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Carbon Compounds - Carbon Compounds 23.1 What is carbon Compounds.  carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements  there are millions of different carbon compounds  most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens  some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :  non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes  low melting points  compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water 23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from....   [tags: Papers] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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Metal Compounds - Metal Compounds Element = substance made from one type of atom E.g. Al aluminium Compound = 2 or more elements chemically bound E.g. CO2 Atomic number = the no. of protons in one atom of an element E.g. Li37 Mass number = the total number of protons and neutrons in one atom of one element E.g. Li37 Isotopes = two or more atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons. E.g. Cl35 Cl37 Mass spectrometer = most accurate method of determining atomic and molar masses....   [tags: Papers] 1721 words
(4.9 pages)
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Ionic and Covalent Compounds - Ionic and Covalent Compounds Pre-Lab 1. List the properties of ionic compounds. - Solids at room temperature. - Soluble in water. - Conduct electricity (while in solution). - Very high melting and boiling points. 2. List the properties of covalent compounds. - Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. - May or may not be soluble in water. - Most do not conduct electricity (except for acids) - Low melting and boiling points. 3. Give the name and formula for: a) 3 ionic compounds NaCl—Sodium Chloride FeCl3—Iron (III) Chloride MgO—Magnesium Oxide b) 3 covalent compounds NO—Nitrogen Monoxide CBr4—Carbon Tetrabromide N2O5—Dinitrogen Pentoxide Laboratory Procedure Testing eight different substances by doing one or more of the following: a) Putting the substances in water to test its solubility....   [tags: Papers] 370 words
(1.1 pages)
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Total Synthesis of CP Compounds - Total Synthesis of CP Compounds Man's fascination with the many uses that can be found with the exploitation of natural substances has been demonstrated time and again throughout history, but the stage was set at the turn of the century for organic chemists to begin to focus on utilizing natural compounds for the benefit of medicinal and industrial uses. The discoveries of penicillin, aspirin, and other naturally occurring useful compounds in the earlier parts of the century set the stage for the utilization and exploitation of biologically active compounds as a molecular science....   [tags: Papers] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Identification of Organic Compounds - Identification of Organic Compounds Aim: to identify six organic compounds by a series of laboratory tests. Apparatus: Test tubes Six unknown chemicals Boiling tubes Water bath Droppers Potassium Manganate Potassium Dichromate Sulphuric Acid Sodium Hydroxide Nitric acid Silver nitrate In this experiment I will attempt to label six colourless liquids. The six are as follows; alkane, alkene, primary alcohol, chloroalkane, bromoalkane and iodoalkane....   [tags: Papers] 445 words
(1.3 pages)
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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Structure Elucidation of the New Compounds - ... Specifically, the ortho coupling (8.2 Hz) observed in 1 was missing in 2, replace instead with a series of smaller meta couplings (1.5 Hz) between the three aromatic protons in that moiety (δH-2 6.69, d, J =1.5 Hz; δH-4 6.83, d, J =1.5 Hz; δ H-6 6.70 d, J =1.5 Hz) indicative of 1,3,5 substitution pattern on the ring. Likewise, the vicinal coupling between the alkene protons was now consistent with a trans rather than cis system (1 JH-7/H-8= 7.2 Hz; 2 JH-7/H-8= 12.8 Hz). With these principal differences established, this 2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl fragment was connected to B via the same HMBC correlation observed for 1 thus defining the planar structure of 2....   [tags: Biology] 2118 words
(6.1 pages)
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Synthesising Organic and Biochemical Compounds - Synthesising Organic and Biochemical Compounds [IMAGE] Preparation of 1-bromobutane Preparation of 1-bromobutane Introduction There are four stages in the process of making 1- bromobutane. In this assignment I will be making 1- bromobutane. * The first step is to carry out the reaction of butan-1-ol with hydrogen bromide with process know as reflux * Then I will need to separate 1- bromobutane from other impurities that will be produced in the reaction....   [tags: Papers] 1241 words
(3.5 pages)
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Synthesising Organic and Biochemical Compounds - Synthesising Organic and Biochemical Compounds Introduction In this experiment a sample of 1-bromobutane will be prepared. This will involve the technique to separate and purify the product. I will be very carefully to obtain the maximum yield possible. We will use reflux condenser to gently heat the substance for a period of time without losing any liquid because it condenses back into the pear shape flask. STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM What are isomers. Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula, but have a different arrangement of the atoms in space....   [tags: Papers] 1225 words
(3.5 pages)
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Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds - Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds Aspirins and Oil of Wintergreen Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to prepare two organic compounds (aspirin and oil of wintergreen) and to illustrate the typical organic reactions. Students will also learn some techniques commonly used in organic synthesis and the meaning of the terms theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield. Both Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) are commonly used organic compounds....   [tags: Science Experiment, Chemistry] 327 words
(0.9 pages)
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The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds - The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium. These are known as the ‘Group Two elements’ because of their unique electron division. Each one of these elements, consists of two outer shell electrons. Because of the lack of outer electrons, these elements are highly reactive. Group two electrons have a positive Two charge or +ve. The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance - The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance An Ergogenic aid is known as an enhancing quality in sporting performance. Compounds such as bee pollen, caffeine, glycine, carnitine, lecithin, and gelatin are claimed through anecdotal evidence to improve strength or endurance. The use of drugs and other substances has persisted for nearly a century....   [tags: Papers] 1616 words
(4.6 pages)
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Investigating Compounds Containing Oxygen by the Use of Functional Group - Investigating Compounds Containing Oxygen by the Use of Functional Group Aim This experiment is to identify the chemical by use of their functional group in simple reactions. With the information that all the compound contain 3 carbon atoms, 6 or 8 hydrogen atoms, 1 or 2 oxygen atoms and no other elements simple tests can be performed which will identify the functional group of the compound and the name of the compound can be deduced from this information. I have chosen to use: * Propanoic acid * Propanal * Propanone * Propan-1-ol * Propan-2-ol * Methyl ethanoate [IMAGE]I will identify the compound following the flowchart below Tollens reagent (ammoniacal silver nitrate) reduces the to a carboxylic acid, the complex silver nitrate is reduced to metallic silver which adheres to the surface of the test tube forming a mirror effect....   [tags: Papers] 633 words
(1.8 pages)
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Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds - Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds Starch is a complex carbohydrate, it's a mixture of amylose and amylopectin both of which are polysaccharides containing α-glucose molecules linked via a condensation reaction. Amylose is a long, straight chain of α-glucose molecules, these are linked together by a 1,4 glycosidic bond, where 1 & 4 are carbon reducing centres. + +… α-glucose molecule α-glucose molecule = + H20 amylose These chains of α-glucose coil to form spirals and these are held in place by hydrogen bonds....   [tags: Papers] 621 words
(1.8 pages)
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Hydrogen atoms can react with oxygen atoms forming different compounds. There are mainly two types, one is water and the other is hydrogen peroxide - Oxides of Hydrogen Introduction: Hydrogen atoms can react with oxygen atoms forming different compounds. There are mainly two types, one is water and the other is hydrogen peroxide. Structure: A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom joining together by covalent bonds. The shape of it is bent and its bond angle is of 105°. The structure is shown below. [IMAGE] A hydrogen peroxide molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms joined together by covalent bonds....   [tags: Papers] 733 words
(2.1 pages)
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Mixture and Compound Differences - ... Element 2 Elements are substances that cannot be broken down further into simpler substances by chemical means. There are currently 103 known elements from which all matter that exists is made. And they each have their own atomic number based on how many protons are in their nucleus. Chemical compounds are created from combining a minimum of two elements together in exact proportions. Compounds can only be separated by a chemical reaction. The record of compounds on Earth is practically endless....   [tags: Chemistry ] 634 words
(1.8 pages)
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Separation of M-toluic Acid, Acetanilide, and NaCl - Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base....   [tags: Chemistry] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Bohr and the Periodic table - Bohr's Model There are three main parts of an atom the electrons, protons and the neutrons. Each part has charge. It is rather positive, negative, or neutral. An electron always has a negative charge. Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 474 words
(1.4 pages)
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Sodium - Life could not exist without compounds of sodium. These compounds hold water in body tissues, and a severe deficiency of sodium can cause death. Blood contains sodium compounds in solution. Sodium compounds are used in industry in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in metallurgy, in sodium vapor lamps, and in the production of hundreds of every day products. One of the most common sodium compounds is table salt, or sodium chloride. In its pure form sodium is a silver-white, soft and waxy metallic element....   [tags: essays research papers] 387 words
(1.1 pages)
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Carbon - CARBON Carbon, an element discovered before history itself, is one of the most abundant elements in the universe. It can be found in the sun, the stars, comets, and the atmospheres of most planets. There are close to ten million known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are vital to the basis of life itself (WWW 1). Carbon occurs in many forms in nature. One of its purest forms is diamond. Diamond is the hardest substance known on earth. Although diamonds found in nature are colorless and transparent, when combined with other elements its color can range from pastels to black....   [tags: essays research papers] 1064 words
(3 pages)
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Excretion And Elimination Of Toxicants And Their Metabolites - Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determines if a molecule will pass through the pores of the glomerulus is it's molecular weight....   [tags: essays research papers] 1083 words
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Computers in Drug Research and Development - Computers in Drug Research and Development As the computer becomes more and more powerful, its uses and abilities grow. Scientists have been able to harness this power in to assist them in their goals of researching and developing drugs for human use. Computers can be found in nearly every drug research laboratory and development center in the world. In the process of developing a drug, thousands upon thousands of chemical compounds are tested to be used in laboratory tests and animal tests. Generally, over 5000 compounds are chosen for such testing....   [tags: Essays Papers] 467 words
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Introduction of Petroleum - ... The following are the common constituents present in petroleum. In formation of petroleum hydrocarbon: Major constituents (nearly 70%); normal, branched and cycloalkanes are present; alkylbenzenes found in lower boiling fractions; higher boiling fractions contain polynuclear aromatics like naphthalenes; terpenes are present to a minor extent and account for the high specific rotations of petroleum distillates. Sulphur containing compounds: In formation of petroleum, present as organic (thiols, thioalkanes, thiophene, etc.) or inorganic compounds (H2S) or in the form of elemental sulphur....   [tags: Oil] 506 words
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Benzene - Benzene Benzene, C(6)H(6), is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that is insoluble in water.Its boiling point is 80 degrees C (176 degrees F). In the past benzene was obtained from the distillation of coal in the absence of air. Today most benzene is made syntheticallyfrom petroleum products. The benzene is a closed ring of six atoms connected by bonds that resonatebetween single and double bonds; each carbon is also bound to a single atom. Benzene isinsoluble in water but mixes in all proportions with organic ....   [tags: essays research papers] 516 words
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Reactive Oxygen Species - ... Therefore the release of these polyphenolic compounds can be enhanced by enzyme-enhanced degradation of cell wall polysaccharides (Pinelo et al., 2006). However, polyphenolic compounds exist in plants are not always associated with the plant cell walls (Pinelo et al., 2006). It is well known that the ability of tannins to form strong complexes with proteins, either reversibly by hydrogen bonding through peptide or amide linkages, or irreversibly by covalent condensations (Stern et al., 1996)....   [tags: Biology, Lipids, Proteins, DNA] 1182 words
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Chromatography - Chromatography is a separation technique in which the mixture to be separated is dissolved in a solvent and the resulting solution, often called the mobile phase, is then passed through or over another material, the stationary phase. The separation of the original mixture depends on how strongly each component is attracted to the stationary phase. Substances that are attracted strongly to the stationary phase will be retarded and not move alone with the mobile phase. Weakly attracted substances will move more rapidly with the mobile phase....   [tags: essays research papers] 672 words
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Hydrogen - Hydrogen Hydrogen is a tasteless, odorless, colorless gas. Hydrogen is found in group 1 and period 1 on the periodic table. Hydrogen is classified as a nonmetal on the periodic table. The symbol for hydrogen is represented by an H, its atomic number is 1, and its atomic weight is 1.0079. The hydrogen atom consists of one proton, which has a positive charge, and one electron, which has a negative charge. The term hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water-former. Henry Cavendish, an English scientist, discovered it in 1766....   [tags: essays research papers] 557 words
(1.6 pages)
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Chemical Bonding - Chemical Bonding Bonding occurs between elements in order that they can obtain stable 'full shell' (noble gas) electron configurations. Types of bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic Ionic Bonding ============= Transfer of electrons to create charged particles called ions Ionic compounds contain positive and negative ions whose charges balance. Usually found in compounds that contain metals combined with non-metals - electrons are transferred from the metals (to leave positive metal ions) to the non-metals (to create negative ions)....   [tags: Papers] 485 words
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Ozone Depletion - Ozone Depletion Atmospheric ozone layer depletion is a serious problem currently facing the world. The ozone layer protects humans, animals, and plants from harmful ultraviolet rays. Money and time are being spent on ozone repair, but the problem still exists. The ozone layer is a region of the stratosphere containing ozone, or O3 gas. The ozone layer is essential to both plant and animal life on earth because it protects the surface from dangerous ultraviolet light. However, industrial and domestic chemicals that are currently in use have been found to destroy ozone, and the problem has escalated to an ozone layer "hole" above Antarctica....   [tags: science]
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Antioxidant Enzymes - ... 1997. Involvement of a caspase-3-like cysteine protease in 1- methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mediated apoptosis of cultured cerebellar granule neurons, J. Neurochem. 69: 1382– 1388. Duthie, S.J., Dobson, V.L. 1999. Dietary flavonoids protect human colonocyte DNA from oxidative attack in vitro. Eur J Nutr. 38:28–34. Ellman, G.L. 1959. Tissue sulphydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 82:70–7. Freeman, J. 1986. Effects of differing purified cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose fiber diets on fecal enzymes in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis....   [tags: Biochemistry]
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Nitrogen, Carbon and Oxygen are the Most Important Elements - Nitrogen, Carbon and Oxygen are the Most Important Elements I believe that the three most important elements that exist are nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. Nitrogen is extremely valuable because it is such a large part of the food web. Carbon is important because it is also part of the food web due to the fact that it plays such an important role in the structure of all living things and many nonliving things. Carbon also provides our natural fuel. Oxygen is important because it is essential in many processes that enable life and in the transformation of energy....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
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Modes of Modern English Vocabulary Development - Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. There is a variety of means to produce words. The most productive are affixation, composition and conversion. Let's focus on one of them: composition. According to the research, words produced through composition constitute 28% to 30% of all the new words. It is also called compounding which is a way to join two words to make a new special meaning....   [tags: Linguistics] 821 words
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Investigating Covalent Bonds - Investigating Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, one from each atom in a single bond, to form electron pairs, usually making their outermost shells up to eight electrons by this means. This would make them more stable, less reactive and an electronic structure like a noble gas. They are most frequently formed between pairs of non-metallic elements. Non-metallic elements usually have from four to eight electrons in their outermost shells, the so-called valency electrons, which are used for chemical bonding....   [tags: Papers] 666 words
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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl)....   [tags: Papers] 716 words
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Linear and Non-linear Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship Models on Indole Substitution Patterns as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Attachment - ... Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) was applied to consider non-specific solvent effect. In order to investigate how the environment of solvent can affect the structures, all molecules were optimized in H2O solvent. The molecular descriptors for constructing the best model were calculated by the Dragon program. Different types of numerical descriptors were generated to describe each compound. These descriptors are categorized in topological, geometrical, MoRSE [10, 11], RDF [11, 12], GETAWAY [13, 14], autocorrelations [11] and WHIM [15, 16] groups....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Metabolomics - ... The isotopes, including 1H, 13C and 15N are the most mainly used nuclei in NMR study. They are frequently found in all produced product by metabolism pathways inside the cells. Currently, various NMR techniques are regularly applied using each of above isotopes, alone or in combination of two isotopes in 1, two, or three dimensional spectroscopy. Currently, 1D dimensional NMR spectroscopy of 1H, 2D homonuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) of 1H, heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) of 1H with 13C, 1H with 15N and or 13C and 15N are most commonly methods to identify metabolome in the living organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports - Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports Certain foods can make a difference in sports competition. Conditioning, strength, and speed have been the focal points of athletic training for years; however, the research on nutritional elements indicates their importance to an athlete's optimal performance. Knowing the proper food to eat before, during, and after a physical activity can help an athlete in achieving their desired performance. The most important nutrient categories are starches, minerals, sugars, and electrolytes....   [tags: Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet] 880 words
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Chemical Transport During Surface Irrigation - Chemical Transport During Surface Irrigation Surface irrigation, the most prominent method used for irrigating agricultural crops, is the flowing of water across the field surface. As the water flows, it infiltrates into the soil. The amount of water applied to the field is regulated by the length of time that the water is allowed to flow. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into following four types based the amount of water flow control; wild flooding, graded boarders, level boarders and furrow irrigation....   [tags: Agriculture Farming Papers]
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Phytoremediation - Introduction: In recent years it has become clear that some environmental chemicals can cause risks to the developing embryo and fetus. Evaluating the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals is now a prominent public health concern. The suspected association between TCE and congenital cardiac malformations warrants special attention because TCE is a common drinking water contaminant that is detected in water supplies throughout the U.S. and the world. There is a lot of concern about the clean up of toxic pollutants from the environment....   [tags: essays research papers] 1720 words
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Ionic and Covalent Bonding - Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding is involved when the atoms of an element chemically combine to make their outer shells full and to make the atoms stable. The first type of bonding you can get is ionic bonding. Electrons are transferred from one atom to another to try and create full outer shells, this gain and loss of electrons on the atoms results in positive and negative ions. In these compounds you get electrostatic force, this is the force/attraction that occurs between the positive and negative ions that hold the compound together....   [tags: Papers] 776 words
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Organic vs. Inorganic Material - ... As explained by Saferstein “Chromatography is a means of separating and tentatively identifying the components of a mixture, Spectrophotometry is the study of the absorption of light by chemical substances. Mass spectrometry characterizes organic molecules by observing their fragmentation pattern after their collision with a beam of high-energy electrons” (2011, Pg 132). Organic compounds are not able to form salt but inorganic compounds can. Very importantly organic compounds can be produced by living things....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Mercury: A Potential Contaminant - ... These methods, except for hair testing, only measures superficial body pools of mercury. Hair testing is one of the most reliable tests because it measures the accumulation of mercury excretion for a longer period of time. Nevertheless, hair test results can also be inaccurate due to that a low or normal mercury result may not indicate that a person's body is mercury free (Rosner 128) There are three types of mercury poisoning and each has different manifestations and a different way to be accurately tested: elemental, inorganic and organic....   [tags: Health, Chemistry]
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Electroantennogram Responses - ... The objective of the study is to report the electroantennograms (EAG) from the LGB to its aggregation pheromones in order to provide additional evidence to help understand on recruitments potentials of the individual compounds Materials and Methods Electroantennogram recordings: A glass capillary tube (0.86 mm ID) filled with 0.5 M KCL was inserted into the back of an excised beetle head and used as a reference electrode. The recording electrode consisted of another glass capillary connected to the distal end of the antennal segment, after one of the terminal segments has been clipped off....   [tags: Botanical Studies, Science Experiment, Informative] 1563 words
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Neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals made by neurons and used by them to transmit signals to the other neurons or non-neuronal cells (e.g., skeletal muscle; myocardium, pineal glandular cells) that they innervate. The neurotransmitters produce their effects by being released into synapses when their neuron of origin fires (i.e., becomes depolarized) and then attaching to receptors in the membrane of the post-synaptic cells. This causes changes in the fluxes of particular ions across that membrane, making cells more likely to become depolarized, if the neurotransmitter happens to be excitatory, or less likely if it is inhibitory....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Scheele and Oxygen - Oxygen Vital to life, a necessity to combustion, and the component of innumerable compounds, oxygen is by far one of the most important elements. Astoundingly, Oxygen makes up a fifth of our atmosphere, 49.5% of all compounds on Earth contain oxygen, makes up about 2/3 of our body, yet human kind has only know of it since 1977 (http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/8.html). Ironically, within a period of a couple of years, three different men had stumbled upon the vital element. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swede, made the initial discovery....   [tags: essays research papers] 897 words
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Crude Oil - Crude Oil Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon molecules formed over millions of years when the remains of microscopic sea creatures trapped in sediments were converted by heat and pressure into crude oil. The most abundant of these mixtures are the ones containing hydrogen and carbon only. These hydrocarbons can take on a number of different forms, i.e. alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. They vary in size and shape and viscosity. By manipulating these chains of hydrocarbons you can create any number of useful substances as they are very adaptable....   [tags: Papers] 799 words
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A Human Transporter Protein that Mediates the Final Excretion Step for Toxic Organic Cations - Introduction The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries. Transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport....   [tags: Biology] 1421 words
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Antipsychotics - ... The MATRICS initiative details many animal models of schizophrenia for the purpose of investigating novel compounds with therapeutic efficacy toward the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor noncompetitive antagonists are appropriate compounds utilized in order to model schizophrenia based on the evidence that pharmacological agents that block the NMDA receptor calcium channel, such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine, and MK-801, produce positive and negative symptoms along with cognitive deficits in healthy volunteers, in addition to exacerbating positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (Krystal et al., 1994; Itil et al., 1967; Malhotra et al., 1996)....   [tags: Psychology] 769 words
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Larvicidal Activity of Insect Growth Regulator IGR and Insecticides - ... Aegypti larval dip counts in experimental ponds treated with methoprene briquette were not significantly different from untreated control ponds. Bakr (1995) concluded that, both susceptible and resistant strains of Culex pipiens larvae were sensitive to some IGR's Bay Sir 8514, Altosid and RO-08-9801. The results indicated that, these compounds are highly effective against susceptible strain than resistant strain of Culex pipiens larvae. Dong-Kyu (2002) evaluated the granular formulation of 0.5% pyriproxyfen in marshes and a pond in Busan during the period of July through September, 2001....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 2152 words
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Pest Control: The Egyptian Cotton Leaf Worm - ... These compounds are effective suppressors of development for the entire life cycle on insects (Verloop and Ferrell, 1977). However, these compounds, also, affect the hormonal balance in insects, thereby resulting in physiological disturbances (DeLoach et al., 1981). Owing to the economic importance of Spodoptera littoralis, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cascade (Flufenoxuron) for controlling S.littoralis larvae and study the susceptibility of 2nd and 4th larval instar to different concentrations....   [tags: Research Analysis ] 1447 words
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The Emerging Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market and Its Characteristics - ... More than 97 percent of the world’s synthetic fertilizer is produced from synthetically produced ammonia derived from natural gas. 1.4.3 Transportation Fuel Natural gas as a transportation fuel is very beneficial as studies show that it reduces CO2 emissions by 25 percent. However, growth in direct usage of natural gas by the transportation sector has been slow to materialize. Due to existing transportation fuel supply infrastructure around the world, traditional liquid fuels remain more attractive making conversion to natural gas difficult....   [tags: Oil & Gas]
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Cadmium - Cadmium, symbol, Cd, is a silvery white metallic chemical element with a faint blue tinge to it. It is the fifty-seventh most commonly found element in the earth. It was discovered by F. Stromeyer, in 1817, in Germany. Stromeyer was studying a sample of zinc carbonate which separated into a the new element ultimately called cadmium. The only cadmium materials, greenockite (cadmium sulfide) and otavile (cadmium carbonate) are found in zinc oxide and zinc carbonate. Cadmium, which is usually associated with zinc has some differences; some of which are that cadmium is softer and has a lower melting and boiling point than zinc....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Nitrogen Cycle is the Most Important Biogeochemical Cycle - The Nitrogen Cycle is the Most Important Biogeochemical Cycle The nitrogen cycle is an important cycle to the atmosphere. Nitrogen is an essential part of the biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acid, which makes nitrogen essential for all living organisms. Nitrogen makes up 78 percent of the atmosphere. There are five steps in the nitrogen cycle between the abiotic environment and the organisms: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, and dentrification. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia....   [tags: Papers] 358 words
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Bacteria - Describe the structure and life processes of bacteria. Bacterial cells, like plant cells, are surrounded by a cell wall. However, bacterial cell walls are made up of polysaccharide chains linked to amino acids, while plant cell walls are made up of cellulose, which contains no amino acids. Many bacteria secrete a slimy capsule around the outside of the cell wall. The capsule provides additional protection for the cell. Many of the bacteria that cause diseases in animals are surrounded by a capsule....   [tags: essays research papers] 611 words
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Hydrogen Peroxide - (H2O2), a colourless liquid usually produced as aqueous solutions of various strengths, used principally for bleaching cotton and other textiles and wood pulp, in the manufacture of other chemicals, as a rocket propellant, and for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. Solutions containing more than about 8 percent hydrogen peroxide are corrosive to the skin. First recognized as a chemical compound in 1818, hydrogen peroxide is the simplest member of the class of s. Of the several processes of manufacture, the principal ones involve reactions of oxygen from the air with certain organic compounds, especially anthraquinone or isopropyl alcohol....   [tags: essays research papers] 645 words
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Pheromones - Pheromones Do you often wonder what makes someone attracted to you or what makes you attracted to that other person. Sometimes you can look at the person and not even be attracted to their looks, but you feel compelled to talk to them or just contact them in any form. These urges could be induced by a compound group most commonly called "Pheromones." Pheromones{fair'-uh-mohn} (from the Greek pher, "to carry" and horman "to stimulate") are chemicals released by organisms into the environment, where they serve as signals or messages to alter behavior in other organisms of the same species....   [tags: essays research papers] 480 words
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Nitrogen - Nitrogen Nitrogen, symbol N, gaseous element that makes up the largest portion of the earth's atmosphere. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. Nitrogen is in group 15 (or Va) of the periodic table. Nitrogen was discovered by the British physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772 and recognized as an elemental gas by the French chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoiser about 1776. Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless tasteless, nontoxic gas. It can be condensed into a colorless liquid, which can be compressed into a colorless, crystalline solid....   [tags: Papers] 486 words
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The Style of Beowulf - The Style of Beowulf                   Ursula Schaefer in “Rhetoric and Style” gives an overview of the history of criticism of style:   Examination of the poem’s rhetoric and style started out with investigating common Germanic features. On the other end of the scale, attention was given to a possible Latin influence on the poem’s style. Recently, there have been reconsiderations of authochthonous traditions linked mainly with the analysis of larger narrative patterns (105).   Beowulf ‘s stylistic features will be examined in this essay, along with the perspectives of various literary critics....   [tags: Epic Beowulf essays]
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An Analysis of the Epic Poem, Beowulf - The Style of Beowulf - The Style of Beowulf           A consideration of the stylistic features in the classic poem Beowulf involves a study of the poetic verse, the vocabulary, alliteration, litotes, simile, kennings, variation and double-meaning or ambiguity.   The poetic conventions used by this poet include two half-lines in each verse, separated by a caesura or pause. The half-lines are joined by the oral stressing of alliterative words in the half-lines, both consonants and vowels (Tharaud 34). “At least one of the two stressed words in the first half-line, and usually both of them, begin with the same sound as the first stressed word of the second half-line” (Donaldson 67)....   [tags: Epic Beowulf essays]
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themebeo Epic of Beowulf Essay - Style, Structure and Theme - Style, Structure and Theme of Beowulf                    A consideration of the stylistic features in the classic poem Beowulf involves a study of the poetic verse, the vocabulary, alliteration, litotes, simile, kennings, variation and double-meaning or ambiguity. A consideration of the structure and the theme of the poem involve a wide diversity of opinion on the subject.   First, let us talk about style. The poetic conventions used by this poet include two half-lines in each verse, separated by a caesura or pause....   [tags: Epic Beowulf essays]
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The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and Medicines - The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and Medicines The health of human populations requires a wide variety of chemical and physical supports from both local ecosystems and from the global ecosystem. The subject of this paper is the indirect relationship between biodiversity and human health, particularly with regard to coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs are the most diverse ecosystems in the sea. “High diversity density gives rise to intense species competition and the subsequent organism capability to construct exotic defensive and offensive chemicals, many with pharmacological value” (Adey 2000)....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Is Chocolate Physiologically or Psychologically Addictive? - Is Chocolate Physiologically or Psychologically Addictive. Chocolate is made from the seeds of the tropical tree, Theobroma cacao. Theobroma is the Greek term for 'food of the gods.' In Aztec society chocolate was a food of the gods, reserved for priests, warriors and nobility. The Aztecs used cacao beans to make a hot, frothy and bitter beverage called chocolatl. Chocolatl was a sacred concoction that was associated with fertility and wisdom. It was also thought to have stimulating and restorative properties....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Explore the Medicinal Benefits of Green Tea - Explore the Medicinal Benefits of Green Tea Tea, especially green tea, has been touted in many sources as having a plethora of medicinal properties. Much of the hype surrounding tea is in fact true. Tea is not a wonder drug, but it can combat some of the causes of the most deadly diseases in the United States. For over 4000 years it has been used as a medicine in China (Cheng 2397). By taking a cue from the Asian cultures, we in America are beginning to discover the benefits of this drink....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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Extraterrestrials - Extraterrestrials Can the Earth be the only place in the Universe that harbors life. Most astronomers don't believe this is true. Certain statistics in the Universe provide evidence that living beings may be common place through out the universe, on planets of other stars besides the sun. In this paper I plan to discuss the various viewpoints of those that believe that extraterrestrials exist and have even been visiting Earth, and the viewpoints of skpetics that believe that aliens don't exist and have not been visiting Earth....   [tags: Aliens Science Essays] 2516 words
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Chemical Basis of Life - Chapter 4 The Chemical Basis of Life Introduction • Your body is an elaborate chemical system. • Chemical signals between brain less enable your mind to understand what you see. • You nourish those cells with chemicals that are obtained from food. • Life is all about chemicals and how they interact Concept 4.1 Life requires about 25 chemical elements Elements • Humans and other organisms are examples of matter. Matter: Anything that occupies space and has mass. (Physical things) • The various forms of matter are composed of one or more chemical elements....   [tags: essays research papers] 779 words
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oxygen - Oxygen Oxygen Atomic number8Atomic weight15.9994Melting point-218.4oC (-361.1oF) Boiling point-183.0oC (-297.4oF) Density (1 atom, 0oC) 1.429 g/lValence2electronic config.2-6 or 1s22s22p4.Oxygen is one of the must important factors that made it possible for life to exist in this planet. Oxygen is also one of the elements must found in earth. Oxygen can be found in in metals, water, and even the one thin that protects us from the powerful sunrays. Oxygen is a very unstable element, which makes it easy to make compounds with other elements creating different kinds of solids and liquids....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Portland Cement - PORTLAND CEMENT Chemical composition. Portland Cement is made up of four main compounds: tricalcium silicate (3CaOSiO2), dicalcium silicate (2CaOSiO2), tricalcium aluminate (3CaOAl2O3), and a tetra-calcium aluminoferrite (4CaO Al2O3Fe2O3). In an abbreviated notation differing from the normal atomic symbols, these compounds are designated as C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF, where C stands for calcium oxide (lime), S for silica, A for alumina, and F for iron oxide. Small amounts of uncombined lime and magnesia also are present, along with alkalies and minor amounts of other elements Hydration....   [tags: essays research papers] 1464 words
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Acid Rain - Acid Rain Do you ever look outside on a rainy night and think to yourself why are we destroying our own habitat. Of course you don’t. You are more rapped up in the beauty of a calm and serene shower with the wind blowing and a gentle howl of the breeze trickling through the trees. Why would you think of something bad. Well, maybe you should start thinking of rain as a bad thing. Maybe not rain, but what is in the rain. Not enough attention is being put toward the well being of the Earth. There are definitely forces at work destroying our environment as we speak....   [tags: Papers] 930 words
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An Investigation into the Identification, Properties, and Synthesis of an Unknown Ionic Compound - ... This was accomplished by reacting them both with a third compound which would produce an insoluble salt that could be filtered off and measured. It was important that the compound was identified correctly so that it could be disposed of properly and so that it might be used for other purposes. Once the quantitative analysis indicated that the compound had been correctly identified, it was also our goal to determine methods of synthesizing the compound and to compare the syntheses for cost effectiveness, safety, and potential yield....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - ... I. 1994a. Characterization of smokeless gunpowder by means of diphenylamine stabilizer and its nitrated derivatives. Analytica Chimica Acta, 288, 57-69. ESPINOZA, E. O. N. & THORNTON, J. I. 1994b. Characterization of smokeless gunpowder by means of diphenylamine stabilizer and its nitrated derivatives. Analytica Chimica Acta, 288, 57-69. G, H., D, W. & SP, B. 2008. Hidden homicide increases in the USA,1999–2005. J Urban Health, 85 597–606. GAGLIANO-CANDELA, R., COLUCCI, A. P. & NAPOLI, S. 2008....   [tags: Forensics]
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The Health Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water - ... Also discuss the risk of congenital cardiac defects which is caused by using chlorinated water. This research provides good information which is support my hypothesis that chlorinated water has some negative impacts on the human's body. However, this research should be supported by more articles which provide more and specific information related to the effects of chlorinated water. Works Cited Introduction Analytical Chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the elements or compounds that consists of the material to be analyzed....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Gulf Oil Crisis - ... Overall there are no good effects on wildlife from the oil spill. The wildlife is largely affected, but this is because their habitat is affected even more. The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem “spans 600,000 square miles” (Robinson, 2010). An estimate made on April 30th put the oil spread as covering 3,850 square miles (CBS, 2010). The oil made the water slick and gooey (See figure 2). Fig. 2 oily residue comes ashore in the surf in Gulf Shores, Ala. From “AP Images” (Dave Martin, 2010). This oil causes harm to the gulf ecosystem....   [tags: Oil]
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Solar System Formation - ... The sun, the most crucial part of our system, was at the center of this collapsing nebula. As stated above, as the gas cloud shrank the thermal energy increased, due to the conservation of energy. This increased the temperature of the gas's within. The larger the center got the more thermal energy it would produce, hence heating up the cloud further, and the more gravitational force it would impose on surrounding particles, resulting in the center becoming more massive. A protostar would eventually be born from this process....   [tags: Astronomy ]
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The Habitability of Planets in the Universe - ... The presents of the sun also provides light and warmth. It is close enough to keep earth from being completely covered with ice but far enough to prevent the temperatures on earth to become too hot and unbearable for life (What Makes Earth Habitable). Earth will not always be habitable, but according to reports from 2009 the earth has another 2.3 billion years of habitability ahead. In that time the sun will continue to grow hotter until the earth will become too hot for life to exist. (Madrigal) This extension is due to the new theory that the atmospheric pressure which is responsible for supporting and regulating the earth’s temperature has fluctuated over time....   [tags: Astronomy ]
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Effects of Chemicals on the Environment - ... According to Suzanne Snedeker, associate director of Cornell University’s Program on Breast Cancer and environmental Risk Factors, states that” although levels of exposure are low as far as consumer products are concerned the cumulative and combined effects may increase the risk of breast cancer”(Moran,2009) .This statement alone should bring about awareness and attention to the environment and product consumption. A new study for WWF(World Wildlife Fund) says endocrine disruptors could be implicated in the development of breast cancers at two critical stages,(1) when a female is in the womb and (2) at puberty....   [tags: Health, Informative] 1208 words
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The Father of Modern-Day Chemistry - ... Years before that, in 1771, he married, Marie Anne Paulze. She helped him with his work by taking notes on his experiments, drawing pictures of the process and results of his experiments, and translating his work into English. He also helped her and her family, especially her father, who had his own tax collecting company, by funding it when needed (Tiner 91). Lavoisier had many other occupations other than being a chemist. He was the director of the gunpowder administration, he was on an agricultural committee and started his own model farm, and he was on a board in 1790 that helped move France closer to converting to the metric system....   [tags: Biography, Lavoisier] 1681 words
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Chromium - Chromium Chromium is a very hard, brittle, gray metal, which is sometimes referred to as Siberian red lead. It does not rust easily and becomes shiny and bright when it is polished. The shiny trim on our automobile bumpers and door handles is usually electroplated chromium. Most chromium comes from something called chromite which is a mixture of chromium , iron, and oxygen. Chromite is a common rather ordinary black mineral that no one really noticed until more recent times. Nearly all the world's supply of chromite comes from Zimbabwe, Russia, Turkey, South Africa, Cuba, and the Philippines....   [tags: essays research papers] 496 words
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Pyrotechnics, The Art Of Fire - Pyrotechnics is defined as the art of manufacturing or setting of fireworks. There are many different forms of pyrotechnics. Some consider fireworks dangerous, obnoxious bursts of noise; others consider them beautiful, artful displays of light. Either way you look at it, pyrotechnics is an interesting and dangerous hobby. Many colors and designs may be created by the placement of different compounds in distinct areas of the fireworks, either projectile or stationary ones. Some of the many different colors of the visible spectrum that can be easily recreated are; yellow, orange, red, green, and blue....   [tags: essays research papers] 506 words
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Tin - Tin Tin's discoverer is unknown but one thing is known. Tin has been used and discovered by the ancients. Tin was an accidental discovery. Tin has been around for many years. Proof is in the fact that tin is mentioned in the old testament of the bible. Tin had a great effect on the world because of its low price, high electric conductivity, and because tin protects against rust and weak acids in food if the can is made out of tin instead of aluminum. Some common compounds of tin are organtin a combination of carbon and tin....   [tags: essays research papers] 541 words
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