicidal Activity of Insect Growth Regulator IGR and Insecticides - 2. Larvicidal activity of insect growth regulator IGR and insecticides: 2.1. Insect growth regulator IGR: Bakr, et al. (1984) evaluated some IGR's Dimilin (25% WP), Bay Sir 8514 (6.5% EC), Altosid (10% EC) and RO-08-9801 (50% EC) against Culex pipiens. Results revealed that, all the tested compounds inhibit the moulting process of the third and fourth larval instars with different degrees of morphogenetic changes. The developmental events of pupae died by Dimilin are not completely out of larval exoskeletons and larval-pupal intermediate shows 4th instar larval exuvia attached to the thoracic and abdominal region....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 2152 words
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Emerging Contaminants: A Potential Health Risk - Introduction: Human civilization is evolving in the fields of science, engineering, architecture and medicine. The population because of these societal advances has allowed individuals to live longer sub healthy lives. Life improvements via transportation have been significantly enhanced because of breakthroughs in metal alloys which are used in car manufacturing. Or the usage of ether (ROR) extracted from corn to support the decline of gasoline. Individuals that live longer are thus able to experiment with different compounds seeking only to further improve on civilization....   [tags: chemical, human health, EC threats ]
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Benefits and Side Effects of Strontium - ... Strontium is used in different forms: Strontium ranelate is used to treat osteoporosis (weak, fragile bones) especially in older, postmenopausal women. This form of strontium is sold as a prescription drug (Protelos) in Europe and Australia for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, it has not been approved in the USA. Strontium gluconate has been shown to be useful for the treatment metastatic bone cancer (cancer that has spread to the bones). An injectable prescription drug has been found to reduce bone pain related to cancer....   [tags: Chemical, Osteoporosis, Dosage]
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Revealing Metabolic Phenotypes in Plant - Introduction Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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