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Characteristic of Organic Compounds - What are organic compounds, you may ask. Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbon dioxide, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thyocyanates, which are all considered inorganic....   [tags: Carbon Atoms, Chemical Compounds]
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1017 words
(2.9 pages)
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Understanding the Way Atoms Connect Together to form Compounds - The whole world is made up of Chemical and Physical bonds and one of the greatest advancements in history is understanding the way atoms connect together to form compounds. In chemical bonding there are two types of bonds that are called Ionic and Covalent bonds. Ionic bonds form when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms called Ions. Covalent bonds form when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Atoms either share pairs of electrons between them or transfer one or more electrons from one atom to another....   [tags: compounds, chemical bonding, atoms] 715 words
(2 pages)
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Analysis of Adsorbable Organic Halogens Compounds - Introduction “AOX” is the abbreviation of the sum parameter for water soluble “adsorbable organic halogens” in which ‘A’ stands for adsorbable, ‘O’ for organic and ‘X’ for the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine. After the introduction of the AOX in 1976, this parameter has been correctly used for “real” AOX constituents (DDT and its metabolites, PCBs, etc.); but also misused for non-adsorbable adsorbed OX-compounds, mostly high molecular organohalogens in plants and even to inorganic compounds being neither organic nor adsorbable....   [tags: aox, wastewater, paper mill, pulp]
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1430 words
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Total Synthesis of CP Compounds - Total Synthesis of CP Compounds Man's fascination with the many uses that can be found with the exploitation of natural substances has been demonstrated time and again throughout history, but the stage was set at the turn of the century for organic chemists to begin to focus on utilizing natural compounds for the benefit of medicinal and industrial uses. The discoveries of penicillin, aspirin, and other naturally occurring useful compounds in the earlier parts of the century set the stage for the utilization and exploitation of biologically active compounds as a molecular science....   [tags: Papers] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Anticancer Properties of Piper Betle Leaves Active Compounds - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world (World Cancer Research Fund International). Colostomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and biological therapy are among the most common treatment for colorectal cancer. These treatments may be used by itself or in combination. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of colorectal cancer is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FU is a cell cycle–specific, S-phase–dependent fluorinated pyrimidine analogue (Yim, et al., 2006). Due to its short biological half-life, it is always used in combination with other drugs to enhance its drug effect....   [tags: HTS assay types,colorectal cancer,PBL]
:: 12 Works Cited
1618 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Number of Volatile Compounds in Sea Buckthorn Juice - ... Hakala, H. Kallio, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 1692. 3. T. Hirvi, E. Honkanen, Z Lebensm Unters F A. 1984, 179, 387. 4. A. Cakir, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2004, 32, 809. 5. B. Yang, J. Zheng, H. Kallio, Food Chem. 2011, 125, 388. 6. J. Zheng, H. Kallio, k. Linderborg, B. Yang, Food Res Int, 2011, 44, 2018 7. B. Yang, Food Chem, 2009, 112, 89 8. T. Hirvi, E. Honkanen, Z Lebensm Unters F A. 1984, 179, 387. 9. A. Cakir, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2004, 32, 809. 10. K. Tiitinen, M. Hakala, H. Kallio, Eur....   [tags: chemical analysis]
:: 38 Works Cited
1525 words
(4.4 pages)
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Importance of Degradation in the Fate of Selected Organic Compounds in the Environment - Organic substances can enter the environment by several sources and pathways. One of the pathways is introduced through waste water or rain water flow into surface water. According to Abwasserverband Braunschweig (2014), approximately 700 liters of waste water per second with annual quantity of 22 million m3 waste water, mainly from household activity, are admitted to Steinhof Waste Water Treatment Plant in Braunschweig, Germany. The waste water treatment plant carries out mechanical and biological treatment for this waste water in multiple stages of processes....   [tags: waste water, organic substances, anion exchange]
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1785 words
(5.1 pages)
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Ionic and Covalent Compounds - Ionic and Covalent Compounds Pre-Lab 1. List the properties of ionic compounds. - Solids at room temperature. - Soluble in water. - Conduct electricity (while in solution). - Very high melting and boiling points. 2. List the properties of covalent compounds. - Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. - May or may not be soluble in water. - Most do not conduct electricity (except for acids) - Low melting and boiling points. 3. Give the name and formula for: a) 3 ionic compounds NaCl—Sodium Chloride FeCl3—Iron (III) Chloride MgO—Magnesium Oxide b) 3 covalent compounds NO—Nitrogen Monoxide CBr4—Carbon Tetrabromide N2O5—Dinitrogen Pentoxide Laborato...   [tags: Papers] 370 words
(1.1 pages)
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Carbon Compounds - Carbon Compounds 23.1 What is carbon Compounds.  carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements  there are millions of different carbon compounds  most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens  some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :  non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes  low melting points  compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water 23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from....   [tags: Papers] 1292 words
(3.7 pages)
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Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds - Lab Report The Preparation of Organic Compounds Aspirins and Oil of Wintergreen Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to prepare two organic compounds (aspirin and oil of wintergreen) and to illustrate the typical organic reactions. Students will also learn some techniques commonly used in organic synthesis and the meaning of the terms theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield. Both Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) are commonly used organic compounds....   [tags: Science Experiment, Chemistry] 327 words
(0.9 pages)
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The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds - The Uses and Significance of Group Two Compounds The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium. These are known as the ‘Group Two elements’ because of their unique electron division. Each one of these elements, consists of two outer shell electrons. Because of the lack of outer electrons, these elements are highly reactive. Group two electrons have a positive Two charge or +ve. The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour....   [tags: Papers] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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Alcohol and Nutrition: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? - Out of all the organic compounds, few spark as much attention as alcohol. Alcohol is complex and volatile, when referring to alcoholic beverages it is known as ethanol. Pure ethanol in its most basic state has the molecular formula C2H6O. Ethanol is a toxin to the human body and when concentrations peak to a dangerous level the body induces vomiting. Vomiting is a primary defense against many ingestible poisons. Ethanol is a clear and odorous liquid that affects living organisms by acting as a lipid solvent....   [tags: ethanol, organic compounds, drinking ]
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1256 words
(3.6 pages)
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The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance - The Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance An Ergogenic aid is known as an enhancing quality in sporting performance. Compounds such as bee pollen, caffeine, glycine, carnitine, lecithin, and gelatin are claimed through anecdotal evidence to improve strength or endurance. The use of drugs and other substances has persisted for nearly a century....   [tags: Papers] 1616 words
(4.6 pages)
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Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds - Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose as Efficient Storage and Structural Compounds Starch is a complex carbohydrate, it's a mixture of amylose and amylopectin both of which are polysaccharides containing α-glucose molecules linked via a condensation reaction. Amylose is a long, straight chain of α-glucose molecules, these are linked together by a 1,4 glycosidic bond, where 1 & 4 are carbon reducing centres. + +… α-glucose molecule α-glucose molecule = + H20 amylose These chains of α-glucose coil to form spirals and these are held in place by hydrogen bonds....   [tags: Papers] 621 words
(1.8 pages)
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The Processes of Photosynthesis and Fermentation - Introduction: “Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle”(Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx) . “Yeasts were discovered to have connection with fermentation as observed by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “However, fermentation does not have to always occur in anaerobic condition” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Yeasts still prefer to undergo fermentation to process organic compounds and generate ATP even in the presence of oxygen” (Biology Online, 2008, p....   [tags: Biology, Organic Compounds, Bacteria, Fungi]
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3094 words
(8.8 pages)
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Use of Gold Complexes to Treat Cancer - INTRODUCTION During recent years, platinum based drugs have been considered as a hallmark of cancer chemotherapy due to its considerable success in the treatment of a wide variety of cancer types. The most significant and commonly used form of platinum based drugs is cisplatin. Although treatment with cisplatin has found success on many occasions, its broad mode of action and overuse has led to toxic side effects in patients as well as increasing drug resistance in some tumor cells.1 For those reasons combined, scientists have redirected their investigation into other metal based drugs in attempt to find potential alternatives that can overcome cisplatin resistance and lessen the severity of...   [tags: Gold Compounds, AntiCancer]
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1441 words
(4.1 pages)
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Fracking: The Water Problem - Ever since the process of hydraulic fracturing—or fracking—made its entrance to the oil industry, issues and problems surrounding the process have become a common occurrence. Fracking is the controversial process of horizontal drilling (see fig. 1), where millions of gallons of water mixed with sand and chemicals are pumped deep into an oil well to extract natural gas from the earth’s crust (Ehrenberg 20). This practice has even been banned in some places (see fig. 1). The methane that comes out of the earth and the water used—called fracking fluid—has the potential to cause problems with local ground water supplies....   [tags: Toxic Compounds, Oil Industry]
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1308 words
(3.7 pages)
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Examination of Alkyl-Halide Formation as a Result of Substitution Reactions of Alcohol-Containing Organic Compounds - .This experiment was performed to determine the structure of alkyl-halides formed as a result of substitution reactions, and whether the reaction used an SN1 or SN2 mechanism. The structure of the starting alcohol determined the mechanistic pathway of the substitution reaction. Reaction 1 involved the substitution of a primary alcohol which produced one primary alkyl-halide via SN2 reaction. Reactions 2 and 3 began with a secondary alcohol, forming two products as the result of direct substitution and/or a hydride shift, via SN1 reaction....   [tags: Gravity Filtration, Racemic Mixture]
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2910 words
(8.3 pages)
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Mixture and Compound Differences - Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds can only be separated if they are destroyed. But the elements in mixtures can be physically separated from each other easily....   [tags: Chemistry ] 634 words
(1.8 pages)
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An Investigation into the Identification, Properties, and Synthesis of an Unknown Ionic Compound - Abstract This paper describes the methods used in the identification, investigation of properties, and synthesis of an unknown compound. The compound was identified as calcium nitrate by a variety of tests. When the compound was received, it was already known to be one of twelve possible ionic compounds. The flame test identified the presence of the calcium anion in the compound. The compound tested positive for the nitrate cation using the iron sulfate test. At this point it was hypothesized that the compound was calcium nitrate....   [tags: Research Analysis]
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1163 words
(3.3 pages)
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Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene - Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene Once in a while there are discoveries of compounds which surprise the scientific community. In 1985 such a discovery took place; it was the discovery of the compound named Buckminsterfullerene. The compound was the first of its kind: a big 60-atom molecule resembling a soccer ball, composed of carbon, and arranged in a perfect geodesic sphere. This compound was unique in its nature because it was the first time carbon was observed in a very stable and solid three-dimensional structure....   [tags: Papers] 1044 words
(3 pages)
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Analysis and Description of Photovoltaic Cells - Photovoltaic cells are found everywhere today: your home, work buildings, schools, and more. There are two types of Photovoltaic Cells: Organic and Inorganic. The type of cell that are most often found and used are inorganic cells. Inorganic cells are known to produce much more energy than organic cells. Although the main element used in these inorganic cells is Silicon, there are many more elements that are used in inorganic photovoltaic cells. There is monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and microcrystalline Si, the III-V compounds and alloys, CdTe, and the chalcopyrite compound, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)....   [tags: inorganic cells, chalcopyrite compound]
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1378 words
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Negative Effect Plastic has on the Environment - In 1862, Alexander Parkes unveiled an invention, a compound known as celluloid that would change modern history. This is the first known plastic compound to demonstrate the ability to mold when heated and maintain its shape once cooled. While the chemical compounds have evolved over the years, so have its uses and our dependency on them. If we look around our room today, we can see that nearly every product in our house either consists or was built by some form of plastic. This dependence raises some alarming questions....   [tags: celluloid, plastic compound, recycle]
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2524 words
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Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein - Animals and plants each require their own unique form of carbohydrates, fats, and protein to function. Humans have many chemical compounds found in the body, each classified as different macromolecules. Macromolecules include fats, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. Each performing their own unique function in the human body. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are used to spare the use of protein in the body and use it as energy. Carbs can be found in many foods, such as grains, fruits and milk products....   [tags: Humans, Chemical Compunds, Human Sciences]
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863 words
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The Hunger Games and The Compound - Mahatma Gandhi, a nationalist and spiritual leader was perceptive and objectively so, perhaps most eminently when he instructed his zealots, “First they ignore you. Then they laugh at you. Then they fight you. Then you win” (Mahatma). Gandhi has a remarkable sagacity at a young age and strengthened it throughout the succession of his life. Although the aforementioned quote merely previews the extent of his intellect, it effectively summarizes his political approach. After becoming a member of the Indian National Congress Gandhi had the potential to become a most influential leader for the Indian people, and he did....   [tags: dystopia, pacifism, government control, avox]
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2885 words
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Separation of Copper Compound - Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to use our knowledge from previous experiments to separate a copper compound and from there make calculations relevant to the experiment. The calculations that we had to make in this experiment had to do with finding the percentage of copper in copper compound and from there find the formula weight of the copper compound. Question or Problem The question that was proposed by the instructor for investigation was: Can the % composition of an element in a compound be determined accurately (Lab Manual 61)....   [tags: copper, chemical method, physical method]
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Dissecting a Compound - I. Identifying an Unknown Compound Purpose/Problem: In this lab we had to figure out what our mystery compound was by performing two tests. One of the tests was called the Flame Test, which we use to find out the metal element in the compound. It is used to find the metal because each metal gives off its own unique flame color. The other test is called the Precipitate Test, which we use to find out the non-metal element in our compound by adding silver nitrate to it. It’s used to find the non-metal because each non-metal has its own unique reaction to silver nitrate....   [tags: essays research papers] 413 words
(1.2 pages)
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Physics of the Compound Bow - A Brief History of the Bow * Arrowheads have been found in Africa that date back as far as 25,000 to 50,000 B.C. * Throughout the next few tens of thousands of years, humans had PLENTY of time to refine their techniques. Fire-hardening arrow heads, fletching arrow shafts to improve their flight characteristics, "tillering" bows so that the upper and lower limbs had the same bend radius, etc. All of these improvements helped increase the efficiency and accuracy of the bow and arrow, and helped humans to survive and advance throughout the ages....   [tags: physics weapon bow archery] 1069 words
(3.1 pages)
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English Linguistics: Compounding - Compounding belongs to the linguistic discipline of morphology, which is concerned with the study of the creation, structure and form of words and it is the most significant word formation process next to derivation and conversion. Compounds – the products of compounding - are word combinations of at least two free and already existing morphemes. Hence the basic compound structure is F + F, meaning a free morpheme + another free morpheme. Moreover, there are two different methods of categorizing compounds....   [tags: Linguistics Essays]
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Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake - In a world dominated by religion it was thought that the only place where perfection existed was within God. In some cases, for instance the ontological argument, it was the proof to his existence. But in a modern world the concept of perfection has been distorted and comes with an abundance of seemingly negative consequences, ultimately putting into question whether or not perfection is even possible. In Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake the concept of perfection is constantly challenged in a world run by corporations who are trying to package human perfection and profit from it....   [tags: oryx and crake, margaret atwood ]
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1939 words
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Bohr and the Periodic table - Bohr's Model There are three main parts of an atom the electrons, protons and the neutrons. Each part has charge. It is rather positive, negative, or neutral. An electron always has a negative charge. Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 474 words
(1.4 pages)
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Excretion And Elimination Of Toxicants And Their Metabolites - Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determines if a molecule will pass through the pores of the glomerulus is it's molecular weight....   [tags: essays research papers] 1083 words
(3.1 pages)
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Separation of M-toluic Acid, Acetanilide, and NaCl - Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base....   [tags: Chemistry] 505 words
(1.4 pages)
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Introduction of Petroleum - Introduction of petroleum: Petroleum is otherwise known as crude oil. It occurs naturally beneath the earth. Petroleum is also meaning of rock oil. The term petroleum is a generic name applied to the deposits of oil materials. Petroleum occurs beneath the earth. It is a flammable liquid and mainly composed of various hydrocarbons and its average composition is c 80-87%, H 11-15%, S 0.1-4%, N and O 0.1-0.55. Formation of petroleum Petroleum is evident from chromatographic, spectroscopic and analytical studies that a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds is present in petroleum....   [tags: Oil] 506 words
(1.4 pages)
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Linear and Non-linear Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship Models on Indole Substitution Patterns as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Attachment - This study was performed to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model of the biological activity of indole glyoxamide derivatives as an inhibitor of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) glycoprotein gp120 and host cell CD4 receptors. In present study, forty different compounds were selected as a sample set. Combinations of multiple linear regressions (MLR), genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were then utilized to construct the QSAR models....   [tags: Medical Research]
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Reactive Oxygen Species - The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence in aerobic organisms as by products during metabolic respiration (Han et al., 2007, Je et al., 2009). These highly reactive ROS can be considered as strong oxidants and have been shown to induce damage in all cellular macromolecules, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Over the years dietary polyphenols have been widely studied for their biological activities including antioxidant activity (Ahn et al., 2007, Heo et al., 2009, Kang et al., 2005, Li et al., 2009)....   [tags: Biology, Lipids, Proteins, DNA] 1182 words
(3.4 pages)
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Larvicidal Activity of Insect Growth Regulator IGR and Insecticides - 2. Larvicidal activity of insect growth regulator IGR and insecticides: 2.1. Insect growth regulator IGR: Bakr, et al. (1984) evaluated some IGR's Dimilin (25% WP), Bay Sir 8514 (6.5% EC), Altosid (10% EC) and RO-08-9801 (50% EC) against Culex pipiens. Results revealed that, all the tested compounds inhibit the moulting process of the third and fourth larval instars with different degrees of morphogenetic changes. The developmental events of pupae died by Dimilin are not completely out of larval exoskeletons and larval-pupal intermediate shows 4th instar larval exuvia attached to the thoracic and abdominal region....   [tags: Animal Behavior ] 2152 words
(6.1 pages)
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Emerging Contaminants: A Potential Health Risk - Introduction: Human civilization is evolving in the fields of science, engineering, architecture and medicine. The population because of these societal advances has allowed individuals to live longer sub healthy lives. Life improvements via transportation have been significantly enhanced because of breakthroughs in metal alloys which are used in car manufacturing. Or the usage of ether (ROR) extracted from corn to support the decline of gasoline. Individuals that live longer are thus able to experiment with different compounds seeking only to further improve on civilization....   [tags: chemical, human health, EC threats ]
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Revealing Metabolic Phenotypes in Plant - Introduction Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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Organic vs. Inorganic Material - The following information will focus on the two substances forensic scientist use to identify and compare matter, whether a material is organic or inorganic. Evidence that will be used in a court trial will depend on the examination that forensic scientist processed in the laboratory. The importance of distinguishing between organic and inorganic material is a necessary step in the criminal justice process. The differences between organic and inorganic will be explained first, next will be to explain the strengths and weaknesses of each, and finally the significance of both as it relates to the justice system....   [tags: Scientific Research ]
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1028 words
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Mercury: A Potential Contaminant - Introduction: A fifteen year old boy abruptly became ill; he experienced fatigue, headaches, tingling limbs, weakness, and weight loss. The only information provided stated that he had been using an acne cream prescribed by a dermatologist as well as an over the counter “beauty cream” to deal with skin irritation. The doctors could not find the reason for the boy’s illness, but interestingly a heavy metal was found in the boy’s urine. What could possibly be the heavy metal and could it have caused such a severe reaction....   [tags: Health, Chemistry]
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Barium Sulfate and the Gastrointestinal Tract - Abstract Over the years barium sulfate has proven to be a successful contrast agent for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Though the road to discovery was long and relentless at times, when it finally found its niche in medicine it was only to the advantage of the physicians and patients today. There are many new diagnostic tools in radiology today that have led to the questioning of barium studies’ place in medicine and whether it will remain there long. And to what cost it will take to keep barium around, only time will tell some say....   [tags: Gastrointestinal Tract, Radiology]
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Endophytic Microorganisms that Redise on the Tissues of Living Plants - Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe ) have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB) medium at room temperature (no shaking) for 3 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC) and afforded two pure compounds as yellow oil (compound 1) and yellow crystal ( compound 2)....   [tags: cultivation, endophytic fungus, penicillium]
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Parallel Combinational Chemistry to Produce Ester - Esters are defined as molecules consisting of a carbonyl group which is adjacent to an ether linkage. They are polar molecules which are less polar than alcohols but more so than ethers, due to their degree of hydrogen bonding ability. Most often derived from reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid, esters are a unique, ubiquitous class of compounds with many useful applications in both natural and industrial processes 1. For example, within mammals, esters are used in triglycerides and other lipids as they are the main functional group attacking fatty acids to the glycerol chain 2....   [tags: fisher esterification,carboxylic acid, grape odour]
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2076 words
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Pest Control: The Egyptian Cotton Leaf Worm - INTRODUCTION The Egyptian cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Bosid, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous, foliage feeding insect and considered as one of the most serious pests of many different Egyptian crops (Magd El- Din & El-Gengaihi, 2000). It is an important pest of cotton in Africa, Middle East and Southern Europe (Hosny et al., 1986). Therefore, one single larva is able to destroy 66 cm2 of cotton leaves (Scarpellini, 2001). Also, it is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Africa, Asia and Europe (El-AW, 2006)....   [tags: Research Analysis ] 1447 words
(4.1 pages)
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Computers in Drug Research and Development - Computers in Drug Research and Development As the computer becomes more and more powerful, its uses and abilities grow. Scientists have been able to harness this power in to assist them in their goals of researching and developing drugs for human use. Computers can be found in nearly every drug research laboratory and development center in the world. In the process of developing a drug, thousands upon thousands of chemical compounds are tested to be used in laboratory tests and animal tests. Generally, over 5000 compounds are chosen for such testing....   [tags: Essays Papers] 467 words
(1.3 pages)
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The Health Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water - Introduction Analytical Chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the elements or compounds that consists of the material to be analyzed. This section is divided into several methods and techniques and each one has its uses and importance, including: Volumetric analysis and gravimetric analysis, Thermal analysis, Qualitative analysis, Spectral analysis, Instrumental Analysis and Electrolysis. Desalination of water by chlorine is considered one of the applications of analytical chemistry....   [tags: Potable Water Quality]
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970 words
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Nitrogen, Carbon and Oxygen are the Most Important Elements - Nitrogen, Carbon and Oxygen are the Most Important Elements I believe that the three most important elements that exist are nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. Nitrogen is extremely valuable because it is such a large part of the food web. Carbon is important because it is also part of the food web due to the fact that it plays such an important role in the structure of all living things and many nonliving things. Carbon also provides our natural fuel. Oxygen is important because it is essential in many processes that enable life and in the transformation of energy....   [tags: Papers] 463 words
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LC-MS and LC-MS/MS: Principles and Applications - Introduction Mass spectrometry (MS) is a method used to analyse a sample and measure the mass-to-charge ratio thereof. It can be used to determine the mass of samples as well as the composition of the sample. Liquid chromatography (LC) or more specifically known as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique that makes use of chromatography to separate a mixture of complex compounds into its constituent molecules and can further be used to identify, quantify and purify these components....   [tags: Mass Spectromy, Liquid Chromatography]
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Evaluating the Effect of Garlic Extract on L. Major - Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis transmitted by arthropods, which is addressed as a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Based on clinical symptoms in patients, there are three forms of cutaneous, visceral (kala-azar) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (spondia).Endemic cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Iran is among the most important health problems, causing numerous annual losses in the society. According to WHO reports, it is estimated that there are 12 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in 88 countries worldwide, and 350 million individuals are at risk for this disease....   [tags: leishmaniasis, iran, endemic cutaneous]
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Modes of Modern English Vocabulary Development - Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. There is a variety of means to produce words. The most productive are affixation, composition and conversion. Let's focus on one of them: composition. According to the research, words produced through composition constitute 28% to 30% of all the new words. It is also called compounding which is a way to join two words to make a new special meaning....   [tags: Linguistics] 821 words
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Identification of Cuminoids with Anticancer Activity - Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that a diet high in vegetables and fruits is associated with reduced risk of most cancers [1,2]. Since ancient times, herbs and spices have been used for the treatment of various illnesses. They have been used to treat respiratory, gastrointestinal, rheumatic and inflammatory disorders. The beneficial effects of dietary phytochemicals such as curcumin (from turmeric), allicin (from garlic), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) against inflammation and cancer only reinforce the importance of diet in controlling such chronic illnesses [3]....   [tags: diet, cancer, medical, health, science experiments]
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Comparing The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake - Margaret Atwood’s novel Oryx and Crake describes a world very different from the one we live in today, but not too far from a possible future. The story, told from the viewpoint of Snowman, possibly the only human survivor, recounts the end of days in human history. His description, given to us as flashbacks, tells of a world where technology is power, and those who lack power are doomed to a sub-par existence. This world gone mad is reminiscent of another Atwood novel written in 1986, The Handmaid’s Tale....   [tags: Compare Contrast Essays]
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Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Line - Introduction There are many different cell lines that have been used in order to examine genotoxicity exposure of agents such as human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line - TMK1, human colon cancer - COL2, particularly human B lymphoblastoid cell line - TK6 is more often used. TK6 is a cell line heterozygous at the thymidine kinase locus from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in T cell lineage blast crisis which included Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11), an abnormality in chromosome 6 (a deletion of the long arm), and chromosome 7, for example, del(6)(q21); ins(1;-)(q21;-); del(1)(q21;q32); dic(7)(:p13 cen q32:11.2 cen pter) (Watanabe et al., 1995; Tomita et al., 199...   [tags: Chemistry, Cell] 1632 words
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Nanotechnology and Natural Products as Novel Anti-cancer Therapy - INTRODUCTION: There are new approaches and agents against certain types of cancer that are urgently needed. Some of the new agents use highly advanced technology utilizing nanoencapsulation that will improve the therapeutic index of the natural drugs. Nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics are rapidly evolving and are being introduced in an attempt to overcome several limitations of conventional small-molecule chemotherapeutics. Though chemotherapy is successful to some extent in certain cancers, it has several limitations (14)....   [tags: Nanotechnology Research Papers]
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The Habitability of Planets in the Universe - Are we alone in the universe. Is anything or anybody out there. These are age old questions, asked from people of all ages and races. But the first questions we need to ask are if it is even possible. Are there any other planets out there that are habitable. What does a planet need to be habitable. Without a habitable planet life cannot sustain in the universe, the search for life in the universe has been long and hard with no results proving life to exist outside of earth. The most predominant searchers of those at the SETI Institute or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence Institute, a privately funded organization, that uses various methods to search for electromagnetic transmissions,...   [tags: Astronomy ]
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Effects of Chemicals on the Environment - The effects from chemicals , detergents and soaps have been linked to breast cancer. The chemicals used in everyday cleaning products have been linked to breast cancer, fertility problems, hormone disruption, asthma and other serious health problems. Many of these products are made with dangerous chemicals that have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as the hormone system. This system is responsible for the brain, development of the nervous system, reproduction, metabolism, and blood sugar....   [tags: Health, Informative] 1208 words
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Hydraulic Fracking Should Not Be Allowed - Natural gas within shale rock formations is the new energy resource that is on the rise due to the decline of oil reserves in recent years. Though, the benefits of this recent discovery can be economically advantageous for our country’s future. However, we have ignored water and air as a natural resource. These two resources are taken for granted by people all over the world, possibly due to the high abundance of both. Water and our atmosphere are two resources that are essential for life to thrive, and the production of natural gas through hydraulic fracking endangers these resources....   [tags: Natural Gas, Shale Rock Formations, Energy Source]
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The Halogen Bromine and Swimming Pools - How has the Halogen Bromine, been used to protect swimming pools. The Halogen Bromine (Atomic number: 35, Atomic weight: 79.9) is the only non-metallic element that’s state is liquid at room temperature . Bromine, produced firstly by Carl Lowig, was not associated with him as even though he was believed to have first created the element his student life took priority giving Antoine-Jérôme Balard another chemist, enough time to discover Bromine for himself and publish a paper in 1826 discussing his findings....   [tags: stench, chemical elements, environment]
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Medical Use of Psilocybin - During a visit to Mexico, Gordon Wasson, a mycologist, discovered the use of psilocybin mushroom in spiritual ceremonies by Indian tribes. Upon experiencing the spiritual and hallucinatory effects of the mushroom, Wasson returned to the area accompanied by an experienced mycologist, Roger Heim, who managed to cultivate the mushroom once in France and send samples of it to the scientist who had discovered lysergic acid, Albert Hoffman. From the mushrooms, Hoffman successfully isolated two compounds which he further named psilocybin and psilocin....   [tags: argumentative] 1089 words
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Investigating Covalent Bonds - Investigating Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, one from each atom in a single bond, to form electron pairs, usually making their outermost shells up to eight electrons by this means. This would make them more stable, less reactive and an electronic structure like a noble gas. They are most frequently formed between pairs of non-metallic elements. Non-metallic elements usually have from four to eight electrons in their outermost shells, the so-called valency electrons, which are used for chemical bonding....   [tags: Papers] 666 words
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The Father of Modern-Day Chemistry - Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is considered to be the father of modern-day chemistry (Balchin 36). He had an unbelievable impact on the way the world views chemistry today. From identifying elements to discovering the importance of the role of combustion, he played an essential part in the world’s scientific ideas and inventions. He was so influential that he is said to have an equal if not greater impact in chemistry as Newton did in physics (Tiner 90). He used the initial ideas of Joseph Priestley, Henry Cavendish, and Karl Scheele, and worked to prove them and make them more official (Tiner 90)....   [tags: Biography, Lavoisier] 1681 words
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Benefits of Eating Apples Regularly - Should we eating apple every day?. An apple is common in everywhere and an apple has special hidden; in apple has many benefits of nutrient such as vitamin, mineral, Flavones’ and fiber. The benefits of vitamins have many a lot such as vitamin C, which can help to form collagen and also an important for antioxidant. Many people may not know Flavones’; Flavones’ is the largest group of Phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds found in vegetables and fruits; Phenolic has effect as an antioxidant and anti-cancer....   [tags: Vitamins, Minerals, Disease Prevention] 928 words
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Composition of amino acids in strawberry fruits determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization under the influence of CO, NOx and SO2 - Introduction Amino acids are present in almost all foods in different relative items such as fruit juices, syrups, jams, jellies, wines etc. (Silva et al. 2005; Hua et al. 2014). In plant materials the amino acids are found in free form (L-configuration). Among the highly consumed fruits strawberries are widely used throughout the world for different purposes such as preparation of jams, jellies, decorating cakes etc. Due to high consumption, strawberry fruits are widely grown throughout the year irrespective of temperature, light and humidity in green houses by maintaining the temperature due to direct heating system or CO2 fertilizer units....   [tags: Carbon Monoxide, Agriculture, Strawberries]
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Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports - Nutrition: A Key to Success in Sports Certain foods can make a difference in sports competition. Conditioning, strength, and speed have been the focal points of athletic training for years; however, the research on nutritional elements indicates their importance to an athlete's optimal performance. Knowing the proper food to eat before, during, and after a physical activity can help an athlete in achieving their desired performance. The most important nutrient categories are starches, minerals, sugars, and electrolytes....   [tags: Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet] 880 words
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Metabolism and Energy: Catabolism and Anabolism - Metabolism is defined the sum of all chemical reactions which occur and are involved in sustaining life of a cell, and thus an organism. Metabolism is of two types: Catabolism: in this process molecules break down producing energy Anabolism: in this process synthesis of essential compounds needed by the cells are produced (such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis). Bioenergetics describes the metabolic pathways by which a cell obtains energy. Nutrition science studies the relation between the food substance and living things....   [tags: food, calories, cells, dna, rna]
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
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The Basic Characteristics of Iodine - Iodine can be described as the heaviest among regularly occurring halogens, which are specifically found in Group 17 (VIIA) within the periodic table. The periodic table involves a diagram that demonstrates how chemical compounds or elements are associated with one another. Iodine’s chemical aspects are identical to the highly placed lighter halogens, which include chlorine, bromine, and fluorine. However, its physical outlook tends to be distinctive as it mirrors a steel-gray element, which transforms it to a mesmerizing purple vapor upon incineration....   [tags: chemical, astatine]
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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate - Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis] 1046 words
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Chemical Transport During Surface Irrigation - Chemical Transport During Surface Irrigation Surface irrigation, the most prominent method used for irrigating agricultural crops, is the flowing of water across the field surface. As the water flows, it infiltrates into the soil. The amount of water applied to the field is regulated by the length of time that the water is allowed to flow. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into following four types based the amount of water flow control; wild flooding, graded boarders, level boarders and furrow irrigation....   [tags: Agriculture Farming Papers]
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Metabolism and Energy - Metabolism is defined the sum of all chemical reactions which occurs and are involved in sustaining life of a cell, and thus an organism. Metabolism is of the following two types: catabolism and anabolism. In catabolism, molecules break down producing energy During anabolism, synthesis of essential compounds needed by the cells are produced (such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis). Bioenergetics describes the metabolic pathways by which a cell obtains energy. Nutrition science studies the relation between food substance and living things....   [tags: Metabolism, anabolism, catabolism]
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Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Copper Carbonate - Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Copper Carbonate Aim: Copper has two oxides, Cu2O, and CuO. Copper carbonate, CuCO3 decomposes on heating to form one of these oxides and an equation can be written for each possible reaction Equation 1: 2CuCO3 (s) Cu2O (s) + 2CO2 (g) + O2 (g) Equation 2: CuCO3 (s) CuO (s) + CO2 (g) The aim of this experiment is to prove which equation is correct. This can be done by volumetric analysis i.e. calculating the volume of gas produced. This is then compared to the calculated volume of gas produced in each equation and the equation with the nearest volume of gas is correct....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Xenobiotics, Uptake and Degradation - Introduction Petrochemical anthropogenic contaminants in soil and water are a byproduct of industrialization. In the past, mechanical methods of remediation have been successfully used to clean contaminated soil and water. Phytoremediation is effective at removing contaminants from soil and water (Wallace). Its efficacy has been proven and the chemical and biological processes are now better understood. This paper is a summary of the biochemical processes occurring in soil and within macrophytes that take xenobiotics from contaminants to CO2 and H2O....   [tags: Soil Microorganisms, Toxic Residues]
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An Analysis of the Epic Poem, Beowulf - The Style of Beowulf - The Style of Beowulf           A consideration of the stylistic features in the classic poem Beowulf involves a study of the poetic verse, the vocabulary, alliteration, litotes, simile, kennings, variation and double-meaning or ambiguity.   The poetic conventions used by this poet include two half-lines in each verse, separated by a caesura or pause. The half-lines are joined by the oral stressing of alliterative words in the half-lines, both consonants and vowels (Tharaud 34). “At least one of the two stressed words in the first half-line, and usually both of them, begin with the same sound as the first stressed word of the second half-line” (Donaldson 67)....   [tags: free essay writer]
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Ionic and Covalent Bonding - Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding is involved when the atoms of an element chemically combine to make their outer shells full and to make the atoms stable. The first type of bonding you can get is ionic bonding. Electrons are transferred from one atom to another to try and create full outer shells, this gain and loss of electrons on the atoms results in positive and negative ions. In these compounds you get electrostatic force, this is the force/attraction that occurs between the positive and negative ions that hold the compound together....   [tags: Papers] 776 words
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themebeo Epic of Beowulf Essay - Style, Structure and Theme - Style, Structure and Theme of Beowulf                    A consideration of the stylistic features in the classic poem Beowulf involves a study of the poetic verse, the vocabulary, alliteration, litotes, simile, kennings, variation and double-meaning or ambiguity. A consideration of the structure and the theme of the poem involve a wide diversity of opinion on the subject.   First, let us talk about style. The poetic conventions used by this poet include two half-lines in each verse, separated by a caesura or pause....   [tags: Epic Beowulf essays]
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A Human Transporter Protein that Mediates the Final Excretion Step for Toxic Organic Cations - Introduction The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries. Transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport....   [tags: Biology] 1421 words
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The Benefits of Food Modification - The modification of food has been used since the beginning of man. But, the methods did not have the same advancements as they are now. It started with simple salting and drying, trying to keep their food fresh for as long as possible. With the growth of technology, food modification grew as well. Modifying food can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on which perspective the issue is looked at. As the industry grows, companies are driven more by profit than the overall well-being of the population....   [tags: GMOs]
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Safe and Effective Pharmaceuticals - 8. Quality, safety and efficacy of drugs Safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals are two fundamental issues of importance in drug therapy. The safety of a drug is determined by its pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the adverse effects caused by the impurities in bulk and dosage forms. The impurities in drugs often possess unwanted pharmacological or toxicological effects by which any benefit from their administration may be outweighed (Nageswara at el., 2003). Therefore, it is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption must be characterized as completely as possible....   [tags: Safety, Pharmaceuticals, drugs, Safe and Effective] 956 words
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