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Characteristic of Organic Compounds - What are organic compounds, you may ask. Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbon dioxide, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thyocyanates, which are all considered inorganic....   [tags: Carbon Atoms, Chemical Compounds]
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1017 words
(2.9 pages)
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Understanding the Way Atoms Connect Together to form Compounds - The whole world is made up of Chemical and Physical bonds and one of the greatest advancements in history is understanding the way atoms connect together to form compounds. In chemical bonding there are two types of bonds that are called Ionic and Covalent bonds. Ionic bonds form when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms called Ions. Covalent bonds form when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Atoms either share pairs of electrons between them or transfer one or more electrons from one atom to another....   [tags: compounds, chemical bonding, atoms] 715 words
(2 pages)
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Covalent and Ionic Compounds - Compounds are pure substances that contain atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios. In this lab, we observed two types of compounds, Ionic compounds and Covalent compounds. Ionic compounds are chemical compounds consisting of two or more ions that are held adjacent to each other by electrical attraction. “One of the ions, called an “anion,” has a negative charge, and the other is called a “cation,” and has a positive charge. “Cations” are usually metallic atoms and “anions” are either atoms of nonmetals or polyatomic ions....   [tags: chamical analysis] 571 words
(1.6 pages)
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Analytical Chemists and Chemical Compounds - ... This works because electrons in atoms can only exist in particular energy levels. An electron moves from a lower to a higher energy level by absorbing electromagnetic radiation. An electron will also emit radiation as it drops from a higher energy level to a lower one. Each element's electrons emits and absorbs specific frequencies of radiation and it is this that allows individual elements to be determined, even when other elements are present. AAS is able to measure extremely small concentrations of elements, such as parts per million (ppm) and occasionally parts per billion (ppb)....   [tags: cereal, inorganic, material chemist] 1525 words
(4.4 pages)
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Analysis of Adsorbable Organic Halogens Compounds - Introduction “AOX” is the abbreviation of the sum parameter for water soluble “adsorbable organic halogens” in which ‘A’ stands for adsorbable, ‘O’ for organic and ‘X’ for the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine. After the introduction of the AOX in 1976, this parameter has been correctly used for “real” AOX constituents (DDT and its metabolites, PCBs, etc.); but also misused for non-adsorbable adsorbed OX-compounds, mostly high molecular organohalogens in plants and even to inorganic compounds being neither organic nor adsorbable....   [tags: aox, wastewater, paper mill, pulp]
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1430 words
(4.1 pages)
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Identifying Volatile Compounds Not on the Gatorada Label - Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to identify the numerous volatile compounds not listed on the label, determine the quantity of chloride present, and to determine the various species of citrate and phosphate present in Gatorade. The volatile compounds in sports drinks are usually labeled as “natural flavors” and were identified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). The quantity and determination of chloride was determined using the ion selective electrode (ISE) method....   [tags: chloride, gas chromatography, procedure] 971 words
(2.8 pages)
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Total Synthesis of CP Compounds - Total Synthesis of CP Compounds Man's fascination with the many uses that can be found with the exploitation of natural substances has been demonstrated time and again throughout history, but the stage was set at the turn of the century for organic chemists to begin to focus on utilizing natural compounds for the benefit of medicinal and industrial uses. The discoveries of penicillin, aspirin, and other naturally occurring useful compounds in the earlier parts of the century set the stage for the utilization and exploitation of biologically active compounds as a molecular science....   [tags: Papers] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Anticancer Properties of Piper Betle Leaves Active Compounds - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world (World Cancer Research Fund International). Colostomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and biological therapy are among the most common treatment for colorectal cancer. These treatments may be used by itself or in combination. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of colorectal cancer is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FU is a cell cycle–specific, S-phase–dependent fluorinated pyrimidine analogue (Yim, et al., 2006). Due to its short biological half-life, it is always used in combination with other drugs to enhance its drug effect....   [tags: HTS assay types,colorectal cancer,PBL]
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1618 words
(4.6 pages)
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Our Experiment to Separate a Mixture of Organic Compounds - ... The inorganic salts favor the aqueous phase, but the organic compounds prefer the nonpolar organic solvent. By using a separatory funnel, two to three extractions of an aqueous-organic mixture is enough to methodically transfer the organic acid (benzoic acid) from the organic solvent (diethyl ether) to the aqueous phase. Initially, the organic carboxylic acid becomes a charged species after it is deprotonated by a base like sodium hydroxide, producing a carboxylic salt. After completing the extraction, an acid, such as hydrochloric acid, is added to the basic aqueous solution causing the sodium carboxylate salt to change back to the default carboxylic acid, which will precipitate out of...   [tags: acid, melting point, reaction] 1302 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Number of Volatile Compounds in Sea Buckthorn Juice - 3.1 Qualitative Analysis The total number of volatile compounds found in sea buckthorn juice varies according to published data [8-12] and this study reports the highest number of compounds found so far, but there is an annual variation. In 2011, a total of 74, 89, 72 volatile compounds were extracted from 3 varieties (Hergo, wild and Frugana) of sea buckthorn berries (figure 1 and 2, table 1). A significant decline in the number of volatiles was seen in the 2012 harvest with only 17, 39, 9, 20 volatile compounds extracted in four varieties of berries (Hergo, wild, Frugana, Askola), (figure 3, and table 1)....   [tags: chemical analysis]
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1525 words
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Pervaporation for Treating Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater - Introduction “Pervaporation is a process in which a liquid stream containing two or more components is placed in contact with one side of a nonporous polymeric membrane, while a vacuum or gas purge is applied to the other side. The components in the liquid stream sorb into the membrane, permeate through the membrane, and evaporate into the vapor phase” (Freeman 6.59). The term pervaporation is derived “from the two major operations, involved in the separation process, namely, permeation and evaporation” (Peng Ming 815-820)....   [tags: water treatment methods] 2351 words
(6.7 pages)
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Bioactive and Medical Compounds of Pytosomes, Liposomes, and Nanoparticles - 1. PHYTOSOMES The term “phyto” means that plant whereas “some” means that cellular. Phytosomes are very little cell like structure. This is often advanced kinds of herbal formulations that contain the bioactive phytoconsituents of herb extract surrounds and certain by a supermolecule. Most of the bioactive constituents of phytomedicines are water soluble compounds like flavonoids, glycosides; terpenoids throughout which flavonoids are serious category of bioactive compounds possesses broad therapeutic activities....   [tags: herbal, pharmacology, solubility] 1499 words
(4.3 pages)
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Importance of Degradation in the Fate of Selected Organic Compounds in the Environment - Organic substances can enter the environment by several sources and pathways. One of the pathways is introduced through waste water or rain water flow into surface water. According to Abwasserverband Braunschweig (2014), approximately 700 liters of waste water per second with annual quantity of 22 million m3 waste water, mainly from household activity, are admitted to Steinhof Waste Water Treatment Plant in Braunschweig, Germany. The waste water treatment plant carries out mechanical and biological treatment for this waste water in multiple stages of processes....   [tags: waste water, organic substances, anion exchange]
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1785 words
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Ionic and Covalent Compounds - Ionic and Covalent Compounds Pre-Lab 1. List the properties of ionic compounds. - Solids at room temperature. - Soluble in water. - Conduct electricity (while in solution). - Very high melting and boiling points. 2. List the properties of covalent compounds. - Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. - May or may not be soluble in water. - Most do not conduct electricity (except for acids) - Low melting and boiling points. 3. Give the name and formula for: a) 3 ionic compounds NaCl—Sodium Chloride FeCl3—Iron (III) Chloride MgO—Magnesium Oxide b) 3 covalent compounds NO—Nitrogen Monoxide CBr4—Carbon Tetrabromide N2O5—Dinitrogen Pentoxide Laborato...   [tags: Papers] 370 words
(1.1 pages)
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Photosynthesis Converts Inorganic Compounds to Organic Matter - Introduction Photosynthesis is a process done by photoautotrophs to convert inorganic compounds and light energy to organic matter. In all photosynthetic organisms, organic pigments exist to harvest the light energy. The three major classes of pigments are chlorophylls (green pigments) and carotenoids (yellow or orange pigments) which are lipophilic and associated in Chl-protein complexes as well as phycobilins that are hydrophilic. All chlorophylls (a, b, c and d) have two major absorption bands: blue or blue-green (450 or 475 nm) and red (630-675 nm)....   [tags: energy, pigment, photo-autotrophs] 1348 words
(3.9 pages)
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Flame-Retardant Compounds Increase Smoke Production - Flame-retardant compounds are designed to decrease the flammability of polymeric materials but in many cases the presence of flame retardants in the polymeric materials increases smoke production and toxicity of degradation products. Smoke evolution and the degradation products, either particulate or gaseous is an important aspect of fire hazard. Smoke is defined as a cloud of particles individually invisible but due to light scattering and/or absorption of light, the particles appear opaque. It occurs due to incomplete combustion of the polymeric materials....   [tags: combustion, cotton, decomposition] 561 words
(1.6 pages)
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Carbon Compounds - Carbon Compounds 23.1 What is carbon Compounds.  carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements  there are millions of different carbon compounds  most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens  some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :  non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes  low melting points  compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water 23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from....   [tags: Papers] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds - Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds Aspirins and Oil of Wintergreen Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to prepare two organic compounds (aspirin and oil of wintergreen) and to illustrate the typical organic reactions. Students will also learn some techniques commonly used in organic synthesis and the meaning of the terms theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield. Both Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) are commonly used organic compounds....   [tags: Science Experiment, Chemistry] 327 words
(0.9 pages)
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The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds - The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium. These are known as the ‘Group Two elements’ because of their unique electron division. Each one of these elements, consists of two outer shell electrons. Because of the lack of outer electrons, these elements are highly reactive. Group two electrons have a positive Two charge or +ve. The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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How Inorganic Compounds Impact the Functionality of Signaling Pathways in Mammalian Cells - Signals are an object present in everyday life. Signals don’t just come in forms of traffic lights and signs. Signals happen on the molecular level every second. Signals can tell organisms’ cells to grow, feed, expel waste, move, undergo mitosis, or even die. These signals mystified people for the longest time. However, Earl W. Sutherland’s experiment gave humanity clarity on the matter (Urry 109). Sutherland was investigating the process by which the hormone epinephrine, or adrenaline, causes the breakdown of glycogen, a sugar, in liver and skeletal muscle cells (Urry 109)....   [tags: signals at a molecular level]
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1592 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance - The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance An Ergogenic aid is known as an enhancing quality in sporting performance. Compounds such as bee pollen, caffeine, glycine, carnitine, lecithin, and gelatin are claimed through anecdotal evidence to improve strength or endurance. The use of drugs and other substances has persisted for nearly a century....   [tags: Papers] 1616 words
(4.6 pages)
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Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds - Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds Starch is a complex carbohydrate, it's a mixture of amylose and amylopectin both of which are polysaccharides containing α-glucose molecules linked via a condensation reaction. Amylose is a long, straight chain of α-glucose molecules, these are linked together by a 1,4 glycosidic bond, where 1 & 4 are carbon reducing centres. + +… α-glucose molecule α-glucose molecule = + H20 amylose These chains of α-glucose coil to form spirals and these are held in place by hydrogen bonds....   [tags: Papers] 621 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Haber Bosh Process and the Importance of Making Ammonia - ... Nitrogen fixation is essential for all sorts of life because nitrogen is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants and animals. Nitrogen fixation through the Haber process is important for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer as the ammonia acts as the precursor to various ammonium salts that provide usable nitrogen to plants and then to animals. So why produce ammonia. The Haber process is important today because the fertilizer made from ammonia is responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population....   [tags: conversion of nitrogen into other compounds]
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601 words
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QSAR Pharmacophore Model Hypo1 - ... Further we passed these filtered molecules for the docking analysis. 3.6 Molecular Docking study For further refining the retrieved hits and evaluating the binding mode between compounds and proteins, all compounds and compound_1 were docked into the binding site of PDK1[26] (PDB entry:1UU7)[27] by using LigandFit [28] docking method implemented in Discovery Studio 2.5 program package. Before docking the all the molecules, compound_1(most active compound of training set ) was docked in to the active site of PDK1.Compound_1 has shown the docking energy of - 64.5 kcal/mol and RMSD value of 0.841.It showed the hydrogen bond interactions with important residues of like Lys111, Asp 230, Al...   [tags: compounds, molecules, method, docking] 548 words
(1.6 pages)
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Alcohol and Nutrition: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? - Out of all the organic compounds, few spark as much attention as alcohol. Alcohol is complex and volatile, when referring to alcoholic beverages it is known as ethanol. Pure ethanol in its most basic state has the molecular formula C2H6O. Ethanol is a toxin to the human body and when concentrations peak to a dangerous level the body induces vomiting. Vomiting is a primary defense against many ingestible poisons. Ethanol is a clear and odorous liquid that affects living organisms by acting as a lipid solvent....   [tags: ethanol, organic compounds, drinking ]
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1256 words
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Ancient Gilding Methods and Their Chemical Structure - ... Why did they choose the artifacts in the article specifically. How were they able to figure out the gilding methods. Vocabulary list: 1. photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)- measuring the chemical composition of an object by the energy of electrons freed from the surface by a laser. (Merriam Webster) 2. secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) -A machine uses primary ions to push the ions in the object to the surface so they can be examined (Fraunhofer-Center Nanoelectronic Technologies) 3. optical emission spectrometry (GDOES)- a machine that uses emissions to examine the surface of an object....   [tags: technology, roman, compounds] 644 words
(1.8 pages)
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Types of Fat-Soluble Vitamins - Food is the basic necessity for human being to live. Food can be found in anywhere with variety of tastes, texture, colour and physical appearance. Vitamins are the negligible components of food that plays important role in human nutrition. Fat soluble vitamin is one of the types of vitamins in the food. “Fat-soluble vitamins are defined as “vitamins in the various food groups that related to their fat-solubility” (deMan, 1999, p.355).In general, fat-soluble vitamins can be classified into four major categories: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1)....   [tags: organic compounds and vital nutrients] 925 words
(2.6 pages)
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What's Organic Chemistry - ... Photo-initiators include compounds that break down into free radicals when exposed to ultra violet radiation. There are two ways for the compounds (benzoin) to break down during photo polymerization. The first way is for the chemical compounds to undergo an uni-molecular bond cleavage while experiencing irradiation to yield free radicals. The second method for the benzoin to break down is to experience a bi-molecular reaction. In that reaction, the excited state of the photo-initiator (benzoin) interacts with a second molecule to generate the free radials....   [tags: carbon compounds, benzoin]
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980 words
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What is Nitrogen? - ... It is non-metallic chemical element, tasteless and an odourless. Difficult soluble in water and cannot react easily with many other elements. A daily basis, most organisms consume nitrogen in their food. It makes up about 80% of the atmosphere, but oxygen gas only covering 20% of the atmosphere. It can be condensed to liquid nitrogen. The boiling point of nitrogen is at a temperature of 195.8 m and freezes at -9. 209 m. So nitrogen gas is very plentiful and common. It is the seventh most abundant in the universe....   [tags: fertilizer, compounds, chemical elements] 967 words
(2.8 pages)
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The Processes of Photosynthesis and Fermentation - Introduction: “Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle”(Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx) . “Yeasts were discovered to have connection with fermentation as observed by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “However, fermentation does not have to always occur in anaerobic condition” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Yeasts still prefer to undergo fermentation to process organic compounds and generate ATP even in the presence of oxygen” (Biology Online, 2008, p....   [tags: Biology, Organic Compounds, Bacteria, Fungi]
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3094 words
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Use of Gold Complexes to Treat Cancer - INTRODUCTION During recent years, platinum based drugs have been considered as a hallmark of cancer chemotherapy due to its considerable success in the treatment of a wide variety of cancer types. The most significant and commonly used form of platinum based drugs is cisplatin. Although treatment with cisplatin has found success on many occasions, its broad mode of action and overuse has led to toxic side effects in patients as well as increasing drug resistance in some tumor cells.1 For those reasons combined, scientists have redirected their investigation into other metal based drugs in attempt to find potential alternatives that can overcome cisplatin resistance and lessen the severity of...   [tags: Gold Compounds, AntiCancer]
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1441 words
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Fracking: The Water Problem - Ever since the process of hydraulic fracturing—or fracking—made its entrance to the oil industry, issues and problems surrounding the process have become a common occurrence. Fracking is the controversial process of horizontal drilling (see fig. 1), where millions of gallons of water mixed with sand and chemicals are pumped deep into an oil well to extract natural gas from the earth’s crust (Ehrenberg 20). This practice has even been banned in some places (see fig. 1). The methane that comes out of the earth and the water used—called fracking fluid—has the potential to cause problems with local ground water supplies....   [tags: Toxic Compounds, Oil Industry]
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Examination of Alkyl-Halide Formation as a Result of Substitution Reactions of Alcohol-Containing Organic Compounds - .This experiment was performed to determine the structure of alkyl-halides formed as a result of substitution reactions, and whether the reaction used an SN1 or SN2 mechanism. The structure of the starting alcohol determined the mechanistic pathway of the substitution reaction. Reaction 1 involved the substitution of a primary alcohol which produced one primary alkyl-halide via SN2 reaction. Reactions 2 and 3 began with a secondary alcohol, forming two products as the result of direct substitution and/or a hydride shift, via SN1 reaction....   [tags: Gravity Filtration, Racemic Mixture]
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2910 words
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Mixture and Compound Differences - Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds can only be separated if they are destroyed. But the elements in mixtures can be physically separated from each other easily....   [tags: Chemistry ] 634 words
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Diphenyl Ether: Organic Compound - Diphenyl ether, first gaining attention in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, is an organic compound that belongs to the ether organic functional group with a molecular formula of C12H10O. Also referred to as 1,1’-Oxybisbenzene, biphenyl oxide, diphenyl oxide, phenyl oxide, phenyl ether, or phenoxybenzene, diphenyl ether consists of two phenyl rings attached by an oxygen atom. The structural formula appears in Figure 1. Phenyl rings, C6H5, are extremely similar to benzene rings, C6H6, and only differ in regards to being bonded to a different atom than hydrogen on one vertex of the ring....   [tags: ether organic functional group, molecular formula]
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1174 words
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An Investigation into the Identification, Properties, and Synthesis of an Unknown Ionic Compound - Abstract This paper describes the methods used in the identification, investigation of properties, and synthesis of an unknown compound. The compound was identified as calcium nitrate by a variety of tests. When the compound was received, it was already known to be one of twelve possible ionic compounds. The flame test identified the presence of the calcium anion in the compound. The compound tested positive for the nitrate cation using the iron sulfate test. At this point it was hypothesized that the compound was calcium nitrate....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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1163 words
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Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene - Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene Once in a while there are discoveries of compounds which surprise the scientific community. In 1985 such a discovery took place; it was the discovery of the compound named Buckminsterfullerene. The compound was the first of its kind: a big 60-atom molecule resembling a soccer ball, composed of carbon, and arranged in a perfect geodesic sphere. This compound was unique in its nature because it was the first time carbon was observed in a very stable and solid three-dimensional structure....   [tags: Papers] 1044 words
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Analysis and Description of Photovoltaic Cells - Photovoltaic cells are found everywhere today: your home, work buildings, schools, and more. There are two types of Photovoltaic Cells: Organic and Inorganic. The type of cell that are most often found and used are inorganic cells. Inorganic cells are known to produce much more energy than organic cells. Although the main element used in these inorganic cells is Silicon, there are many more elements that are used in inorganic photovoltaic cells. There is monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and microcrystalline Si, the III-V compounds and alloys, CdTe, and the chalcopyrite compound, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)....   [tags: inorganic cells, chalcopyrite compound]
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Negative Effect Plastic has on the Environment - In 1862, Alexander Parkes unveiled an invention, a compound known as celluloid that would change modern history. This is the first known plastic compound to demonstrate the ability to mold when heated and maintain its shape once cooled. While the chemical compounds have evolved over the years, so have its uses and our dependency on them. If we look around our room today, we can see that nearly every product in our house either consists or was built by some form of plastic. This dependence raises some alarming questions....   [tags: celluloid, plastic compound, recycle]
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2524 words
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Renewable Sources of Energy: Ethanol - ... When evolved in reactions, ethanol can produce different kinds of chemical compounds. Known as grain alcohol, ethanol is produced by crops, especially corn, since there is an abundant amount of corn in the United States. With this resource, the U.S. can become less dependent on foreign source of energy. Ethanol is also known as the most common biofuel. A biofuel is fuel made from renewable resources; in this case ethanol is made from the renewable resource of corn. Grain alcohol can be blended with gasoline and be used to power automobiles....   [tags: economic, friendly, chemical compound]
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1058 words
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Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein - Animals and plants each require their own unique form of carbohydrates, fats, and protein to function. Humans have many chemical compounds found in the body, each classified as different macromolecules. Macromolecules include fats, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. Each performing their own unique function in the human body. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are used to spare the use of protein in the body and use it as energy. Carbs can be found in many foods, such as grains, fruits and milk products....   [tags: Humans, Chemical Compunds, Human Sciences]
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The Hunger Games and The Compound - Mahatma Gandhi, a nationalist and spiritual leader was perceptive and objectively so, perhaps most eminently when he instructed his zealots, “First they ignore you. Then they laugh at you. Then they fight you. Then you win” (Mahatma). Gandhi has a remarkable sagacity at a young age and strengthened it throughout the succession of his life. Although the aforementioned quote merely previews the extent of his intellect, it effectively summarizes his political approach. After becoming a member of the Indian National Congress Gandhi had the potential to become a most influential leader for the Indian people, and he did....   [tags: dystopia, pacifism, government control, avox]
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Separation of Copper Compound - Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to use our knowledge from previous experiments to separate a copper compound and from there make calculations relevant to the experiment. The calculations that we had to make in this experiment had to do with finding the percentage of copper in copper compound and from there find the formula weight of the copper compound. Question or Problem The question that was proposed by the instructor for investigation was: Can the % composition of an element in a compound be determined accurately (Lab Manual 61)....   [tags: copper, chemical method, physical method]
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Chloromethane- Methyl Chloride - Chloromethane, more commonly referred to as methyl chloride, is an organic compound categorized as a haloalkane functional group. Functional groups are atoms that control how the molecule will react with other molecues. Haloalkane functional groups consist of a carbon atom with four single bonds and one of the bonds in occupied by an element in the Halogen family; in this case chlorine. The structural formula is CH3Cl. This formula effects some of the physical properties which include the boiling point to be -22.22°C and the melting point to be -97.7°C....   [tags: haloalkane functional group. organic compound]
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1040 words
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Zacharias Jansen and The First Compound Microscope - ... Spherical aberration is the blurred image of an object due to parallel light rays passing through the middle of the lens and focusing further away than light rays passing through the edges of the lens. The outcome is various focal points, giving a distorted/blurred image (Amazing-space.stsci.edu). Chromatic aberration is a common optical issue that occurs when either wavelengths of colour are focused at different points in the focal plane and/or when the lens is unable to bring all wavelengths of colour to the same focal plane....   [tags: resolution, scientists, objects] 900 words
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Compound Pharmacies Manufacturing Lethal Injections - ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate compound pharmacies. Many states have had shortages in the drugs necessary for lethal injection. Recently, the State of Missouri has allowed for the state to use compound pharmacies for manufacturing the drug pentobarbital, used for lethal injection. This decision however, has not been met without controversy, including from the state’s governor, Jay Nixon. Governor Nixon pushed for a pending execution using drugs from a compound pharmacy to be halted....   [tags: fungal meningitis outbreak, FDA regulation]
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532 words
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Dissecting a Compound - I. Identifying an Unknown Compound Purpose/Problem: In this lab we had to figure out what our mystery compound was by performing two tests. One of the tests was called the Flame Test, which we use to find out the metal element in the compound. It is used to find the metal because each metal gives off its own unique flame color. The other test is called the Precipitate Test, which we use to find out the non-metal element in our compound by adding silver nitrate to it. It’s used to find the non-metal because each non-metal has its own unique reaction to silver nitrate....   [tags: essays research papers] 413 words
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Physics of the Compound Bow - A Brief History of the Bow * Arrowheads have been found in Africa that date back as far as 25,000 to 50,000 B.C. * Throughout the next few tens of thousands of years, humans had PLENTY of time to refine their techniques. Fire-hardening arrow heads, fletching arrow shafts to improve their flight characteristics, "tillering" bows so that the upper and lower limbs had the same bend radius, etc. All of these improvements helped increase the efficiency and accuracy of the bow and arrow, and helped humans to survive and advance throughout the ages....   [tags: physics weapon bow archery] 1069 words
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English Linguistics: Compounding - Compounding belongs to the linguistic discipline of morphology, which is concerned with the study of the creation, structure and form of words and it is the most significant word formation process next to derivation and conversion. Compounds – the products of compounding - are word combinations of at least two free and already existing morphemes. Hence the basic compound structure is F + F, meaning a free morpheme + another free morpheme. Moreover, there are two different methods of categorizing compounds....   [tags: Linguistics Essays]
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909 words
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Information of Macrocyclic Systems or Cyclophanes - Macrocyclic systems; Otherwise known as cyclophanes are the most regarded chemical compounds and substances in biochemical and medicinal chemistry of the last decades. Their role in understanding molecular processes in biochemical system, material science, encapsulation, catalysis, hydrometallurgy, activation, separation transportation phenomenon among many other important roles had made them attract greater attention in both science and medical fields of research and studies [1-8]. Paraquat type of macrocyclic compounds have also been studied in view of their host-guest chemistry [9], redox behaviour [10], catalytic activity [11], and incorporation into supramolecular architectures....   [tags: process, biochemical, macrocyclic] 1348 words
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Safe Discharge Ranges of Pharmaceuticals According Receiving Water Flows - Despite the increasing number of studies concerning the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the environment, gaps about the topic still numerous. The peculiar physical-chemical properties of these chemicals contribute to a more complex behaviour in aquatic environments. The main path for the discharge of these compounds in the environment are wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), notably know in being inefficient in remove these contaminants during conventional treatments. Most approaches to evaluate the concentration of these substances in WWTPs are based in national consumption estimative, which can with reasonable significance predict overall discharges [1], however are not to be suita...   [tags: wastewater, environment, results, issues] 587 words
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Characterization of Three Piperine Analogs of Dipeptidyl Boronic Acid - In the present study three piperine analogs of dipeptidyl boronic acid (1 to 3) were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies. All the compounds were screened for their antineoplastic activity against three cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and five fungal species. In vitro results showed that most of the compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activitiy on the tested cancer cell lines, among them compound 1 showed excelent antitumor activity where as Compound 3 was found to be potent antimicrobial agent against Asperigillus fumigates at a concentration of 62 µg/mL than other tested compounds and t...   [tags: antineoplastic, drug, anticancer] 582 words
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A Study on the Effectiveness of Biurets and Glucantime Against Leighmania - Background: Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoan disease comprises a wide range of clinical manifestations that is usually divided into visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis depending on leishmania parasite strains and host's immune system responses. Most of the drugs produced for the treatment of leishmanial, from the first used (Glucantime and pentostam) to the lately accepted (miltefosine), are toxic, resistance issues and poorly tolerated. The purpose of this In Silico and In vitro study is evaluating the effectiveness of some novel experimental biurets and Glucantime against Leishmania tropica promastigotes....   [tags: treatment, disease, resistance] 1866 words
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The Importance and Uses of Magnesium - ... For example, since magnesium is a lightweight metal and aluminum is a heavier metal magnesium can alloy with Aluminum. Magnesium and aluminum alloys create airplanes, automobiles, ladders, artificial limbs, vaccum cleaners, lawn mowers, some portable power and gardening tools, car wheels, soda cans, and skis. Since Mg is one of the lightest metals it is used in vehicles so that there can be less fuel (Uttley). “Magnesium is also found in lightweight frames for bicycles, car seats, and luggage” (“Magnesium” Periodic)....   [tags: elements, pure metals]
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Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake - In a world dominated by religion it was thought that the only place where perfection existed was within God. In some cases, for instance the ontological argument, it was the proof to his existence. But in a modern world the concept of perfection has been distorted and comes with an abundance of seemingly negative consequences, ultimately putting into question whether or not perfection is even possible. In Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake the concept of perfection is constantly challenged in a world run by corporations who are trying to package human perfection and profit from it....   [tags: oryx and crake, margaret atwood ]
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Bohr and the Periodic table - Bohr's Model There are three main parts of an atom the electrons, protons and the neutrons. Each part has charge. It is rather positive, negative, or neutral. An electron always has a negative charge. Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 474 words
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Excretion And Elimination Of Toxicants And Their Metabolites - Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determines if a molecule will pass through the pores of the glomerulus is it's molecular weight....   [tags: essays research papers] 1083 words
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Separation of M-toluic Acid, Acetanilide, and NaCl - Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base....   [tags: Chemistry] 505 words
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QSAR Modeling for Predicting Aquatic Toxicity of Chemicals - The EL-based QSARs (classification and regression) models developed using the algae (P. subcapitata) ecotoxicity data of diverse chemicals were applied to other test species, such as algae (S. obliguue), daphnia, fish and bacteria for predicting toxicity of chemicals. Both the developed QSAR models yielded comparable excellent binary classification (toxic and non-toxic) accuracies of 92.50 % (S. obliguue), 93.05 % (daphnia), 94.26 % (fish), and 94.12 % (bacteria) for DTB-QSAR and 92.50 % (S. obliguue), 92.14 % (daphnia), 93.27 % (fish), and 94.12 % (bacteria) for DTF-QSAR, respectively....   [tags: Species, Experiment]
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Introduction of Petroleum - Introduction of petroleum: Petroleum is otherwise known as crude oil. It occurs naturally beneath the earth. Petroleum is also meaning of rock oil. The term petroleum is a generic name applied to the deposits of oil materials. Petroleum occurs beneath the earth. It is a flammable liquid and mainly composed of various hydrocarbons and its average composition is c 80-87%, H 11-15%, S 0.1-4%, N and O 0.1-0.55. Formation of petroleum Petroleum is evident from chromatographic, spectroscopic and analytical studies that a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds is present in petroleum....   [tags: Oil] 506 words
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Linear and Non-linear Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship Models on Indole Substitution Patterns as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Attachment - This study was performed to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model of the biological activity of indole glyoxamide derivatives as an inhibitor of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) glycoprotein gp120 and host cell CD4 receptors. In present study, forty different compounds were selected as a sample set. Combinations of multiple linear regressions (MLR), genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were then utilized to construct the QSAR models....   [tags: Medical Research]
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The Effects of Biotechnology - Effects of Biotechnology Biotechnology is a new emerging interdisciplinary branch of biology and chemistry. It is mainly associated with research and development. This branch is a combination of life science with technology. In the mid twentieth century, the basic research has been done in this fields and agriculture and now it is developing very fast due to ongoing world food security. This branch was started with innovation of fermentative microorganisms by Louis Pasteur - the father of biotechnology....   [tags: fungi, agriculture, environment] 1213 words
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Chemicals and Pesticides Found in the Great Lakes - ... Pesticides can affect fish’s hormones. This causes endocrine disruption. It can affect population of fish which can be bad for the water environment. The Citarum River that is located in Indonesia is arguably the most polluted river in the river. It is covered in debris floating across Its surface. Textile factories populate the banks of the river which unleash its harmful chemicals in the river. Some of the dangerous chemicals in the river are lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and pesticides....   [tags: textile factories, alkylphenols ] 521 words
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Reactive Oxygen Species - The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence in aerobic organisms as by products during metabolic respiration (Han et al., 2007, Je et al., 2009). These highly reactive ROS can be considered as strong oxidants and have been shown to induce damage in all cellular macromolecules, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Over the years dietary polyphenols have been widely studied for their biological activities including antioxidant activity (Ahn et al., 2007, Heo et al., 2009, Kang et al., 2005, Li et al., 2009)....   [tags: Biology, Lipids, Proteins, DNA] 1182 words
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Chemical Weapons: Weapons of Mass Destruction - Chemical weapons, devices used for the sole purpose of hurting or killing humans, are widely considered one of the four types of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Chemical weapons are devices that spread a certain toxic chemical to incapacitate people. The two most dangerous kinds of chemical weapons are nerve agents and vesicant, or blister, agents. Types There five kinds of chemical agents. Lethal, Incapacitating agents, Riot control gases, Harassing agents, and Defoliants. (Hersh, 1) Lethal agents include Nerve agents, Vesicants, Blood agents, and Pulmonary agents....   [tags: nerve agents, vesicant, type]
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Larvicidal Activity of Insect Growth Regulator IGR and Insecticides - 2. Larvicidal activity of insect growth regulator IGR and insecticides: 2.1. Insect growth regulator IGR: Bakr, et al. (1984) evaluated some IGR's Dimilin (25% WP), Bay Sir 8514 (6.5% EC), Altosid (10% EC) and RO-08-9801 (50% EC) against Culex pipiens. Results revealed that, all the tested compounds inhibit the moulting process of the third and fourth larval instars with different degrees of morphogenetic changes. The developmental events of pupae died by Dimilin are not completely out of larval exoskeletons and larval-pupal intermediate shows 4th instar larval exuvia attached to the thoracic and abdominal region....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 2152 words
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Emerging Contaminants: A Potential Health Risk - Introduction: Human civilization is evolving in the fields of science, engineering, architecture and medicine. The population because of these societal advances has allowed individuals to live longer sub healthy lives. Life improvements via transportation have been significantly enhanced because of breakthroughs in metal alloys which are used in car manufacturing. Or the usage of ether (ROR) extracted from corn to support the decline of gasoline. Individuals that live longer are thus able to experiment with different compounds seeking only to further improve on civilization....   [tags: chemical, human health, EC threats ]
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Benefits and Side Effects of Strontium - What is Strontium. Strontium (Sr) is a chemical element that is very similar to calcium. Although it is considered a trace element (a substance needed only in small amounts by the body to maintain health), it is actually an abundant chemical found in the soil, rocks as well as in seawater. This metal substance is silvery, soft, alkaline, and non-radioactive. It easily reacts with air and water, so in nature it often occurs combined with other elements or compounds to form more stable compounds such as carbonate strontianite (SrCO3) and sulfate mineral celestite (SrSO4)....   [tags: Chemical, Osteoporosis, Dosage]
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Revealing Metabolic Phenotypes in Plant - Introduction Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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Organic vs. Inorganic Material - The following information will focus on the two substances forensic scientist use to identify and compare matter, whether a material is organic or inorganic. Evidence that will be used in a court trial will depend on the examination that forensic scientist processed in the laboratory. The importance of distinguishing between organic and inorganic material is a necessary step in the criminal justice process. The differences between organic and inorganic will be explained first, next will be to explain the strengths and weaknesses of each, and finally the significance of both as it relates to the justice system....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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Carbon Pollution and Ecological Imbalances - ... Use of Carbon compounds has developed over the decades. Trains can be blamed for the state of the atmosphere, since they are considered to be the first machines to utilize steam engines. These engines require firewood and charcoal, which leads to the loss of plant vegetation. The usage of firewood for instance leads to the formation of Carbon monoxide, which is an unstable carbon compound. This later consumes oxygen in large amounts to form carbon IV Oxide, reducing the oxygen supply in the atmosphere....   [tags: acid rain, hole in ozone layer]
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Mercury: A Potential Contaminant - Introduction: A fifteen year old boy abruptly became ill; he experienced fatigue, headaches, tingling limbs, weakness, and weight loss. The only information provided stated that he had been using an acne cream prescribed by a dermatologist as well as an over the counter “beauty cream” to deal with skin irritation. The doctors could not find the reason for the boy’s illness, but interestingly a heavy metal was found in the boy’s urine. What could possibly be the heavy metal and could it have caused such a severe reaction....   [tags: Health, Chemistry]
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Barium Sulfate and the Gastrointestinal Tract - Abstract Over the years barium sulfate has proven to be a successful contrast agent for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Though the road to discovery was long and relentless at times, when it finally found its niche in medicine it was only to the advantage of the physicians and patients today. There are many new diagnostic tools in radiology today that have led to the questioning of barium studies’ place in medicine and whether it will remain there long. And to what cost it will take to keep barium around, only time will tell some say....   [tags: Gastrointestinal Tract, Radiology]
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Endophytic Microorganisms that Redise on the Tissues of Living Plants - Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe ) have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB) medium at room temperature (no shaking) for 3 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC) and afforded two pure compounds as yellow oil (compound 1) and yellow crystal ( compound 2)....   [tags: cultivation, endophytic fungus, penicillium]
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Parallel Combinational Chemistry to Produce Ester - Esters are defined as molecules consisting of a carbonyl group which is adjacent to an ether linkage. They are polar molecules which are less polar than alcohols but more so than ethers, due to their degree of hydrogen bonding ability. Most often derived from reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid, esters are a unique, ubiquitous class of compounds with many useful applications in both natural and industrial processes 1. For example, within mammals, esters are used in triglycerides and other lipids as they are the main functional group attacking fatty acids to the glycerol chain 2....   [tags: fisher esterification,carboxylic acid, grape odour]
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Developing the TLC and HPTLC Finger Print Profiles - Aim of this study was to develop the TLC and HPTLC finger print profiles for various secondary metabolites of methanolic stem extracts of the traditional medicinal climber, Solena amplexicaulis. These studies were carried out as per the methods of Harborne and Wagner et al. The profiles of various individual secondary metabolites were made and developed for authentication. The methanolic stem extract showed the presence of 5 alkaloids, 6 flavonoids, 2 glycosides, 10 saponins and 7 terpenoids. Owing to the presence of rich variety of secondary metabolites, the stem extract of S....   [tags: bioactive, metabolites, medicinal] 1553 words
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Pest Control: The Egyptian Cotton Leaf Worm - INTRODUCTION The Egyptian cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Bosid, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous, foliage feeding insect and considered as one of the most serious pests of many different Egyptian crops (Magd El- Din & El-Gengaihi, 2000). It is an important pest of cotton in Africa, Middle East and Southern Europe (Hosny et al., 1986). Therefore, one single larva is able to destroy 66 cm2 of cotton leaves (Scarpellini, 2001). Also, it is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Africa, Asia and Europe (El-AW, 2006)....   [tags: Research Analysis ] 1447 words
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Computers in Drug Research and Development - Computers in Drug Research and Development As the computer becomes more and more powerful, its uses and abilities grow. Scientists have been able to harness this power in to assist them in their goals of researching and developing drugs for human use. Computers can be found in nearly every drug research laboratory and development center in the world. In the process of developing a drug, thousands upon thousands of chemical compounds are tested to be used in laboratory tests and animal tests. Generally, over 5000 compounds are chosen for such testing....   [tags: Essays Papers] 467 words
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The Importance of Sodium - Have you ever wondered why sodium is so important in our day to day lives. Sodium is one fo the top 5 most commonly used chemical compounds in our surroundings. When you close this page you will know everything about sodium. Atomic Structure: The periodic symbol for sodium is (Na), it’s atomic number is 11 and the mass number for sodium is 22.99, however this can be rounded to 23. In an atom of sodium there are 11 protons, protons are small subatomic particles that have positive charge. There are 11 electrons and 12 neutrons....   [tags: Bonding, Survival, Metal]
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